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Abstract

RAMSAR sites are determined by specific characteristics of the environment in terms of ecological productivity as well services for human development, but they are also one of the most threatened ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different biotic and abiotic matrixes of the RAMSAR site (wetlands with international importance), Mar Chiquita Lake. Sampling was performed according to land use (agricultural, urban, and industrial) at two stations: Laguna del Plata and Campo Mare. POPs were analyzed in superficial water (Sw), suspended particulate material (SPM), bottom sediment (Bs) and fish tissues (Odontesthes bonariensis). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed by GC-ECD. HCHs, Endosulfans, DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs were found in all matrixes at both stations. The high persistence and transport processes are responsible for the occurrence of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Bs, SPM and fish tissues, even many years after their prohibition. PBDEs showed lower levels according to the scarcity of punctual sources in the area. Endosulfan showed variable amounts in agreement with application periods since this pesticide was used until a few years ago in this area. Finally, PCB levels overpassed the acceptable daily intake for human consumption being a risk for human health Thus, the present report confirms the occurrence of POPs in Mar Chiquita lake, alerting on the contribution of agricultural and urban pollutants in a RAMSAR site. Current results also raise concerns on biomagnification processes through the food web.

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... La laguna Mar Chiquita en la provincia de Córdoba, junto con los bañados del Río Dulce en la costa norte y las bocas de los ríos Suquía y Xanaes constituyen uno de los humedales más importantes de Argentina en términos de biodiversidad, abarcando un rango de ambientes dulceacuícolas y mixohalinos (Ramsar Convention Bureau 2002). El incremento del impacto ambiental debido a la actividad antrópica (incremento poblacional, actividad industrial y agrícola) caracteriza las secciones central y baja de la cuenca del Río Suquía (Gaiero et al. 1997) así como ciertas zonas de la laguna Mar Chiquita (Ballesteros et al. 2014) y la distribución y abundancia de los peces así como sus parámetros fisiológicos se ven alterados como consecuencia del deterioro ambiental (e.g., Hued & Bistoni 2005, Hued at al. 2010. En consecuencia, algunas especies de peces han sido utilizadas como bioindicadores de degradación de la calidad de los ambientes acuáticos (Maggioni et al. 2012). ...
... Los ríos Dulce, Xanaes y Suquía atraviesan áreas urbanas y agrícolas y descargan sus aguas en esta laguna (Figura 2). El incremento poblacional, junto al aumento de la industrialización y de las actividades agrícolas, principalmente el cultivo de soja, ha sido muy marcado en las últimas décadas, impactando tanto en los ríos que desembocan en la laguna como en la laguna Mar Chiquita en sí misma y los humedales asociados a ella (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
... La laguna Mar Chiquita y los ríos que desembocan en ella, particularmente el Río Suquía (Figura 1), constituyen conjuntamente un sistema adecuado para evaluar el uso de los parásitos como indicadores de contaminación. En los últimos años se han realizado estudios sobre el impacto de diferentes tipos de contaminantes en peces de la zona y cómo estos peces pueden ser buenos indicadores , Maggioni et al. 2012, Ballesteros et al. 2014. Por otra parte, hasta el momento, en Argentina solo se ha publicado un trabajo en el cual se utilizan los parásitos de la madrecita Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Poeciliidae) en el arroyo La Tapera, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Taglioretti at al. 2018) como indicadores de disturbios antrópicos. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Desde hace varias décadas, los parásitos han sido reconocidos y utilizados como bioindicadores de impacto antrópico debido a la importancia funcional sobre las comunidades animales. La polución puede incrementar el parasitismo si, por ejemplo, los mecanismos de defensa de los hospedadores son afectados negativamente incrementando la susceptibilidad del hospedador, o bien, por un incremento de la densidad poblacional de hospedadores intermediarios o definitivos. Sin embargo, el parasitismo puede disminuir con la polución si los hospedadores infectados sufren más la exposición ambiental que los hospedadores no infectados, si los parásitos son más susceptibles que sus hospedadores a un contaminante en particular o si la polución conlleva a la extinción de los hospedadores intermediarios o definitivos . La laguna Mar Chiquita en la provincia de Córdoba, junto con los bañados del Río Dulce en la costa norte y las bocas de los ríos Suquía y Xanaes constituyen uno de los humedales más importantes de Argentina en términos de biodiversidad, abarcando un rango de ambientes dulceacuícolas y mixohalinos (Ramsar Convention Bureau 2002). El incremento del impacto ambiental debido a la actividad antrópica (incremento poblacional, actividad industrial y agrícola) caracteriza las secciones central y baja de la cuenca del Río Suquía así como ciertas zonas de la laguna Mar Chiquita y la distribución y abundancia de los peces así como sus parámetros fisiológicos se ven alterados como consecuencia del deterioro ambiental. En consecuencia, algunas especies de peces han sido utilizadas como bioindicadores de degradación de la calidad de los ambientes acuáticos. El objetivo de este proyecto es estudiar las asociaciones parásito-hospedador de especies de peces abundantes en la cuenca del río Suquía y la laguna Mar Chiquita y evaluar si los parásitos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de contaminación y así aportar a la evaluación y monitoreo del estado de la calidad de los recursos hídricos en Argentina.
... Organic contaminants were assessed by Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014), who sampled water, sediments, and silverside fish (Odontesthes bonariensis) tissues in the mouth of the Primero River in Mar Chiquita. Their results showed the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). ...
... The level of γ-HCH and endosulfan OCPs exceeded national and international quality guidelines of water and sediments, which represent a risk to the aquatic biota. Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014) also found that contaminants in the pejerrey silverside tissues showed dominance of endosulfan (used in agricultural areas around the lake) and PCBs, industrial pollutants probably transported by the Primero River from the Córdoba City area. PCB levels in the silverside fish muscle exceeded the ADI (allowing human consumption) limit, being therefore a risk for human health. ...
... Release of urban pollutants in the lake is still limited to the only coastal locality, Miramar, still small (3500 inhabitants), but growing fast. Pollution from agriculture sources is very likely, considering that the wetland is surrounded by land under intensive agriculture production and supported by results reported by Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014). Unfortunately, this problem is not systematically monitored. ...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive, updated syntheses of all the information available on Mar Chiquita, covering a various aspects of the geography, geological history, biology and ecology of the site, as well as a detailed analysis of the current land-use patterns, environmental threats, and conservation issues. Mar Chiquita, located in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, is a protected wilderness area that includes South America’s largest saline lake and wetland. It has a very rich bird biodiversity, including three of the six species of flamingos that exist in the world, and high numbers of intercontinental migratory shorebirds. For this reason, the area has been declared an International Site by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, and also a Site of Hemispheric Importance by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserves Network. Largely unknown until very recently, particularly in terms of the English literature, the site is rapidly gaining international visibility, not only in terms of scientific research, but also as site of interest for the nature lovers around the globe. Written in a language accessible to the non-specialists, the book focuses on integrating the dynamic, functional processes in the ecosystem, while at the same time providing the necessary descriptive information. Accordingly, it is of interest to scientists from diverse disciplines interested in saline wetlands, as well as to students, managers, and the general public.
... Since the middle of the 20 th century, the expansion of agricultural activity and cattle raising, and growing urbanization across the Argentinean pampas, have produced significant environmental alterations across space and time which have had a profound impact on, among others, the quality of water bodies (Quirós et al., 2002;Quirós and Drago, 1999;Viglizzo et al., 2003;Romanelli et al., 2013;Ballesteros 1972CE, Landsat 2: 1976CE and 1977CE, Landsat 3: 1980CE, Landsat 5:1990CE and 2003CE, Landsat 8: 2014CE and 2017CE). et al., 2014Halac et al., 2020;Bonansea et al., 2021;O' Farrell et al., 2021;Mengo et al., 2022). ...
... Furthermore, many of these pollutants also were found in LP (Oroná et al., 2013;Santiago et al., 2015). Additionally, the south coast of LP receives diffusive discharges from crop production and cattle feedlot raising, which is the main land-use in the region (Ballesteros et al., 2014). ...
... Moreover, increasing precipitation in the area after the 1970s promoted the expansion of agriculture, which intensified after the 1980s (Cabido and Zak, 1999;Viglizzo and Frank, 2006). Thus, LP receives organic and inorganic pollutants associated to anthropic activities from direct discharge through Río Suquía as well as by diffuse discharges from surrounding fields increasing the nutrient load and hence influencing its environmental state (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Santiago et al., 2015). ...
Article
Laguna del Plata (LP) is a small, shallow hypereutrophic saline lake which is part of the hydrological system of Laguna Mar Chiquita (LMC) (Córdoba, Argentina). Environmental variability of LP occurred in the last ca. 80 years, was reconstructed through a multi-proxy approach in LP-17-I sedimentary core. The synchronic correspondence of lithological units and physicochemical proxies throughout the paleolimnological record made it possible to identify two main environmental stages. Stage I (1934–1977 CE) records a long drought resulting in low water levels and high-water salinities, while stage II (1977–2017 CE) records a humid phase, high water levels and low water salinity. In stage II we distinguish three sub-stages related to changes in the nutrient load: sub-stage II A (1977–1983 CE), sub-stage II B (1983–2010 CE) and sub-stage II C (2010–2017 CE). Sub-stage II A is characterized by an increase in TN, carbonates, TOC, CD and TC, related to humid context and reduced water salinities rather than anthropic influence. During sub-stage II B, there is a synchronous increase of nutrients and primary production proxies which matches the urban population growth of Córdoba city and the expansion of the agricultural activity after the 1980s, during a favorable hydroclimatic context. During sub-stage II C, the increase of nutrient and primary production proxies was maintained, despite water lake level variability, as a consequence of anthropic influence. Results show that regional hydroclimatic variability can act synergistically with anthropic influence ruling the nutrient fluxes to LP and therefore influencing the eutrophication and primary productivity of the lake. However, our results allowed us to distinguish that stage I and sub-stage II A were mainly dominated by hydroclimatic variability while sub-stage II B and sub-stage II C were mostly governed by anthropic influence. This study contributes to the understanding of the role of natural and anthropic drivers on the environmental dynamics of the LMC hydrological system during the 20th and 21st centuries. These results provide tools for planning activities and improving watershed management policies in the Pampean plain region of Argentina.
