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Entertainment and Politics Revisited: How Non-Escapist Forms of Entertainment Can Stimulate Political Interest and Information Seeking

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This article revisits the controversial relationship of entertainment and political communication. On the basis of a theoretical integration of entertainment theory with theories of motivated information processing, we suggest that entertainment consumption can either be driven by hedonic, escapist motivations that are associated with a superficial mode of information processing, or by eudaimonic, truth-seeking motivations that prompt more elaborate forms of information processing. Results of two experiments indicate that eudaimonic forms of emotional involvement (characterized by negative valence, moderate arousal, and feeling moved) stimulated reflective thoughts about politically relevant content, issue interest, and information seeking. This pattern was consistent across two types of entertainment stimuli (fictional films and soft news) and two types of affect manipulations (moving film music and moving exemplars).

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... Soft news can even have an impact on voting behavior of politically inattentive citizens by providing them with the necessary information to make their voting decision according to their interests (Baum & Jamison, 2006). Moreover, some recent findings suggest that under certain conditions entertainment media can stimulate more elaborate forms of information processing (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014;Knobloch-Westerwick, Gong, Hagner, & Kerbeykian, 2012;LaMarre, 2009), and can stimulate audience interest in hard news about the topic (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). In the present chapter, we aim to revisit and integrate these seemingly contradictory concepts and research findings concerning audiences' processing of entertaining forms of political communication and associated effects. ...
... 3]; Janicke-Bowles, Bartsch, Oliver & Raney in this volume). In particular, scholars have argued that besides superficial, heuristic processing, entertainment experiences can also stimulate a more elaborated, systematic mode of processing (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Klimmt, 2011;Lewis, Tamborini, & Weber, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2012;Wirth et al., 2012). Such entertainment experiences associated with elaborate, deliberative processing bear particular promise for normatively desirable outcomes such as further information seeking, active knowledge acquisition and political participation. ...
... Therefore, in the remainder of this chapter, we aim to develop an integrated framework that covers both superficial, heuristic processing and more elaborate, deliberative responses to political information in entertainment media. We build on the dual-process model of entertainment experience and motivated cognition (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) that integrates entertainment theory with dual-process models of information processing (e.g., Forgas, 2002;Lang, 2006;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In the current chapter, theoretical integration will be taken one step further by incorporating different types of politically ENTERTAINMENT AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION 6 relevant outcome variables such as knowledge acquisition, opinion formation, changes in attitudes and behavior as well as political participation. ...
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This chapter reviews the controversial relationship of entertainment and political communication and presents a theoretical framework to integrate seemingly contradicting concepts and research findings. On the one hand, concerns have been raised about the decay of news quality and political culture due to the growing influence of entertainment media. On the other, researchers have highlighted the potential of entertainment in terms of audience interest, cognitive accessibility, and public outreach. A literature overview shows theoretical and empirical support for both sides of the controversy about the (dys-)functionality of entertainment in political communication. Therefore, in an attempt to reconcile the divergent findings, the chapter presents an extended dual-process model of entertainment effects on political information processing and engagement. This framework offers substantial extensions to existing dual-process models of entertainment by conceptualizing the effects of entertainment on different forms of political engagement that have not been incorporated so far.
... Self-referencing and real world-referencing are often considered to be part of the process of elaboration, which is the use of effortful thought to attend to a message, relate that message to previous knowledge stored in memory, and generate new implications (Petty et al., 2005). Elaboration is a central concept in dual-process models of entertainment experience (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) that consider eudaimonic appreciation as a viewing experience distinct from hedonic enjoyment. Oliver and Bartsch (2010) describe eudaimonic appreciation as "an experiential state that is characterized by the perception of deeper meaning, the feeling of being moved, and the motivation to elaborate on thoughts and feelings inspired by the experience" (p. ...
... This has led some scholars to embrace dual-process models in which eudemonic processing is analogous to effortful, elaborative "central" processing, while hedonic processing is analogous to less effortful, less elaborative "peripheral" processing. Bartsch and Schneider (2014) demonstrated that eudaimonic forms of emotional involvement can stimulate more elaborate forms of cognitive processing of politically relevant content. In addition, Slater and Rouner's (2002) extended elaboration likelihood model (E-ELM) incorporates the concepts of rehearsal and reinforcement, which can be thought of as types of elaboration. ...
... The results of the present study indicate that distinctions between high and low elaboration may not be as clear cut as previously thought. A type of elaboration may occur mostly after viewing (mainly for eudaimonic experiences) that involves deep self-reflection, thoughtful analysis of the underlying themes of a narrative, and possibly new insight into the self or the human condition (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Conversely, the self-referencing and real world-referencing that take place during a narrative may be quicker and less effortful than elaboration that takes place afterward. ...
