Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the N-domain of the Wilson disease associated protein
Department of Biochemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E5, Canada.Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications (Impact Factor: 0.53). 07/2009; 65(Pt 6):621-4. DOI: 10.1107/S1744309109017023
Wilson disease associated protein (ATP7B) is essential for copper transport in human cells. Mutations that affect ATP7B function result in Wilson's disease, a chronic copper toxicosis. Disease-causing mutations within the N-domain of ATP7B (WND) are known to disrupt ATP binding, but a high-resolution X-ray structure of the ATP-binding site has not been reported. The N-domain was modified to delete the disordered loop comprising residues His1115-Asp1138 (WNDDelta(1115-1138)). Unlike the wild-type N-domain, WNDDelta(1115-1138) formed good-quality crystals. Synchrotron diffraction data have been collected from WNDDelta(1115-1138) at the Canadian Light Source. A native WNDDelta(1115-1138) crystal diffracted to 1.7 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(2)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.2, b = 39.2, c = 168.9 A. MAD data were collected to 2.7 A resolution from a SeMet-derivative crystal with unit-cell parameters a = 38.4, b = 38.4, c = 166.7 A. The WNDDelta(1115-1138) structure is likely to be solved by phasing from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) experiments.
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ABSTRACT: Wilson disease (WD) is a disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in the Cu-transporting ATPase ATP7B. WD is characterized by significant phenotypic variability, the molecular basis of which is poorly understood. The E1064A mutation in the N-domain of ATP7B was previously shown to disrupt ATP binding. We have now determined, by NMR, the structure of the N-domain containing this mutation and compared properties of E1064A and H1069Q, another mutant with impaired ATP binding. The E1064A mutation does not change the overall fold of the N-domain. However, the position of the α1,α2-helical hairpin (α-HH) that houses Glu(1064) and His(1069) is altered. The α-HH movement produces a more open structure compared with the wild-type ATP-bound form and misaligns ATP coordinating residues, thus explaining complete loss of ATP binding. In the cell, neither the stability nor targeting of ATP7B-E1064A to the trans-Golgi network differs significantly from the wild type. This is in a contrast to the H1069Q mutation within the same α-HH, which greatly destabilizes protein both in vitro and in cells. The difference between two mutants can be linked to a lower stability of the α-HH in the H1069Q variant at the physiological temperature. We conclude that the structural stability of the N-domain rather than the loss of ATP binding plays a defining role in the ability of ATP7B to reach the trans-Golgi network, thus contributing to phenotypic variability in WD.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and, in terms of pharmaceutical design, is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered : The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization-screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser laboratory or industrial scale. Expert opinion : High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful.