Effect of Different Levels of Fennel Extract and Vitamin D3 on Performance, Hatchability and Immunity in Post Molted Broiler Breeders

Article (PDF Available) · January 2013with 224 Reads 
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
Cite this publication
Abstract
A 3 × 3 factorial experiment with three levels of fennel extract (FE) (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of added vitamin D3 (Vit D3) (0, 3500 and 4200 IU/kg of diet), was carried out to evaluate reproduc-tive performance and immune response of post molted broiler breeders (76-84 weeks). Broiler breeders were weighed at 10 week after molting (74 weeks) then randomly distributed into 36 pens in order to have a similar mean pen body weight (BW). Each pen consisted of 10 hens and 1 rooster. The birds received ex-perimental diets at 74 weeks of age. Performance data were recorded daily, whereas egg quality traits were determined every 4 weeks. To determine the settable hatch, fertile hatch, embryonic mortality, real hatch, chick quality, chick sexing, chick weight and relative chick weight, eggs from each pen were collected three times a week, marked and incubated in a commercial hatchery for 21 days. Two blood samples were taken from two hens in each pen to assay Newcastle and Influenza antibody titers every two weeks. Dietary fen-nel extract supplementation significantly increased egg production, chick quality and improved Newcastle antibody titer over time (P<0.022). Furthermore, the addition of FE to diet significantly decreased double yolk and pewee eggs (P<0.001). Yolk color was affected by the addition of vitamin D3 in the whole ex-perimental period. Significant interactions between FE and vitamin D3 on embryonic mortality were ob-served. The results of this study showed that supplementation of diet with FE exhibits beneficial effects on egg production, double yolk eggs, peewee eggs, chick quality, and Newcastle antibody titer. Dietary sup-plementation of vitamin D3 improved yolk color with no adverse effect on productive performance.
Figures - uploaded by Mansour Rezaei
Author content
All content in this area was uploaded by Mansour Rezaei
Content may be subject to copyright.
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science (2013) 3(4), 729-741
729
EffectofDifferentLevelsofFennelExtract
andVitaminD3onPerformance,Hatchabilityand
ImmunityinPostMoltedBroilerBreeders
INTRODUCTION
The World Health Organization has estimated that 80% of
the earth's inhabitants rely on tradition medicine for their
primary health care needs, and most of these therapies in-
volve the use of plant extracts or their active components
(Mehmet et al. 2005). Plants (specially herbs) have been
used as food for medicinal purposes for centuries and some
of them have played a significant role in maintaining hu-
man health and improving the quality of human life for
thousands of years (Osman et al. 2005). Aromatic plants
have been used traditionally in therapy against some dis-
eases for a long time in the world. In different herbs, a wide
variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids,
terpeniods, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids,
coumarins, saponins, plant sterols and phthalides have been
A 3 × 3 factorial experiment with three levels of fennel extract (FE) (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg of diet) and three
levels of added vitamin D3 (Vit D 3) (0, 3500 and 4200 IU/kg of diet), was carried out to evaluate reproduc-
tive performance and immune response of post molted broiler breeders (76-84 weeks). Broiler breeders
were weighed at 10 week after molting (74 weeks) then randomly distributed into 36 pens in order to have a
similar mean pen body weight (BW). Each pen consisted of 10 hens and 1 rooster. The birds received ex-
perimental diets at 74 weeks of age. Performance data were recorded daily, whereas egg quality traits were
determined every 4 weeks. To determine the settable hatch, fertile hatch, embryonic mortality, real hatch,
chick quality, chick sexing, chick weight and relative chick weight, eggs from each pen were collected three
times a week, marked and incubated in a commercial hatchery for 21 days. Two blood samples were taken
from two hens in each pen to assay Newcastle and Influenza antibody titers every two weeks. Dietary fen-
nel extract supplementation significantly increased egg production, chick quality and improved Newcastle
antibody titer over time (P<0.022). Furthermore, the addition of FE to diet significantly decreased double
yolk and pewee eggs (P<0.001). Yolk color was affected by the addition of vitamin D3 in the whole ex-
perimental period. Significant interactions between FE and vitamin D3 on embryonic mortality were ob-
served. The results of this study showed that supplementation of diet with FE exhibits beneficial effects on
egg production, double yolk eggs, peewee eggs, chick quality, and Newcastle antibody titer. Dietary sup-
p
lementation of vitamin D
3
im
p
roved
y
olk color with no adverse effect on
p
roductive
p
erformance.
KEYWORDSbroilerbreeder,embryonicmortality,Fennelextract,hatchability,vitaminD3.
M.KazemiFard1
*
,H.Kermanshahi2,M.Rezaei1andA.Golian2
1DepartmentofAnimalScience,FacultyofAnimalScienceandFisheriesSariAgriculturalScienceandNaturalResources
University,Sari,Iran 2TheExcellenceCenterforAnimalScienceandDepartmentofAnimalScience,FacultyofAgriculture,FerdowsiUnivers
ityofMashhad,Mashhad,Iran
Receivedon:25Sep2012
Revisedon:20Nov2012
Acceptedon:31Dec2012
OnlinePublishedon:Dec2013
*CorrespondenceEmail:m.kazemifard@sanru.ac.ir
©2010CopyrightbyIslamicAzadUniversity,RashtBranch,Rasht,Iran
Online version is available on: www.ijas.ir
R
esea
r
c
h Ar
t
i
c
l
e
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
identified (Craig, 1999). Feed additives were used for
broiler breeders to increase utilization of the limited feed
allowance and, in turn, improve egg production perform-
ance, fertility, and hatchability. The addition of aromatic
plants to feeds and water has been shown to improve feed
intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield (Hertrampf,
2001). Romila (2001) stated that fennel (Foeniculum vul-
garis) is one of the aromatic plants containing a high per-
centage of linolenic and stearic acids. In addition, fennel is
characterized by the presence of 16.81% trans anethole and
47.20% estragole with 64.01% of total sweeting compo-
nents in essential oil. Eldeek et al. (2003) reported that the
use of fennel in diets increases body weight and improves
feed conversion ratio. Egg production, shell quality and
bone strength, decrease with aging, whereas, as hens mature
sexually, plasma estrogen concentration slowly increase
(Madison, 2002). It is generally assumed that estrogen dec-
rement over the production cycle, drops slowly during molt
(Hoshino et al. 1988), and estrogen level increases again
with the beginning of egg production cycle (Johnson,
1986). These changes underlie the egg production patterns
of commercial layers, where a gradual decline in egg num-
ber from the peak reached shortly after sexual maturity, is
witnessed. Hansen et al. (2003) confirmed the dramatic
decrease in blood estrogen concentration in hens at 70 week
compared to those at peak production (~29 weeks). The
changes in egg production, eggshell and bone quality are
attributable to modified hormone profiles, decreased sensi-
tivity of tissues to hormone action, and diminuished ability
of hens to the transport of calcium in the duodenum
(Hansen, 2002). Calcium and estrogen are needed for pro-
duction and secretion of luteinizing hormone and proges-
terone (Onagbesan and Peddie, 1989). The complex interac-
tions between calcium and estrogen also include estrogen-
activation of vitamin D and enhancement of calcium trans-
port from the gut (Bar and Hurwitz, 1979). This study was
conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of FE
and vitamin D3 on performance, hatchability and humoral
immunity of post-molted broiler breeder hens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fennel extraction method
In this study, the decoctionwas (the process of boiling a
substance in a liquid to extract its active ingredients) used
to preserve the active ingredients of the herb without any
increase in temperature. Twenty gram of fennel seeds was
mixed in 200 ml of 70% ethanol.
The mixtures were then left in refrigerator overnight to
release all active components from the herb and then fil-
tered through gauze and evaporated under vacuum condi-
tions at 40ºC using a rotary evaporator (Rotavapor R-114,
Buchi Labortechnik AG, Flawil and Switzerland) (Saeedi et
al. 2010).
Husbandry and experimental design
All procedures used in this experiment were approved by
the Animal Care Committee of the Ferdowsi University of
Mashhad. An experiment characterized by a 3 × 3 factorial
arrangement of three levels of fennel extract (0, 50, and 100
mg/kg of diet) and three levels of added vitamin D3 (0, 3500
and 4200 IU/kg of diet), was carried out with Ross 308 post
molted broiler breeder hens (76-84 weeks). At 74 week of
age, hens were selected on the basis of their egg production
and BW and assigned to feeding regimens for two weeks,
prior to trail to ensure that the egg production and weight
profile in each group was similar. There were no significant
differences between replicates. The experiment then, started
at 76 weeks of age and lasted for 8 weeks. A total of 360,
76-weeks-old Ross 308 post molted broiler breeders were
randomly allocated into 9 treatments, with 4 replicates of
10 hens each. Breeders were distributed into 36 pens in
such order to have a similar mean body weight. In each pen
10 hens and 1 rooster (2×1 m2) were assigned, with 16 L:8
D lighting program and a temperature maintained close to
21˚C. All hens were fed with experimental diets from 74 to
84 weeks of age. They were supplied with feed and water
restriction. Access to water was limited by a time clock and
a solenoid system sufficient to control litter moisture. Each
pen was equipped with a hanging feeder for rooster, a tube
feeder for hens, a bell drinker and one 2-hole nest box. The
floor of breeder pens was covered with pine shaving as lit-
ter material. With the exception of hand feeding, the hous-
ing condition was comparable with commercial standards.
A premix of FE and natural Zeolite as carrier was used to
prepare 0, 50 and 100 mg FE per kg of diets. Three levels
of vitamin D3 were added to vitamin premixes. The ex-
perimental diets were formulated to have similar AME,
crude protein, amino acids and minerals (Table 1) accord-
ing to the Ross 308 broiler breeder Inc. recommendation
(Ross Breeders Ltd, Newbridge, Midlothian and UK).
