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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components


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Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.
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Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos ISSN 0101-2061
Recebido para publicação em 2/6/2009
Aceito para publicação em 25/9/2009 (004229)
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Lima), Lima, Peru, E-mail:
*A quem a correspondência deve ser enviada
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary ber
and other functional components
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) como fonte de bra alimentar e de outros componentes funcionais
*, Lesli Astuhuaman SERNA
1 Introduction
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop used by
pre-Columbian cultures in South America for centuries. ere
is a long history of safe use of the grain in South America.
Cultivated and collected Chenopodium species have been part
of the Tiahuanacotan and Incan cultures. Quinoa has fullled
various roles in these ancestral cultures, in addition to its role in
human and animal nutrition, quinoa had a sacred importance
(BONIFACIO, 2003). Archaeological studies have shown that
quinoa was already known in 5000 B.C. (TAPIAetal., 1979). For
the Incas, quinoa was a very important crop together with corn
and potato. Quinoa is currently grown for its grain in the South
American countries of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile
and Colombia. e plant is cold and drought tolerant and it can
be cultivated in high altitudes in the mountain areas. Quinoa
can be grown in a wide range of pH of the soil, including acidic
soils, and it can tolerate poor and rough environments. is crop
grows perfectly at high altitudes, where it is not possible to grow
maize, and it matures in 4 to 7 months, depending on the variety
or ecotype (CARMEN, 1984). e genetic variability of quinoa is
great, with cultivars of quinoa being adapted to growth from sea
level to an altitude of 4,000 m, from 40° S to 2° N latitude, and
from the cold highland climate to subtropical conditions. is
makes it possible to select, adapt, and breed cultivars for a wide
range of environmental conditions, providing basic nutrition
in demanding environmental conditions (JACOBSEN, 2003).
Quinoa is usually referred to as a pseudo-cereal since it is
not a member of the Gramineae family, but it produces seeds
that can be milled in to our and used as a cereal crop. It is an
annual dicotyledonous plant usually standing 0.5-2.0 m high
Quatro variedades de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), cultura de origem andina, foram avaliados como fonte de bra dietética, de
compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante. As quinoas foram processadas por extrusão e os produtos nais foram analisados para determinar
a bra alimentar, o total de polifenóis, atividade de ligar os radicais livres e digestibilidade in vitro do amido e proteínas. Não houve diferença
signicativa no conteúdo de bra dietética total entre as variedades de quinoa. Em todos os casos, o teor de bra alimentar insolúvel e total
diminuiu durante o processo de extrusão. Ao mesmo tempo, o teor de bra alimentar solúvel teve um incremento. O teor de compostos
fenólicos totais e a atividade de ligar os radicais livres foram aumentados durante o processo de extrusão, no caso das quatro variedades.
Houve diferenças signicativas entre o conteúdo total de polifenóis por variedades. A digestibilidade proteica in vitro das variedades de quinoa
cou entre 76,3 e 80,5%, e a digestibilidade in vitro do amido situou-se entre 65,1 e 68,7%. Nosso estudo demonstra que a quinoa pode ser
considerada como uma boa fonte de bra dietética, polifenóis e outros compostos antioxidantes e que o processo de extrusão – cocção pode
melhorar o valor nutricional dos grãos.
Palavras-chave: quinoa; Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; bra dietética; componentes funcionais; processo de extrusão – cocção.
Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary ber, phenolic
compounds and antioxidant activity. e crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the nal products were analyzed to determine the
dietary ber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. ere were no signicant dierences
in the contents of total dietary ber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary ber decreased during
the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary ber increased. e content of total phenolic compounds and the
radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. ere were signicant dierences between the
varieties and the content of total polyphenols. e in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in
vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary ber,
polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.
Keywords: quinoa; Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; dietary ber; bioactive compounds; extrusion.
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 31(1): 225-230, jan.-mar. 2011
Quinoa as a source of dietary fiber
2008). ese investigations have shown that quinoa is a very
good source of antioxidants and it can be a substitute for
common cereals. However, we did not nd any reports on the
content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of
processed quinoa. us, the aim of this study was to analyze the
content of dietary ber, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant
activity in 4 varieties of raw and extruded quinoa.
