Japanese-US Common-Arm Analysis of Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Model for Assessing Population-Related Pharmacogenomics

Kinki University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 06/2009; 27(21):3540-6. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2008.20.8793
Source: PubMed


PURPOSE To explore whether population-related pharmacogenomics contribute to differences in patient outcomes between clinical trials performed in Japan and the United States, given similar study designs, eligibility criteria, staging, and treatment regimens. METHODS We prospectively designed and conducted three phase III trials (Four-Arm Cooperative Study, LC00-03, and S0003) in advanced-stage, non-small-cell lung cancer, each with a common arm of paclitaxel plus carboplatin. Genomic DNA was collected from patients in LC00-03 and S0003 who received paclitaxel (225 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6). Genotypic variants of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, NR1I2-206, ABCB1, ERCC1, and ERCC2 were analyzed by pyrosequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results were assessed by Cox model for survival and by logistic regression for response and toxicity. Results Clinical results were similar in the two Japanese trials, and were significantly different from the US trial, for survival, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and anemia. There was a significant difference between Japanese and US patients in genotypic distribution for CYP3A4*1B (P = .01), CYP3A5*3C (P = .03), ERCC1 118 (P < .0001), ERCC2 K751Q (P < .001), and CYP2C8 R139K (P = .01). Genotypic associations were observed between CYP3A4*1B for progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94; P = .04) and ERCC2 K751Q for response (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P = .02). For grade 4 neutropenia, the HR for ABCB1 3425C-->T was 1.84 (95% CI, 0.77 to 4.48; P = .19). CONCLUSION Differences in allelic distribution for genes involved in paclitaxel disposition or DNA repair were observed between Japanese and US patients. In an exploratory analysis, genotype-related associations with patient outcomes were observed for CYP3A4*1B and ERCC2 K751Q. This common-arm approach facilitates the prospective study of population-related pharmacogenomics in which ethnic differences in antineoplastic drug disposition are anticipated.

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Available from: Masaaki Kawahara
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    • "In addition, a significant difference between Japanese and US patients in genotypic distribution for ERCC1 118, ERCC2 K751Q, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3C, and CYP2C8 R139K was observed by Gandara et al. (2009). The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of genetic polymorphisms potentially related to gemcitabineplatinum in patients of Chinese Han ethnicity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) genetic polymorphisms and the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 135 chemonaive patients with unresectable advanced NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine/platinum regimens. The polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, ERCC1 C8092A, and ERCC1 C118T were genotyped using the TaqMan methods. Results: The overall response rate was 28.9%. Patients with MTHFR CC genotype had a higher rate of objective response than patients with variant genotype (TT or CT) (41.2% versus 19.1%, P=0.01). Median time to progression (TTP) of patients with MTHFR CC genotype was longer than that of patients with variant genotype (7.6 months versus 5.0 months, P=0.003). No significant associations were obtained between ERCC1 C118T and C8092A polymorphisms and both response and survival. Conclusions: Our data suggest the value of MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a possible predictive marker of response and TTP in advanced NSCLC patients treated with gemcitabine/platinum.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
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    • "In previous common arm trials cooperatively conducted together with SWOG, differences in the effectiveness and toxicities of paclitaxel and carboplatin in NSCLC14 and of etoposide or irinotecan plus cisplatin in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were analyzed.15 Prior to the initiation of the study, whether studies in one country could be directly extrapolated to patients within another country was unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effective and toxic ranges of anticancer drugs are very narrow and, in some cases, inverted. Thus determination of the most appropriate dosage and schedule of administration is crucial for optimal chemotherapy. In common arm trials conducted in Japan and by Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) that used the same doses and schedules for the administration of carboplatin plus paclitaxel, the frequency of hematological toxicity was significantly higher in the Japanese trials than in the SWOG trial, despite demonstrating similar response rates. The frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in tumors was significantly higher among East Asian populations, and these populations are also reported to demonstrate a higher response rates to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The prevalence of interstitial lung disease induced by treatment with EGFR-TKIs has been shown to be quite high in the Japanese population. Clinical trials of cetuximab against non-small cell lung cancer and of bevacizumab against stomach cancer have shown that these agents are only active in Caucasians. In a trial examining the use of sorafenib after transarterial chemoembolization in Korean and Japanese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, the compliance and dose intensity of the drug were quite low compared with other trials. Although not only identified pharmacogenomics differences but also differences in social environment, and regional medical care, including pharmacoeconomics strongly influence ethnic differences in treatment response, further identification and understanding of the pharmacogenomics underlying ethnic differences will be essential to timely and reliable global development of new anticancer drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Yonsei medical journal
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    • "Thus, Asians have a higher frequency of reduced function alleles than do Caucasians. In addition, population-related pharmacogenomics revealed a significant difference between Japanese and US patients in genomic distribution and genotype-related associations with patient outcomes for CYP3A4*1B and ERCC2[30]. These facts may explain the frequency differences of adverse events, particularly rash, that are based on race. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rash, liver dysfunction, and diarrhea are known major adverse events associated with erlotinib and gefitinib. However, clinical trials with gefitinib have reported different proportions of adverse events compared to trials with erlotinib. In an in vitro study, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 was shown to be involved in the metabolism of gefitinib but not erlotinib. It has been hypothesized that CYP2D6 phenotypes may be implicated in different adverse events associated with gefitinib and erlotinib therapies. The frequency of each adverse event was evaluated during the period in which the patients received gefitinib or erlotinib therapy. CYP2D6 phenotypes were determined by analysis of CYP2D6 genotypes using real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, which can detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The CYP2D6 phenotypes were categorized into 2 groups according to functional or reduced metabolic levels. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of the adverse events associated with each factor, including CYP2D6 activities and treatment types. A total of 232 patients received gefitinib therapy, and 86 received erlotinib therapy. Reduced function of CYP2D6 was associated with an increased risk of rash of grade 2 or more (OR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.94; *p = 0.03), but not diarrhea ≥ grade 2 (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.17–1.51; *p = 0.20) or liver dysfunction ≥ grade 2 (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.52–2.34; *p = 0.84) in the gefitinib cohort. No associations were observed between any adverse events in the erlotinib cohort and CYP2D6 phenotypes (rash: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 0.54–6.41; *p = 0.35/diarrhea: OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.21–7.43; *p = 0.93/liver dysfunction: OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.20–5.07; *p = 0.93). The frequency of rash was significantly higher in patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity who treated with gefitinib compared to patients with functional CYP2D6. CYP2D6 phenotypes are a risk factor for the development of rash in response to gefitinib therapy.
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