Performance traits and egg quality
Eggs were manually collected 6 times a day. Egg produc-
tion and egg weight were recorded daily. Actual egg pro-
duction, egg weight and settable eggs were calculated every
2-weeks from the daily egg counts. Numbers of abnormal
doubled-yolk eggs, peewee eggs, cracked and soft-shell
eggs were recorded daily. Total eggs from each pen were
collected during the last 2 days of each 4 weeks interval,
weighed and graded as indicated by the European Council
Directive (2006). The four categories registered for egg size
were extra large (>73 g), large (73 to 63 g), medium (63 to
53 g) and small (<53 g).
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
730
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
731
Fresh selected eggs were assessed for specific gravity as
described by Hempe et al. (1988) as follows:
Specific gravity= weight in air (g) / [weight in air (g) -
weight in water (g)]
A random sample of total eggs per replicate was taken
from the collection of the last 2 days of each 28 d interval.
After the specific gravity determination, the eggs were
weighed, broke and the yolks were separated from the al-
bumen.
Before determining yolk weight, the chalaza was re-
moved by forceps. Each yolk was rolled on a blotting paper
towel to remove adhering albumen. The shells were cleaned
from any adhering albumen and dried at room temperature
for 48 hours. Albumen weight was calculated by subtract-
ing the weight of yolk and shell from the whole egg weight.
Shell weight per unit of surface area (SWUSA) was calcu-
lated via dividing the shell weight (mg) by the egg surface
area (cm2). Egg surface area was figured according to
Carter (1975) applying the equation: 3.9782 × egg weight
(g)0.7056.
Shell thickness was defined as mean among measure-
ments at three different parts of the egg (air cell, equator,
and sharp end) using a shell thickness digital measuring
gauge (Seri 500, Mitutoyo, Tokyo and Japan).
Egg sample that had been collected for specific gravity
was used for yolk color with an egg multi tester (EMT-
5200, Robotmation Co. Ltd, Tokyo and Japan). Haugh units
were calculated from the data of albumen height and egg
weight through the formula:
HU= 100 log10 (H -1.7 W 0.37+7.56).
Where:
HU= haugh unit.
H= height of the albumen (mm).
W= egg weight (g).
Moreover, shell strength was measured with an egg force
gauge (Sanovoeng Co. Ltd., Tokyo and Japan).
All of the hens were weighed on weekly intervals early in
the morning before offering the feed. Daily feed allowances
were adjusted weekly to maintain a targeted weekly body
weight gain as recommended by the Ross Breeders Ltd,
Newbridge and Midlothian UK. Daily feed was adjusted to
provide a similar nutrient intake for all birds.
Hatch characteristics
Egg production and settable eggs were recorded daily. Per-
centage of settable eggs per hen was defined as ratio of total
settable eggs to total laid eggs per pen. Settable eggs were
weeks of age84 to 76from , Nutrients in diets for post molted broiler breeder hens 1Table
0 vitamin D3 IU/kg 3500 vitamin D3 IU/kg 4200 vitamin D3 IU/kg Item
Ingredient (%)
0
mg/kg FE1
50
mg/kg FE
100
mg/kg FE
0
mg/kg FE
50
mg/kg FE
100
mg/kg FE
0
mg/kg FE
50
mg/kg FE
100
mg/kg FE
Corn 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45 52.45
Wheat 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50
Soybean meal 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55 18.55
Wheat bran 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Calcium carbonate 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75
Mono calcium phosphate 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
NaCl 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
NaHCo3 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Vitamin premix2
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Mineral prmix3
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
DL-methionine 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Zeolite3
0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Calculated analyzed
Metabolized energy 2751 2751 2751 2751 2751 2751 2751 2751 2751
Crude protein 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51 14.51
Available phosphorus 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
Calcium 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85
Methionine 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26
Crude fiber 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.09
FE: fennel extract.
2 Vitamin premix (per kg of diet) supplied: vitamin A: 12000 IU; vitamin E: 100 IU; vitamin K3: 7 mg; vitamin B1: 3 mg; vitamin B2: 12 mg; vitamin B3: 12 mg; Nicotinic acid: 40 mg;
vitamin B6: 4 mg; vitamin B9: 1.5 mg; vitamin B12: 0.04 mg; vitamin B19: 0.25 mg; Choline chloride: 200 mg.
Vitamin premix: vitamin D3 was added at the rate of 0, 3500, and 4200 IU/kg of diet to provide three vitamin D3 diets.
3 Mineral premix provided (mg/kg of diet): Mn: 60; Fe: 60; Zn: 100; Cu: 10; Co: 0.2; I: 0.5 and Se: 0.4.
4 Zeolite was used as carrier at the rate of 0.1% of diet, but contained 0, 50, and 100 mg to provide three FE diets.
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
weighed to determine the average daily egg weight. Mortal-
ity was recorded daily. Settable eggs were separated from
dirty, deformed, broken, cracked, excessively small (pee-
wee), or double yolked and stored in a cold room. Eggs
were collected for six consecutive days every other week
for all replicates, and weighed individually. Within 2 hours
after hatching, each chick was weighed. The relative body
weights of chicks were determined using a universally ac-
cepted formula:
Relative body weight of a chick (%)= [individual body
weight (g) / mean egg weight group (g)] × 100.
Thirty-six settable eggs per pen were set for incubation
biweekly between 76-84 weeks of age. Eggs were incu-
bated in Jamesway model Micro Pt- 100 commercial incu-
bator. Incubator was set at 37.15 ˚C dry bulb and 29.62 ˚C
wet bulb temperatures (0-19 days). Eggs were candled on
day 10 of incubation for monitoring infertile eggs. All in-
fertile eggs were opened and examined macroscopically for
evidence of embryonic mortality. All unhatched eggs were
analyzed for developmental stage of dead embryos. The
time of embryonic death was assigned to one of four cate-
gories: early dead (7 days), mid-dead (8-16 days), late
dead (17-21 days), and pips. Fertility was expressed as the
rate of fertile eggs to total eggs set. On day 19, eggs were
transferred to baskets and the baskets were placed randomly
into the hatcher cabinets. Hatcher was set at 36.44 ˚C dry
bulb and 32.18 ˚C wet bulb temperatures.
The number of eggs that hatched was recorded at 21.5
days of incubation. Hatchability of fertile eggs was ex-
pressed as the rate of hatching chicks to fertile eggs, and
cumulative hatchability was expressed as percentage of
hatching chicks to the total eggs set. At the end of 21.5 days
of incubation, pipped eggs were recorded and real hatch
was expressed as:
Real Hatch= total hatched chicks / total egg - (fertile
eggs+pipped eggs).
Real hatch parameter include some of the eggs recorded
as "pipped", which survived through incubation but did not
hatch; therefore, they were not included in the analysis.
Such eggs were counted as if they hatched, thus causing the
estimate of failure to hatch to be biased downward. Chick
quality was defined as normal and abnormal chick, already
described by Dziaczkowska (1980). After hatching, broiler
chickens were feather-sexed for gender rate.
Newcastle and influenza immunity
Two blood samples (2 to 3 mL) were collected from the left
brachial vein of marked hen in each pen at 4, 6 and 8 weeks
after administration of the dead vaccine. All blood samples
were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 5 min to separate sera and
then the sera was harvested and stored at -20 ˚C until analy-
sis.
The presence of Newcastle and Influenza antibodies in
sera samples were measured using the hemagglutination
inhibition (HI) method.
Statistical analysis
All data were analyzed according to a completely random-
ized design with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The General
Linear models of SAS (SAS, 2003) were used to analyze all
the data. The effects of dietary FE level on different vari-
ables were separately analyzed applying linear and quad-
ratic contrasts. Newcastle and Influenza antibody titers data
were analyzed using the repeated measurement procedure
of the SAS in PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, 2003). Dif-
ferences among treatment means were measured by Dun-
can’s multiple range test and considered significant at
P<0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Productive performance
The effect of different dietary treatments on egg production
and egg weight are shown in Table 2. Hens fed 50 mg/kg
FE diet had significantly (P<0.05) higher egg production
(Table 2) than those fed 0 and 100 mg/kg FE (54.72 vs.
51.57 and 51.25%, respectively) during 76 to 84 weeks of
age. The interaction of vitamin D3 and FE on egg produc-
tion was observed (P<0.05) during 78-80 weeks of age.
Fennel extract had quadratic effect (P=0.006) on egg pro-
duction. In agreement with our study, Sahin et al. (2007)
reported that isoflavone (phytoestrogen) supplementation
improved egg production in quails.
Fennel extract have oestrogen-like compounds which in-
duce egg production. In another study, phytoestrogen sup-
plementation increased performance and improved egg
quality variables in quails (Akdemir and Sahin, 2009). Such
improvement might be due to the antibacterial and antifun-
gal properties of fennel (Hodgson et al. 1998). Furthermore,
these investigators reported that bacteria or yeasts are sus-
ceptible to fennel or in combination with Propyl paraben
that is the major component of the fennel oil. Other com-
pounds of fennel oil like fenchone, methyl chavicol and
anethole, may exhert some biological function. Birds that
are lying regularly will have continuously high oestrogen,
whereas birds laying very few eggs are likely to have low
levels of oestrogen (Whitehead, 2004). These findings are
in accordance with the results of Bar and Hurwitz (1987).
They reported that old birds (20 month) produced signifi-
cantly fewer but heavier eggs.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
732
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
733
Exogenous estradiol would increase the hepatic produc-
tion of yolk precursors, leading to hypertrophy of the liver
(Julian and Williams, 1999).
Treatment with estradiol elevates plasma concentrations
of vitellogenin and VLDL, possibly through increased pro-
duction, but has no effect on liver mass, egg production or
clutch completion.
Dietary effects of aromatic plant extracts on performance
of laying hens from 32 to 40 weeks of age were investi-
gated (Botsoglou et al. 2005).
No significant differences in egg production among the
treatment groups were reported. Very limited data are
available regarding the effect of dietary plant extract on the
performance of broiler breeders. Bozkurt et al. (2009) ob-
served that egg production was not affected by essential oil
premixes containing fennel throughout 22 to 45 weeks of
laying periods. Egg weight was not affected by FE during
the study (Table 2).
