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Sugar cane juice or garapa darkens quickly after extraction due to the oxidation of some of its constituents harming its commercialization thus requiring rapid consumption. The objective of this study was to develop a mild process for sugar cane clarification, obtaining a cloudy, greenish-yellow beverage. The following parameters were combined to aiming at this objective: heat treatment at 65 ºC/50 minutes; pH change (to 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0); addition of flocculant (0, 30, and 60 ppm Aluminum polychloride or APC - "Panclar P-1010"), and clarifier aid (0, 2, or 4 ppm of positively charged polyelectrolyte - "Magnafloc LT-27"). The decantation time was 45 minutes and the supernatant liquid was removed with a vacuum pump. The treatments were defined using the Response Surface Methodology and were submitted to physicochemical analysis for turbidity (%), total polysaccharide content (µg.mL-1), dextran content (µg.mL-1), and sensory analysis (acceptance test) for the attributes of color, appearance, and turbidity. It was concluded that the addition of 60 ppm APC, pH 8, and 0 ppm polyelectrolyte represented the best treatment to obtain a low polysaccharide content, 90% turbidity, and high scores for color, appearance, and turbidity. The beverage was sensorially well accepted by consumers.
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... However, attention should be paid to the delay in juice extraction after sugarcane harvesting, which has been reported as one of the causes of quality changes (Yusof et al., 2000). The just must be clarified after the extraction due to oxidation of some components that may cause negative effects on consumption (Prati& Moretti, 2010). One of these effects is its darkening, this is related with the formation of melanoidins, from the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids that are in the sugarcane, which contributes to the formation of a brown color (Oliveira et al., 2007;Thammasittirong et al., 2017). ...
... In the grinding extraction the separation is made by mechanical pressure of grind rolls on shred sugar cane bed and water addition. In diffusion the separation is made by decomposed sugar cane movement through a water countercurrent flow (Oliveira et al., 2007;Prati& Moretti, 2010;Thammasittirong et al., 2017). The juice extracted in the grinding is a complex mixture containing a large number of suspended particles that are integral components of the sugar cane with some foreign matter incorporated to the juice by accident, through the sugar cane cut, harvest, transportation and operations in grinding. ...
... The suspension material is widely constituted by little bagasse (lignocelulose bioproduct), land, sand, clay, waxes, lipids, gums and microorganisms. The relative quantity of components in both phases depends on variety, maturity and sugar cane conditions such as soil, in addition to the means and conditions of harvest (Doherty, 2011;Oliveira et al., 2007;Prati& Moretti, 2010;Yusof et al., 2000). Because of this, the juice must go through a simple clarification process that consists in a heat and lime treatment before the evaporation phase. ...
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The use of non-thermal radiation technology such as ultraviolet can simplify the process of clarification of sugarcane juice. Thus, the objective of this study was to purify the sugarcane juice by ultraviolet irradiation to produce sugar and ethanol. In the laboratory experiment physicochemical analyzes were performed – turbidity, color, pH and °Brix plus microbiological tests. For data analysis was used analysis of variance – ANOVA – followed by Tukey test and the nonparametric test of Kruskall-Wallis, all with significance level 0.05. The power of 250 W and an exposure time of 3 min. are more appropriate, where variations in the °Brix and pH were not significant, color and turbidity were reduced and no fungal contamination accompanied with the reduction of the number of colonies of aerobic and facultative bacteria. With this, it proposes changes to the production of sugar and ethanol production process by eliminating steps of sulfitation, liming, heating and decanting by ultraviolet irradiation.
... Durante a etapa de refino é realizada a dissolução dos açúcares, que consiste na adição de água até que se obtenha uma calda de concentração brix determinada para produção de açúcar demerara, VHP (Very High Polarization) ou VVHP (Very, Very High Polarization). A clarificação convencional do caldo utiliza polieletrólitos; (como a poliacrilamida que apresentam alto custo); e cal, sem garantia de especificar a cor nos padrões de qualidade VVHP (Prati;Moretti, 2010). ...
... Durante a etapa de refino é realizada a dissolução dos açúcares, que consiste na adição de água até que se obtenha uma calda de concentração brix determinada para produção de açúcar demerara, VHP (Very High Polarization) ou VVHP (Very, Very High Polarization). A clarificação convencional do caldo utiliza polieletrólitos; (como a poliacrilamida que apresentam alto custo); e cal, sem garantia de especificar a cor nos padrões de qualidade VVHP (Prati;Moretti, 2010). ...