Article
Prior research has produced seemingly conflicting indications of whether or not audience members who are transported into a narrative leave themselves and the real world behind. This study proposes that a dynamic perspective can help resolve that conflict. Both traditional static post-exposure and real-time dynamic measures were used to examine four cognitive processes: attention, presence, self-referencing, and real world-referencing. Participants ( N = 118) were randomly assigned to view one of two television dramas. They provided continuous rating responses during viewing, as well as post-exposure measures of the overall viewing experience. Post-exposure measures indicated that self and real world-referencing were strongly positively correlated with transportation. The dynamic approach to understanding narrative processing, while exploratory in nature, likewise indicated links between the self, the real world, and the narrative world. Presence in the narrative predicted real world-referencing, and self-referencing predicted attention to the narrative, suggesting that when audience members link story content to their own lives, transportation may be enhanced rather than diminished. Strengths, limitations and future directions are discussed.
... Hierunter zählen einige zum Teil bereits gut untersuchte Konzepte der Unterhaltung, wie eudaimonisches Unterhaltungserleben (z. B. Bartsch & Schneider, 2014), temporarily expanding the boundaries of the self (TEBOTS; Johnson, Slater, Silver & Ewoldson, 2016; sowie auch Transportation/narratives Erleben/Absorption oder Immersion (Busselle & Bilandzic, 2008;Gerrig, 1993;Green & Brock, 2000;Moyer-Gusé, 2008;Slater & Rouner, 2002), Identifikation (Cohen, J., 2001;Oatley, 1999), moral elevation (Raney, 2004) und die Auseinandersetzung mit moralisch mehrdeutigen Charakteren (engl. morally ambiguous characters, MACs; Krakowiak & Tsay-Vogel, 2015). ...
... Sie können dazu führen, sich mit einer Sache intensiver auseinanderzusetzen und gegebenenfalls die eigenen Ansichten zu überdenken (z. B. affect infusion model; Forgas, 1995; Zweiprozessmodelle des Unterhaltungserlebens; Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). ...
... Ein neuerer Forschungsstrang der Unterhaltungsforschung beschäftigt sich mit Zweiprozessmodellen der Unterhaltung (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2015, Wirth, Hofer & Schramm, 2012, in denen Unterhaltungstheorien mit Theorien der motivierten Informationsverarbeitung (z. B. Forgas, 1995;Lang, 2006) verknüpft werden. ...
Book
Andrea Kloß geht vor dem Hintergrund der zunehmenden gesellschaftlichen Polarisierung der Frage nach, welchen Beitrag fiktionale Unterhaltungsmedien leisten können, um bei ihrem Publikum Empathie und deliberative Offenheit im Diskurs mit Andersdenkenden zu fördern.In zwei experimentellen Studien mit Teilnehmern unterschiedlicher Bildungsniveaus kann die Autorin zeigen, dass Transformationsgeschichten, die eine versöhnliche Annäherung zwischen zwei Filmcharakteren mit gegensätzlichen Überzeugungen darstellen, bei den Rezipienten das gleichzeitige Erleben von Empathie für beide Charaktere begünstigen und dadurch ihre Offenheit für andere Ansichten stärken. Die Autorin Andrea Kloß ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft der Universität Leipzig. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen in den Bereichen Medienrezeptions- und Medienwirkungsforschung sowie Unterhaltung und politische Kommunikation.
... Our study aims to take empathy-attitude research one step further by examining the mediating role of reflective thought processes that might help translate empathic feelings into prosocial attitude change. Initial evidence of a theoretical link between empathy and reflective thoughts comes from research on eudaimonic responses to media narratives (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). For example, in a study on video clips about the Paralympics, Bartsch et al. (2018) found that empathy was related to higher levels of reflective thoughts, and that the effects of empathy on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward persons with physical disabilities were mediated by reflective thoughts. ...
... The role of empathy in stimulating reflectiveness is explained in dual process models of entertainment (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011) that distinguish between hedonic and eudaimonic functions of media narratives. While hedonic entertainment is linked to mood management functions such as seeking fun and arousal (Knobloch-Westerwick, 2006;Zillmann, 1988), eudaimonic entertainment is characterized by "the perception of deeper meaning, the feeling of being moved, and the motivation to elaborate on thoughts and feelings inspired by the experience" (Oliver & Bartsch, 2010, p. 76). ...