Hens fed a diet supplemented with 4200 IU/kg vitamin
D3 had significantly (P<0.05) heavier eggs than those fed
diets containing 0 or 3500- IU/kg, from 76 to 78 weeks.
Fennel extract at 50 mg/kg of diet level decreased peewee
eggs compared to control hens (P<0.05, 0.196 vs. 0.039).
Older studies show that, pullets from commercial layer
strains, reach sexual maturity much earlier than their coun-
terparts (Summers and Leeson, 1993).
As a result, pullets have lighter body weight at the onset
of egg production. A positive correlation exists between
body weight of pullets at the age of housing, and egg
weight during the egg production cycle (Keshavarz, 1995).
The selection process aimed at early sexual maturity has
resulted in the production of high percentages of small and
peewee-sized eggs during the early stages of the egg pro-
duction cycle (Keshavarz, 1995). In the present study, die-
tary FE significantly affected broiler breeder body weight
gain (Table 3).
weeks of age84 to 76s egg production and egg weight from reedeb on broiler
3
Effect of Fennel Extract and vitamin D 2Table
Egg production (%) Egg weight (g) Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
76-78
wk
78-80
wk
80-82
wk
82-84
wk
76-84
wk
76-78
wk
78-80
wk
80-82
wk
82-84
wk
76-84
wk
0 21.42 49.91 65.66 69.30 51.57b
66.64 68.45 69.50 69.91 68.63
50 21.59 54.57 69.80 72.92 54.72a
68.01 68.60 68.66 68.97 68.56
100 20.93 49.25 65.68 69.12 51.25b
68.01 68.80 69.34 69.69 68.96
SEM 0.291 1.49 1.29 1.04 0.661 0.616 0.442 0.401 0.381 0.381
Vitamin D3 (IU/KG)
0 21.18 45.31b
69.03 71.04 51.64 67.42b
68.69 69.03 69.46 68.65
3500 21.21 54.80a
66.78 69.39 52.97 66.66b
68.28 69.24 69.39 68.40
4200 21.55 53.92a
65.32 70.90 52.92 67.58a
68.88 69.23 69.72 69.10
SEM 0.291 1.49 1.29 1.04 0.661 0.616 0.442 0.401 0.381 0.381
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 21.85 45.46bc
68.66 67.67 50.91 67.61 69.06 69.93 70.67ab
69.32
0 × 3500 21.21 49.76ab 61.27 70.47 50.68 65.14 68.41 69.62 69.77ab
68.28
0 × 4200 21.20 54.52ab
67.06 69.76 53.13 67.17 67.89 68.88 69.20ab
68.29
50 × 0 22.15 54.52ab
73.84 74.04 56.14 68.23 69.17 68.92 69.47ab
68.95
50 × 3500 21.01 57.09a
71.67 71.52 55.32 67.15 67.06 68.56 69.12ab
68.12
50 × 4200 21.63 52.09ab
63.88 73.19 52.69 68.65 69.00 68.50 68.32b
68.62
100 × 0 19.55 35.95c
64.60 71.42 47.88 66.41 67.85 68.24 68.25b
67.69
100 × 3500 21.41 56.66ab
67.42 66.19 52.92 68.70 68.80 69.48 69.19ab
68.79
100 × 4200 21.83 55.14ab
65.04 69.76 52.94 69.93 69.74 70.32 71.64a
70.41
SEM 0.530 2.98 2.56 2.06 1.31 1.065 0.765 0.695 0.660 0.660
Effect Probability
FE 0.366 0.143 0.171 0.114 0.021 0.594 0.892 0.258 0.314 0.791
Linear 0.313 0.814 0.992 0.928 0.794 0.377 0.628 0.998 0.728 0.597
Quadratic 0.331 0.053 0.064 0.040 0.006 0.664 0.971 0.089 0.143 0.671
Vitamin D3
0.690 0.006 0.324 0.646 0.488 0.014 0.707 0.948 0.863 0.530
FE × vitamin D3
0.065 0.028 0.142 0.571 0.071 0.157 0.403 0.404 0.034 0.188
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
The means within the same column with at least one common letter, do not have significant difference (P>0.05).
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
734
As body weight at the onset of egg production cycle in-
creases, peewee eggs decreases (Keshavarz, 2003), there-
fore body weight might be one of the important factors de-
termining the number of peewee eggs, and the main factor
that controls egg size.
Increasing FE level in the diet significantly decreased
double-yolk eggs. Taherkhani et al. (2010) showed that by
increasing fat pad weight, double-yolk eggs increased.
They also indicated that feed-satiated hens had signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) higher abdominal fat pad weights than re-
stricted hens.
Interestingly, restricted broiler breeder hens stored less
(P<0.05) fat in the abdominal cavity, compared with hens
having free access to diet. The results of this study are in
agreement with Taherkhani et al. (2010). When dietary FE
level is increased to 50 mg/kg, a reduction is witnessed in
extra-large sized eggs, whereas medium-sized eggs are in-
creased linearly (P<0.05). Nasra et al. (2010) reported that
there is a reverse relationship between egg production and
egg size.
Egg quality
The specific gravity of eggs from hens fed diets with differ-
ent vitamin D3 or FE were similar (Table 4). Many factors
could influence egg shell quality, such as an increased pres-
ence of sulfate groups in the shell matrix which in turn,
significantly increases the Ca binding ability, and both shell
percentage and specific gravity, as well as the overall shell
quality (Simkiss and Taylor, 1957). In this study, all nutri-
ents in the diets were similar, and therefore this may ac-
count for the absence of effect of both FE and vitamin D3
on shell quality. Fennel extract and vitamin D3 supplemen-
tation in broiler breeder diets had no detrimental effects on
SWUSA, shell weight and shell strength. In contrast, shell
thickness in hens fed diets supplemented with 50 mg/kg FE,
tended to be thicker than birds fed control diet (0.312 vs.
0.37 mm, P=0.063), and FE resulted in a quadratic effect
(P=0.038) on shell thickness. Keshavarz (2003) reported
that by increasing egg size, shell quality was decreased.
This is due to constant distribution of shell over a larger
egg.
weeks of age84 to 76of broiler breeders from settable eggs and egg grading on , levels
3
Effect of Fennel Extract and vitamin D3Table
Settable eggs (%) Egg characteristics Egg grading (%) Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
76-78
wk
78-80
wk
80-82
wk
82-84
wk
76-84
wk
DY
(%)
PE
(%)
Extra
Large
Medium
BWG
(g)
0 96.39 98.98 98.20 98.30 97.97 0.382a
0.196b
26.66 64.44 8.88 79.63b
50 96.43 98.60 99.03 96.93 97.75 0.164b
0.039a
13.32 76.66 10.00 96.30ab
100 96.05 98.64 99.11 98.16 97.99 0.283ab
0.186b
21.11 64.44 14.44 126.6a
SEM 1.002 0.465 0.791 0.609 0.384 0.091 0.077 3.335 5.187 3.852 10.78
Vitamin D3 (IU/kg)
0 97.65 99.11 99.34 98.23 98.58 0.195 0.086 15.55 75.55 8.880 111.5
3500 95.91 99.13 99.36 97.13 97.63 0.256 0.226 25.55 62.22 12.22 105.5
4200 95.30 97.98 99.36 98.04 97.49 0.378 0.110 20.00 67.77 12.22 84.45
SEM 1.002 0.465 0.791 0.609 0.384 0.091 0.077 3.335 5.187 3.852 10.78
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 96.91 99.55 99.08 98.17 98.43 0.198 0.260 20.00 73.33 6.670 104.1
0 × 3500 94.80 100 98.00 97.22 97.50 0.148 0.148 26.66 66.67 6.670 80.56
0 × 4200 97.45 97.40 97.52 99.51 97.97 0.798 0.181 33.33 53.33 13.33 54.17
50 × 0 100 99.06 100 99.04 99.52 0.000 0.000 16.66 83.33 0.000 116.6
50 × 3500 96.55 97.90 97.60 95.69 96.93 0.354 0.119 16.66 66.67 16.67 75.00
50 × 4200 92.75 98.84 99.51 96.08 96.79 0.138 0.000 6.66 80.00 13.33 97.22
100 × 0 96.05 98.71 98.95 97.49 97.80 0.386 0.000 10.00 70.00 20.00 113.8
100 × 3500 96.39 99.51 99.49 98.48 98.47 0.264 0.411 33.33 53.33 13.33 161.1
100 × 4200 95.75 97.70 98.90 98.52 97.70 0.198 0.048 20.00 70.00 10.00 104.8
SEM 1.735 0.805 1.370 1.055 0.665 0.158 0.134 5.770 8.975 6.665 18.6
Effect Probability
FE 0.482 0.433 0.128 0.317 0.976 0.001 0.001 0.073 0.274 0.652 0.020
Linear 0.957 0.309 0.073 0.921 0.969 0.199 0.240 0.321 1.000 0.029 0.006
Quadratic 0.234 0.428 0.329 0.136 0.831 0.231 0.386 0.038 0.112 0.929 0.611
Vitamin D3
0.272 0.590 0.429 0.640 0.066 0.121 0.010 0.211 0.309 0.830 0.226
FE × vitamin D3
0.159 0.743 0.273 0.132 0.073 0.240 0.594 0.225 0.634 0.481 0.134
FE: fennel extract; DY: doble yolk; PE: peewee egg and BWG: body weight gain during 76-8 weeks.
SEM: standard error of the means.
The means within the same column with at least one common letter
,
do not have si
g
nificant difference
(
P>0.05
)
.
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
735
Consequently, limiting the egg size should also prevent
the loss of shell thickness. At 74 to 76 weeks of age and
during the whole period of experiment, hens consuming FE
diet quadratically affected albumen weight (Table 5).
The differences between dietary treatments were not sig-
nificant over the entire period of the experiment. Yolk
weight was not influenced by dietary supplementation of
FE and vitamin D3.