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Raw material
The following 4 varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa, Willd.) were used in this study: ´La Molina 89´, of
the leguminous and cereal program of National Agrarian
University La Molina, Lima, Peru; ´Kcancolla´, ‘Blanca de Juli´
and ´Sajama´ from the Agronomical Experimentation Center
of Altiplano University, Puno, Peru.
2.2 Preparation of raw material
Quinoa was washed for 20 minutes with tap water with the
aim to eliminate bitter taste and toxic saponins. Washed grains
were dried at 45 °C for 12 hours. Dried seeds were packed in
polyethylene bags and stored at 4 °C until they used in analysis
and processing.
2.3 Extrusion
Washed and dried quinoa seeds were moistened to 12%
humidity for the extrusion process. e extrusion process
was carried out using a low-cost extruder simulating local
processing conditions (Jarcon del Peru, Huancayo, Peru).
e single-screw extruder was operated with the following
parameters: 389.4 rpm, 10-13 seconds resident time, 200 °C
work temperature, 2 orices on the die. No external heat was
transferred to the barrel on the screw during extrusion. e aim
was to produce results applicable to local conditions where this
technology is widely used.
2.4 Extraction of polyphenols and radical scavenging
All samples were ground through a Foss cyclotec mill
before extraction. Five grams of milled quinoa or extrudate
were mixed with 25mL methanol and homogenized using the
Ultra-Turrax homogenizer. e homogenates were allowed
to stand for 12-24 hours under refrigeration (4 °C) and then
centrifuged for 15 minutes. e supernatant was recovered and
stored until analysis.
2.5 Analysis
Proximate analysis. Water content, proteins (N × 6.25),
fat, crude ber and ash were determined according to AOAC
(ASSOCIATION..., 1995). The carbohydrates (CHO) were
calculated by dierence, using the Equation 1:
100 CHO fat protein crude fiber ash=−+ + +
with large panicles of 1.8-2.2 mm long seeds produced at the
end of the stem. e seed is usually pale yellow, but it may
vary from almost white through pink, orange or red to brown
and black. e embryo can hold 60% of the seed weight and it
forms a ring around the endosperm that loosens when the seed
is cooked (NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 1989). Grain
yields vary from 1 to 3 t.ha
, depending on the variety and the
level of cultivation technology (CARMEN, 1984).
Most of the varieties of quinoa contain saponins, bitter-
tasting triterpenoid glycosides, which are concentrated in the
seed coat and must be removed before consumption. e most
popular method for removing saponins involves washing the
grains with water in the ratio of 1:8 quinoa:water, although
there are several other traditional methods (ANTUNEZ DE
MAYOLO, 1981). Large-scale commercial methods haven been
developed in Peru and Bolivia.
Quinoa is one of the most nutritive grains used as human
food and it has been selected by FAO as one of the crops
destined to oer food security in this century (FOOD..., 1998).
Its protein content is remarkable and the composition of the
essential amino acids is excellent. e nutritional value of quinoa
protein is comparable to that of milk protein (KOZIOL, 1992;
RANHOTRAetal., 1993). e content of lysine, methionine
and cysteine in quinoa is higher than in common cereals and
legumes, making it complementary to these crops. Quinoa is
rich in oil, containing benecial fatty acids and a high content
JACOBSEN, 2003). Based on the high quality of the oil, and
on the fact that some varieties show oil concentrations of up to
9.5%, quinoa could be considered as a potentially valuable new
oil crop (KOZIOL, 1992).
Actually, quinoa is widely used in many South American
countries, especially in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and
Argentina. In Peru, the population of Lima is aware of the
nutritive qualities of quinoa and other Andean crops. ey
consume quinoa once a day on average. In rural areas of
southern Peru, the population is accustomed to eating quinoa
every day in dierent preparations (AYALA, 2003).
Quinoa grains do not contain gluten and thus, they
cannot be used alone for bread- making. However, they can
be mixed with wheat our in the preparation of bread with
high nutritional value (MORITAetal., 2001). e fact that
quinoa contains no gluten, makes it an interesting ingredient
for the diets of persons who have celiac disease. Quinoa our
is commonly used in infant foods. Flakes, similar to oat akes,
have also been prepared from quinoa. Pued grains of quinoa
are produced commercially in Peru and Bolivia. e plant is
sometimes grown as a green vegetable and its leaves are eaten
fresh or cooked (NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 1989).
e saponins obtained as a by-product in the processing of
quinoa can be utilized by the cosmetics and pharmaceutical
industries (TAPIAetal., 1979).