... In line with this dual-process model, eudaimonic entertainment has been linked to the experience of complex social emotions including empathy, elevation, and feeling moved, which in turn lead to higher levels of reflective thoughts about the issues addressed in moving, empathy-inducing media narratives (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014;Bartsch et al., 2018;Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Though originally developed in the context of entertainment research, the concept of eudaimonic responses has recently been extended to other types of narrative media content that showed the same combination of emotionally moving, thought-provoking, and prosocial effects -including narrative news formats (Oliver et al., 2012), charity advertising (Bartsch & Kloss, 2019), and public service announcements (Oliver et al., 2013). ...
Article
Given the high number of individuals with mental illness, and the prevalence of stigmatizing portrayals of mental illness in the media, it is important to investigate how media messages can – in contrast – be harnessed to reduce mental health stigma. Extending previous research on the destigmatizing effects of empathy, we investigated the effects of three content factors (mental illness portrayed: autism vs. schizophrenia; background music: emotional vs. neutral; veracity: actual vs. enacted portrayals) on empathy, reflective thoughts, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Structural equation modeling revealed effects of these content factors on empathy, reflective thoughts, and indirectly (via empathy and reflective thoughts) on mental health attitudes. These results draw attention to the role of reflectiveness in mediating empathy-attitude effects, but also shed light on the effect of authentic testimonials’ self-disclosure. Limitations regarding the specific message format and mental illness depicted are discussed.
... Soft news can even have an impact on voting behavior of politically inattentive citizens by providing them with the necessary information to make their voting decision according to their interests (Baum & Jamison, 2006). Moreover, some recent findings suggest that under certain con ditions entertainment media can stimulate more elaborate forms of information process ing (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014;Knobloch-Westerwick, Gong, Hagner, & Kerbeykian, 2012;LaMarre, 2009), and can stimulate audience interest in hard news about the topic (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). In the present chapter, we aim to revisit and integrate these seemingly contradictory concepts and research findings concerning audiences' process ing of entertaining forms of political communication and associated effects. ...
... Recent advances in entertain ment theory have drawn attention to the multidimensionality of entertainment experi ences (e.g., Oliver & Bartsch, 2010;Oliver & Raney, 2011;Schramm & Wirth, 2008;Tam borini, Bowman, Eden, Grizzard, & Organ, 2010;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2012;Vorderer & Ritterfeld, 2009;Wirth, Hofer, & Schramm, 2012; see also chapters 1, 3, and 20 in this volume). In particular, scholars have argued that besides superficial, heuristic processing, entertainment experiences can also stimulate a more elaborated, systematic mode of pro cessing (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Klimmt, 2011;Lewis, Tamborini, & Weber, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2012;Wirth et al., 2012). Such entertainment experiences associated with elaborate, deliberative processing bear particular promise for normatively desirable outcomes such as further information seeking, active knowl edge acquisition, and political participation. ...
... Therefore, in the remainder of this chapter, we aim to develop an integrated framework that covers both superficial, heuristic processing and more elaborate, deliberative re sponses to political information in entertainment media. We build on the dual-process model of entertainment experience and motivated cognition (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) that integrates entertainment theory with dual-process models of information processing (e.g., Forgas, 2002;Lang, 2006;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In the current chapter, theoreti cal integration is taken one step further by incorporating different types of politically rel evant outcome variables such as knowledge acquisition, opinion formation, changes in at titudes and behavior, and political participation. ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the controversial relationship of entertainment and political communication and presents a theoretical framework to integrate seemingly contradicting concepts and research findings. On the one hand, concerns have been raised about the decay of news quality and political culture due to the growing influence of entertainment media. On the other, researchers have highlighted the potential of entertainment in terms of audience interest, cognitive accessibility, and public outreach. A literature overview shows theoretical and empirical support for both sides of the controversy about the (dys)functionality of entertainment in political communication. Therefore, in an attempt to reconcile the divergent findings, the chapter presents an extended dual-process model of entertainment effects on political information processing and engagement. This framework offers substantial extensions to existing dual-process models of entertainment by conceptualizing the effects of entertainment on different forms of political engagement that have not been incorporated so far.
... Both hedonic and eudaimonic entertainment experiences are linked to different outcomes, such as information processing, well-being (both hedonic and eudaimonic), or morality (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014;Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Oliver, et al., 2012;Roth, Weinmann, Schneider, Hopp, & Vorderer, 2014). ...
... Only recently, studies have examined the effect of hedonic and eudaimonic entertainment experiences on information processing. For instance, Bartsch and Schneider (2014) found that eudaimonic entertainment experiences (in their case: the feeling of being moved, negative and mixed affect, and arousal) stimulate systematic processing. Similarly, Bartsch and colleagues (2014) found that eudaimonic entertainment experiences (assessed in the same way as Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) can lead to self-reflective thoughts. ...