... Organochlorine insecticides, for instance, were still detectable in surface waters 20 years after their use had been banned (Arias Estévez et al. 2007). Research on the occurrence of pesticides in water bodies of the Pampean region, one of the most significant agricultural areas of Argentina, is scarce, and the existing compounds are mainly present within the core production sector (Rovedatti et al. 2001;Peruzzo et al. 2003;Jergentz et al. 2005;Marino and Ronco 2005;Ronco et al. 2008, 2011Di Marzio et al. 2010Mugni et al. 2011;Demetrio 2012;González et al. 2012;Bonansea et al. 2013;Ballesteros et al. 2014;De Gerónimo et al. 2014;Hunt et al. 2016). In view of the extent and magnitude of this issue, a knowledge concerning the concentration levels of pesticides in representative ecosystems of the region and the occurrence of the diverse chemical families in environmental compartments resulting from both intensive and extensive agriculture is highly relevant. ...
... A volume of 2 μl of sample was injected splitless (injector temperature, 250°C) with temperature-gradient separation at an oven-temperature range of 80-250°C and the detector set at 290°C. Hydrogen was used as the carrier and nitrogen as the make-up gas (Ballesteros et al. 2014). The identification and quantification of compounds were performed by injection of OCl, OP, and PYR standard solutions. ...
... In particular, the range of concentration levels of endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin detected in the basin is in agreement with the measured concentrations reported for the Pampean region (Jergentz et al. 2005;Ronco et al. 2008;Demetrio 2012). In contrast, Ballesteros et al. (2014) documented a concentration range of endosulfans in Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba) within the order of nanograms per liter in water and between one and two orders of magnitude lower in sediments and in water samples from the Suquía River basin; Bonansea et al. (2013) detected maximum concentrations of endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, and The data are expressed as the median values plus the range (minimum and maximum) cypermethrin of three, two, and one order of magnitude lower, respectively, than those observed in the present study. Marino and Ronco (2005), however, had reported concentrations of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in both the water and the sediments of streams adjacent to cultivated areas in the rolling Pampas of up to one or two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in the present study in the lower stretches of those same streams. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010–2012). Surface water and bottom sediments were analyzed according to standardized methods by matrix-solid-phase dispersion and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Twenty-three pesticide compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results from both campaigns indicated a generalized but variable distribution in the concentrations detected throughout the basin. The ranges of total measured pesticide concentrations in water and sediments were, respectively, 0.004–6.62 μg/l and 0.16–221.3 μg/kg dry weight. Endosulfans, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos were ubiquitous compounds in both environmental compartments and quantitatively the most relevant. All concentrations detected in water were over the recommended guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. The partitioning indicated a higher affinity for the sediments. Agricultural activity is the source of pesticide-pollution loads, transported by tributaries that reach the main watercourse and alter the quality of the aquatic ecosystem.
... The silverside Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) has been widely used as a model species under field and laboratory conditions Carriquiriborde et al. 2009). In a previous work we examined the occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in water, sediments, suspended particulate matter and silversides from Mar Chiquita (Ballesteros et al. 2014). It was thereby uncovered, that during the postrainy season the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muscle were above the acceptable daily intake for 70 kg (ATSDR 2000). ...
... Individuals of O. bonariensis (n = 15) were sampled simultaneously with the sampling of water, sediments and suspended particulate matter for screening of POPs (data previously reported in Ballesteros et al. 2014). Fish were collected following standard fishing procedures using a seine net (25 m length, 1.2 height, 15 mm mesh at both sides and 6 mm in the middle). ...
... With the purpose of assessing possible relationships between POP levels and histological indices, data for different groups of POPs that were accumulated by O. bonariensis (n = 35) in GLS and LVR, and the levels in water samples, were taken from Ballesteros et al. (2014). These groups were (a) ΣOCPs (organochlorine pesticides, as the sum of endosulfans, DDTs-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, HCHs-hexachlorocyclohexanes) and (b) ΣPCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) + ΣPBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), indicating pollution from agricultural and industrial activities, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to evaluate the health status of an economic and ecologically important fish species from Mar Chiquita Lake, a RAMSAR site located in Cordoba, Argentina, relative to the levels of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in lake water and fish tissues. Odontesthes bonariensis was used as a model species, and its health was estimated by means of histological indices in gills and liver. Sampling was performed according to rainy and dry seasons (i.e. dry, rainy and post-rainy). Gill and liver histopathology were evaluated by semi-quantitative indices and morphometric analysis. Although epithelial lifting in gills and lipid degeneration in liver were frequently registered, they are considered as reversible if environmental conditions improve. During rainy and post-rainy seasons fish presented significantly higher scores of liver and total indices. These higher index scores were correlated with increased levels of POPs in gill and liver tissue. Therefore, preventive measures are needed to mitigate the entry of these compounds into the lake.
... Previous works demonstrated an increase in environmental degradation from the high to the middle sections of the basin (Hued and Bistoni, 2005;Rautenberg et al., 2015). The several pollutants inputs registered include metals, pesticides, pharmaceutical products and the ubiquitous Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Bonansea et al., 2013;Maggioni et al., 2012;Merlo and Abril, 2014;Valdés et al., 2014). ...
... Moreover, in addition to the currently allowed use of some products, the occurrence of old stocks, illegal dumping sites, among other represent current and continuous sources to the environment. The situation was described by several works reporting POPs occurrence in water, soil, and biota from different Argentinian environments (Astoviza et al., 2016;Ballesteros et al., 2014;Barletta et al., 2019;Cataldo et al., 2001a;Gonzalez et al., 2013;Miglioranza et al., 2013). ...
... Six congeners of PCBs were found along sampling stations and ƩPCBs were below the allowed limits for aquatic biota protection for freshwater systems in Argentina (≤9 ng·L −1 (SRHN, 2017)). The ∑OCPs levels were lower than those registered previously (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Bonansea et al., 2013;Rautenberg et al., 2015). Zambrano et al. (2018) registered three OCPs compounds (Dieldrin, Endrin aldehyde, HCB-Hexachlorobenzene), while eleven OCPs were detected in water samples in the present study. ...
Article
The endobenthic bivalves are widely used as a bioindicators since they inhabit the sediment-water interface and are able to accumulate a different kind of contaminants. In the present work, we evaluated wild Corbicula largillierti (Phillippi, 1844) as a bioindicator of water quality in the central region of Argentina. The responses at different levels of the biological organization were used. We measured organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in water and clams tissues. The biomarkers selected were enzymatic activities (Glutathione S-Transferase, Catalase, Acetyl-, Butyryl-cholinesterase, and Carboxylesterase) morphometry of the digestive gland, condition index and morphology of valves. In order to integrate all the responses a multivariate analysis and integrated stress index were applied. Our results showed the presence of contaminants along the studied river and the ability of C. largillierti to bioaccumulate them. All the biomarkers selected varied according to the water quality gradient, although there was no specific correlation with OCPs and PCBs levels. At the most polluted sites, the detoxification and oxidative stress enzymes, the morphometric analysis of the digestive gland and the variation in the morphology of the valves indicated the water quality degradation. The multivariate analyses allowed to discriminate the sites according to the different biomarker responses. The IBR index also showed a variation pattern according to the environmental quality gradient along the basin. According to the responses shown by C. largillierti we suggest this species as an useful bioindicator of aquatic pollution.
... Since the middle of the 20 th century, the expansion of agricultural activity and cattle raising, and growing urbanization across the Argentinean pampas, have produced significant environmental alterations across space and time which have had a profound impact on, among others, the quality of water bodies (Quirós and Drago 1999;Quirós et al., 2002a,Viglizzo et al., 2003Romaelli et al., 2013;Ballesteros et al., 2014;Halac et al., 2020;Bonansea et al., 2021;O'Farrell et al., 2021;Mengo et al., 2022). The generalized scarcity of continuous and long-term water quality monitoring in central Argentina (e.g., Rodriguez and Ruiz, 2016;Aguilera et al., 2018;O'Farrell et al., 2019) prevent to evaluate the current state of the lake system related to past conditions under Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4088785 ...
... et al 2015). Additionally, the south coast of LP receives diffusive discharges from crop production and cattle feedlot raising, which is the main land-use in the region (Ballesteros et al., 2014). ...
... Moreover, increasing precipitation in the area after the 1970s promoted the expansion of agriculture, which intensified after the 1980s (Cabido and Zak, 1999;Bucher et al., 2006, Viglizzo andFrank, 2006). Thus, LP receives organic and inorganic pollutants associated to anthropic activities from direct discharge through Río Suquía as well as by diffuse discharges from surrounding fields increasing the nutrient load and hence influencing its environmental state (Ballesteros et al., 2014Santiago et al., 2015. ...
... Organic contaminants were assessed by Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014), who sampled water, sediments, and silverside fish (Odontesthes bonariensis) tissues in the mouth of the Primero River in Mar Chiquita. Their results showed the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). ...
... The level of γ-HCH and endosulfan OCPs exceeded national and international quality guidelines of water and sediments, which represent a risk to the aquatic biota. Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014) also found that contaminants in the pejerrey silverside tissues showed dominance of endosulfan (used in agricultural areas around the lake) and PCBs, industrial pollutants probably transported by the Primero River from the Córdoba City area. PCB levels in the silverside fish muscle exceeded the ADI (allowing human consumption) limit, being therefore a risk for human health. ...
... Release of urban pollutants in the lake is still limited to the only coastal locality, Miramar, still small (3500 inhabitants), but growing fast. Pollution from agriculture sources is very likely, considering that the wetland is surrounded by land under intensive agriculture production and supported by results reported by Ballesteros and Bistoni (2014). Unfortunately, this problem is not systematically monitored. ...
Chapter
The diversity of amphibian and reptile species of the Mar Chiquita wetland is presented in this chapter, including 16 amphibians, 18 snakes, 14 lizards, 3 amphisbenids, and 2 turtles. Each of them is briefly described, including their main characteristics and habitat preferences. Given the great environmental heterogeneity characteristic of Mar Chiquita, the distribution of the amphibian and reptile species is not homogeneous. At least two broad types of environments can be distinguished: the Chaco dry forest of the peripheral area around the Mar Chiquita depression and the Dulce River wetland.
... In addition to pesticides, large quantities of antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through the application of wastewater, manures and biosolids, also resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks (Jechalke et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2015;Pan and Chu 2016). A clear correlation between agriculture and water contamination was observed in Mar Chiquita lake (Argentina), where large amounts of endosulfan residues were detected soon after application and postapplication periods (Ballesteros et al. 2014). The presence of the fungicide thifluzamide in the water in rice paddies in China was maximal after application, with variation over time associated with the dilution effect of rainfalls in the area (Wei et al. 2015). ...