It is possible that these changes of albumen weight might
be attributed to a higher concentration of fat. Estrogen af-
fects fat metabolism (Bird, 1946) therefore the increase in
fat metabolism leads to an increase in both yolk and albu-
men weight (Safaa et al. 2008), although some studies have
reported an improvement proportionally greater for the al-
bumen than for the yolk (Grobas et al. 1999). Whitehead
(1995) suggested that the effect of fat on albumen weight
was due to the influence of certain unsaturated fatty acids
on estrogen production, which is mainly responsible for
albumen secretion.
Ewan (1991), hypothesized that the increase in fat con-
tent may lead to increase digestibility of nutrients such as
protein and amino acids, through a slower passage rate.
Yolk color (Table 5) was affected by vitamin D3 treat-
ment (P<0.01). These results are consistent with a previous
report (Park et al. 2005). There were competitive
interactions between vitamin D and vitamin A absorption
(Aburto and Britton, 1998). Therefore addition of vitamin
D to diet my affect vitamin A absorption, which in turn
has an influence on the yolk color inde
3
x.
Hatch characteristics
Fennel extract and vitamin D3 had a significant effect
(P<0.05) on the settable hatch at 78-79 weeks (Table 6),
although it was not significantly influenced during the
whole period under investigation. Hens fed diet supple-
mented with 100 mg/kg FE had significantly (P<0.05)
higher fertile hatch than those fed the control diet at 76-77
weeks.
egg shell thickness and shell , %shell, )SWUSA(shell weight per unit of surface area , levels on specific gravity
3
Effect of fennel extract and vitamin D 4Table
strength of molted broiler breeders from 76 to 84 weeks of age
Specific gravity SWUSA (mg/cm2) Shell (%)
Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
80
wk
80
wk Overall 80
wk
80
wk Overall 80
wk
80
wk Overall
Egg shell thickness
(mm)
Shell strength
(kg force)
0 1.081 1.083 1.082 81.82 79.56 80.70 9.22 9.18 9.20 0.307 3.321
50 1.083 1.084 1.084 81.07 78.95 80.00 9.27 9.15 9.21 0.312 3.420
100 1.082 1.082 1.082 80.27 81.08 80.68 9.38 9.13 9.25 0.298 3.171
SEM 0.0005 0.0008 0.0005 1.000 1.230 0.904 0.108 0.155 0.099 0.006 0.136
Vitamin D3 (IU/kg)
0 1.081 1.081 1.081 81.51 80.13 80.81 9.18 8.88 9.03 0.306 3.361
3500 1.083 1.084 1.083 82.11 78.13 80.13 9.43 9.29 9.36 0.300 3.211
4200 1.083 1.084 1.083 79.54 81.33 80.44 9.26 9.28 9.27 0.310 3.342
SEM 0.0005 0.0008 0.0005 1.000 1.230 0.904 0.108 0.155 0.099 0.003 0.136
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 1.080 1.079 1.080 80.27 78.66 79.46 9.04 8.46 8.84 0.305 3.291
0 × 3500 1.082 1.086 1.084 84.06 77.29 80.70 9.36 9.41 9.38 0.304 3.243
0 × 4200 1.082 1.085 1.083 81.15 82.72 81.93 9.26 9.48 9.37 0.310 3.440
50 × 0 1.083 1.083 1.083 81.29 78.39 79.85 9.48 9.03 9.25 0.312 3.840
50 × 3500 1.082 1.084 1.083 82.16 80.67 81.41 9.19 9.32 9.26 0.287 3.220
50 × 4200 1.085 1.085 1.085 79.75 77.78 78.76 9.15 9.10 9.12 0.294 3.190
100 × 0 1.080 1.082 1.081 82.96 83.35 73.12 9.02 8.99 9.01 0.301 2.962
100 × 3500 1.084 1.083 1.084 80.12 76.42 78.29 9.75 9.13 9.44 0.308 3.171
100 × 4200 1.081 1.082 1.082 77.72 83.48 80.62 9.37 9.26 9.31 0.327 3.382
SEM 0.001 0.001 0.001 1.730 2.140 1.565 0.188 0.268 0.172 0.006 0.237
Effect Probability
FE 0.344 0.735 0.460 0.642 0.564 0.867 0.354 0.982 0.937 0.063 0.543
Linear 0.498 0.636 0.951 0.353 0.460 0.988 0.157 0.852 0.735 0.398 0.494
Quadratic 0.197 0.538 0.219 0.987 0.443 0.599 0.875 0.990 0.916 0.038 0.390
Vitamin D3
0.316 0.255 0.116 0.283 0.302 0.900 0.488 0.218 0.145 0.215 0.769
FE × vitamin D3
0.466 0.644 0.535 0.508 0.235 0.292 0.247 0.715 0.515 0.084 0.371
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
736
The supplementation of vitamin D3 significantly affected
fertile hatch at 81-82 weeks (Table 6). As dietary FE in-
creased, the hatchability of the fertile egg tended to de-
crease linearly (P=0.052). Johan et al. (1950) reported a
trend toward lower hatchability with increasing estrogen.
Estrogen may affect hatchability by influencing calcium
metabolism during egg formation in the oviduct (Common
et al. 1947) or through its effect on fat metabolism (Bird,
1946). Bernier (1947), found a positive correlation between
egg production and hatchability that is in agreement with
the results of our study. Some authors (Munro and Kosin,
1943) have shown that the genital tracts of young female
fowls are enlarged by estrogen therapy. Since sperm cells in
fowls are subjected to the oviduct environment for rela-
tively long periods and since fertilization is believed to oc-
cur in the infundibulum (Olsen and Neher, 1948), it has
been considered that estrogenic treatment might not signifi-
cantly influence fertility. Bozkurt et al. (2009) findings on
fertility traits, confirm earlier work that showed no benefi-
cial effects of supplemented estrogenic compounds in the
diets of broiler breeder. Supplementation of fennel extract
at 100 mg/kg significantly increased embryonic mortality at
mid stage of eggs laid at 81-82 weeks (Table 7).
The interaction among dietary vitamin D3 and FE was
significant on late embryonic mortality, but not significant
for the whole period of incubation. Whitehead (1995) sug-
gested that the effect of fat on albumen weight was due to
the influence of certain unsaturated fatty acids on oestrogen
production, which is mainly responsible for albumen secre-
tion.
Thin watery albumen will also reduce hatchability, and
therefore phytoestrogen might affect this mechanism and
consequently embryonic mortality. Husseiny et al. (2002)
reported that the addition of phytoestrogen to broiler
breeder diet, decreases total lipid in liver and yolk. In addi-
tion, most of the energy needed during embryonic devel-
opment is taken from the fat stores in the yolk (Tona et al.
2001), and therefore FE can affect embryonic development
in incubation by reducing yolk fat deposition. Interactions
between FE × vitamin D3 on late embryonic mortality at 83
to 84 weeks and the whole period under study, were re-
ported. The highest value of late embryonic mortality was
observed in hens fed a diet without vitamin D3 supplementa-
tion. The effect of vitamin D3 on late embryonic mortality
was more evident in hens fed control diet than those fed any
amount of vitamin D3 supplemented diet.
Table 5 Effect of Fennel Extract and vitamin D3 on the egg fractions of molted broiler breeder hens from 76 to 84 weeks of age
Albumin (%) Yolk (%)
Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
78
wk
84
wk Overall 78
wk
84
wk Overall Haugh unit
Yolk color
0 59.83 61.81 60.26 30.94 29.13 30.03 77.41 6.25
50 65.53 61.60 63.57 30.86 29.36 30.11 79.18 6.09
100 61.07 61.31 61.19 30.90 29.29 30.09 77.74 6.18
SEM 1.543 0.435 0.435 0.395 0.377 0.267 1.427 0.089
Vitamin D3 (IU/kg)
0 61.69 61.89 61.79 30.59 29.34 29.97 75.33 5.90b
3500 61.78 61.36 61.57 31.48 28.95 30.21 78.64 6.25a
4200 69.96 61.49 62.23 30.62 29.49 30.05 80.37 6.37a
SEM 1.543 0.435 0.435 0.395 0.377 0.267 1.427 0.089
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 60.60 62.13 61.45 30.34 29.04 29.69 76.14 6.00
0 × 3500 59.44 61.77 60.60 31.19 28.81 30.00 76.36 6.11
0 × 4200 59.45 61.37 60.41 31.28 29.55 30.41 79.74 6.66
50 × 0 64.46 61.54 63.00 30.49 29.80 30.14 75.91 5.83
50 × 3500 66.96 61.16 64.06 31.94 29.51 30.72 80.90 6.22
50 × 4200 65.16 62.12 63.64 30.16 28.77 29.46 80.75 6.22
100 × 0 60.01 61.82 60.91 30.96 29.18 30.07 73.95 5.88
100 × 3500 58.93 61.15 60.04 31.31 28.52 29.92 78.65 6.44
100 × 4200 64.28 60.98 62.63 30.42 30.15 30.29 80.62 6.22
SEM 2.670 0.753 0.753 0.685 0.653 0.462 2.470 0.154
Effect Probability
FE 0.219 0.782 0.165 0.993 0.931 0.983 0.725 0.338
Linear 0.968 0.491 0.888 0.951 0.805 0.897 0.890 0.259
Quadratic 0.086 0.948 0.061 0.925 0.781 0.899 0.436 0.342
Vitamin D3
0.493 0.743 0.811 0.322 0.667 0.851 0.118 0.008
FE × vitamin D3
0.901 0.887 0.867 0.750 0.567 0.482 0.900 0.345
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
The means within the same column with at least one common letter, do not have significant difference (P>0.05).
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
737
Hens fed diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg FE and 3500
IU/kg vitamin D3 had lower late embryonic mortality than
those fed without supplementation during the whole trial.
Effect of FE on embryonic mortality was evident with ag-
ing.
A widely held hypothesis suggests a cascade mechanism
with the intent of explaining the decrease of intestinal cal-
cium absorption, starting with low estrogen levels causing
increased bone resorption. The released calcium, increases
its presence in the extracellular space, suppressing parathy-
roid hormone (PTH) secretion and further decreasing
1,25(OH)2D3 production and plasma content, resulting fi-
nally in decreased intestinal calcium absorption (Gallagher
et al. 1979).