... For instance, Bartsch and Schneider (2014) found that eudaimonic entertainment experiences (in their case: the feeling of being moved, negative and mixed affect, and arousal) stimulate systematic processing. Similarly, Bartsch and colleagues (2014) found that eudaimonic entertainment experiences (assessed in the same way as Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) can lead to self-reflective thoughts. In a similar vein, Lewis and colleagues (2014) found appreciation to go along deeper information processing. ...
... Neuere Ansätze in der Unterhaltungsforschung gehen davon aus, dass bestimmte Formen des Unterhaltungserlebens einen elaborierten, substanziellen Verarbeitungsmodus anregen können (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Klimmt, 2011;Lewis, Tamborini & Weber, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2012Wirth et al., 2012), der mit einem erweiterten Spektrum von Wirkungsvariablen verbunden ist. Im Unterschied zu passiven Lern und Persuasionseffekten im heuristischen Verarbeitungsmodus kann Unterhaltung im elaborierten Verarbeitungsmodus Prozesse der kritischen Reflexion, der vertiefenden Informationssuche, des aktiven Wissenserwerbs und der politischen Partizipation anregen. ...
... hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die kognitive Verarbeitung politischer Medieninhalte unterscheiden (vgl. Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Lewis et al., 2014;Vorderer & Reinecke, 2012): ...
... Im Kontext politischer Kommunikation ist diese Form der Unterhaltung von besonderem Interesse, da typische Merkmale des eudaimonischen Unterhaltungserlebens wie persönliche Relevanz und negative bzw. gemischte Valenz eine elaborierte Verarbeitung von Medieninhalten begünstigen (Bartsch, Kalch & Oliver, 2014;Lang, 2006;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Beispielsweise haben Zuschauer nach einem emotional bewegenden Film oder Fernseherlebnis oft das Bedürfnis, über die Medieninhalte nachzudenken, mit anderen darüber zu diskutieren oder weiterführende Informationen zum Thema zu suchen (Bartsch, 2012b;Bartsch & Schneider, 2014 informierten bzw. deliberativen Öffentlichkeit (Habermas, 1984(Habermas, , 1985Schütz, 1946;Weinmann, 2017;Wessler, 2008) wesentlich näher, indem es zur elaborierten Verarbeitung von Medieninhalten anregt und Prozesse der Anschlusskognition und Anschlusskommunikation motiviert. ...
Article
This article presents an extended dual-process model of entertainment effects on political information processing and engagement. We suggest that entertainment consumption can either be driven by hedonic, escapist motivations that are associated with a superficial mode of information processing, or by eudaimonic, truth-seeking motivations that prompt more elaborate forms of information processing. This framework offers substantial extensions to existing dual-process models of entertainment by conceptualizing the effects of entertainment on active and reflective forms of information seeking, knowledge acquisition and political participation.
... Our theoretical predictions were informed by research on entertainment education (Singhal & Rogers, 2002;Slater & Rouner, 2002) and by dual process models of entertainment (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011). Specifically, we focused on the concept of eudaimonic entertainment (Oliver & Raney, 2011) which has been theoretically and empirically associated with empathy (Oliver, Dillard, Bae, & Tamul, 2012), cognitive elaboration (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014), information seeking (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) and prosocial outco-mes (Raney, Janicke, Oliver, Dale, Jones, & Cox, 2018) concerning the issues addressed in narrative media formats (for a recent overview see Raney, Oliver, & Bartsch, 2020). ...
... Our theoretical predictions were informed by research on entertainment education (Singhal & Rogers, 2002;Slater & Rouner, 2002) and by dual process models of entertainment (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011). Specifically, we focused on the concept of eudaimonic entertainment (Oliver & Raney, 2011) which has been theoretically and empirically associated with empathy (Oliver, Dillard, Bae, & Tamul, 2012), cognitive elaboration (Bartsch, Kalch, & Oliver, 2014), information seeking (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) and prosocial outco-mes (Raney, Janicke, Oliver, Dale, Jones, & Cox, 2018) concerning the issues addressed in narrative media formats (for a recent overview see Raney, Oliver, & Bartsch, 2020). We propose that, given its combined effects on empathy, elaboration, information seeking and prosocial outcomes, eudaimonic entertainment holds particular promise in terms of prompting audiences to seriously consider a sensitive issue such as organ donation. ...
