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Immature stages of Iridopsis parrai (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

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Abstract

Egg, larva and pupa of Iridopsis parrai (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are described and illustrated. The number of micropylar openings and micropylar cells in the egg varied. The external morphology of the first instar larva is described for the first time for the genus Iridopsis. Two forms were detected in the third, fourth and fifth larval instars. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies.

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... Unfortunately, further comparisons are not possible at the intra-generic level based on the available morphological descriptions (Comstock 1963, McGuffin 1963. Indeed, external morphology of the first instar has been little studied in the family Geometridae (Grehan et al. 1994, Blaik & Malkiewicz 2003, Vargas et al. 2010, Vargas & Parra 2013. However, there are a few characteristics that would be interesting to explore in further comparative studies, such as the relative length of the cephalic setae (A3, Fig. 9) and the morphology of the setae of the thorax and abdomen (Fig. 15-16), including the TS3 (Fig. 18) on the thoracic leg. ...
... The shape of the prothoracic dorsal shield also appears to be variable in Ennominae. It can be rectangle-like, as in P. obtusaria (Fig. 26), or as two plates separated by a membranous longitudinal stripe in the middle in Macariini (Blaik & Malkiewicz 2003) and Boarmiini (Vargas & Parra 2013). Furthermore, the number of setae on the prothoracic dorsal shield also appears to be variable in Ennominae: P. obtusaria has four pairs (XD and D groups; Fig. 26), while six setae (XD, D and SD groups) are found in Macariini (Blaik & Malkiewicz 2003), Boarmiini (Vargas & Parra 2013) and the Nearctic Pero (McGuffin 1963). ...
... It can be rectangle-like, as in P. obtusaria (Fig. 26), or as two plates separated by a membranous longitudinal stripe in the middle in Macariini (Blaik & Malkiewicz 2003) and Boarmiini (Vargas & Parra 2013). Furthermore, the number of setae on the prothoracic dorsal shield also appears to be variable in Ennominae: P. obtusaria has four pairs (XD and D groups; Fig. 26), while six setae (XD, D and SD groups) are found in Macariini (Blaik & Malkiewicz 2003), Boarmiini (Vargas & Parra 2013) and the Nearctic Pero (McGuffin 1963). ...
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The external morphology of the egg and first instar of the little-known Neotropical geometrid moth Pero obtusaria Prout, 1928 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae: Azelinini) is described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first morphological study dealing with immature stages of a Neotropical species of the highly diverse New World moth genus Pero.
... In addition, in the case of these two species, the presence of the tuberiform dorsolateral projections of A2 also makes it possible to recognize G. mielkei as these structures are absent in G. inerpunctata interpunctata. Similar projections, although variable in number and shape, have been described for other representatives of Boarmiini (Vargas and Parra, 2013). ...
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Glena mielkei Vargas, 2010 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae: Boarmiini) is a Neotropical geometrid moth native to the Atacama Desert of northern Chile whose larvae are folivorous on the shrub Trixis cacalioides (Asteraecae). The last instar and pupa are described and illustrated, and DNA barcode sequences are provided for the first time for G. mielkei. Descriptions are made based on larvae collected in the type locality. Comparisons with the available descriptions of congeneric species suggest that the chaetotaxy of the SV group of the abdominal segment and the morphology of the cremaster could be useful tools to species identification based on last instar and pupa, respectively. A search in BOLD (Barcode of Life Data System) showed that the only DNA barcode haplotype found in the two specimens sequenced was closest to Physocleora Warren, 1897 than Glena Hulst, 1896. These results coincide with the morphological peculiarities of the genitalia highlighted in the original description of G. mielkei, suggesting that a definitive assessment of the generic status of this geometrid moth deserves further integrative studies.
... This trait is also reported in other geometrid species, e.g. Nemoria glaucomarginaria (Porter 1986) and Iridopsis parrai (Vargas & Parra 2013). The presence of dorsal projections on the head in Oospila species seems to be common (see Janzen & Hallwachs 2009). ...
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We investigated the temporal fluctuation of the geometrid moth Oospila pallidaria and related it to the leaf flush season of its host plant, Mimosa setosa, and to environmental factors. Aspects of the natural history of adults are also described. Mimosa setosa produced leaves all year round, but abundance of O. pallidaria larvae in the field was seasonal. The abundance of immatures showed a tendency to decrease with rainfall and temperature. Our study is pioneering in that it provides insights into factors related to the occurrence of O. pallidaria in natural areas. In addition, the biology of immatures is provided.