... Many organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids have been banned but this has not yet solved the problem (Aravinna et al. 2017). In Argentina, hexachlorocyclohexane pesticides have been limited since the late '90s and were definitely banned in 2011, but samples taken from a saline lake in 2014 showed levels to be more than 5-fold over the legal limit of 4 ng/l for lindane levels in the environment (Ballesteros et al. 2014). Likewise in China, although the use of organochlorine pesticides has been banned for over 20 years, they can still be found in the water and sediments of main drainage areas (Nakata et al. 2005;Xue et al. 2006;Zhou et al. 2006), due to run-off from aged and weathered agricultural soils and from anaerobic sediments (Zhou et al. 2006). ...
... The detection of high levels of OACs, however, is not exclusively coincident to their recent and massive use, but is ascribable to their persistency, their slow natural degradation and their accumulation in the various diffusion pathways (Aguilar et al. 2017). They could then travel long distances in surface or groundwaters and the contamination can last for several decades (Ballesteros et al. 2014;Aravinna et al. 2017). ...
Article
Pesticides can help reduce yield losses caused by pests, pathogens, and weeds, but their overuse causes serious environmental pollution. They are persistent in the environment and are biomagnified through the food chain, becoming a serious health hazard for humankind. Bioremediation, where microbes are used to degrade pesticides in situ, is a useful technology. This review summarizes data on the fungi involved in the biodegradation of chemical pesticides and their application in soil and water bioremediation. Indications for future studies in this field are given.
... The most commonly employed conventional detector in the determination of organochlorine and halogenated contaminants in fish is the electron capture detector due to the high sensibility and specificity of the electron capture detector (Ballesteros et al. 2014). One of the main drawbacks of electron capture detector is that can be easily inactivated by lipidic compounds in the matrix. ...
... LOQ limit of quantification, CUPs currently used pesticides, DDT dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane, HCH hexachlorocyclohexane, HCB hexachlorobenzene, OCs organochlorine pesticides, p,p 0 -DDE: dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene a Report on dry basis (dry weight, dw) with acetonitrile is sometimes not enough to extract them properly from the fatty portions of the samples. Some approaches using acetone or toluene as extraction solvent followed by gel permeation chromatography to clean-up the lipidic fraction have been used for monitoring programs seeking the good maintenance of the chromatographic equipment (Ballesteros et al. 2014;Miglioranza et al. 2013). An interesting study of contaminant occurrence in fish in a salty lake showed that after the toxicological evaluation of organochlorine pesticides levels found the acceptable daily intake for endosulfan and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were largely overpassed in fish from "La Chiquita" Lake in Argentina (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
... Some approaches using acetone or toluene as extraction solvent followed by gel permeation chromatography to clean-up the lipidic fraction have been used for monitoring programs seeking the good maintenance of the chromatographic equipment (Ballesteros et al. 2014;Miglioranza et al. 2013). An interesting study of contaminant occurrence in fish in a salty lake showed that after the toxicological evaluation of organochlorine pesticides levels found the acceptable daily intake for endosulfan and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were largely overpassed in fish from "La Chiquita" Lake in Argentina (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Pesticide residues occurring in fish of marine and freshwater media is a continuous issue for food safety and environmental monitoring. In the last 40 years the analysis of organohalogen pesticides in marine fish has been conducted seeking to trace the bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food webs. The analysis of organochlorine, highly lipophilic compounds, was performed using sample preparation methods with a large solvent consumption followed by instrumental determination using gas chromatography with electron capture detectors. Fish as an analytical matrix presents particular challenges for residue analysis because of the large amount of different edible species, the variable proportion of fatty tissues and the they requirements for sample preservation. Moreover, different non-traditional tissues such as gills or the brain are of recent interest in environmental monitoring and pesticide exposure studies. In the last decades, new concepts for the sample preparation of trace contaminants in fish have been developed, based on sample miniaturization and minimal reagent consumption capable of analyzing a large palette of active principles, from non-polar to semi-polar ones. The focus of this chapter is to present the complexity of the possible analytical matrices and the different strategies used for pesticide residues determination. The advent of liquid and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, expanded the scope of target compounds monitored in fish, particularly for freshwater agroecosystems. The application of new mass spectrometry techniques for pesticide residue analysis in fish, along with the matrix effects observed with the applied instrumentation are deeply discussed. The evidence about different pesticides currently used worldwide and their occurrence in the tissues of freshwater fish at trace levels is presented. The bioaccumulation of banned persistent organic pollutants in edible fish is still a matter of interest for human exposure. Nevertheless, the regulation of maximum residue limits of currently used pesticides seeking a safe fish consumption is scarce.
... The most commonly employed conventional detector in the determination of organochlorine and halogenated contaminants in fish is the electron capture detector due to the high sensibility and specificity of the electron capture detector (Ballesteros et al. 2014). One of the main drawbacks of electron capture detector is that can be easily inactivated by lipidic compounds in the matrix. ...
... LOQ limit of quantification, CUPs currently used pesticides, DDT dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane, HCH hexachlorocyclohexane, HCB hexachlorobenzene, OCs organochlorine pesticides, p,p 0 -DDE: dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene a Report on dry basis (dry weight, dw) with acetonitrile is sometimes not enough to extract them properly from the fatty portions of the samples. Some approaches using acetone or toluene as extraction solvent followed by gel permeation chromatography to clean-up the lipidic fraction have been used for monitoring programs seeking the good maintenance of the chromatographic equipment (Ballesteros et al. 2014;Miglioranza et al. 2013). An interesting study of contaminant occurrence in fish in a salty lake showed that after the toxicological evaluation of organochlorine pesticides levels found the acceptable daily intake for endosulfan and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were largely overpassed in fish from "La Chiquita" Lake in Argentina (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
... Some approaches using acetone or toluene as extraction solvent followed by gel permeation chromatography to clean-up the lipidic fraction have been used for monitoring programs seeking the good maintenance of the chromatographic equipment (Ballesteros et al. 2014;Miglioranza et al. 2013). An interesting study of contaminant occurrence in fish in a salty lake showed that after the toxicological evaluation of organochlorine pesticides levels found the acceptable daily intake for endosulfan and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were largely overpassed in fish from "La Chiquita" Lake in Argentina (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Pesticide residues occurring in fish of marine and freshwater media is a continuous issue for food safety and environmental monitoring. In the last 40 years the analysis of organohalogen pesticides in marine fish has been conducted seeking to trace the bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food webs. The analysis of organochlorine, highly lipophilic compounds, was performed using sample preparation methods with a large solvent consumption followed by instrumental determination using gas chromatography with electron capture detectors. Fish as an analytical matrix presents particular challenges for residue analysis because of the large amount of different edible species, the variable proportion of fatty tissues and the they requirements for sample preservation. Moreover, different non-traditional tissues such as gills or the brain are of recent interest in environmental monitoring and pesticide exposure studies. In the last decades, new concepts for the sample preparation of trace contaminants in fish have been developed, based on sample miniaturization and minimal reagent consumption capable of analyzing a large palette of active principles, from non-polar to semi-polar ones.
... Heavy rainfalls events were observed over the Quequén Grande River watershed immediately after period 2 (675 mm during February 2015) which might increase endosulfan levels in water. In Mar Chiquita shallow lake (Córdoba, Argentina), the highest endosulfan concentrations were found in rainy and post-rainy season, coinciding with application and post-application periods of Acce pt e d Prep rint pesticides (Ballesteros et al. 2014). Future studies in the area must focus on better assessing the effect of meteorological conditions on pesticide levels. ...
... ng/L, Table 2; Table S5 -Electronic Supplementary Information) were lower than those reported in other regions of Argentina, such as Mar Chiquita lake, Córdoba province (25PCBs= 0.3-7.3 ng/L; Ballesteros et al. 2014) and Negro river basin, Patagonia (24PCBsmax= 5.9 ng/L; Ondarza et al. 2012). Inputs of PCBs to the environment could be associated with many sources, such as emissions from old transformers and stockpiles, landfills and clandestine dumping grounds and open burning that may still contain PCBs, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (Breivik et al. 2002). ...
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Water monitoring is of great importance, especially for waterbodies in agricultural or industrial areas. Grab sampling is a widely used technique for aquatic monitoring but represents only a snapshot of the contaminant levels at a specific point in time. Passive sampling, on the other hand, is an integrative technique which provides an average concentration of contaminants representative for its deployment period. Thus, the current contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some currently used pesticides (CUPs) was assessed along the Quequén Grande River watershed using the integrative silicone rubber (SR) passive sampling technique in a year‐long study. SR samplers were deployed at six sampling sites selected according to different land uses (agricultural‐livestock production, agricultural and urban activities) during three periods in 2014 and 2015. OCPs were dominated by endosulfan (sum of α‐, β‐endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate = 0.15‐23.4 ng/L). The highest endosulfan levels were registered during the pesticide application period (December–March), exceeding the international water quality guidelines for protecting freshwater biota (3 ng/L). Comparing with previous reports, no reduction in endosulfan levels were observed at the Quequén Grande River watershed. These results would suggest the illegal use of remaining stocks since water sampling was carried out after endosulfan ban in Argentina. Chlorpyrifos was the second major pesticide found in water (0.02‐4.3 ng/L), associated with its widespread usage on soybean crops. A reduction in levels of legacy pesticides (heptachlors, DDTs, dieldrin and chlordanes) was evident when compared with previous reports from 2007. PCBs levels were very low indicating that probably only minor diffuse sources were still available along the Quequén Grande River watershed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The results indicate that all populations studied are exposed to environmental contaminants. This finding is in line with previous works that have reported POPs in soil, water, and biota from different environments in Argentina (Miglioranza et al. 2013;Ballesteros et al. 2014; Barletta et al. 2019;Reyna et al. 2019). However, there is scarce information about POP concentrations in feathers from terrestrial birds in South America. ...
... Here, all populations studied showed a p,p′-DDE + p,p′-DDD/p,p′-DDT ratio > 1, indicating a historical application of this insecticide. This result is in line with previous works that had proven the historical use of DDT in Argentina when it was measured in different matrices such as soils, fish, crabs, and gull chicks and eggs (Miglioranza et al. 2013;Ballesteros et al. 2014;Commendatore et al. 2018), also denoting a predominance of metabolites. Particularly, in zoo and cattle rearing populations p,p′-DDE accounted for 100% of the total DDT average concentrations. ...