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Atualmente, para clarificação e fabricação do açúcar comercial, utiliza-se o processo de sulfitação, que tem gerado controvérsias com relação ao impacto na saúde dos consumidores. Métodos alternativos são estudados no intuído de substituir os compostos à base de enxofre. A reação do peróxido de hidrogênio sob a presença de luz ultravioleta é um dos processos oxidativos avançados promissores, e comprovadamente eficaz. O presente trabalho avaliou este processo para o caldo de cana-de-açúcar com o objetivo de produzir um açúcar de maior valor agregado, utilizando duas concentrações (0,5 e 1,0 mol/L) de H2O2 e considerando os efeitos da luz ultra-violeta. De acordo com os resultados, pôde-se obter uma clarificação de até 55%, quando se utiliza concentrações de 0,5 mol/L de peróxido de hidrogênio sob o efeito da luz UV, mostrando assim, que há viabilidade nesse método alternativo.
... This could be due to cane syrup color becomes higher the luminosity index (L*), the lighter the cane syrup. Colored compounds are formed during the process and they come from the thermal decomposition of sucrose and depleted sugars as well as the degradation of chlorophyll by acids [34]. No data previously published by other authors were found regarding sugarcane syrup color in the CIELAB scale [27]. ...
... p<0.01). The results obtained in this study agree with Prati and Moretti, and Moreno et al. [5,34]. To have a better understanding between the correlation among the physiochemical parameters of syrup form different sugar cane juice pre-treatments and commercial syrup, the statistical technique Principal Component Analysis [36,37] was employed. ...
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Treacle (black honey) is liquid syrup produced by heating and evaporation of sugarcane juice. It is rich in sugars including, sucrose, glucose, and fructose, which may crystallize during storage, especially at low temperatures. The crystallization of treacle was the main problem facing treacle producers in the Egyptian traditional food industry and affected negatively in the quality and consumer acceptability. Consequently, the aimed to investigate the effect of sugarcane juice pre-treatments, including the addition of citric acid at concentrations of (1, 2, and 3) g/l alone or in a combination with preheating at (60 or 70)°C for 1 h on physiochemical properties and crystallization of sugarcane syrup during storage for 60 days at room temperature. The results showed that these pre-treatments significantly affected the quality and properties of sugar cane syrup. The combination of the citric acid addition at a concentration of 1 g/l and preheat treatment at 70°C for 1 h resulted in syrup with the greatest overall acceptability. Also, these pre-treatments prevented the crystallization of the produced syrup during the storage for 60 days at room temperature 20 ± 5°C. Therefore, pre-treatment of the sugar cane syrup with a combination of the citric acid addition and heating can be suggested as a promising method for producing a high-quality sugar can syrup and preventing syrup crystallization during storage and handling.
... In this step, raw juice is fed through the clarification process with the addition of sulfur dioxide to eliminate bacteria, consequently inhibiting reactions which enhance color appearance and coagulation of the suspended colloids. The clarification process includes three steps: coagulation, flocculation, and precipitation [36]. In the first step, coagulation, lime (calcium hydroxide) is added to neutralize and alleviate the loss of sucrose content due to sucrose inversion. ...