Cereals are commonly known as good sources of dietary
ber, phenolic compounds, and natural antioxidants. Some
studies on dietary ber, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant
activity of quinoa have been published (RUALES; NAIR, 1994;
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 31(1): 225-230, jan.-mar. 2011
Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Serna
Guzman-Maldonado and Paredes-Lopez (1998). According
to these authors, the protein content of quinoa is between
11.0and15.0%. ere were dierences between the 4 varieties
of quinoa in protein content, La Molina 89 having the highest
and Blanca de Juli the lowest protein contents. Extrusion aected
the protein content, decreasing it. La Molina 89 had the highest
crude fat content. e contents of moisture, ash, and crude ber
were reduced during the extrusion process in all varieties.
In Table 2, the contents of total (TDF), insoluble (IDF), and
soluble dietary ber (SDF) are presented for raw and extruded
quinoa varieties. ere were no signicant dierences in the
contents of TDF, IDF, and SDF between the varieties. In all cases,
the contents of total and insoluble dietary ber decreased during
the extrusion process, however, this decrease was signicant
only in the case of the Sajama variety. At the same time, the
content of soluble dietary ber increased during the extrusion
process. e increase of content of soluble dietary ber was
statistically signicant in the case of Blanca de Juli, Kcancolla,
Dietary fiber. The total, soluble and insoluble dietary
ber were determined by an enzymatic-gravimetric method
according to the Approved Method 32-21 (AMERICAN...,
1995) using the TDF-100 kit from Sigma Chemical Company
(St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.). Radical scavenging activity. Radical
scavenging activity was determined according to Reetal. (1999)
based on the decrease of absorbance at 734 nm produced by
reduction of ABTS (2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-
sulfonic acid)) by an antioxidant. Trolox was used as the
reference compound for calibration curve. e percentage
inhibition of absorbance at 734 nm was calculated using the
formula according to Katalinicetal. (2006), Equation 2:
( )
(0) ( )
% 100
C At
where A
is the absorbance of the control at t = 0 minute and
is the absorbance of the antioxidant at t = 16 minutes.
Total polyphenols. e content of total polyphenols was
analyzed according to the method of Swain and Hillis (1959).
e phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and
the extract was allowed to react with the Folin- Ciocalteau
phenol reagent. e absorbance was measured at 725 nm.
Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) were determined from a standard
concentration curve.
Protein in vitro digestibility. Digestibility of proteins was
determined by an in vitro method according to Hsuetal. (1977).
e multi-enzymatic method is based on the decrease of pH
during 10 minutes. e percentage of digestibility was calculated
using the Equation 3:
210.464 18.103
where: X = pH of the protein suspension aer 10 minutes of
digestion and Y = percentage of protein hydrolysis.
Starch in vitro digestibility. e digestibility of starch was
determined by an in vitro method according to Holmetal.
(1985). Starch (500 mg) was mixed with phosphate buer
(pH6.9) and incubated with α-amylase at 37 °C for 1 hour. e
sugars released were determined by spectrophotometry.
Degree of gelatinization was based on the method of
Wooton; Weeden and Munk (1971).
2.6 Statistical analysis
Each analysis was done at least in duplicate and expressed as
means and standard deviation (SD). e data were analyzed by
analysis of variance and Tukey´s test (signicance of dierences
p < 0.05) was used to nd signicant dierences between the
samples and treatments.
3 Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of the proximate composition
of 4 quinoa varieties and their extrudates are presented in
Table 1. en, protein content of the grain of the 4 varieties
was between 14.0 and 15.5%. is coincides with values by
Table 1. Proximate composition of 4 quinoa varieties (% dry basis).
Component Blanca de
Kcancolla La Molina
Moisture 11.39 10.78 12.03 12.62
Ash 3.38 3.52 5.46 3.04
Protein 13.96 15.17 15.47 14.53
Crude fat 5.51 5.77 6.85 4.69
Crude ber 2.00 3.07 3.38 1.92
Carbohydrates 75.15 72.47 68.84 75.82
Moisture 7.46 8.98 7.31 7.58
Ash 2.61 2.61 2.45 2.55
Protein 13.41 14.19 15.45 14.08
Crude fat 3.48 3.75 4.21 4.13
Crude ber 1.64 2.60 2.13 1.62
Carbohydrates 78.86 76.85 75.76 77.62
All data are the means of 2 replicates. All contents g.100 g
dry weight except moisture
g.100 g
fresh weight.