These findings support Narbaitz et al. (1987), who
showed that vitamin D metabolites are required by the em-
bryo in order to mobilize calcium from the shell, and that
decreased hatchability in vitamin D-deficient embryos is
related to a defect in calcium mobilization from the shell.
Salable chicks (Table 8) were significantly affected by FE
treatment (P<0.05). Specifically, the addition of 100 mg/kg
fennel extract significantly increased salable chicks com-
pared to those fed diet with zero FE (P<0.05).
A significant interaction was observed between FE × vi-
tamin D3 on salable chicks for the whole period of study
(Table 8).
The lowest salable chicks were obtained from broiler
breeders fed diet with no added FE and vitamin D3. Chicks
not salable were classified as culls due to: splayed legs,
unhealed navels, unabsorbed yolk sac, among others.
Therefore, vitamin D3 deficiency may affect healthy legs
and navels and reduce salable chicks. Fennel extract has
phytoestrogenic activity and could enhance 1,25(OH)2D3
synthesis.
The quality of hatching eggs is imperative because eggs
provide both physical protection and all the needed nutri-
ents for the growing embryo. Shell quality (shell thickness
and pore number) determines gas exchange and moisture
loss during incubation Wangensteen et al. 1971). Poor shell
quality has been associated with a higher percentage of egg
moisture loss during incubation (Peebles et al. 2001). In-
deed, shell quality is one of the major effective components
that influence chick quality. Fennel extract tended to in-
crease quadratically shell thickness, therefore by increasing
shell thickness, the number of salable chicks was signifi-
cantly increased.
weeks of age84 to 76 on hatchability of molted broiler breeders from
3
of Fennel Extract and vitamin DEffect 6Table
Settable hatch (%) Fertile hatch (%) Real hatch (%) Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall
0 89.29a
85.86 84.51 85.77 90.57a
91.09 89.75 90.48 93.28b
91.77 95.05 93.16
50 87.34a
87.14 84.79 86.42 89.83a
89.56 91.23 90.21 94.29a
92.28 97.16 94.58
100 80.64b
82.94 81.66 81.52 83.67b
87.71 86.86 86.48 97.64a
95.39 95.62 96.04
SEM 1.572 2.095 2.203 1.797 1.656 1.601 2.132 1.208 0.791 1.427 1.291 0.841
Vitamin D3 (IU/kg)
0 82.74b
84.45 82.34 82.83 86.38 86.60b
89.09 87.17 94.98 91.31 97.35 94.37
3500 89.10a
81.79 81.34 83.30 90.65 87.88b
87.43 88.66 95.76 93.07 97.25 94.58
4200 86.26ab
89.70 87.28 87.59 87.81 93.89a
91.32 90.97 94.59 95.06 95.23 94.82
SEM 1.572 2.095 2.203 1.797 1.656 1.601 2.132 1.208 0.791 1.427 1.291 0.841
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 85.10 83.58 81.48 83.39 88.51 83.58 86.06 86.05 97.81 91.42 94.27 94.50
0 × 3500 98.33 81.48 81.32 83.68 98.33 93.46 87.94 92.41 100 96.70 94.59 96.29
0 × 4200 87.45 92.54 90.74 90.24 87.45 96.24 95.26 92.98 95.91 98.06 98.01 97.33
50 × 0 85.18 91.31 87.96 88.15 87.72 92.13 93.89 91.25 94.81 93.17 100 96.04
50 × 3500 87.03 80.55 79.39 82.32 90.30 85.25 89.39 88.29 94.81 91.52 95.50 93.94
50 × 4200 89.81 89.55 87.03 88.80 91.48 91.31 90.74 91.09 93.24 92.15 95.83 93.75
100 × 0 75.55 78.46 77.59 76.94 81.19 84.09 87.33 85.35 90.95 89.34 97.65 92.55
100 × 3500 85.02 83.33 83.33 83.89 85.87 84.94 85.09 85.28 93.89 90.98 95.65 93.51
100 × 4200 79.14 87.03 84.07 83.73 82.84 94.11 88.23 88.83 94.64 94.97 91.85 93.40
SEM 2.720 3.625 3.810 3.110 2.865 2.770 3.690 2.090 1.370 2.470 2.235 1.455
Effect Probability
FE 0.007 0.468 0.635 0.220 0.039 0.448 0.457 0.097 0.011 0.267 0.874 0.139
Linear 0.002 0.403 0.438 0.165 0.016 0.212 0.416 0.053 0.005 0.136 0.939 0.052
Quadratic 0.348 0.368 0.590 0.288 0.327 0.944 0.344 0.316 0.299 0.527 0.613 0.986
Vitamin D3
0.031 0.088 0.236 0.229 0.162 0.027 0.544 0.224 0.409 0.296 0.696 0.946
FE × vitamin D3
0.336 0.399 0.503 0.493 0.547 0.117 0.690 0.378 0.486 0.624 0.295 0.622
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
The means within the same column with at least one common letter, do not have significant difference (P>0.05).
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
738
Immune response
When FE or were added to the diet of molted broiler
breeder hens, Newcastle or Influenza antibody titers were
not significantly elevated (Table 9). However, Newcastle
titer was reduced as the birds aged regardless of FE addi-
tion to the diet.
Newcastle antibody titer in birds fed diet with 0.0 mg/kg
FE dramatically decreased from 696.88 to 177.77 anti-log2
hemagglutination inhibition units (78 to 82 week of age).
The addition of 50 mg/kg FE to diet slightly reduced New-
castle antibody titer during 78 to 80 weeks of age. This dec-
rement was less in hens fed 50 mg/kg diet.
weeks of age84 to 76 on embryonic mortality of broiler breeder hens from
3
Effect of fennel extract and vitamin D 7Table
Embryonic mortality (%)
Early Mid Late Pipped eggs Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall
0 1.58 1.93 2.19 0.838 1.87 1.58b
1.24a
1.46 5.81 5.98 7.46 6.42 5.81 5.67 6.84 5.57
50 2.28 0.943 0.617 2.08 1.23 0.63b
1.82ab
1.85 4.93 4.08 5.79 4.93 4.14 3.13 5.48 4.42
100 1.85 0.308 2.16 1.708 1.55 3.13a
2.46b
2.07 7.09 4.67 8.36 6.71 7.14 3.42 8.36 6.72
SEM 0.268 0.244 0.271 0.249 0.258 0.252 0.240 0.268 0.269 0.257 0.202 0.226 0.257 0.256 0.201 0.244
Vitamin D3
(IU /kg)
0 1.85 1.2 1.85 1.61 0.925 3.14 3.08 1.45 5.00 5.66 9.92 6.81 4.69 5.34 9.61 6.88
3500 2.32 0.00 2.18 1.54 2.16 1.57 1.21 1.75 4.37 3.43 6.11 4.64 4.19 2.48 5.80 6.07
4200 1.54 1.91 0.935 1.46 1.58 0.626 1.23 2.19 8.47 5.64 5.59 6.57 8.21 4.40 5.28 3.82
SEM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .268 .244 .271 .249 .258 .252 .240 .268 .269 .257 .202 .226 .257 .256 .201 .244
FE × vi min D3
ta
0×0 0.926 1.96 1.85 1.58 0.926 2.88 1.85 1.58 5.74 10.4 16.7a
10.9a
5.74 10.40 15.8a
8.76
0×3500 2.88 0.00 2.85 0.617 0.277 0.926 0.952 1.23 3.86 4.63 4.6bc
4.3bc
3.86 4.63 3.7bc
3.50
0×420 00.926 3.85 1.87 0.309 1.93 0.926 0.926 1.58 7.82 2.92 0.92c
3.8bc
7.82 2.00 0.92c
4.47
50×0 1.85 1.87 0.926 1.28 1.85 1.90 2.77 1.51 6.48 3.81 5.5bc
5.2abc
5.55 2.85 5.5bc
4.60
50×3500 3.14 0.00 0.926 2.78 1.85 0.00 0.855 1.23 3.70 1.85 4.4bc
3.3c
3.14 0.926 4.4bc
5.86
50×420 01.85 0.952 0.00 2.16 0.00 0.00 1.85 2.81 4.63 6.58 7.4bc
6.2abc
3.73 5.63 6.4abc
2.78
100×0 2.77 0.00 2.77 1.97 0.00 4.63 4.63 1.25 2.77 2.77 7.4abc
4.3bc
2.77 2.77 7.4ab
7.27
100×3500 0.926 0.00 2.77 1.23 1.85 3.81 1.85 2.78 5.55 3.81 9.2ab
6.2abc
5.55 1.90 9.2ab
8.68
100×4 200 1.85 0.926 0.926 1.91 2.80 0.952 0.926 2.19 12.9 7.43 8.4ab
9.6ab
13.09 5.58 8.4ab
4.21
SEM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 .465 .423 .470 .431 .447 .437 .415 0.46 .466 .446 0.3 .392 .445 .444 .348 .423
Effe ct Pro bability
FE 0.186 0.342 0.101 0 .071 0.250 0.033 0.026 0.323 0.782 0.641 0.202 0.376 0.403 0.881 0.101 0.264
Linear 0.076 0.149 0.087 0.092 0.120 0.017 0.007 0.139 0.560 0.587 0.663 0.547 0.526 0.928 0.069 0.462
Quadratic 0.771 0.946 0.178 0.100 0.564 0.262 0.906 0.935 0.709 0.454 0.243 0.210 0.237 0.626 0.237 0.206
Vitamin D3
0.500 0.082 0.933 0.793 0.227 0.623 0.384 0.280 0.307 0.291 0.094 0.148 0.156 0.201 0.112 0.173
FE × vitamin D3
0.771 0.435 0.901 0.388 0.617 0.911 0.694 0.758 0.460 0.279 0.010 0.009 0.544 0.273 0.016 0.289
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
hih
ih l
ih l l d h
i ifi diff
(
)
weeks of age84 to 76 on chick characteristics of broiler breeder hens from
3
Effect of Fennel Extract and vitamin D 8Table
Salable chicks (%) Male (%) Chick weight (g) Relative chick weight (% set weight 1) Treatment
FE (mg/kg)
78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall 78-79
wk
81- 82
wk
83-84
wk Overall
0 91.29 94.22 96.28 93.94b
50.97 51.87 50.91 51.25 47.64 49.19 48.95 48.59 68.86 71.65 70.42 70.30
50 91.86 97.88 98.12 95.95a
50.08 54.39 52.74 53.07 47.76 48.83 48.55 48.38 69.54 70.62 70.96 70.37
100 91.26 97.47 98.04 96.17a
52.41 56.10 45.90 51.57 48.17 49.21 48.41 48.55 69.46 71.47 69.80 70.23
SEM 0.725 1.118 0.731 0.563 2.971 2.505 2.442 1.254 0.653 0.376 0.442 0.398 0.872 0.492 0.421 0.419
Vitamin D3
(IU /kg)
0 93.28 95.95 94.38 94.78 59.26 48.21 51.45 52.85 47.66 49.18 48.93 48.57 69.04 70.71 70.96 70.26
3500 89.63 96.75 98.82 95.14 44.5 57.22 49.27 50.64 48.51 48.71 48.52 48.54 70.14 71.12 70.21 70.43
4200 91.59 96.87 99.23 96.14 51.42 46.92 48.84 52.40 47.35 49.34 48.45 48.40 68.69 71.91 70.04 70.21
SEM 0. 725 118 0 563 971 2 254 0 0 398 0 0 492 0 419 1. .731 0. 2. 2.505 .442 1. .653 .376 0.442 0. .872 ..421 0.