... The subsequent rearing of these larvae to adult stage has always revealed M. mirthae based on genitalia morphology (HAV, unpublished). Even more, it is known that identifications of geometrid larvae based only on external morphology may be unsatisfactory for two reasons: more than one larval morph may be present for each species (Bocaz et al. 2003;Vargas & Parra 2013), or external morphological attributes may not be variable among different species (Grehan et al. 1994). ...
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Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.
... (Fabaceae). Its immature stages have been recently described and illustrated (Vargas & Parra 2013). Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 has been reported only from the Azapa valley, Arica Province, and nothing has been published about its host plant relationships. ...
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First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.
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Two species of Rheumaptera occur in North America: R. hastata (Linnaeus) and R. subhastata (Nolcken). All stages of the two species are described and illustrated. Keys are given to separate the species in the adult and mature larval stages. Additional information on distribution (supplemented by maps), habits, and hosts is provided.
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Zeta argillaceum (L.), a common neotropical wasp, is established in Florida. The characteristic mud potter-like nests are easily recognized. They prey on geometrid caterpillars. Their nests are reused by various arthropods, forming an ecological web similar to that of other mud dauber wasps. Prey, inquilines, parasites, and scavengers found inside the nests are presented.Zeta argillaceum (L.) es una avispa neotropical muy común y está establecida en Florida. Ellas construyen nidos de barro en forma de vasija, fáciles de reconocer. Sus hospedadores son larvas de geométridos. Sus nidos son reutilizados por varios artrópodos y forman una red ecológica similar al de otras avispas constructoras de nidos de barro. Se presentan en este trabajo los hospedadores, inquilinos, parásitos y carroñeros encontrados dentro de los nidos.Translation provided by author.
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The classification of the Neotropical genera of the Ennominae is reviewed and 267 genera are recognised to occur in this region. Three new genera are described and three others are reinstated, while 48 generic synonyms are newly established. Other changes established in this work include 14 species synonyms and 237 new or reinstated combinations. External features and genitalia of representative members of the genera are illustrated (753 figures). All the known Neotropical species and subspecies of Ennominae are listed (c. 3470), plus their synonyms. The tribes to which the genera belong are assessed, with c. 200 of the genera assigned to tribe or other suprageneric grouping. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 135, 121–401.
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Aim  Andean forests are known to be a major diversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates, but virtually nothing is known about the diversity of arthropods. We examined whether montane rain forests in southern Ecuador are also a diversity hotspot for arthropods, and chose geometrid moths as a model group.Location  The study area in southern Ecuador (Province Zamora-Chinchipe, 79° W, 04° S) covers c. 40 km2, with 39 collecting sites within an elevational range of 1040–2677 m a.s.l. Thirty-five of the sites were situated in an area c. 2.5 km2. Additional qualitative sampling was carried out in the same area and up to an elevation of 3100 m.Methods  Nocturnal moths were collected quantitatively and qualitatively using portable light towers consisting of two 15 W fluorescent tubes, and diurnal moths were collected qualitatively using an insect net. Insects were sampled in six fieldwork periods in the years 1999–2003. As diversity measures, Fisher's alpha of the log-series distribution as well as eight estimators of total species richness were applied.Results  A total of 1266 species were recorded, 63% of which were identified to named species, whereas the remainder are likely to include many undescribed species. Quantitative samples at light towers collected 35,238 specimens representing 1223 species. The extrapolated species number for these data is 1420 (incidence coverage estimator). Twenty-one additional nocturnal species and 22 exclusively diurnal species were sampled qualitatively at elevations between 1040 and 3100 m. The pooled value of Fisher's alpha for all quantitative samples is 246 ± 3.Main conclusions  The diversity of Geometridae documented here is much higher than anywhere else in the world, even without the inclusion of additional species from adjacent lowland rain forests. The number of recorded species in this small area corresponds to more than 6% of the known world fauna of geometrid moths. Our study emphasizes the importance of protecting the remaining montane Andean rain forests. For setting priorities in conservation, more studies on insect diversity are urgently required in other regions of the Andes, since montane forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate.
A revision of the moth genus Anacamptodes (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)
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Immature stages of Anacamptodes herse (Schaus) (Geometridae) on soybean in Honduras
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VARGAS, H. A. 2007. Dos nuevas especies de Iridopsis Warren (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) del norte de Chile. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 51: 138-141.