Table 2. Total, insoluble, and soluble dietary ber content in 4 quinoa
varieties, raw and extruded, g.100 g
dry basis.
Blanca de Juli 13.72 ± 1.63
12.18 ± 1.65
1.54 ± 0.01
Kcancolla 14.11 ± 1.02
12.70 ± 1.15
1.41 ± 0.13
La Molina 89 15.99 ± 0.63
14.39 ± 0.81
1.60 ± 0.18
Sajama 13.56 ± 0.23
11.99 ± 0.28
1.58 ± 0.05
Blanca de Juli 10.77 ± 0.32
8.64 ± 0.17
2.13 ± 0.15
Kcancolla 12.52 ± 0.64
10.13 ± 0.88
2.39 ± 0.23
La Molina 89 15.27 ± 0.49
12.54 ± 0.59
2.73 ± 0.10
Sajama 11.64 ± 0.30
9.38 ± 0.71
2.26 ± 0.41
TDF = total dietary ber, IDF = insoluble dietary ber, SDF = soluble dietary ber. All
data are the means ± SD of three replicates.
Varieties are compared. Means in the
same row followed by same letter are not signicantly dierent (p < 0.05).
Raw and
extruded quinoa are compared. Means in the same column followed by same letter are
not signicantly dierent (p < ±0.05).
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 31(1): 225-230, jan.-mar. 2011
Quinoa as a source of dietary fiber
from 1.43 to 1.97 mg.GAE.g
. Paskoetal. (2009) dened the
content of total polyphenols in quinoa to be 3.75 mg.GAE.g
using a 2-step extraction process, rst with methanol and then
with acetone. As we used methanol only, some polyphenols may
not have been included in the extract.
Figure 1 presents the radical scavenging activities of raw and
extruded quinoa. ese increased during the extrusion process.
e nding is in agreement with the report of Dewanto, Wu and
Hai Liu (2002) who discovered that the antioxidant activity and
the content of total phenolics of sweet corn increased during
thermal processing. Increase of the total antioxidant activity
in processed grains could be explained by the increase of
soluble phenolic compounds released by thermal processing. In
cereals, the phenolic acids are in free, esteried and insoluble
bound forms. Dewanto, Wu and Hai Liu (2002) found that heat
treatment increased the free and conjugated ferulic acid contents
in sweet corn due to the release of bound ferulic acid across both
the heating time and heating temperature parameters.
Xu and Chang (2008) studied the effect of thermal
processing on total phenolics and specic phenolic compounds
in yellow and black soybeans. ey found that the content of
phenolics increased in yellow varieties and decreased in black
varieties during the heat treatment. In yellow soybean varieties,
thermal processing caused more free gallic acid to be released
leading to higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity
compared to raw beans.
e values of degree of gelatinization (DG), as well as the in
vitro digestibility of starch and protein are presented in Table4.
DG of the 4 quinoa varieties was between 79.9and89.0%. ese
values are lower than those found by Ruales and Nair (1994)
for drum-dried (96%) and cooked (97%) quinoa samples, but
higher than for the autoclaved (27%) samples. Dogan and
Karwe (2003) investigated the physicochemical properties
of quinoa extrudates. ey found that the starch was only
partially gelatinized with a maximum of 84.4%, depending on
the extrusion conditions (feed moisture, screw speed and die
temperature). During extrusion-cooking, both temperature and
shear are responsible for starch gelatinization.
Ruales and Nair (1994) reported the in vitro digestibility
of starch in raw, autoclaved, cooked, and drum-dried quinoa.
eir values for raw, autoclaved and cooked quinoa were lower
than ours (22, 32 and 45%, respectively), but the value for drum-
dried quinoa was higher (73%). As the starch granules of quinoa
are surrounded by a protein matrix, they are not very easily
and La Molina 89 varieties. Gualbertoetal. (1997) also found a
decrease in the content of insoluble dietary ber and an increase
in the content of soluble ber during extrusion-cooking. is
could be due to shear stress caused by high screw speed and
also to high temperature. e exposure to shear stress and high
temperature causes chemical bond breakage creating smaller
particles, which are soluble. ere is a transformation of some
insoluble ber components into soluble ber during extrusion.