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Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can replace fossil fuel, mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and represent a renewable building block for biochemical production. Ethanol can be produced from various feedstocks. First‐generation ethanol is mainly produced from sugar‐ and starch‐containing feedstocks. For second‐generation ethanol, lignocellulosic biomass is used as a feedstock. Typically, ethanol production contains four major steps, including the conversion of feedstock, fermentation, ethanol recovery, and ethanol storage. Each feedstock requires different procedures for its conversion to fermentable sugar. Lignocellulosic biomass requires extra pretreatment compared to sugar and starch feedstocks to disrupt the structure and improve enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Many pretreatment methods are available such as physical, chemical, physicochemical, and biological methods. However, the greatest concern regarding the pretreatment process is inhibitor formation, which might retard enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The main inhibitors are furan derivatives, aromatic compounds, and organic acids. Actions to minimize the effects of inhibitors, detoxification, changing fermentation strategies, and metabolic engineering can subsequently be conducted. In addition to the inhibitors from pretreatment, chemicals used during the pretreatment and fermentation of byproducts may remain in the final product if they are not removed by ethanol distillation and dehydration. Maintaining the quality of ethanol during storage is another concerning issue. Initial impurities of ethanol being stored and its nature, including hygroscopic, high oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility, influence chemical reactions during the storage period and change ethanol’s characteristics (e.g., water content, ethanol content, acidity, pH, and electrical conductivity). During ethanol storage periods, nitrogen blanketing and corrosion inhibitors can be applied to reduce the quality degradation rate, the selection of which depends on several factors, such as cost and storage duration. This review article sheds light on the techniques of control used in ethanol fuel production, and also includes specific guidelines to control ethanol quality during production and the storage period in orderto preserve ethanol production from first‐generation to second‐generation feedstock. Finally, the understanding of impurity/inhibitor formation and controlled strategies is crucial. These need to be considered when driving higher ethanol blending mandates in the short term, utilizing ethanol as a renewable building block for chemicals, or adopting ethanol as a hydrogen carrier for the long‐term future, as has been recommended.
... Screening of juice eradicates only the coarse particles since flocculation is necessary to remove the fine and colloidal particles. Therefore flocculation technique is used in clarification process to provide clarified Juice [1]. ...
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This study was conducted treating with Milk of Lime to reach different pH levels (T1-with Initial pH, T2, T3 and T4 with 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 of pH respectively) to determine the optimum pre-liming pH which could result in best cane juice clarification in Sri Lankan sugar industries. The experiment design used was RCBD with five replicates. ANOVA followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) were used to identify significant mean differences. Regression analyses were carried out to model the variation of turbidity, mud volume and CaO with change of juice pH. Quadratic model (R2 = 99.2 %, p <0.001) best fitted to explain the effect of pH on turbidity of juice. Effect of pH on deposited mud volume and CaO were explained by cubic models with R2 = 99.4 % (p <0.001) and R2 = 93.9 %, (p <0.001) respectively. Among tested treatments, pH 7.5 is selected as the best for turbidity improvement of the clarified juice while pH 8.5 is the second best. However pH 8.5 (370 ml) was able to deposited significantly high mud volume than pH 7.5 (270 ml). Further, the amount of residual Ca2+ ions in the clarified juice at pH 7.5 (2715 ppm) is clearly lower than the amount of Ca2+ ions remaining in the clarified juice at pH 8.5 (2945 ppm). It is expected to obtain high turbidity and higher mud volume with low sugar inversion at optimum pH. Therefore the results suggest optimum pH range lie around pH 7.5 to 8.5. Conducting similar experiment by using mixed juice extracted from sugar factory mills with pH range around 7.0 to 8.4 at 0.2 increments is suggested to validate the optimum pH.
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Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is the second most important Colombian agribusiness in social importance. However, the sugar cane industry is facing some challenges caused by the controversial nutritional and safety attributes of NCS. Some Colombian NCS producers employ natural mucilages as clarifiers; but the uncontrolled application of these components has caused a risk of extinction in the mucilage source plants. Other producers employ acrylamide as a clarifier. Health consequences have generated concerns from the consumers and demanded control from the food authorities. Efforts are being made to develop a standard manufacturing methodology to increase NCS productivity and improve its quality, hygiene, and storability. The application of better clarifiers, which provide the best clarifying activity and minimize the toxicity while conserving NCS's natural attributes, is one of the outstanding challenges as well. This study is a proposal which looks for sustainable, natural, nontoxic, and economical clarifiers for the Colombian NCS producers.
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Products of dark brown sugar (DBS) from different production processes and raw materials may bring different risks and benefits to human health. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the quality of natural and commercial DBS products. Results showed that physicochemical properties, including pH value, turbidity, and browning degree have no significant difference between natural and commercial DBS products. Total flavonoid content of natural DBS was found to be significantly higher than that of commercial DBS (p < 0.05). Notably, the levels of harmful Maillard reaction products in natural DBS were significantly lower than that in commercial DBS as evidenced by analyses of methylglyoxal and fluorescent advanced glycation end products (p < 0.05). However, the amount of acrylamide in natural DBS was significantly higher than that in commercial DBS. In conclusion, this study provides useful information for risk-benefit assessment of DBS products, which is helpful for food safety management.
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