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are still globally distributed and can exert different effects on ecosystems. Little is known about the occurrence of these contaminants in terrestrial birds from South America. In this study, POPs were assessed for the first time in a flightless herbivorous species from the Pampas grasslands, the Greater rhea (Rhea americana). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 18 samples of feathers from free-ranging and captive individuals inhabiting four sites with different land uses in central Argentina. Among the 16 POPs tested in those feathers, 6 PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) and 8 OCPs (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, and HCB) were quantified. No PBDEs were detected. The total concentration of POPs was higher in populations living in an intensive crop production area (agriculture 159 ng g ⁻¹ and farm: 97.53 ng g⁻¹) compared with the population in an urban area (zoo 45.86 ng g⁻¹) and an agroecosystem with extensive rearing of livestock (cattle rearing 36.77 ng g⁻¹). PCBs were the most abundant pollutants in all the populations studied. Lower chlorinated CB 52 and CB 101 were the principal PCB congeners detected, representing at least 70% of the total quantified. All populations studied showed a DDE + DDD/DDT ratio > 1, indicating a historical application of this insecticide. This study provides a new contribution to the scarce data on POP concentrations in South American bird species. Further investigations are needed to evaluate their potential effects on the health of individuals and populations.
... Many studies suggested that the occurrence of POPs in the environment is associated with reproductive and developmental anomalies, biochemical, histological or carcinogenic effects, endocrine disruption, and neurotoxicity, described in biota and humans (Muñoz-de-Toro et al., 2006;Costa and Giordano, 2007;Ridolfi et al., 2008;El-Shahawi et al., 2010;Ballesteros et al., 2014). With the restriction or ban of many of these contaminants, other chemicals emerge as alternatives and are under recent concern by the scientific community. ...
... In addition, restrictions for PBDEs were recently implemented (United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, 2011). Despite this fact, their residues are still found in the environment mainly due to the incorrect disposal of containers (Ballesteros et al., 2014). Still, the information on their environmental levels is scarce and most studies are focused on coastal areas and aquatic pollution or urban and agricultural lands from Buenos Aires (Miglioranza et al., 2013). ...
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Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned in many countries including Argentina after enforcing the Stockholm Convention in 2014, while other emerging semi-volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are considered to enter the list due to their known environmental persistence and toxicity. However, there is still very little information regarding the distribution of these chemicals in the environment in developing countries. To address this issue, we employed leaves of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. as a passive monitor to estimate urban levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and hexachlorobenzene (PCBs, BFRs, and HCB, respectively) considering three different land use areas in Córdoba city (Argentina). We found higher PCB values in urban and industrial areas, which could be attributed to local emission sources as well as a long-range transport of lightweight compound. BFRs were more abundant in the urban areas indicating that their main emission source is the volatilization from polymeric materials. HCB, on the other hand, was equally distributed at the three sampling areas. Overall, POP and SVOC levels were similar or even lower than some other urban environments and even comparable with remote places elsewhere.
... This relationship between metabolites and parental compound, could be used as proxy of the time since the application of the commercial mixture p,p′-DDT. The historic use of DDT in Argentina has been evidenced in different matrixes such us fish, soils, crabs and birds (Commendatore et al., 2018;Miglioranza et al., 2013aMiglioranza et al., , 2013bBallesteros et al., 2014) denoting also a predominance of metabolites. Consequently, in this study, the ratios DDE + DDD/DDT were 9.81 for BBA and 2.69 for CAP, and are in line with those previous studies, and the historical application of this insecticide in the region. ...
Preprint
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are accumulated through time and can exert different effect on ecosystems. POPs and Chlorpyrifos, a current use pesticide, were assessed in body feathers of males and females of Black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA) and Cape petrels (Daption capense, CAP) during their non-breeding seasons at the Patagonian Shelf, Argentina. Chlorpyrifos showed the highest values among all pollutants in both species (49.56-84.88 ng g ⁠−1), resulting from current agricultural practices. The pattern OCPs > PCBs > PBDEs was observed in both species, and CAP showed higher concentrations than BBA probably as a consequence of higher lipid mobilization and pollutants availability during dispersion. Non-significant differences between sexes about POPs levels were found; however a slight tendency was observed, females>males in CAP, and males>females in BBA. More attention and further studies are needed to understand seabirds' physiology and its relationship with the pollutants distribution in their tissues and considering breeding season.
... For example, Chaile et al. (1999) revealed the presence of high concentrations of lindane (2 mg L −1 ) in the Salí River, the main hydrographical system of Tucumán province. Ballesteros et al. (2014) found residues of this pesticide in water (2.9-31.8 ng L −1 ), sediments (0.4-1.3 ng g −1 ), and suspended particulate material (2.0-25.8 ...
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Lindane is a highly chlorinated and recalcitrant insecticide, capable to accumulate in soil and groundwater. Despite lindane has been banned in many countries, numerous sites still remain contaminated. The present work studies the bioremediation of soils of different textures contaminated with lindane by bioaugmentation with a quadruple Streptomyces consortium. In the three evaluated soils, silty loam soil (SLS), sandy soil (SS), and clayey soil (CS), heterotrophic microbial populations increased during the 14 days of the assay and CFU counts were higher in bioaugmented than in non-bioaugmented soils. Lindane removal was detected in all contaminated treatments, with higher removal percentages in the bioaugmented microcosms (SS 70.3%, SLS 36.3%, and CS 30.7%), than in non-bioaugmented ones (SS 40.4%, SLS 9.3%, and CS 12.2%). The pesticide half-life decreased by 77.3, 50.3, and 10.7 days, in bioaugmented SLS, CS, and SS, respectively. Lindane had an inhibitory effect on soil enzyme activities such as dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, acid and alkaline phosphatases and increased the catalase activity, in non-bioaugmented controls; however, no effect on urease activity was observed. Bioaugmentation of soil microcosms with actinobacteria increased all enzymatic activities. Finally, the survival of the four strains of the consortium was demonstrated at the end of the bioremediation assay. Bioremediation using the Streptomyces sp. A2-A5-A11-M7 consortium represents a promising tool to restore different types of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.
... In the PPR, agricultural pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides are applied in large quantities and are known to accumulate in wetlands (Goldsborough & Crumpton, 1998;Malaj et al., 2020;McMurry et al., 2016). (Ballesteros et al., 2014). At the mouth of the Mississippi River, pesticide accumulation from agricultural production in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain results in annual hypoxic conditions (Rabalais et al., 2002) and harmful algae bloom in coastal salt marshes, in turn adversely affecting the food web (Ning et al., 2015) and shorebird foraging behavior (Kvitek & Bretz, 2005). ...
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Many populations of long‐distance migrant shorebirds are declining rapidly. Since the 1970s, the lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) has experienced a pronounced reduction in abundance of ~63%. The potential causes of the species' decline are complex and interrelated. Understanding the timing of migration, seasonal routes, and important stopover and non‐breeding locations used by this species will aid in directing conservation planning to address potential threats. During 2018–2022, we tracked 118 adult lesser yellowlegs using GPS satellite tags deployed on birds from five breeding and two migratory stopover locations spanning the boreal forest of North America from Alaska to Eastern Canada. Our objectives were to identify migratory routes, quantify migratory connectivity, and describe key stopover and non‐breeding locations. We also evaluated predictors of southbound migratory departure date and migration distance. Individuals tagged in Alaska and Central Canada followed similar southbound migratory routes, stopping to refuel in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, whereas birds tagged in Eastern Canada completed multi‐day transoceanic flights covering distances of >4000 km across the Atlantic between North and South America. Upon reaching their non‐breeding locations, lesser yellowlegs populations overlapped, resulting in weak migratory connectivity. Sex and population origin were significantly associated with the timing of migratory departure from breeding locations, and body mass at the time of GPS‐tag deployment was the best predictor of southbound migratory distance. Our findings suggest that lesser yellowlegs travel long distances and traverse numerous political boundaries each year, and breeding location likely has the greatest influence on migratory routes and therefore the threats birds experience during migration. Further, the species' dependence on wetlands in agricultural landscapes during migration and the non‐breeding period may make them vulnerable to threats related to agricultural practices, such as pesticide exposure. Since the 1970s, the lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) has experienced a pronounced reduction in abundance of ~63%. The potential causes of the species’ decline are complex and interrelated and understanding the timing of migration and seasonal routes used by this species will aid in directing conservation planning to address potential threats. Our objectives were to identify migratory routes, quantify migratory connectivity and describe key stopover and non‐breeding locations.
... Among sh, silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) is one of the two sh species capable of living in this high salinity waters; it is consumed by local populations and used for sport shing activities, adding economic importance to the region. Ballesteros et al. (2014) conducted a study evaluating the levels of POPs in silverside of the Mar Chiquita Lake. Three monitoring samplings were carried out (dry, rainy, and postrainy seasons) at two locations in the southeastern coast of the Lake: (1) Laguna del Plata (LP, 30° 50′09.6″ ...
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Agriculture is a dominant component of the world economy since this primary activity allows us to have access to the food required by the populations; however, this need for food has led to the expansion of irrigation and an increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides in order to achieve and maintain higher yields and has become a significant source of organic pollution in most countries, which has caused a significant and generalized dysfunction of ecosystems through the various toxic effects induced in organisms. According to WHO reports, nitrogen levels in groundwater have increased in many parts of the world as a result of “intensification of agricultural practices”; in some parts of Europe, nitrate levels have increased to the point that more than 10% of the population drinks water with nitrate levels above the norm of 10 mg/L, along with other activities related to agriculture which have an impact on water quality, such as the application of fertilizers, manure, and pesticides, which cause high levels of pathogens, metals, phosphorus, and nitrogen. The ecological, recreational, and tourist state park “Hermenegildo Galeana” is located in the southern part of the state of Mexico, specifically in the municipality of Tenancingo, State of Mexico; this park is important because in this there are about 30 different species of plants, ferns, mosses, and different fungi, as well as housing species such as lynx, jaguarundi, coyote, tuza, Peter squirrel, skunk, rabbits, opossum, Cozumel badger, armadillo, fox, buzzard, red-tailed hawk of Tres Marías, carpenter, hummingbird, sparrow (finch of Guadalupe), swallow, quail, heron, lizard, snake, salamander, and viper; in addition there are two perennial river currents, one corresponds to La Fábrica, located at the east end of the park, and another is located westward called Puentecillas, and the rest of the fluvial network that make it up are intermittent; also within the park you can distinguish other bodies of water, such as the spring located south of the limit, near the town of Monte del Pozo and San Antonio Agua Bendita, and near the park in which small boards have been created to store water that serves for irrigation of the agricultural area, occupied mostly by greenhouses with flower production, which can represent a risk to the ecosystem by releasing various types of contaminants such as pesticides and metals. Due to this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity induced by effluents from the Hermenegildo Galeana Park (HGP) in a sentinel organism, Hyalella azteca, using biomarkers of oxidative stress as hydroperoxide content, lipoperoxidation degree, and carbonylated protein content, in addition to the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutas and catalase.