Rinaldi; NG and Bennink (2000) studied the eect of extrusion
on dietary ber of wheat extrudates enriched with wet okara
and his results coincide with ours. Extrusion of the formulations
resulted in decreased insoluble ber and increased soluble ber
contents of the products. Extrusion-cooking of white heat our
has also been found to cause a redistribution of insoluble to
soluble dietary ber (BJORCK; NYMAN; ASP, 1984).
e extrusion-cooking process was investigated by Lue,
Hsieh and Hu (1991) with the expectancy that mechanic
rupture of the glycosidic bonds would lead to an increase of
soluble ber. In some cases, an increase of insoluble ber was
observed (UNLU; FALLER, 1998). Espositoetal. (2005) studied
the eect of extrusion on dietary ber of durum wheat. e data
showed that the extrusion-cooking process did not have an eect
on the amount of soluble dietary ber, independently from the
ber typology of the dierent samples. is dierence in ber
solubilization during processing could be explained by the
variability in the raw material composition, but also by dierent
experimental conditions, for example, screw share forces and
pressure in extrusion. The high mechanical stress during
extrusion may cause breakdown of polysaccharide glycosidic
bonds releasing oligosaccharides and, therefore, end up with
an increase of soluble dietary ber (ESPOSITOetal., 2005).
Ruales and Nair (1994) determined the contents of dietary
ber in raw and processed quinoa samples. ey found 13.4%
of total dietary ber for raw quinoa. is value is comparable to
our values for Blanca de Juli and Sajama varieties. e content of
total dietary ber was decreased only in cooked quinoa, while
in autoclaved and drum-dried samples it remained the same.
Some soluble ber was lost during cooking, and in autoclaved
samples, it was lost probably due to depolymerization of ber
Content of the total phenolic compounds and the radical
scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the
case of all 4 varieties (Table 3.). ere were signicant dierences
between the varieties and the contents of total polyphenols. e
contents of total polyphenols in the 4 quinoa varieties ranged
Table 3. Total polyphenols and radical scavenging activity of 4 varieties of quinoa, raw and extruded.
Variety Raw quinoa total
polyphenols mg
GAE/g d.b.*
Extruded quinoa total
phenolics mg gallic
acid/g d.b.*
Raw quinoa radical
scavenging activity microg
trolox/g sample**
Extruded quinoa radical
scavenging activity microg
trolox/g sample**
Blanca de Juli 1.42 ± 0.5
1.70 ± 0.1
Kcancolla 1.57 ± 0.3
1.82 ± 0.4
La Molina 89 1.97 ± 0.2
3.28 ± 0.3
Sajama 1.63 ± 0.1
1.66 ± 0.2
*Data are the means ± SD of 3 replicates. **Data are means of duplicate analyses.
Varieties are compared. Means in the same column followed by same letter are not signicantly
dierent (p < 0.05).
Raw and extruded quinoa are compared. Means in the same row followed by same letter are not signicantly dierent (p < 0.05). d.b. = dry basis.
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 31(1): 225-230, jan.-mar. 2011
Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Serna
should be conducted to characterize the phenolic compound
composition and the antioxidant content and activity, especially
of colored varieties of quinoa.
We thank Dr. Seppo Salminen and Dr. Heikki Kallio,
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of
Turku, Finland, for their critical reading and helpful comments
on the manuscript. Financing from CONCYTEC (Concejo
Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovación Tecnológica,
Peru) is gratefully acknowledged.
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hydrolysable by α-amylase. e degree of starch hydrolysis could
be improved by treating quinoa our with proteolytic enzymes
prior to hydrolysis with α-amylase.
e in vitro digestibility of protein of the 4 extruded quinoa
varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5%. Zia-Ur-Rehman and Shah
(2001) studied the protein in vitro digestibility of black grams
aer soaking and cooking. ey obtained values of digestibility
as in our study, between 75 and 84% for cooked black grams.
Dahlin and Lorenz (1993) studied protein in vitro digestibility
of extruded cereal grains, including quinoa. The effect of
extrusion on in vitro protein digestibility was similar in all
cereals investigated. e optimum extrusion process conditions
for cereals used in this study were 15% feed moisture, 100/150°C
product temperatures and screw speed of 100 rpm.