... Two complementary lines of theoretical explanation have been proposed and empirically validated. The dual process model of entertainment (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) assumes that eudaimonic entertainment is associated with a serious affective state of "feeling moved." This affective state is characterized by several factors including negative or mixed valence and moderate arousal that have been found to reinforce individuals' motivation to engage in elaborate and effortful information processing, according to dual-process models of cognition (e.g., Lang, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines synergy effects of entertainment and information programs on the example of a television theme night about organ donation. Participants watched either a feature film about organ donation or an unrelated entertainment program. Subsequently, all participants watched an information program about organ donation. Those who had first seen the feature film reported higher levels of issue involvement (topic interest, subjective knowledge, and information seeking), and altruistic responses (positive attitudes and behavioral intentions concerning organ donation and willingness to get a donor card). Structural equation modeling revealed that the positive effects of the feature film on issue involvement and altruistic responses varied by the extent to which participants felt moved by the feature film and by their level of cognitive elaboration about the feature film and the documentary on organ donation.
... Self-transcendent eudaimonic experiences involve 'truth-seeking,' an open-ended search for insight and meaning (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Self-transcendent experiences can arise when viewers or readers recognize elements of shared humanity in media content, such as tragedies of the human condition or an interconnectedness with causes beyond oneself (Dale et al., 2017). ...
... Results from previous research echo the social and information-processing dimensions of live journalism. Hard news paired with contemplative and moving eudaimonic elements can encourage individuals to reflect on political issues, heighten their interest in news topics, and motivate further information seeking (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Eudaimonically entertaining political communication, such as political talk shows, can enhance and deepen the audience's understanding of issues (Vorderer & Reinecke, 2015). ...
... Part of what makes eudaimonic narratives meaningful is that they support viewers and readers in contemplating that which is normally avoided. Eudaimonic enjoyment is induced by confronting and processing painful truths about the self, outside reality, and the fragility and preciousness of human life (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Slater, Oliver, & Appel, 2019). This can be seen as an opportunity for the employment of eudaimonia in journalism that equally often describes difficult events and complex issues with no easy answers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Live journalism is a new journalistic genre in which journalists present news stories to a live audience. This article investigates the journalistic manuscripts of live journalism performances. With the focus on texts, the article reaches beyond the live performance to explore the wider implications and potentials pioneered by live journalists. The data were gathered from Musta laatikko (‘Black Box’) manuscripts, a live journalism production by the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat . The manuscripts were analysed as eudaimonic journalism through four conceptual dimensions: self-transcendence, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show how eudaimonic journalism can contemplate history, the future, and the meaning of finite human life. Moreover, by describing self-determinant individuals and communal social relationships, eudaimonic news stories can foster a sense of meaning and agency in audience members. By employing eudaimonia, journalists at large can reflect on the meaning and purpose of contemporary life and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the world. Such understanding includes not only facts and analysis, but also values, affects, and collective meanings mediated through the subjectivity of a journalist.
... We expected that exposure to counter stereotypical representations in fictional primetime drama would culminate in a meaningful experience that would lead to greater identification with the female characters, transportation into the narrative, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and a subsequent positive change in attitude toward female politicians. Bartsch and Schneider (2014) emphasized that exposure motives (hedonic and eudaimonic) to fictional entertainment were related to cognitive processing of messages and had an absorption potential that explained the effects of fictional entertainment on various political attitudes. The hedonic motives involve happiness, defining well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance, whereas the eudaimonic motivation is the willingness to initiate actions toward personal excellence. ...
... Entertainment researchers also fell "short of capturing the experiential qualities and complex emotional processes triggered by various types of media entertainment that exist in reality" (Klimmt, 2011, p. 34). Bartsch and Schneider (2014) underscored the significance of fictional entertainment in eliciting emotional involvement, which might result in elaborate cognitive processing of the information packaged in politainment such as drama and promoted interest in political discussions and processes. This study sought inspiration from this line of research and conceptualized that exposure to fictional political drama with a female lead character would positively change the attitude of viewers toward the character. ...
... Despite interesting and insightful findings presented in the foregoing paragraphs, the current study was not free from potential limitations. A significant caveat dealt with the eudaimonic motives to use politainment as it was considered a situational factor having dispositional traits and depended on the mood of the viewers (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Lewis, Tamborini, & Weber, 2014;Oliver & Raney, 2011). Since this study applied eudaimonic and hedonic motives as separate scales, it would be plausible in future research to examine the effects of combined exposure motives on attitude toward characters in politainment. ...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the relationship between media use motivations and attitudes toward female politicians by proposing a conceptual model explaining the role of key mediating variables such as identification, narrative transportation, enjoyment, and political self-efficacy in influencing the attitude of the viewers of international TV drama towards female role models (politicians). We investigated the direct and indirect effects between media use motivations and attitudes toward female politicians by recruiting 359 students from two large public universities in the Southeastern United States. The hypothesized model supported the evidence presented in extant scholarship, suggesting that a meaningful entertainment experience could foster an appreciation of the fictional televisual entertainment and positively change attitudes toward female lead characters playing the role of a viable and competent politician. This study resonates with politicians, academics, and activists’ concerns that a positive media portrayal could promote the acceptability of female leaders in powerful positions. Our study clarifies the direct and indirect effects between media use motivations and attitudes toward female politicians and the role of crucial mediating variables such as identification, narrative transportation, enjoyment, and political self-efficacy in influencing the attitude of the viewers of international TV drama towards female politicians.
