Daily Intake of Green and Yellow Vegetables Is Effective for Maintaining Bone Mass in Young Women
Department of Public Health, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
(Impact Factor: 1.35).
02/2009; 218(2):149-54. DOI: 10.1620/tjem.218.149
The increasing proportion of underweight young women may lead to an increase in those with low bone mass. The present study investigated whether bone mass level is associated with lifestyle factors among young Japanese women. A total of 103 Japanese female college students aged 20-21 majoring in food science participated in this cross-sectional study. We measured bone area ratio at the os calcis using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and assessed lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Bone area ratio was defined as a proportion of bone substance in a cross section of os trabeculare. Ninety-one subjects who completed the questionnaire were categorized into two groups according to the average bone area ratio of the 103 subjects (30.9%), calculated based on the screening method for osteoporosis prevention: 69 subjects with normal bone mass (bone area ratio: 36.2 +/- 3.8%) and 22 subjects with low bone mass (bone area ratio: 28.1 +/- 1.6%). In normal group, 12 subjects (17.4%) had a dietary habit of not daily intake of green and yellow vegetables, such as carrot and spinach, while this occurred in 10 subjects (45.5%) in low group (P = 0.007). Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects without daily intake of green and yellow vegetables had almost 5-fold risk of low bone mass, compared to the subjects having daily intake of the vegetables [Odds ratio: 4.96 (95%CI 1.36-18.18)]. In conclusion, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, believes and behaviors regarding osteoporosis risk factors and preventive health habits such as adequate calcium intake and physical activity. Subjects: A sample of 494 girls aged between 16-24 years from Faculty of Education for Specific Studies was recruited in the study. Methods: Information was gathered through across-sectional survey. A self administered questionnaire was distributed among the students to collect data about osteoporosis knowledge physical activity and calcium intake. Results: Four hundred and thirty five girls (88.1%) had heard of and (48%) had the correct definition of osteoporosis. The main source of information about osteoporosis was television (34%) followed by mothers & relatives (27.1%). Overall,(22.5%) of girls perceived that they were likely to develop osteoporosis for different reasons. Respondents believed that osteoporosis is more serious (59.6%) than other common causes of morbidity and mortality such as heart disease and breast cancer. More than half of girls were aware of the benefits of exercise in preventing osteoporosis (59.1%), only (42.9%) participate in some sort of sports not on regular basis. Knowledge related to calcium rich food and requirements were poor. Conclusion: In summary, results obtained from this study were used to build on for health education intervention program targeted to this group of girls.
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ABSTRACT: Unlike pharmacological agents that are taken for proscribed periods of time, food and nutrient intakes have the possibility of affecting bone health over the entire lifespan. While deficiencies or excesses of individual nutrients have been shown to affect bone, it is likely that individual foods or dietary patterns have important effects related to skeletal health. While biochemical mechanisms exist to relate a deficiency of vitamin K to altered bone metabolism, clinical trials related to supplementation of this nutrient have been confusing. It is likely that these disparate results are related to the fact that interactions of nutrients have not been considered or the possibility that suboptimal nutrient status is a marker of poor nutritional status. Vitamin A excess has been postulated to be related to high fracture risk; however, it is likely that retinol is not the best marker for the proposed interaction. Altering whole food patterns, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, have demonstrated beneficial effects on bone metabolism. Individuals who select some vegetarian patterns may need to consider supplementation with nutrients such as calcium and protein. Future studies should center on whole food and dietary patterns and their relationship to bone metabolism and fracture risk.
Available from: Atsuhiko Murata
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether a high salted food intake increases the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality.
We conducted a prospective study of 6830 Japanese inhabitants to evaluate the association between salted food consumption and the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study in Japan. Salted food consumption, determined from a baseline questionnaire, was classified into the two categories of 'low intake' and 'high intake'. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Total of 174 gastrointestinal tract cancer deaths (47 esophagus cancer, 87 stomach cancer, 23 colon cancer and 17 rectal cancer) were observed during 94996 person-years of follow-up, with a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, history of diabetes mellitus and dietary items, including vegetables, fruit, tea, red meat and processed meat, the HR for stomach cancer in males with high salt intake was 2.05 (95% CI:1.25 - 3.38) whereas that of rectal cancer was 3.58 (95% CI: 1.08 - 11.89). In contrast, no association was seen in females. Further, no association was seen between higher salted food consumption and esophagus and colon cancer in either sex.
A significant association was seen between higher salted food consumption and stomach and rectal cancer mortality in men, but not in women. No association was seen between higher consumption and esophagus and colon cancer mortality in either men or women.
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