4 Conclusions
Altogether, this study demonstrates that quinoa can be
considered a very nutritive cereal when compared to commonly
consumed cereals such as wheat, barley, and corn. It has a
relatively high content of good-quality protein and it can be
considered a good source of dietary ber and other bioactive
compounds such as phenolics. It has a long history of safe use in
South America, especially in low-income areas. erefore, it may
present a new viable crop option for low-income areas and also
provide a new ingredient for specic foods for particular target
populations with potential health benets. us, further studies
Figure 1. Radical scavenging activity of raw and extruded quinoa
e results given here are means values of two separate experiments.
Table 4. Degree of gelatinization of starch, in vitro digestibility of starch
and protein of 4 varieties of extruded quinoa.
Variety Degree of
In vitro
of starch%
In vitro
of protein%
Blanca de Juli 79.85 68.53 80.54
Kcancolla 86.15 65.11 79.34
La Molina 89 86.74 68.42 76.80
Sajama 89.02 68.69 76.32
All data are the means of two replicates.
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... Among plant food sources rich in protein are quinoa seeds that are originated from South America and consumed for more than 5,000 years. Due to its botanical characteristics, quinoa is considered as a pseudo-cereal [21,22]. ...
... It is known to be more digestible compared to many grains such as rice probably due to its high fber content [22,23]. Tis plant is well known for adapting to various climates and soils. ...
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Quinoa seed, as a rich source of protein with strong antioxidant properties, plays an important role in improving consumers’ nutrition. This study was aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of peptides from quinoa hydrolysed proteins (QHP) on Streptococcus pyogenes as a Gram-positive and Escherichia coli as a Gram-negative bacterium with gentamicin antibiotic as a positive control. Different enzymatic ratios of pepsin and alcalase (30–90 AU/kg protein) at different temperatures (50–55°C) and times (150–210 min) were used to determine the optimal conditions for peptide hydrolysis with the highest antimicrobial properties. Similar to gentamicin, the maximum growth inhibition zones were 11.88 ± 0.37 mm and 12.49 ± 0.58 mm for S. pyogenes and E. coli, respectively, with an enzyme/substrate ratio as 60 AU/kg protein, a peptides concentration of 800 μg/ml, and at 50°C for 150 min of hydrolysis. The results showed that QHP has a good inhibitory effect on the bacteria mentioned and can be used as a food preservative.
... Additionally, quinoa contains many essential amino acids, especially lysine, tryptophan, cysteine, vitamins (vitamin E, B, C), and minerals such as calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, and copper, and potassium compared to most cereal grains (Dakhili et al. 2019). It is also rich in antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols (Repo-Carrasco-Valencia and Serna 2011). ...
This chapter discusses current issues, such as the increased amount of high-quality protein and bioactive peptides obtained by hydrolysis and the phenolic compounds that ameliorate some biomarkers associated with some illnesses. These positive effects include antioxidant, antiproliferative, antithrombotic, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity treats, documented in different experimental models. Furthermore, industrial applications, including cosmetics, biofilms, and composites, and the production of elastic networks to improve food texture have been developed, not only with the seeds but also with the residues and subproducts of this plant.
... and fiber (r=-0.937). These findings enable the selection of genotypes with lower lipid content, resulting in a higher fiber content, which is a desirable characteristic in the food industry for developing products using extrusion processes (Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al., 2011). ...
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En la agroindustria, la quinua es considerada un alimento funcional para por sus beneficios para la salud. Sin embargo, es necesario identificar genotipos que proporcionen mejores características fisicoquímicas y alta capacidad antioxidante para la selección en los programas de mejoramiento genético. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición fisicoquímica y la capacidad antioxidante de genotipos de quinua originarios de Brasil, Colombia y Ecuador cultivados en condiciones de la Sabana Brasileña (Cerrado). La siembra se llevó a cabo en la Hacienda Agua Limpa de la Facultad de Agronomía y Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad de Brasilia, ubicada a 15º56' S y 47º55' O, a una altitud de 1.100 m. El análisis fisicoquímico se realizó en año 2021 en el Centro de Investigación de Alimentos de la Universidad de Passo Fondo, Río Grande do Sul, y el análisis de capacidad antioxidante se realizó en la Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Se determinó el contenido de humedad, cenizas, proteínas, carbohidratos (CHO), fibra bruta, lípidos y capacidad antioxidante. Los datos originales fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza, mediante la prueba F (P≤0,05), y la comparación de medias por la prueba de Tukey. Se realizarón análisis de correlación lineal (Fischer) (P≤0,01) y (P≤0,05), y análisis de agrupación jerárquico por el método Ward. Los genotipos presentaron variabilidad en las características fisicoquímicas y actividad antioxidante. Los CHO fueron los compuestos mayoritarios presentes en las semillas, mostrando un promedio de 50,16%, el promedio de proteína fue del 15,27%, con mayores resultados para el genotipo P88 (16,28%). El contenido promedio de lípidos, fibra y cenizas fueron 3,24; 14,13 y 6,0%, respectivamente. Los CHO mostraron una correlación positiva con el parámetro lipídico (r=0,858) y una correlación negativa significativa con la proteína (r=-0,785). El cultivar Aurora expresó una mayor actividad antioxidante (1,96±0,01 mg Trolox/g).