... The comparison between seasons of metal/As/Se concentrations in the water showed the highest concentrations in the wet season at RG and CN, but no significant differences between seasons at E (Table S.3). Since RG and CN are surrounded by crops to which pesticides are applied in the wet season, these contaminants may enter the aquatic system by air as a result of spraying, or by precipitation, or by runoff from the fields ( Ballesteros et al., 2014). ...
... In recent decades, aquatic ecosystems have been widely contaminated by OCPs of agricultural and industrial origins (Ballesteros et al., 2014). Eventually, POPs may accumulate in the human body through the consumption of contaminated aquatic organisms, drinking water, and agricultural supplements. ...
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Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment; they can have adverse effects in humans and animals. This study examined residual concentrations in water, sediments, and fishes as well as the association between the health risks of OCPs and fish consumption in the Taiwanese population. Various water and sediment samples from Taiwanese aquaculture and fish samples from different sources were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 20 OCPs, namely, aldrin; cis-chlordane; trans-chlordane; dieldrin; endrin; alpha-endosulfan; beta-endosulfan; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; lindane; mirex; pentachlorobenzene; o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); p,p′-DDT; and DDT metabolites (o,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]; p,p’-DDD; o,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]; and p,p’-DDE). None of the analyzed samples was positive for OCP contamination, suggesting no new input pollution from the land through washing into Taiwanese aquaculture environments. However, OCP residues were detected in fishes caught along the coast, namely, skipjack tuna and bigeye barracuda, and in imported fishes, such as codfish and salmon. DDT was the predominant pesticide. The contamination pattern of persistent organic pollutants was as follows: dieldrin > cis-chlordane > hexachlorobenzene, with average concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 2.74 ng/g. The risk was assessed in terms of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for potential adverse indices; the EDI of OCP residues was lower than 1% of the acceptable daily intake established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization. The assessed risk was negligible and considered to be at a safe level, suggesting no association between fish consumption and risks to human health in Taiwan. However, a continuous monitoring program for OCP residues in fishes is necessary to further assess the possible effects on human health.
... Otros trabajos reportan los efectos sobre la fauna nativa en ambientes acuáticos en donde se encontraron residuos de plaguicidas. Ballesteros et al. 86 informaron la presencia de residuos clorados en aguas superficiales y sedimentos de la laguna de Mar Chiquita, y determinaron la presencia de estos compuestos también en tejidos de peces de especies nativas. Los residuos clorados identificados provienen de insecticidas como el endosulfán, HCH y DDT. ...
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En virtud del exhorto (Res. DP Nº 29/14) realizado en septiembre de 2014 por la Defensoría del Pueblo de la Nación a las universidades nacionales acerca de la información que obra en su poder sobre la temática de contaminación por uso inadecuado de agroquímicos con impacto en establecimientos educativos (“uso de agroquímicos en cercanía de la población”), el Grupo “Mapa Institucional” –constituido a tal efecto e integrado por profesionales de distintas disciplinas-, se ha propuesto realizar un documento de síntesis que sistematice las principales líneas de análisis vinculadas con la problemática a nivel de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (RMBA) y contribuya a su identificación espacial a través del uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica.
... These chemicals include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and different classes of pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or "DDT" and lindane). Although the production and use of many of them (e.g., PCBs) are now banned or restricted in most countries ("legacy contaminants"), knowing the actual distribution of these chemicals is relevant since they are still detected in the environment and their advisable levels are set by several international laws (Lai et al., 2015;Ballesteros et al., 2014). In addition to the study of the legacy compounds abovementioned, more recently, there has been a rising interest in identifying and screening new organic synthetic compounds in the environment, the so-called "emerging contaminants" (Field et al., 2006), which has been possible due to the development of new analytical techniques (such as new generation mass spectrometers). ...
Article
Contamination of aquatic systems by no longer used but very persistent compounds (e.g., organochlorine pesticides) and newly detected chemicals, such as personal care products (PCPs), represents a raising concern. In this study, we carried out one of the first comparisons of both types of contaminants, legacy and emerging, in two coastal systems (Cadiz Bay and Huelva Estuary). A wide range of analytes were selected to this end, including hydrocarbons, UV filters, fragrances, and antimicrobials. Analysis of surface sediments revealed the occurrence of 46 out of 97 target analytes, most of them predominantly accumulated in depositional areas with high organic carbon content. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (e.g., octahydrotetramethyl acetophenone or "OTNE"), UV filters (e.g., octocrylene), and nonylphenol had the highest concentrations (up to 1098, 133.5, 72 and 575ngg(-1), respectively). Several inputs were detected, from atmospheric deposition after combustion to wastewater discharges and recreational activities. However, an environmental risk assessment performed for those chemicals for which ecotoxicological data were available, indicated that legacy compounds still pose the highest potential risk towards benthonic organisms (individual hazard quotients up to 580 for dichlorophenyldichloroethylene or "DDE") compared to PCPs.
... In Argentina, a period of five years was established for phasing it out since the date of the effective Resolution 511/2011 (SENASA, 2011), including a total prohibition for using, importing, processing (synthesis), formulation, and marketing for the active ingredient and formulated products, thus extending legal use until 2016. In spite of this, at the moment this study took place, END was one of the main insecticides used for pest control in Argentina, and still now residues and metabolites are found in the environment (Ballesteros et al., 2014). ...
... These results are consistent with a regular application of endosulfan during the sampling period, which was previous to endosulfan prohibition in Argentina (July 2013). Moreover, the endosulfan levels detected in stream water from QGR were much higher than those observed for Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Córdoba, a RAM-SAR site (7 ng dm −3 , Ballesteros et al. 2014), and were similar to those detected in stream water (114 ng dm −3 ) located in downstream cultivated areas from the Suquía River, Córdoba, Argentina (Bonansea et al. 2013). ...
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Pesticides are usually used in modern agriculture; however, their off-site migration and detrimental effects on terrestrial biota and nearby surface water environment are of great concern. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can be found in different environmental matrices due to their persistence, representing a persistent pollution source. Soil (0–35 cm), terrestrial organisms (micro- and macro-invertebrates) and stream water samples were analysed to assess OCPs’ uptake by terrestrial invertebrates and OCPs’ levels in their surrounding environment. The study area involved agricultural plots from the Pampas area (Argentina) and the sampling was carried out during summer coincident with the pesticides application period. Although OCPs have been banned in Argentina, the concentration of OCPs in soils increased during the pesticide application period (2.8 ng g⁻¹) in comparison with the pre-application period (0.3 ng g⁻¹). It would be probably as a result of a flooding event, and a consequent transport of legacy pesticides adsorbed to soils particles from neighbor agricultural areas. The OCPs were highly bioaccumulated in soil mesofauna (acari and collembolans: 260 μg g⁻¹); therefore the high sensitivity to external impact combined with their importance for ecosystem functions make soil mesofauna extremely valuable for monitoring programmes. In the aquatic environment, high endosulfan concentrations (227 ng L⁻¹) were detected in stream water, being above the maximum limit for aquatic life protection. The different compositions of DDT, HCH, chlordane and endosulfan in all matrixes indicated that the residues of most compounds would be originated from historical application, and the implementation of long OCPs monitoring studies is highly recommended. As a whole, this study provides first results of OCPs levels in mesofauna of a typical intensive agricultural area from Argentina, and highlights the importance of soil mesofauna as a target group to understand the OCP migration process through the animal food chain.
... The pesticide mixture contains a 7:3 ratio of 2 isomers, αand β-endosulfan, which differ in their physical-chemical properties (Rice et al. 1997). Isomers of endosulfan have been detected in surface and groundwater in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 µg/L (Dalvie et al. 2003;Leong et al. 2007;Ballesteros et al. 2014) as well as in bivalves and fish at relatively high concentrations (Lanfranchi et al. 2006;Barni et al. 2014;Ondarza et al. 2014;Polder et al. 2014). Both isomers can be converted to endosulfan-sulfate (endosulfan-S) by biotic transformation, with α-endosulfan being converted more readily to endosulfan-S (Weber et al. 2010). ...
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Persistent organic pollutants reach aquatic ecosystems during application and can bioconcentrate/biomagnificate due to their lipophilic nature. Toxicological studies focus almost exclusively on the active ingredients (AIs) of pesticides, instead of commercial formulations (CFs), whose toxicity can differ due to non‐specified ingredients. The intensive use of endosulfan (ES) as a wide range insecticide over the last few decades make it one of the most frequently detected contaminants in the aquatic environment, even after it has been restricted worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation and organ distribution of waterborne ES in the freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus, comparing between the AI and a CF. Males were exposed to 0.7 μg/L ES for two weeks. ES was quantified (GC‐ECD) in liver, testes, gills, brain and muscle. Results suggest rapid metabolism of α‐ES and β‐ES isomers to ES sulfate (ES‐S) in tissues. Isomers levels were highest in gills, indicative of recent uptake. ES‐S levels were highest in liver and testes for the AI, and testes and brain for the CF. For the AI, ES‐S levels showed a positive correlation with organ‐lipid %. No correlation was evident for CF indicating that the presence of adjuvants alters ES distribution, as gills and liver showed a higher uptake and mobilization of β‐ES. These differences in organ distribution may alter tissue‐specific toxicity, therefore additives cannot be considered inactive even if non‐toxic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Until now, pollutants found in the Suquía River basin range from nutrients to pharmaceuticals, including heavy metals, agrochemicals, petroleum derivatives and antibiotics ( Ballesteros et al., 2014 ;Bonansea et al., 2013 ;Monferrán et al., 2011 ;Nimptsch et al., 2005 ;Pesce and Wunderlin, 2000 ;Valdés et al., 2014 ;Wunderlin et al., 2001 ). Thus, considering the above-mentioned facts, we are now interested in assess the presence of MPs along the Suquía River basin, looking to identify the relative importance of tentative anthropogenic sources (e.g. ...
Article
The presence of microplastics (MPs) in both water and sediment has been extensively reported in marine environments, with fewer works on their presence in rivers, particularly in rivers affected by semi-arid conditions. It is likely to expect a different behavior of MPs in the sea with respect to a river, mainly because of differences in the hydrology, salinity, etc. Thus, our main goal was evaluating the presence and behavior of MPs in a river belonging to a semi-arid region (Suquía River, Province of Córdoba, Argentina), looking to assess the main sources of MPs and verifying their changes along a river section that includes a big city and its wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Sampling was performed in October 2016, with the river at its lower flow. Results show that MPs are present in high amount throughout the studied river basin, even upstream from the main city. The WWTP was identified as one of the main sources of MPs to the stream, but the city runoff was the responsible for the higher amount of MPs in sediments. Our results show qualitative and quantitative differences with other reports on MPs in water and sediment of rivers, having a range of MPs that exceeds most previous reports in rivers. Furthermore, among MPs found, fibers were more abundant than plastic fragments, triggering the need for a deep evaluation of probable negative effects of fibers on the aquatic biota.