FE × vi in D3
tam
0×0 90.74 91.16 91.17 91.02b 56.02 46.64 49.89 50.85 47.73 49.84 50.05 49.21 68.98 72.13 71.26 70.79
0×3500 90.99 94.64 97.67 94.50a
48.09 50.00 52.85 50.63 50.20 48.53 48.53 48.79 72.53 70.86 69.87 70.64
0×420 092.04 96.87 100 96.30a 47.85 58.98 50.00 52.28 45.83 49.20 48.28 47.77 66.31 71.95 70.13 69.46
50×0 96.70 97.84 97.85 97.46a
60.76 49.78 55.81 55.44 47.34 49.47 49.06 48.62 68.41 68.98 71.23 69.54
50×3500 88.34 96.77 98.81 94.64a
43.17 63.39 51.15 52.57 47.89 48.32 48.32 48.18 69.58 71.35 71.06 70.66
50×420 090.56 99.04 97.70 95.77a
52.32 50.00 51.28 51.20 48.06 48.70 48.27 48.34 70.63 71.55 70.58 70.92
100×0 91.95 98.85 94.13 95.87a
61.87 48.23 48.66 52.24 48.03 48.23 47.69 47.89 70.09 71.03 70.40 70.46
100×3500 90.02 98.85 100 96.29a
44.10 58.28 43.80 48.72 47.99 49.28 48.72 48.67 69.11 71.15 69.69 69.99
100×4 2
00 92.45 94.71 100 96.39a
55.41 61.78 45.23 53.74 48.57 50.12 48.81 49.10 69.34 72.23 69.32 70.24
SEM 1. 255 935 1 975 14 4 0 690 1 0 852 0 725 1. .265 0. 5. 4.335 .225 2.170 1.130 .652 0.765 0. .510 ..730 0.
Effe ct b Pro ba ility
FE 0.883 0.119 0.247 0.049 0.846 0.902 0.256 0.727 0.931 0.788 0.741 0.943 0.981 0.414 0.273 0.977
Linear 0.874 0.093 0.158 0.026 0.570 0.708 0.240 0.638 0.819 0.970 0.462 0.954 0.881 0.698 0.383 0.919
Quadratic 0.647 0.214 0.367 0.274 0.974 0.805 0.241 0.711 0.762 0.496 0.838 0.739 0.910 0.306 0.175 0.855
Vitamin D3
0.058 0.860 0.001 0.331 0.046 0.052 0.796 0.250 0.550 0.573 0.776 0.962 0.551 0.341 0.368 0.944
FE × vitamin D3
0.067 0. 259 0.072 0.043 0.895 0.101 0.931 0.818 0.474 0.348 0.521 0.574 0.324 0.458 0.964 0.557
1 Weight calculation of live chicks only.
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
Therefore, the addition of FE in diet may improve anti-
body titer and keeps levels higher than normal for longer
time.
Simon et al. (1980) reported that fennel acts as a mild
expectorant, useful for coughs or bronchitis and may be
effective in curing phlegmon and promoting a healthy
status of liver and kidney. Also, Ahmed et al. (1986) re-
ported that estrogen was known to modulate the immune
system in humans and mice. Although the mode of action is
unclear, it is likely that this steroid may act on its effectors
target by first interacting with specific receptor proteins to
form a steroid-receptor complex (Yamamoto, 1985). Go-
nadal steroids are known to exert their immunoregulatory
effects directly on lymphocytes effectors target (Stimson,
1988), and indirectly by altering various endocrine func-
tions via their effects on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland,
gonads and thymus (Ahmed et al. 1985). Moreover, the
relationship between the hormone and the immune system
is established early in ontogeny, probably due to modifica-
tions in the thymus (Fabris, 1981; Herradon et al. 1991),
and bursa in birds (Glick, 2009; Le-Douarin et al. 1980;
Coulson et al. 1982).
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, dietary FE supplementation at 50 or 100
mg/kg increased egg production, salable chicks and main-
tained more Newcastle antibody titer overtime. However,
only the addition of 50 mg/kg to diet decreased peewee and
double yolk eggs and increased shell thickness and medium
egg size numbers in molted broiler breeder hens. The addi-
tion of vitamin D3 to diet caused a positive effect on yolk
color. Furthermore, late embryonic mortality was signifi-
cantly decreased with the addition of 50 mg/kg FE and
3500 IU/kg vitamin D3 to diet. The results of this experi-
ment show that post molted broiler breeder may need less
vitamin D3, when compared to Ross recommendation for
broiler breeder hens. The addition of 50 mg/kg FE im-
proved performance, hatchability and immune response in
post molted broiler breeder hen. Further research is required
to understand the mechanisms by which FE improves the
overall performance.
on Immune response of
3
Effect of Fennel Extract and vitamin D 9Table
post molted broiler breeder hens from 76 to 84 weeks of age
Treatment Newcastle titer Influenza titer
FE (mg/kg)
0 414.8 445.6
50 455.1 421.9
100 446.8 502.5
SEM 4.86 6.08
Vitamin D
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to express their appreciation to the office
of vice president in research at Ferdowsi University of
Mashhad, Iran (Project # 269/3/17282), and Ghatreh Tala
Agricultural and Animal Husbandry of Noshahr, Iran for
their financial support. We are also grateful to Amir
Mashayekhpur, Abolghasem Mashayekhhossini, Mehdi
Saffaie and Mohammad Taghi Hasanzade for their techni-
cal assistance during the experiment.
REFERENCES
Ahmed A.S., Penhale W.J. and Talal N. (1985). Sex hormones,
immune responses, and autoimmune diseases. Am. J. Pathol.
125, 531-551.
Ahmed A.S., Talal N. and Christadoss P. (1986). Genetic regula-
tion of testosterone-induced immune suppression. Cell.
Immunol. 104, 91-98.
Aburto A. and Britton W.M. (1998). Effects of different levels of
vitamins A and E on the utilization of cholecalciferol by
broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 77, 570-577.
Akdemir F. and Sahin K. (2009). Genistein supplementation to the
quail: Effects on egg production and egg yolk genistein,
daidzein, and lipid peroxidation levels. Poult. Sci. 88, 2125-
2131.
Bar A. and Hurwitz S. (1987). Vitamin D metabolism and cal-
bindin (calcium binding protein) in aged laying hens. J. Nutr.
117, 1775-1779.
Bar A. and Hurwitz S. (1979). The interaction between calcium
and gonadal hormones in their effect on plasma calcium, bone
25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase, and duodenal cal-
cium binding protein, measured by radioimmunoassay in
chicks. Endocrinology. 104, 1455-1460.
3 (IU/kg)
0 463.4 421.9
3500 502.5 490.7
4200 350.8 457.5
SEM 4.86 6.08
FE × vitamin D3
0 × 0 696.88a
711.11
0 × 3500 369.77def
398.22
0 × 4200 177.77g
227.55
50 × 0 568.88bc
711.11
50 × 3500 468.33cd
320.00
50 × 4200 327.11ef
234.66
100 × 0 654.22ab
810.66
100 × 3500 426.66de
426.66
100 × 4200 259.55fg
270.22
SEM 6.04 7.99
Effect Probability
FE 0.910 0.730
Vitamin D3
0.300 0.804
FE × vitamin D3
0.989 0.968
FE × Period 0.022 0.930
FE: fennel extract.
SEM: standard error of the means.
The means within the same column with at least one common letter, do not have
significant difference (P>0.05).
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
739
Fennel Extract and Broiler Breeder Performance
Bernier P.E. (1947). The relative effects of inbreeding and out-
breeding on reproduction in the domestic fowl. Ph D. Thesis.
University of California.
Bird S. (1946). The influence of ingested estrogens on feed intake,
metabolic rate and lipemia in male fowl. Endocrinology. 39,
149-154.
Botsoglou N.A., Florou-Paneri P., Botsoglou E., Datos V., Gian-
nenas I., Koidis A. and Mitrakos P. (2005). The effect of
feeding rosemary, oregano, saffron and α-tocopheryl acetate
on hen performance and oxidative stability of eggs. Afr. J.
Anim. Sci. 35, 143-151.
Bozkurt M., Alcicek A., Cabuk M., Kucukyilmaz K. and Catli
A.U. (2009). Effect of an herbal essential oil mixture on
growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of
broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 88, 2368-2374.
Carter T.C. (1975). The hen’s egg: Estimation of shell superficial
area and egg volume, using measurements of fresh egg weight
and shell length and breadth alone or in combination. Br.