... Although quinoa possesses various nutrients to prevent the onset of diseases, its availability is retarded due to several anti-nutritional factors or inhibitors such as phytates. Valencia et al. [105] experimented with improving the iron bioavailability of quinoa with the help of processing methods such as soaking, germination, cooking, and fermentation. The results revealed that the fermentation method in germinated quinoa flour is most effective in decreasing the phytate content in quinoa, and thus, enhances iron availability by five to eight times in consumers [106]. ...
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and chia (Salvia hispanica) are essential traditional crops with excellent nutritional properties. Quinoa is known for its high and good quality protein content and nine essential amino acids vital for an individual’s development and growth, whereas chia seeds contain high dietary fiber content, calories, lipids, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc), and vitamins (A and B complex). Chia seeds are also known for their presence of a high amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Both quinoa and chia seeds are gluten-free and provide medicinal properties due to bioactive compounds, which help combat various chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic diseases such as cancer. Quinoa seeds possess phenolic compounds, particularly kaempferol, which can help prevent cancer. Many food products can be developed by fortifying quinoa and chia seeds in different concentrations to enhance their nutritional profile, such as extruded snacks, meat products, etc. Furthermore, it highlights the value-added products that can be developed by including quinoa and chia seeds, alone and in combination. This review focused on the recent development in quinoa and chia seeds nutritional, bioactive properties, and processing for potential human health and therapeutic applications.
... Quinoa has a highly comprehensive nutritional value, rich in protein, minerals, cellulose, vitamins and other elements. Compared with other common grains such as wheat, rice and millet, quinoa has lower starch content and higher soluble and insoluble fiber content (Repo-Carrasco-Valencia and Serna, 2011;Lamothe et al., 2015). Previous studies (Abellán Ruiz et al., 2017;Díaz-Rizzolo et al., 2022) have found that a quinoa diet can reduce body weight, body mass index, waist circumference and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in people with impaired glucose tolerance. ...
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of quinoa on glucose and lipid metabolism, and the prognosis in people with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight patients diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance following a glucose tolerance test in Guangzhou Cadre Health Management Center were selected and randomly divided into quinoa intervention and control groups, according to the digital table method. After 1 year of follow-up, the differences in blood glucose, blood lipid, glycosylated hemoglobin and other indicators were compared. The disease prognosis between the two groups was also compared. Results: The 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after intervention in the quinoa group were significantly lower than before intervention. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher than before intervention and is statistically significant ( p < 0.05). After 1 year of follow-up, the control group’s glycosylated hemoglobin and body mass index are higher than before intervention, and are statistically significant ( p < 0.05). The 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance index, body mass index, and mean diastolic blood pressure in the quinoa group are statistically significantly lower than in the control group, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is higher ( p < 0.05). The rate of conversion to diabetes for participants in the quinoa group (7.8%) is statistically significantly lower than in the control group (20.3%) (χ2 = 12.760, p = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis showed that quinoa consumption is a protective factor against delaying the progression of diabetes ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: Adding quinoa to staple food intake can reduce postprandial blood glucose, and improve lipid metabolism and insulin resistance, delaying the progression of diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance.
... Pectin substances can be actively used for the prevention and treatment of such socially significant diseases as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and oncological diseases [14]. According to the European regulation EU 432/2012 of 16.05.2012, ...