... In addition to pesticides, agricultural use of antibiotics adds to environmental toxicity via manure, wastewater and biosolids (Pan & Chu, 2016). Application of pesticides can result in residual contamination of nearby water bodies (Ballesteros et al. 2014, Wei et al. 2015. The fate of the micropollutants varies widely depending upon various physico-chemical parameters (vapor pressure, water solubility, polarity), environment type (mechanical or natural) and occurrence media (WWTP, surface water, groundwater, drinking-water facility). ...
Article
While the production and usage of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products have greatly improved the quality of life for humans, their application has increasingly been contaminating aqueous systems with micropollutants due to seepage, run-off, effluent discharge and uptake in the environment. Micropollutants exhibit considerable ecotoxicities and adverse effects on human health, making them a critical environmental concern. Current micropollutant remediation methods which involve advanced oxidation processes and membrane technologies are costly, consume excess chemicals, require high amounts of energy, form harmful by-products and sludge that are difficult to manage. The usage of oxidative laccases and peroxidases, microalgae and microalgae-bacteria consortia are emerging as novel green alternatives for the remediation of micropollutants from contaminated aqueous systems. This review details recent advances made in the application of green media utilized in micropollutant remediation through degradation, immobilization, adsorption, bioaccumulation and co-metabolism. These methods are discussed as secondary treatment techniques for wastewater plant effluents or as a tertiary treatment in conjunction with other chemical and biological technologies to metabolize toxic chemicals in-situ and yield innocuous outputs. A critical discussion on advantages, application, current developments, drawbacks and future perspectives of these biotechniques is presented.
... Chiquita Lake (30 •~3 0 • 55 S, 62 •~6 3 • W) is located about 150 km northeast of Córdoba, Argentina [35], in the Paraná Basin of South America. The lake is affected by a humid subtropical climate, and precipitation is mainly concentrated from December to March (summer in the southern hemisphere) [36]. ...
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Lakes are one of the most important parts of the terrestrial hydrosphere. The long-term series of lake area dynamic data with high spatial-temporal resolution is of great significance to the study of global change of the water environment. Satellite observations (such as Landsat) have provided images since the 1970s, but there were challenges for the construction of long-term sequences of lake area on a monthly temporal scale. We proposed a temporal-spatial interpolation and rule-based (TSIRB) approach on the Google Earth Engine, which aims to achieve automatic water extraction and bimonthly sequence construction of lake area. There are three main steps of this method which include bimonthly image sequence construction, automatic water extraction, and anomaly rectification. We applied the TSIRB method to five typical lakes (covering salt lakes, river lagoons, and plateau alpine lakes), and constructed the bimonthly surface water dataset (BSWD) from 1987 to 2020. The accuracy assessment that was based on a confusion matrix and random sampling showed that the average overall accuracy (OA) of water extraction was 96.6%, and the average Kappa was 0.90. The BSWD sequence was compared with the lake water level observation data, and the results show that the BSWD data is closely correlated with the water level observation sequence, with correlation coefficient greater than 0.87. The BSWD improves the hollows in the global surface water (GSW) monthly data and has advantages in the temporal continuity of surface water data. The BSWD can provide a 30-m-scale and bimonthly series of surface water for more than 30 years, which shows good value for the long-term dynamic monitoring of lakes, especially in areas that are lacking in situ surveying data.
... Likewise, Ballesteros et al. (2014) found residues of endosulfan, lindane, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), among other pesticides, in water, sediments, and suspended particulate material from Mar Chiquita (Buenos Aires province), at levels that exceed the allowed values. Another study registered the presence of pesticides in the water of the Pergamino stream basin, Buenos Aires province, mainly caused by runoff in the upper stream basin (Darder et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Unsafe management practices and overuse of pesticides have led to environmental contamination and farmworkers poisoning. For this reason, the problem of pesticide exposure must be framed in the socio-cultural and environmental context of the affected communities, analyzing the factors that contribute to the greater risk of exposure of farmworkers and their families, in order to propose educational strategies and develop effective public health strategies. This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding local pesticides handling of farmworkers from Singuil town, Catamarca province, northwestern Argentina, and the possible impact of these behavioral patterns on Singuil River. Farmworkers from Singuil town participated through a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey. Subsequently, samples from Singuil River were taken for determination of pesticides residues. Approximately 83 % of those surveyed have worked with pesticides for more than 10 years. Although most workers prepare their pesticide formulations, 25 % of them never use any personal protective equipment, while the remaining 75 % usually use face masks and gloves to protect themselves. Post-spraying personal hygiene practices, such as changing clothes or showering, are often not applied. To reduce health risks, many respondents perform sprinkling at sunset (66.7 %) or early morning (50 %), and avoid it during windy and sunny weather. Besides, they usually burn (58.3 %) or stockpile (41.7 %) empty pesticide containers. In case of poisoning, 91.7 % of workers would go to hospital for medical attention. Glyphosate, mancozeb, and propamocarb are the most commonly used pesticides. Finally, no pesticide residues were detected in the water samples collected from Singuil River.
... Pesticides have long been a matter of environmental concern and there is extensive scientific research on them, both worldwide (Adkesson et al., 2018;Tsygankov et al., 2017) and locally (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Lanfranchi et al., 2006;Miglioranza et al., 2021;Tombesi et al., 2018). Nonetheless, most biota related studies are focused on vertebrates, crustaceans and mollusks (Kim, 2019;Menone et al., 2006;Quadri Adrogué et al., 2019;Quadri-Adrogué et al., 2021;Tsygankov et al., 2015). ...
Article
Temporal and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, one of the main insecticides used in Argentina, was evaluated in two populations of the sea anemone Bunodosoma zamponii living under different anthropological stressors: Las Delicias (LD) adjacent to a wastewater plant, and Punta Cantera (PC) a reference site. Pesticides were analyzed throughout the year in water, sediments and whole organisms. Chlorpyrifos represented 50% of the total pesticide found in water samples during winter. HCHs and drins were predominant in sediment samples, mainly in LD. Total pesticide concentration in anemones from LD was higher than those from PC during winter (mainly associated with HCHs, endosulfans, DDTs and chlorpyrifos levels), coincident with the main period of effluent discharge to the coast after pesticide applications and also the rainiest season. Dissimilarities among anemones populations could stem from a differential input of pesticides in each site and/or a contrasting physiological status of the populations.
... In our country, a period of five years was established for phasing it out since the date of the effective Resolution 511/2011 (SENASA, 2011), including a total prohibition for using, importing, processing (synthesis), formulation, and marketing for the active ingredient and formulated products, thus extending legal use until 2016. In spite of this, at the moment this study took place, END was one of the main insecticides used for pest control in Argentina, and still now residues and metabolites are found in the environment (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Svartz et al., 2015;Astoviza et al., 2016;Lupi et al 2019). ...
Article
Pesticide formulations are currently considered as one of the main factors responsible for environmental contamination worldwide. Consequently, several wild species can be affected by the over use of pesticides related to agriculture activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and oxidative stress on Caiman latirostris hatchlings exposed in vivo to sub-lethal concentrations of three insecticide formulations: Endosulfan (END)-, Cypermethrin (CYP)-, and Chlorpyrifos (CPF)- based formulations, two Glyphosate (GLY)- based herbicide formulations and two different ternary complex mixtures of them. C. latirostris hatchlings, 20 days old were exposed in plastics containers with pesticide solutions (by voluntary immersion) during two months, with a progressive decrease in pesticide concentrations through time, in order to simulate their degradation in water under natural conditions. After exposure, blood samples were taken to all animals for the analysis of genotoxicity (Comet assay, Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities) immunotoxicity (Total and differential white blood cell counts) and oxidative stress (Lipoperoxidation and the antioxidant enzymes Catalase and Superoxide dismutase). Results indicated that the five formulations tested, as well as the complex mixtures of them, induced genotoxicity, alteration in white blood cell counts and oxidative stress at environmentally relevant concentrations. Mixtures showed different interactions depending of the biomarker analyzed. This study constitutes an integral evaluation of the effect of five pesticide formulations and two possible complex ternary mixtures widely used in soybean crops in Argentina, on different endpoints on a native reptile species, C. latirostris.
... Furthermore, the concentration of cattle feedlots has resulted in aquifer contamination by feces(Rossi 2015). In addition, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used until 1998 and 2005, have lingering effects on aquatic habitats in Argentina, specifically the WHSRN/Ramsar site, Mar Chiquita(Ballesteros et al. 2014). In the Gulf Coast region, pesticide accumulation from agricultural production converges in the Mississippi River system and results in annual hypoxic conditions(Rabalais et al. 2002) and harmful algae blooms in coastal salt marshes, in turn adversely impacting the food web(Ning et al. 2015) and shorebird foraging behavior(Kvitek and Bretz 2005). ...
Thesis
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The Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) is a migratory shorebird species that has experienced a precipitous population decline. The factors governing this decline are complex and may correspond to habitat traits and migratory dynamics. Recent advancements in GPS telemetry have allowed for a precise description of migratory patterns to interpret the spatial and temporal distributions of migratory bird species compared to prior approaches that used band recoveries, surveys, and morphological measurements. Understanding the similarities and differences in distributions among and within disparate populations of birds is critical for identifying the potential exposure to threats that influence a species’ productivity and survival. Detailed distribution data provides the foundation for the development and implementation of targeted conservation applications for declining species, such as the Lesser Yellowlegs. In 2018, 2019, and 2020, project cooperators and I deployed 110 PinPoint GPS Argos satellite tags on adult Lesser Yellowlegs at six sites spanning the boreal biome of Alaska and Canada. The Lesser Yellowlegs is a Neotropical migrant shorebird that breeds in the boreal forest and spends the winter in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Upon summarizing the locations received, I found that geographically disparate populations followed different routes during autumn migration, but experienced weak migratory connectivity, or high population mixing, at wintering locations. Differentiation in migratory timing, distances, and strategies were also variable among sexes and breeding populations. Further, I described the primary stopover, staging, and wintering sites and determined that the Prairie Pothole region and the Gulf Coast region were the primary stopover sites during autumn and spring migration, whereas northeastern Argentina was the primary wintering area. Within each of those regions, the highest proportion of Lesser Yellowlegs detections were in wetland habitats. Lastly, I modeled the probability of Lesser Yellowlegs occurring within Caribbean and northeastern South American countries where shorebirds are harvested for sport and subsistence. I found that geographically disparate populations were differentially exposed to shorebird harvest. Populations originating from eastern Canada had the highest probability of occurrence and longest duration of stay within harvest zones from mid-August through October, while populations originating from Alaska had an exposure probability of nearly zero throughout the autumn. The Lesser Yellowlegs has experienced a precipitous population decline of ~63% since the 1970s. Within the next decade, it is predicted that an additional 50% of the current population size will be lost if science-driven conservation actions are not practiced. By using real-time location data to identify annual migration patterns and the probabilities of harvest exposure among disparate populations of Lesser Yellowlegs, my thesis provides the knowledge for tailoring conservation priorities and actions for specific geographic regions or subpopulations that are at high risk (e.g. populations originating in eastern Canada). Focusing conservation efforts to areas where scientifically rigorous analyses illustrate serious concern is an effective approach to ensure the perseverance of a steeply declining shorebird.