... System 1 is automatic processing that can be performed with less cognitive effort, whereas system 2 facilitates a systematic processing of information and requires a greater amount of cognitive effort (Evans, 2011). Meaningful experience is associated with eudaimonic experiences, which provide an opportunity for personal growth (Bartsch and Schneider, 2014). Thus, the greater amount of cognitive resources that individuals devote to watching meaningful videos may function by motivating them to improve themselves from a moral perspective through an experience of other-praising emotions (Greene, 2007). ...
... The traditional view has highlighted the hedonic dimension of media consumption and suggested that people watch media to seek immediate pleasure and enjoyment (Vorderer et al., 2004). However, recent empirical efforts have also focused on the role of the meaningful dimension in entertainment consumption, which was largely overlooked in previous literature (Bartsch and Schneider, 2014). A growing body of literature has indicated that people often watch media that depicts a meaningful story to observe an act of moral-excellence and human virtue, which fosters deeper meaning and greater purpose in individuals' lives (Oliver and Raney, 2011). ...
... Dual process theory has been adopted to explain how individuals make moral decisions through the experience of other-praising emotions (Greene, 2007). Individuals engage in either system 1 or 2 processing depending on whether they experience other-praising emotions while watching videos; such experiences subsequently determine their information-processing and prosocial behaviors (Bartsch and Schneider, 2014). Evidence has suggested that the experience of other-praising emotions inspires individuals to utilize system 2 processing, which facilitates them to exert greater motivation and effort while watching meaningful videos (Bartsch and Schneider, 2014). ...
Article
Sharing has become one of the most prevalent behaviors in the online environment as the rise of social media enables individuals to share content (e.g., videos and pictures) more easily with others on social networking sites. Sharing has been mainly investigated from a reciprocal standpoint (exchange-based sharing), and there has been a lack of effort to expand our knowledge of sharing from prosocial and morality perspectives. In this regard, based on the dual process theory and the dual model of entertainment media, the current study examines the role of elevation in determining individuals’ online sharing and information searching behaviors. The results indicate that participants exhibited greater intentions to share a meaningful video online and search for more information about the actor compared with a hedonic video (Experiment 1), and this effect was further moderated by participants’ moral identity (Experiment 2) and different mindsets associated with a prosocial action (beneficiary vs. benefactor; Experiment 3). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed related to online sharing and entertainment media literature.
... Elaboration 8 9 As noted, the ELM distinguishes relatively thoughtful from non-thoughtful pro-10 cesses of belief and attitude change and holds that variables (e.g., source credi-11 bility, a person's mood) can influence judgments by affecting one of five core 12 processes. These core processes are (1) serving as a simple cue, (2) serving as a 13 persuasive argument, (3) biasing thinking, (4) validating thinking, and (5) deter- 14 mining the extent of thinking. 15 A focus on thinking (elaboration) highlights the importance of considering 16 the amount and direction of people's thoughts in response to persuasive 17 attempts. ...
... The time invested in making that decision was recorded. 13 Consistent with previous work demonstrating that power leads to action, 14 among participants who received univalent information, those induced to feel 15 powerful were more likely to express a preference for taking action and make 16 quicker decisions than low power participants. In contrast, among participants 17 who received ambivalent information, those who were made to feel powerful 18 ...
... 54 Although health information seeking has become commonplace, predictors beyond demographic characteristics and their relationships are not widely studied. 55,56 Prior studies [57][58][59] have demonstrated that the format of messages contributes to the behavioral intention of information seeking. Bartsch and Schneider 57 found that narrative messages were more likely to encourage emotional engagement in message recipients, contributing to elaboration in cognitive process and truth-seeking intention. ...
... Duan et al. 58 also found that animated and live-action narratives for genetically modified foods encouraged information seeking in the audience. Considering the persuasive power of narratives in multiple attitudes and behavior 25,35 as well in case of information seeking, [57][58][59] we propose the following hypothesis for the current study: H1. Participants in the narrative message condition will show higher intention to seek information relevant to the COVID-19 vaccine compared to participants in the statistics condition. ...