Poult. Sci. 16, 541-543.
Craig W.J. (1999). Health-promoting properties of common herbs.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 491-499.
Common R.H., Rutledge W.A. and Bolton W. (1947). The influ-
ence of gonadal hormones on serum riboflavin and certain
other properties of blood and tissues in the domestic fowl.
Endocrinology. 5, 121-130.
Coulson P.B., Thorntwaite J.T., Skafar D.F. and Seaver S.S.
(1982). Modulation of glucocorticoid hormone receptor levels
in chicken lymphoid tissue following treatment with andro-
gens in vivo. J. Steroid. Biochem. 17, 1-9.
Dziaczkowska L. ( 1980). The pattern for the assessment of turkey
chicks for fattening. In polish. Centre for Poultry Research and
Development, Poznan.
Eldeek A.A., Attia Y.A. and Hannfy M.M. (2003). Effect of anise
(Pimpinella anisiumj), ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and their mixture on perform-
ance of broilers. Arch. Geflugelk. 67, 92-96.
European Council Directive. (2006). Certain marketing standards
for eggs. Chapter II: Grades of eggs. Article 7: Grading of
grade A eggs of regulation (EC) 2006 No.
Ewan R.C. (1991). Energy utilization in swine nutrition. Pp. 134-
135 in Swine 443 Nutrition. E.R. Miller, D.E. Ullrey and A.J.
Lewis Eds. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA.
Fabris N. (1981). Ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of neuro-
endocrine-immune network. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 5, 49-60.
Gallagher J.C., Riggs B.L., Eisman J., Hamstra A., Arnoud S.B.
and Deluca H.F. (1979). Intestinal calcium absorption and se-
rum vitamin D metabolites in normal subjects and osteoporotic
patients. J. Clin. Invest. 64, 729-736.
Grobas S., Mendez J., De Blas C. and Mateos G.G. (1999). Laying
hen productivity as affected by energy, supplemental fat, and
linoleic acid concentration of the diet. Poult.
Sci. 78, 1542-
1551.
Glick B. (2009). Experimental modification of the growth of the
bursa of Fabricius. Poult.
Sci. 36, 18-23.
Hansen K.K. (2002). Aging and the role of estrogen in calcium
mobilization in the laying hen. Ph D. Thesis. University of
Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.
Hansen K.K., Kittok R.J., Sarath G., Toombs C.F., Caceres N. and
Beck M.M. (2003). Estrogen receptor-α populations change
with age in commercial laying hens. Poult. Sci. 82, 1624-1629.
Hempe J.M., Laukxen R.C. and Savage J.E. (1988). Rapid deter-
mination 464 of egg weight and specific gravity using a
computerized data collection system. Poult. Sci. 67, 902-907.
Herradon P.G., Razquin B. and Zapata A.G. (1991). Effects of
early partial decapitation on the ontogenic development of
chicken lymphoid organs. I. Thymus. Am. J. Anat. 191, 57-66.
Hertrampf J.W. (2001). Alternative antibacterial performances.
Poult. Int. 40, 50-52.
Hodgson I., Stewart J. and Fyfe L. (1998). Inhibition of bacteria
and yeast by oil of fennel and paraben: development of syner-
gistic antimicrobial combinations. J. Essential Oil. Res. 10,
293-297.
Hoshino S., Suzuki M., Kakagawa T., Imai K., Kobayashi Y. and
Yamada Y. (1988). Changes in plasma thyroid hormones, lu-
teinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone and corticos-
terone of laying hens during a forced molt. Comp. Biochem.
Physiol. 96, 355-359.
Husseiny E.l., Shalash S.M. and Azouz H.M. (2002). Response of
broiler performance to diets containing hot pepper, and / or
fenugreek at different metabolizable energy levels. Egypt
poult. Sci. 22, 387-406.
Johan L.A., Mcgibbon W.H. and Casida L.E. (1950). The fertility
and hatchability of estrogen-fed pullets and carryover effects
on their progeny. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 20, 707-716.
Johnson A.L. (1986). Reproduction in the female. Pp. 403-431 in
Avian Physiology. P.D. Sturkie Ed. Springer Verlag, New
York.
Julian K.C.H. and Williams T.D. (1999). Effects of exogenous
17b-Estradiol on 487 the reproductive physiology and repro-
ductive performance of European starlings. J. Exp. Biol. 202,
2679-2685.
Keshavarz K. (1995). Investigations on the effect of dietary ma-
nipulations of nutrients on early egg weight. Poult. Sci. 74, 62-
74.
Keshavarz K. (2003). Effects of reducing dietary protein, methion-
ine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages
of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell
quality. Poult. Sci. 82, 1407-1414.
Le Douarin N.M., Michel G. and Baulieu E. (1980). Studies of
testosterone-induced involution of the bursa of Fabricius. Dev.
Biol. 75, 288-302.
Madison F.F. (2002). Productive characteristics of two strains of
laying hens as affected by body weight and age at puberty. MS
Thesis. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.
Mehmet C., Talat G., Bestami D. and Nihat-Ertas O. (2005). The
effect of anise oil (Pimpinella
anisuml) on broiler perform-
ance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4, 851- 855.
Munro S.S. and Kosin I.L. (1943). Dramatic response of the chick
oviduct to estrogen. Poult. Sci. 22, 330-331.
Narbaitz R., Tsang C.P. and Grunder A.A. (1987). Effects of vi-
tamin D deficiency in the chicken embryo. Abs. Pub. Med. 40,
109-113.
Nasra B., Yahya Z.E. and Fawzy A.A.E. (2010). Effect of dietary
supplementation of phytoestrogenics sources before sexual
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofIranian Journal
740
Kazemi-Fard
et al
.
maturity of productive performance Mandarah hens. Egypt
Poult. Sci. 30, 829-846.
SAS Institute. (2003). SAS/STAT 9.1.3 User’s Guide. SAS Inst.
Inc., Cary, NC.
Simon J.E., Chadwick A.F. and Craker L.E. (1980). The scientific
literature on selected herbs, and aromatic and medicinal plants
of the temperate zone herbs: bibliography. 1984.
Onagbesan O.M. and Peddie M.J. (1989). Calcium-dependent
stimulation of estrogen secretion by FSH from theca cells of
the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus). En. Comp. Endocrinol.
75, 177-186. http//www.hort.purdure.edu/newcrop/med.aro/.html.
Olsen M.W. and Neher B.H. (1948). The site of fertilization in the
domestic fowl. J. Exp. Zool. 109, 355-366.
Simkiss K. and Taylor C. (1957). A histochemical study of the
organic matrix of hen egg-shells Q. J. Microbiol. Sci. 98, 19-
28. Osman N.E., Talat G., Mehmet C., Bestami D. and Simsek U.G.
(2005). The effect of an essential oil mix derived from Oreg-
ano, Clove and Anise on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult.
Sci. 4, 879-884.
Summers J.D. and Leesson S. (1993). Influence of diets varying in
nutrient density on the development and reproductive per-
formance of white leghorn pullets. Poult.
Sci. 72, 1500-1509.
Park S.W., Namkung H., Ahn H.J. and Paik I.K. (2005). Enrich-
ment of Vitamins D3, K and Iron in Eggs of Laying Hens.
Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 18, 226-229.
Stimson W.H. (1988). Oestrogen and human T lymphocytes: pres-
ence of specific receptors in the T suppressor / cytotoxic sub-
set. Scand. J. Immunol. 28, 345-350.
Peebles E.D., Doyle S.M., Zumwalt C.D., Gerard P.D., Latour
M.A. and Boyle C.R. (2001). Breeder age influences
embryogenesis in broiler hatching eggs. Poult. Sci. 80, 272-
Taherkhani R., Zaghari M., Shivazad M. and ZareShahneh A.
(2010). A twice-a-day feeding regimen optimizes performance
in broiler breeder hens. Poult. Sci. 89, 1692-1702.
277. Romila R.M.A. (2001). Hacked By SOSO H. H Iraqi- Cracker.
MS Thesis. Department of Biochemistry, University of Cairo
Egypt.
Tona K., Bamelis F., Coucke W., Bruggeman V. and Decuypere
E. (2001). Relationship between broiler breeder’s age and egg
weight lose and embryonic mortality during incubation in
large-scale conditions. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 10, 221-227. Safaa H.M., Serrano M.P., Valencia D.G., Arbe X., Jime´nez-
Moreno E., La´zaro R. and Mateos G.G. (2008). Effects of the
levels of methionine, linoleic acid, and added fat in the diet on
productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens
in the late phase of production. Poult. Sci. 87, 1595-1602.
Wangensteen O.D., Wilson D. and Rahn H. (1971). Diffusion of
gases across 557 the shell of the hen’s egg. Respira. Physiol.
11, 16-30.
Whitehead C.C. (1995). Plasma oestrogen and the regulation of
egg weight in laying hens by dietary fats. Anim. Feed. Sci.
Technol. 53, 91-98.
Saeedi M., Ebrahimzadeh M.A., Morteza Semnani K., Akha A.
and Rabiei K. (2010). Evaluation of antibacterial effect of
ethanolic extract of eoeniculum vulgare mill. J. Mazand. Med.
Sci. 77, 88-91.
Whitehead C.C. (2004). Overview of bone biology in the egg
laying hen. Poult. Sci. 83, 193-199.
Sahin N., Onderci M., Balci T.A., Cikim G., Sahin K. and Kucuk
O. (2007). The effect of soy isoflavones on egg quality and
bone mineralisation during the late laying period of quail. Br.
Poult. Sci. 48, 363-369.
Yamamoto K.R. (1985). Steroid receptors regulated transcription
of specific genes and gene networks. Annual. Rev. Gen. 19,
209-252.
