report exploring the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells and
their subsets, as well as other regulatory T cells in patients with HD.
In addition, we observed no signiﬁcant differences in production of
Th1 and Th2 cytokines by iNKT cells from HD and GD patients.
Again, further studies including quantitative and functional evalu-
ation of these cells in the thyroid and other tissues are required to
rule out the participation of the regulatory cell system in the patho-
genesis of these autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Autoimmune diseases are the result of genetic susceptibility
factors combined with environmental triggers, indicating that the
racial and genetic backgrounds have a crucial inﬂuence on the
variable pathogenic mechanisms observed in investigations per-
formed in different regions of the world. Our study presents new
data on the iNKT cell frequency and function in patients with
autoimmune diabetes and thyroiditis from a population with a
different racial background. Our results indicate a normal fre-
quency and functional pattern of peripheral blood iNKT cells in
Colombian DM1 patients, which contrasts with the results of inves-
tigations reported by other groups and underlines the importance
and the requirement of further studies using the same protocol to
evaluate iNKT cells to rule out the possibility that technical issues
are responsible for the variable results reported among different
human populations. Also, human studies on iNKT cell frequency
and function in organ-speciﬁc tissues and its regional lymphoid
tissues are necessary to deﬁne the actual compromise of iNKT cells
in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
This work was supported by the Committee for the Develop-
ment of Research from the University of Antioquia. The authors
thank Marta Galeano, Chair Nurse of the Diabetes program, Hospi-
tal Universitario San Vicente de Paul, for her help with the logistic
process of the study and Carlos Alfonso Builes, MD, for his help with
patients and comments on the manuscript.
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