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The results of studies of the fractional composition and antioxidant activity of quinoa leaves are presented. It has been established that quinoa leaves of Russian selection can be used as natural sources of antioxidant substances in the production of functional products, in particular, herbal teas and beverages.
... Also, despite not being considered an oilseed crop, quinoa presents an average oil content that varies between 5% and 7.2% (Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010), with a remarkable quality of the oil composition due to the high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a good ω-6/ω-3 ratio (of around 6:1), which has been linked to multiple health benefits . Other quinoa seed features are the high amounts of fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, minerals like magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) (Navruz-Varli and Sanlier, 2016;Repo-Carrasco et al., 2003;, and the presence of several bioactive and antioxidant compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and tocopherols, which are considered the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds and are associated with reduced heart disease (de Santis et al., 2016;Hirose et al., 2010;Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al., 2010;Repo-Carrasco-Valencia and Serna, 2011;. ...
This study was aimed at developing a protein-rich food formulation for the elderly using ingredients derived from soybean, sacha inchi, wheat flour, quinoa, and perilla seed. First, the protein content of all ingredients was analyzed. The results showed that the highest protein level (48.54%) was seen in sacha inchi. Then, sensory test by elderly adults was evaluated. The formulation which had the highest sensory acceptance comprised 33% soybean, 40% sacha inchi, 20% wheat flour, 5% quinoa, and 2% perilla seed. The effect of stabilizers (xanthan gum and sodium alginate) at levels of 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively, was studied. It was found that 0.1% sodium alginate produced the highest sensory score. Measurements of the texture and water absorption of the formulation showed that the values for hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and gumminess were 1003, 0.25, 0.45, 0.17, 110, and 222, respectively, while water absorption was 51.10%. An aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius was subjected to analysis of levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract had polyphenol, anthocyanin, DPPH radical-scavenging and FRAP levels of 41.13 µg GAE/mL, 458 mg/L, 62.7%, and 14.8 µg Trolox/mL, respectively. At a concentration of 2000 µg/mL, the crude extract exerted 22% average anti-proliferative effect on P388, KB, Hela and HepG2 cells. Different extract levels were added to the product, and the acceptability of the concentrated extract was re-evaluated. The results showed that the concentrated extract at 0.5% level of incorporation had the highest acceptance rating as a meat analogue. The energy per 100 g of the plant meat sample was 247.95 kcal, while its contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, and dietary fibre were 24.71, 6.27, 23.17, 2.52 and 6.76%, respectively. Thus, the plant meat product supplemented with A. dubius extract could be an alternative and safe diet for the elderly.
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) is a pseudo-grain that belongs to the amaranth family and has gained attention due to its exceptional nutritional properties. Compared to other grains, quinoa has a higher protein content, a more balanced amino acid profile, unique starch features, higher levels of dietary fiber, and a variety of phytochemicals. In this review, the physicochemical and functional properties of the major nutritional components in quinoa are summarized and compared to those of other grains. Our review also highlights the technological approaches used to improve the quality of quinoa-based products. The challenges of formulating quinoa into food products are addressed, and strategies for overcoming these challenges through technological innovation are discussed. This review also provides examples of common applications of quinoa seeds. Overall, the review underscores the potential benefits of incorporating quinoa into the diet and the importance of developing innovative approaches to enhance the nutritional quality and functionality of quinoa-based products.
Characteristics of dough and bread containing quinoa flour as a new foodstuff were studied using a rheometer, a farinograph, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and so on. Substitution of 7.5 to 10% of quinoa flour for hard-type wheat flour significantly increased the loaf volume of bread over that of the control, but more than 15% substitution distinctly decreased the volume. However, a combination of microbial lipase (75 ppm) and 15% substitution of quinoa flour resulted in a loaf volume that was distinctly more than that of the control. The hardness of bread crumbs increased in proportion to the amount of quinoa flour substitution. Combining the quinoa flour with lipase suppressed the staling of bread during storage and maintained softness by the liberation of monoglyceride from lipids. DSC data showed that substitution of quinoa flour resulted in a distinctly higher gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy compared with that of the control. As for the viscoelastic properties of the dough, combining quinoa flour (5 to 10% substitution) and lipase (75 ppm) resulted in reduction of compression stress and the modulus of elasticity, a slight softening of the dough, and slight decreases in the water absorption and the stability of the dough. From these results, a combination of quinoa flour substitution and lipase addition was found to improve bread qualities.