741-729, )4(3) 3201(Animal Science Applied ofJournal Iranian
741
  • ... There are some rare studies about the use of fennel seeds in poultry diets in recent years, which have focused on the performance of broilers (Mohammed and Abbas, 2009;Ragab et al., 2013;Saki et al., 2014), broiler breeders (Kazemi-Fard et al., 2013), turkeys (Bhaisare and Thyagarajan, 2012), and growing Japanese quails (Mahmud, 2014). Çabuk et al. (2014) noted that using a mixture of essential oils, including fennel essential oil, for laying quails and laying hens at the hot summer seasons improved feed efficiency. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) supplementation of ration on performance, egg quality, and serum cholesterol of laying quails during an eight-week period. For this purpose, 96 quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of 16 weeks of age were evenly separated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into four replicates, each containing six quail. The fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare) were added to the diets of the first, second, and third treatment groups at levels of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%, respectively. No significant effect of dietary fennel seed supplementation was recorded on body weight, feed intake, egg production, and egg weight. Feed efficiency (kg feed per kg egg) of the 0.6% treatment group was negatively affected by fennel seed supplementation; however, kilogram of feed:dozen egg ratio was not affected when compared with the control group. The effects of dietary treatments on shape index, albumen height, albumen index, Haugh unit, yolk index, yolk colour, blood cholesterol level, and total phenol content of egg yolk had no significance. Dietary fennel seed do not affect the egg quality and blood cholesterol level of laying quail. The amount of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% dietary fennel seed supplementation do not have any adverse effect on performance and egg quality of laying quail.
  • ... Vitamin D is required by the embryo in order to mobilise calcium from the shell, thereby improving hatchability ( Narbaitz et al., 1987). Kazemi-Fard et al. (2013) reported increased hatchability in moulted broiler breeder hens when given vitamin D supplementation after moulting. Yolk colour index was changed significantly when given vitamin D supplementation in moulted poultry birds (Park et al., 2005;Kazemi-Fard et al., 2013). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Based upon its economical perspective, the phenomenon of forced moulting in the poultry industry has become a common practice to increase the productivity and reproductive life span of birds. Different feed supplements, including vitamins, minerals, probiotics and prebiotics have been extensively used by poultry farmers for many years. In the last decade, researchers have reported advantageous effects of these supplements in improving different health biomarkers of post moult poultry birds. Therefore, including with these supplements in post moult feed is believed to exhibit better results than moulting alone. The current review is aimed at highlighting the empirical data available on the importance of various feed supplements that are considered favourable in ameliorating the health status of moulted poultry birds.
  • ... Vitamin D is required by the embryo in order to mobilise calcium from the shell, thereby improving hatchability ( Narbaitz et al., 1987). Kazemi-Fard et al. (2013) reported increased hatchability in moulted broiler breeder hens when given vitamin D supplementation after moulting. Yolk colour index was changed significantly when given vitamin D supplementation in moulted poultry birds (Park et al., 2005;Kazemi-Fard et al., 2013). ...
  • Article
    In this study the effects of feeding rosemary, oregano, saffron and a-tocopheryl acetate on hen performance and egg quality were investigated. One hundred-twenty Lohmann laying hens, 32 weeks old, were divided into five groups replicated four times with six hens per replicate. One group was given a basal diet and served as control (CON). The experimental diets given to the other four groups were based on the basal diet but contained an additional 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg (TOC), or rosemary at 5 g/kg diet (ROS), oregano at 5 g/kg diet (ORE) or saffron at 20 mg/kg diet (SAF). At the end of the feeding trial that lasted 56 days, hen performance and some egg quality characteristics were determined, whereas the oxidative stability of the refrigerated stored shell eggs and liquid yolks were also examined. Results showed no significant differences in egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and shape, yolk shape, Haugh units and shell thickness among treatments. However, yolk colour was significantly improved in the SAF group compared to all other groups. The extent of lipid oxidation in shell eggs differed among the dietary treatments, but did not change with storage time. In liquid yolk at pH 6.2, lipid oxidation was higher in the CON group compared to all other groups. The ORE group presented lower oxidation rate than the ROS group, but higher than the SAF group, which in turn exhibited higher oxidation rate than the TOC group. When liquid yolk was acidified to pH 4.2, the lipid oxidation profile remained unchanged but the rate was much more intense.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The objective of this preliminary work was to evaluate the impact of anise (Pimpinella anisum), ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) fed at 0.05% in trial 1, and at 0.1% in trial 2 and at 0.1% mixtures of each two or three species in trial 3, as compared to the unsupplemented control group on growth performance of broilers. In trial 1 anise at 0.05% improved weight gains significantly by 19.1% and feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 10.9% compared to the control group, and only FCR by 1.92% in trial 2. Supplementations with anise, ginger and fennel at levels of 0.05% or 0.1%, singly or as a mixture, had no significant effect on dressing and percentage of body organs in trials 1 to 3. Fat content of broiler meats was significantly decreased when anise was supplemented at 0.1% in trial 2. In trial 3, colour intensity was significantly improved when a mixture of 0.1% of anise plus fennel was supplemented to broiler diets. In conclusion, the effects of anise as an alternative environmental friendly feed additive in broiler diets should be retested in middle- or large-scale experiments.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background and purpose: Evaluation of medicinal plants has shown potential antimicrobial effects which introduced many drugs with antibiotic properties. As there were controversies about antimicrobial action in the literature, this study evaluates the antibacterial effect of ethanolic (80%) extract of the seeds of Foeniculum vulgare plant. Materials and methods: The disc diffusion method and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112, Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023, Escherichia coli PTCC 1330, and Salmunella typhi PTCC 1639 were employed and Gentamycin and Amikacin were used as standards. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Foeniculum vulgare showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The hydroalcoholic extract was more effective against E. coli and less effective on B. subtilis. The MICs were 3.2 mg/ml and 12.8 mg/ml for quoted bacteria respectively. Conclusion: The results concluded that the ethanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare is a potential natural antibacterial agent, however its effect is dependent on the source and extraction method.
  • Article
    This study of the relative effects of inbreeding and outbreeding on reproduction in the domestic fowl is based on two years’ observations of triallel matings of hens having an inbred, outbred, and crossbred origin. (P. 529.) Among the many relations established by these observations and reported in the following pages, the data with respect to inbreeding and outbreeding show that: Fertility was influenced indirectly but not directly by the breeding system. Hens of an inbred origin were definitely less fertile than those of an outbred origin, irrespective of the kind of male to which they were mated. (P. 535.) Hatchability decreased with inbreeding of outbred females (F = 0 to F = .25) but did not decrease with further inbreeding of inbred females. Inbred females showed lower hatchability than outbred females whatever the system of mating, but the difference was not statistically significant. (P. 547.) Mean blastoderm diameter of unincubated eggs and number of somites in embryos after 38 hours incubation were smaller under inbreeding than outbreeding, and greater under outcrossing than crossbreeding. (P. 560.) The general fertility-hatchability relationship observed was not altered by origin or genetic relation, or by system of mating. Closely inbred matings of birds with an outbred origin showed a negative correlation between fertility and hatchability which supports the view that fertility is distinct from hatchability. (P. 611.) Fertility was influenced indirectly but not directly by the breeding system. Hens of an inbred origin were definitely less fertile than those of an outbred origin, irrespective of the kind of male to which they were mated. (P. 535.) Hatchability decreased with inbreeding of outbred females (F = 0 to F = .25) but did not decrease with further inbreeding of inbred females. Inbred females showed lower hatchability than outbred females whatever the system of mating, but the difference was not statistically significant. (P. 547.) Mean blastoderm diameter of unincubated eggs and number of somites in embryos after 38 hours incubation were smaller under inbreeding than outbreeding, and greater under outcrossing than crossbreeding. (P. 560.)
  • Article
    THE growth of the bursa of Fabricius in the domestic chicken has recently been characterized by Glick (1956). The bursae of all breeds studied began a period of definite involution during the second to third month after hatching. Several possible factors causing this involution are discussed in this paper. Jolly (1914) reported that rate of bursa involution could be increased in the chicken by fasting and irradiation. It is interesting that Jolly theorized that the sensitivity of the bursa to inanition warranted the supposition that it plays a role in the exchange of nutritives. Bursa involution was delayed, according to Jolly and Pezard (1928), after castration. They caponized 6 chickens at 2 months of age and reported that at 6 months the bursae of the capons were larger than the 4 controls. One control had a larger bursa than the capons. Kirkpatrick and Andrews (1944) were able to increase the . . .
  • Article
    The avian lineage evolved from ancestral, oviparous amniotes that include reptiles and the archosaurs (therapod dinosaurs and crocodilians). Oviparity represents the ancestral form of reproduction in all archosaurs, and it is the only form of reproduction utilized by birds. Whereas all modern crocodilians have two functional ovaries, only the left ovary is functional in the majority of avian species. Significantly, avian fossils from two species of an extinct lineage (enantiornithine birds of the Early Cretaceous period) have revealed that these ancestors possessed a single, functional left ovary. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the loss of one ovary to reduce body weight occurred early in avian evolution, perhaps even preceding the capacity for true flight. Interestingly, viviparity has evolved nearly 100 times within the reptilian lineage that includes lizards and snakes; thus, it is unclear why there is no incidence of viviparity within the avian lineage. One line of reasoning is that because extant birds are endothermic and can precisely control the process of egg incubation and embryo development, there may be no thermoregulatory advantage to viviparity in birds.
  • Article
    It is well known that the immature oviduct of the domestic fowl will hypertrophy under the influence of exogenous estrogen. Apparently, Wolff’s (1936) report recorded the greatest degree of stimulation. With doses of 12,000 to 25,000 I.U. of estradiol benzoate he caused a 10-fold increase in the diameter of the oviducts of young chicks. In an earlier study of the comparative efficiency of various estrogens, the authors (1940) found that 0.1 mg. of α-estradiol dipropionate will produce a two-fold increase in the oviduct weights of 17-day-old White Leghorn chicks. Further unreported work in this laboratory showed that the original 0.1 mg. dose was very close to the threshold value and that larger doses would produce much greater responses. Accordingly an experiment was carried out with doses ranging up to 2 mg. Results of the study are shown in Table 1. Contrary to our expectations the results of this study clearly . . .