Article
Purpose: The main purposes of the current study are to examine 1) the influence of narrative vs. statistics messages on COVID-19 related information seeking and COVID-19 vaccine intention, and 2) the moderating role of perceived behavioral control (PBC). Design: Data for a between-subject randomized experiment were collected online. The manipulation messages were presented as screenshots from the CDC's Facebook page. Setting: The participants were recruited from Amazon MTurk. Subjects: A total of 300 subjects participated in the study, who were 18 years and above (M = 38.40). Measures: Intention to seek information, COVID-19 vaccine intention, and PBC. Analysis: To test the hypotheses, we utilized Hayes's (2014) PROCESS for SPSS (Model 1). For intention to seek information, the main effect of the message manipulation (narrative vs. statistics) [b = -2.10, t (300) = -4.14, p < .001] and the interaction [b = .41, t (300) = 3.88, p < .001] were significant. For vaccine intention the main effects of message manipulation [b = 1.64, t (300) = -2.61, p < .005] and the interaction [b = .34, t (300) = 2.64, p < .005] were significant. Results: Our research found that narrative messages were more persuasive for both information seeking and vaccine intention. But this was true only in the case of individuals whose PBC was low. Conclusions: Our findings have critical implications for vaccine promotion research.
... Thus, System 2 processing in Tamborini's model aligns with Oliver and Bartsch's proposed motivation to elaborate on thoughts and find meaning in the entertainment experience. Differences within the models relate to the importance of processing as either an outcome (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) or predictor (Lewis et al., 2014) of a eudaimonic experience. Moreover, Oliver and Bartsch suggest that specific types of content (e.g., content that depicts moral beauty) will be more likely to elicit appreciation and that appreciation is conceptually distinct from enjoyment. ...
... Moreover, Oliver and Bartsch suggest that specific types of content (e.g., content that depicts moral beauty) will be more likely to elicit appreciation and that appreciation is conceptually distinct from enjoyment. Oliver and Bartsch (2010) also primarily focus on emotional processes as the route to appreciation with motivations for viewing being a key determinant (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Tamborini (2011Tamborini ( , 2013 links appreciation to a specific type of cognitive processing and argues that appreciation and enjoyment are conceptually similar in that they result from the same set of moral intuitions. ...
Article
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In both narrative theory and evolutionary psychology, equitable-retribution—or the idea that punishments for committing a moral transgression should be equivalent to the transgression itself—is a centerpiece of discussion. This article reports results from a blocked within-subjects experiment that examined speed of cognitive processing and subjective rating of three types of narrative retribution: equitable-retribution; under-retribution, where punishment is absent for a transgression; and over-retribution, where punishment exceeds the severity of the transgression. Results suggest that narrative endings depicting equitable-retribution are processed more quickly and liked more than endings with under-retribution and over-retribution. In addition, liking seems to correspond with enjoyment for equitable-retribution and over-retribution; for under-retribution, liking seems to correspond with appreciation. Discussion focuses on implications for theory and extending the current experimental paradigm.
... Although few researchers address this connection, it is clear that entertainment media only allow an individual to escape from negative psychological states if they are highly absorbing and do not actualize the problems of the individual (Knobloch-Westerwick, 2015). Despite the fact that escapism and mood management have never been explicitly theoretically linked, they are sometimes thought of as being synonymous in entertainment research (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Hagström & Kaldo, 2014) or are mentioned together without further explicating how they differ from another (e.g., Li et al., 2011;Maccoby, 1954;Rieger, Reinecke, & Bente, 2017). ...
... Apart from the uses-and-gratifications perspective, some researchers have linked escapism with two-factor models of entertainment, which complement the traditional concept of entertainment as hedonic pleasure with a second dimension that refers to the desires for meaningfulness and intrinsic need satisfaction (i.e., appreciation; Oliver & Bartsch, 2010;Tamborini, Bowman, Eden, Grizzard, & Organ, 2010). It seems to be the prevailing opinion that the motivation to escape is mainly based on hedonistic concerns and is therefore associated with the choice of hedonic entertainment experiences (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Raney, 2011;Vorderer, 2011). Other research, however, found no support for a significant association between the motivation to escape and hedonic entertainment experiences (Roth, Weinmann, Schneider, Hopp, & Vorderer, 2014). ...
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Although the concept of escapism is widely used in entertainment research, it lacks theoretical and empirical differentiation. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), we extend previous attempts to conceptualize escapism as a form of emotion-focused avoidance coping. In contrast to the primarily negative connotation of escapism found in prior research, we propose that escapist entertainment use may be a functional coping strategy in some situations and may thus have beneficial effects on the well-being of media users. To develop and illustrate our perspective, we turn to binge-watching as a prominent example of escapist entertainment use. We show exemplarily how escapist binge-watching can contribute to recovery from stress and close our chapter with reflections on how to further develop escapism research.