... In Argentina, PCBs were widely used in electrical transformers until they were forbidden in 2010; however, levels of PCBs are still detected in different environments. 5,12,13 On the other hand, PBDEs are still employed as additive flame retardants in many household products and might leach out throughout their entire lifetimes. 14,15 Additionally, their proved persistence, toxicity, and carcinogenic/mutagenic health effects have attracted scientific attention throughout the world. ...
Article
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are anthropogenic chemicals extensively used in the past for industrial and agricultural purposes, characterized by their lipophilicity, ubiquity, volatility and environmental persistence. By other hand, chlorpyrifos is the most widely used current pesticide (CUPs) being the main insecticide used for crops in Argentina. The aim of this work was to assess levels of POPs and CUPs in different fractions of airborne particles collected indoor in agricultural areas from Argentina. Particles higher than 2.5 µm were trapped in polyurethane foams (PUF) while particles smaller than 1 µm and volatile compounds were adsorbed on activated charcoal. Compounds were analyzed by gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC‐ECD). Endosulfans, chlordanes, PCBs, and HCHs were detected in all PUF samples, while endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, PCBs and HCHs were the most abundant in smaller particles. Majority of pesticides showed higher concentrations during the summer season (1397,7 vs 832,5 pg m‐3). Even adding up all measured organic compounds no sample reach the threshold limit value for indoor pesticides levels (0.1 pg m‐3), neither in the large or small particle fraction. However, the fact that chronic exposure to POPs has been linked to several diseases, raises concern for human health.
... According to Piazza, Pandolfi, & Lo Nostro (2011), endosulfan is slightly soluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. It reaches water bodies due to runoff from agricultural areas with concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 mg/L (Ballesteros et al., 2014). Some researchers have examined the presence of its residues in the environment and found it to be toxic to aquatic organisms including fish and the aquatic environment in general (Watts, 2012). ...
Article
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The presence of pollutants in water makes the environment toxic to all living biota and affects reproduction in fish. One of such pollutants is endosulfan, which is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide, widely used in various agricultural activities. Endosulfan is extremely toxic to fish and all other aquatic organisms, showing a range of chronic effects, including genotoxicity, and reproductive issues. Therefore, the aim of the research was to find the effect of endosulfan on cGnRH, sGnRH, GtH-I and GtH-II gene expression inmale hard-lipped barb fish. These fish were kept in aquarium containing several levels of endosulfan (0 mg/L [control]; 0.88 mg/L [low level]; 1.76 mg/L [medium level]; and 2.64 mg/L [high] level) for 60 days. The effects of endosulfan on GnRH performance on the fishwere evaluated by the expressions of these genes; cGnRH-II, sGnRH, GtH-I, and GtH-II. In the 8th week, there was a decrease in the expression of all the four genes in fish with high dose of endosulfan compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings showedthat endosulfan inhibits the expression of cGnRH, sGnRH, GtH-I and GtH-II genes in male hard-lipped barb.
... In spite of this, at the moment this study took place, END was one of the main insecticides used for pest control in Argentina, and still now residues and metabolites are found in the environment, and it is even used in some places. 92 In recent years, ecologists have taken to study antioxidants and oxidative stress in freeranging organisms and have integrated principles of oxidative stress into several core evolutionary concepts, such as life history trade-offs (e.g. survival vs reproduction), senescence and sexual selection. ...
... There are several water bodies in Argentina, both natural and artificial, with water quality ranging from ultra-oligotrophic to hypertrophic. Even though the water chemistry of Argentinean water bodies has been somehow studied following different approaches (Ballesteros et al., 2014;Cristini et al., 2017;Lamela et al., 2019;Plastani et al., 2019), the focus has been the eutrophication of inland water bodies Amé et al., 2010;Bonansea et al., 2015;Bonansea et al., 2019;Giannuzzi et al., 2011;Temporetti et al., 2014). The lack of specific regulations and information concerning cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in freshwater bodies is a major topic of concern (Aguilera and Giannuzzi, 2018). ...
... Moreover, pesticides persist even for centuries in ecosystems due to their stability and degradation resistance. The pesticides that have been banned since several decades, their residues are still today found in water and sediments (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
Book
This book addresses the grave concerns stemming out due to conventional treatment techniques. The main focus of this book revolves round the central kernel of novel technology (bioremediation and biotechnology) which has emerged as an independent warrior to clean up and restore the disturbed environs. Furthermore, this book is a coherent assortment of diverse chapters relevant to the role of biotechnology and bioremediation for restoration of the ecosystems degraded by pesticide and heavy metal pollution. The inaugural chapters deal with the quantification of problem and its magnitude due to pesticides and heavy metals, followed by innovative modern biotechnological and bioremediation treatment technologies and sustainable techniques to remediate the persistent pollutants. It is a detailed comprehensive account for the treatment technologies from unsustainable to sustainable. Academicians, researchers and students shall find it as a complete wrap up regarding biotechnological intervention for sustainable treatment of pollution and shall suffice for the diverse needs of teaching and research.
... Moreover, pesticides persist even for centuries in ecosystems due to their stability and degradation resistance. The pesticides that have been banned since several decades, their residues are still today found in water and sediments (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
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The introduction of chemical substances in agriculture through fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, phytohormones is closely linked to both the increase of agricultural production and the problems of the environment. These attacks against the intensification of agriculture by means mainly refer to the following: chemical pesticides lead to the depletion of the natural fertility of the soil and, ultimately, to an imbalance in the natural composition of the soil; chemical pesticides, especially those with N and P, lead to the release of nitrogen and phosphorus into the environment with adverse consequences on surface water eutrophication and biological balance; chemical pesticides produce changes in the quality of the crops, respectively of the elements, by accumulations of nitrates, carbohydrates, lipids, change of the C/N, N/P, Ca/Mg ratio; the residual effect of some chemicals in the food, together with other factors, contributes to the promotion of modern diseases; intensive agriculture, modifying biocenoses create an ecological imbalance.
... Moreover, pesticides persist even for centuries in ecosystems due to their stability and degradation resistance. The pesticides that have been banned since several decades, their residues are still today found in water and sediments (Ballesteros et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
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The accumulation and prevalence of pesticide residues in soil and aquatic ecosystems creates enormous ecological problems. Nowadays, besides some traditional means of monitoring pesticides residues, several novel and innovative technologies are being applied. Several developed regions have established pesticide risk assessment models which are of great significance for environmental sustainability. Environmental impact assessment of pesticides influences characterization of previously permitted pesticides, approval of new pesticides, and establishment of remediation goals along with maintenance of environmental quality. Pesticide management strategies encompass assorted pest as well as pesticide management strategies. Novel pesticide management tools and techniques with greater reliability are being developed for improved safety and mitigation of adverse pesticide impacts. Pesticide pollution instigated varied global governmental and non-governmental organizations to frame environmental regulations for management and mitigation of pesticide pollution. This chapter provides an overview of global environmental regulations framed for management of pesticides for global environmental safety, human welfare, and sustainable development.
... (5.9) 2.3e47.6 (13.1) 12.9e657 (121.2) 0.2e1.8 (0.8) 0.3e31 (4.4) ( Liu et al., 2013) Campo Mare d 15.7 0.2 25.8 4.9 0.9 0.1 ( Ballesteros et al., 2014) Sarno River and Estuary,Italy c 0.006e0.85 (0.24) 0.23e1.18 ...
Chapter
This chapter presents a summary of the current conservation status of Mar Chiquita Lake and Dulce River wetland, including three main sections. Firstly, a brief description of the values that support the conservation of this wetland and the legislation that provides its protected area condition are provided. Secondly, the environmental threats affecting the region are analyzed. It is concluded that water diversion and alteration of the hydrological regime, habitat alteration, changes in land use, and pollution are considered the main threats to the wetland that require priority consideration. Finally, the management difficulties and administration constraints related to the large size of the wetland are analyzed.
Article
Agricultural production in the Pampas region is one of the most important economic activities in Argentina. However, the possible environmental effects related to the growth of this activity in the last years have not been studied enough. Particularly, the effects of pesticides mixtures are a topic of great concern both for society and regulatory authorities worldwide, given the possible additive and synergistic relationships between these chemicals and their possible effects on aquatic biota. Based on a concentration addition model, this study developed an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of pesticides from freshwater ecosystems in the Pampas region. For this purpose, reported pesticides concentrations available in public bibliography and a Risk Quotients (RQs) approach were used. A cumulative risk map was established to display RQs for current use pesticides (CUPs) and legacy chemicals. The ΣRQs were calculated for 66 sites, using available reported measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) of pesticides. While ΣRQ for only CUPs resulted in a high and very high risk (ΣRQ > 1) for 29% of the sites, when legacy pesticides were incorporated this percentage reached the 41% of the sites, increasing significantly the absolute values of RQ. Herbicides like glyphosate and atrazine contributed considerably to the ΣRQCUPs while organochlorines were the major contributors for ΣRQs when legacy pesticides were incorporated. Moreover, some active ingredients (acetochlor, carbendazim and fenitrothion) which are approved for their use in Argentina but banned in EU showed high contribution to ΣRQCUPs. The present study is the first attempt to develop an ERA in surface water of the Pampas region of Argentina and it provides a starting point for a more comprehensive pesticides monitoring and a further risk assessment program.
Chapter
Aquatic ecosystems usually receive pollutants from near industrialized and highly populated zones, through riverine inflow, discharges of sewage or other wastes or the atmosphere. The trophic webs of such ecosystems can be affected by those pollutants, with the inhabitant species manifesting different vulnerabilities for certain compounds. Pollutants can bioaccumulate when ingested at a higher rate than excreted, and some can also be biomagnified if accumulated at such higher rates throughout the food chain. Biomagnifying substances, such as organochlorines, are usually lipophilic or, like methylmercury, have a high affinity for proteins. Other pollutants, as for example heavy metals, are mostly associated with water and usually do not biomagnify at all, though they may bioaccumulate to very high concentrations in certain organisms. Bivalve mollusks and other filter-feeders usually bioaccumulate substances at higher rates because they receive pollutants from suspended particles. Top predators (fish, seabirds and mammals) in aquatic trophic chains can be affected by biomagnified compounds. In this chapter, we summarize the conceptual basis of and terminology used in ecotoxicological studies and review regional investigations on the effects and modes of propagation of contaminants through the food webs in the aquatic ecosystems in Argentina.
Article
Using the USEPA methodology we estimated the probabilistic chronic risks for calves and adult cows due to pesticide exposure through oral intake of contaminated surface and ground waters in Tres Arroyos County (Argentina). Because published data on pesticide toxicity endpoints for cows are scarce, we used threshold levels based on interspecies extrapolation methods. The studied waters showed acceptable quality for cattle production since none of the pesticides were present at high-enough concentrations to potentially affect cow health. Moreover, ground waters had better quality than surface waters, with dieldrin and deltamethrin being the pesticides associated with the highest risk values in the former and the latter water compartments, respectively. Our study presents a novel use of the USEPA risk methodology proving it is useful for water quality evaluation in terms of pesticide toxicity for cattle production. This approach represents an alternative tool for water quality management in the absence of specific cattle pesticide regulatory limits.
Article
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Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic and persistent compounds, with chronic toxicity that cause negative efects on the environment and organisms. The chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide and represent the main insecticide currently used in many countries. The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and chlorpyrifos were evaluated in liver, muscle, and gonad of females and males of Tadarida brasiliensis in an agricultural production area in Argentina. Pollutants were quantifed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The general total concentration pattern among tissues was gonad>muscle>liver, with a higher ratio of pesticides (OCPs+chlorpyrifos) over PCBs in muscle and liver, while gonads showed higher concentrations of PCBs. The predominance of DDTs and endosulfans evidences the bioavailability of these compounds despite their use has ceased. Chlorpyrifos was the main pesticide detected in almost all samples of both sexes, probably due to its current intensive use. More researches about ecology and activity patterns is paramount in order to understand more accurately the accumulation and possible negative efects of these pollutants.
Chapter
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a class of pollutants which possess characteristics like long-range transport leading to global pollution, non-biodegradability, and most importantly lipophilicity. They get deposited in the fatty tissues in the living organisms and are thus reported to have high levels in the food chain. Stockholm Convention initially listed 12 pollutants as POPs categorized under pesticides (chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and toxaphene), industrial chemicals (hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)), and by-products (HCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and PCBs) on the basis of their origin. Further, 18 more new POPs have been added to the Stockholm Convention list including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, etc. In order to handle these harmful pollutants, their detection is a vital step, for which various analytical techniques have been developed. The current chapter mainly deploys the information about the various optical techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), fluorescence, absorbance, etc., which have found their applications in POP detection in water and wastewater. This chapter will also discuss about the implementation of these techniques for quantification of POPs in wastewater streams and e-waste recycling sites.KeywordsPOPsWaterWastewaterOptical techniquesDetection of POPsGC-MSHPLCSERSFluorescencePhotochemicalFiber-optic sensor
Chapter
The presence of numerous and diverse pollutants and natural toxins has been reported in the Suquía River Basin over 20 years. The fate of these toxic compounds can be mainly attributed to anthropic activities, starting with the release of nutrients from untreated sewage, causing eutrophication, cyanobacteria, and cyanotoxins in the upper basin, followed by poorly treated city sewage, which results in high loads of both inorganic and organic contaminants at the end of the middle basin. Last, but not least, intensive agriculture contributes with agrochemicals and veterinary medicines in the low river basin. Consequently, the inhabiting biota is exposed to a complex mixture of xenobiotics and natural toxins. In this chapter, we discuss on the deleterious effect caused by these toxic compounds on this biota, including the uptake, organ distribution, bioaccumulation, variations in different endpoints (biomarkers), and even changes at community level observed in some cases. The main goal of this chapter is to present a typical basin from a developing country in Latin America, showing both augmented levels and increased sophistication of pollutants found throughout the studied period. Unfortunately, this is a quite common situation in other developing countries, not only from Latin America; thus, this chapter could serve as a guide for future studies in other river basins affected by a complex contaminant mixture elsewhere.
Article
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in waterways due to human activities and their concentration above a certain level is highly toxic with acute damage. In this manuscript, we have compiled the data of these POPs in Chinese freshwater channels, lakes, and corresponding coastal areas from the studies performed in the last twelve years. All the water channels were contaminated with Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs), and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Although most of these water channels maintain the GB5749–2006 guideline for POPs, Liaohe River, Huaihe River, Yangpu Bay, Taihu Lake, Liuzhou surface water, Pearl River Estuary, and Jinzhou Bay have toxicity levels and the maximum concentration of these POPs is above the defined safe limits. Pharmacokinetic data for thirty-eight POPs by SwissADME showed that they were highly penetrable through the skin (Log Kp -6.02 to 0.15) and orally absorbable (bioavailability score 0.55). Therefore, these waterways have acute damaging potential. This indicates that using these water channels for municipal supplies might lead to massive health hazards. Therefore, careful mapping and treatment are necessary before the utilization of water from these water reservoirs.
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Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), cloud point extraction (CPE) and ultrasound back-extraction (UABE) techniques have been coupled for lixiviation, preconcentration and cleanup of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from milk samples for determination by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Physicochemical parameters that affect the efficiency of the extraction system were investigated using a design of experiments based on multivariate statistical tools, and considering the sample matrix along the development. The coupling of the leaching step, UAE, enhanced ca. 3.5 times the extraction efficiency of the former sample preparation methodology (CPE-UABE) leading to cleaner sample extracts suitable for GC analysis. Under optimum conditions, the proposed methodology exhibits successful performance in terms of linearity and precision, with recoveries in the range of 68–70% and limits of detection (LODs) within the range 0.05 – 0.5 ng g−1 dry weight (d.w.). The proposed sample preparation methodology coupled three green analytical techniques. It expands the application frontiers of CPE for the analysis of biological samples by GC. The optimized methodology was used for determination of PBDEs in powder milk samples, from both commercial and human sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Recent trends of organochlorine concentrations in the global environment are discussed based on results of temporal trend studies. Organochlorine residue levels in human tissues from both developed and developing countries indicate continuing human exposure to PCBs, while DDT burdens in humans from developed nations are declining. The reduction rates of organochlorines in the terrestrial environment is slow. Dispersal of organochlorines from tropical point source countries represents the major input affecting recent global contamination. Despite this, no comprehensive contaminant monitoring program has been carried out in the Southern Hemisphere countries due to the economic and political implications involved. Periodical monitoring surveys on organochlorine trends are needed in tropical areas, semiclosed seas and in the open-ocean environments. -from Authors
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This investigation evaluated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation, survival, and reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus from four stations along a gradient of increasing sediment contamination from West Island in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA, to the most contaminated area of the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. Fish collected during their natural spawning season were held in the laboratory for 5 weeks. Liver concentrations of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs averaged 0.461, 9.48, 20.8, and 29.3 {micro}g/g dry weight, with dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of 0.006, 0.132, 0.543, and 1.56 ng/g: differences among stations were statistically significant. Females from two stations within the Superfund site had significantly greater mortality compared to those within West Island, and growth was reduced. Progeny of fish from the most contaminated station exhibited significantly reduced survival and greater incidence of spinal abnormalities compared to those from West Island. No differences in egg production or food consumption were observed. A significant residue-effect relationship was found between TEQs of liver PCBs and female mortality, consistent with that determined previously from laboratory exposures and validating TEQ as an effects indicator. Embryo and larval survival were inversely related to maternal liver TEQ.
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Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) use has been restricted or forbidden in Argentina since 1998 and technical endosulfan is the last currently used OCPs on the soybean-wheat production. As they persist in soil for several years after application, OCPs constitute a source of environmental pollution. This work aims to assess OCPs contamination of groundwater (Gw) and streamwater (Sw) in the Quequén Grande River watershed from south Argentinean Pampas in relation to the hydrogeological characteristics. OCPs were analyzed in Sw, Gw, surface bottom sediments, soils and borehole cutting sediments (Cs) by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. Pesticide distribution in Cs was dependent on the characteristic of the non-saturated zone. Leached pesticides over 3 m in Cs showed the pattern: HCHs = endosulfan > chlordanes > DDTs, and from 3 to 6 m heptachlor was the main group as a consequence of the past use of this compound in the area, mainly on potato crops. Endosulfan reaches Gw during application season as well as during flooding events while a retard effect was observed for Sw. Levels of α- and β-isomers were in certain cases above national (7 ng L−1) and international (3 ng L−1) limits for aquatic biota protection. As the endosulfan sulfate metabolite was present in Gw and Sw and due to its high toxicity, it should be considered in the establishment of water quality criteria for human and environmental protection.
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We report a comparative study using three different chemometric techniques to evaluate both spatial and temporal changes in Suquı́a River water quality, with a special emphasis on the improvement obtained using discriminant analysis for such evaluation. We have monitored 22 parameters at different stations from the upper, middle, and beginning of the lower river basin during at least two years including 232 different samples. We obtained a complex data matrix, which was treated using the pattern recognition techniques of cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis/principal components (FA/PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). CA renders good results as a first exploratory method to evaluate both spatial and temporal differences, however it fails to show details of these differences. FA/PCA needs 13 parameters to point out 71% of both temporal and spatial changes; consequently data reduction from FA/PCA in this case is not as considerable as expected. However, FA/PCA allows to group the selected parameters according to common features as well as to evaluate the incidence of each group on the overall change in water quality, specially during the analysis of temporal changes. DA technique shows the best results for data reduction and pattern recognition during both temporal and spatial analysis. DA renders an important data reduction using 6 parameters to afford 87% right assignations during temporal analysis. Besides, it uses only 5 parameters to yield 75% right assignations during the spatial analysis of four different basin areas. DA allowed us to greatly reduce the dimensionality of the starting data matrix, pointing out to a few parameters that indicate the biggest changes in water quality as well as variation patterns associated with seasonal variations, urban run-off, and pollution sources, presenting a novel approach for water quality assessments.
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