... Beyond social psychology, hedonic goals have also received attention in other domains. For example, some authors in communication have considered the hedonic goal as a probable precursor of communication-processing strategies that are appropriate for obtaining amusement and being distracted from everyday life (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Green et al, 2004;Slater & Rouner, 2002). In other words, to escape self-awareness, a common strategy is to narrow the focus of attention to the present and immediate stimulus environment and move away from personally relevant information (Baumeister, 1991). ...
... Thus, focusing on the self can be incompatible with an entertainment goal, with getting involved in the drama or story itself (Slater & Rouner, 2002). Although hedonic motives tend to be associated with wanting to escape from the self, that does not mean that occasionally hedonic goals could increase attention to the self instead (e.g., Andrade & Cohen, 2007;Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Igartua & Vega Casanova, 2016) such as when one's goal is to entertain other people (e.g., Echterhoff et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Practitioners and researchers interested in designing wise interventions often recommend increasing personal involvement to be successful. Early research demonstrated that personal involvement increases elaboration leading to more persuasion for strong arguments, but to reduced persuasion if the arguments presented are specious. In most prior work, message recipients were plausibly motivated by their desire for knowledge. In the current research, we compare this epistemic goal to another goal in which people aim to process information to be entertained or have fun. Results showed that when people processed to gain knowledge (epistemic goal), they elaborated more in high personal involvement conditions, replicating the classic finding. However, high personal involvement decreased elaboration for people in hedonic conditions, reversing the classic interaction, and introducing a novel finding that is consistent with recent research suggesting that “thinking for pleasure” can be difficult.
... The key to understanding the link between eudaimonic entertainment experiences and self-expansion may rest on the emotion processing of the story experience. The feeling of being moved has a component of negative valence that motivates elaboration (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Self-focused elaboration may create self-awareness. ...
... They were also given an additional fifth option (not applicable), which was scored as missing data. Feeling moved: Three emotion words that have been found to correlate with reflective experiences in previous entertainment studies (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) were used to measure being moved: "moved," "tender," and "poignant" (M ¼ 3.04, SD ¼ 1.60, a ¼ 0.81). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic created a historic opportunity to study the link between identity threat and individuals’ temporary expansion of the boundaries of the self (TEBOTS) through stories. Concurrently, the relationship between eudaimonic entertainment processes and self-expansion, particularly feeling moved and self-awareness, was examined. A quasi-experiment was conducted with an online sample (N = 172) that was randomly assigned to watch either a tragic drama or comedy. Results showed that key TEBOTS predictions were largely confirmed for boundary expansion and the outcomes of narrative engagement and entertainment gratifications. Although identity threat was negatively associated with positive coping with the pandemic, this relationship turned positive when mediated by boundary expansion. Further, exposure to tragedy raised feelings of “being moved,” which, in turn, was linked to self-perceptual depth and expanded boundaries of the self downstream. The present findings suggest that self-expansion through story consumption could benefit viewers’ positive reframing of challenging life experiences.
... αscene 3 = .92). Feeling moved was assessed with three items "moved," "tender," and "poignant" (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014; αscene 2 = .83, αscene 2 = .92). ...
... Reflective thoughts were assessed using eight items (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) (α = .86). ...
... Regarding user characteristics, research indicates, for example, that individuals with greater trait empathy tend to experience more transportation in response to fictional narratives (Taylor, 2015). Nevertheless, subsequent studies have focused more strongly on the dynamics of some of the mentioned prerequisites, that is, they conceptualized variables like parasocial relationship (Rosaen & Dibble, 2016), issue interest (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014), and presence as a state rather than a trait. An example of this is a study by Skalski, Tamborini, Shelton, Buncher, and Lindmark (2011), which revealed that media interactivity fosters presence. ...
Chapter
This entry offers an introduction to the model of complex entertainment experiences and some of its research applications, as well as later developments and future directions for research on entertainment. The model describes enjoyment as the main experience of exposure to entertainment media and provides an integrated view of entertainment. Enjoyment is conceptualized as a complex and multifaceted experience that includes physiological, affective, and cognitive dimensions. With this theoretical contribution, Vorderer and colleagues aimed to improve the understanding of entertainment premises.Their main assumption is that an interplay between user characteristics, motives, and the particular media determines enjoyment.The model also lists specific effects of entertainment (e.g., learning) that are assumed to influence the prerequisites of and motives for future entertainment experiences.
... film .v. television) are used (e.g. Bartsch & Schneider, 2014 (Pirlott & MacKinnon, 2016), also known as the experimentalcausal-chain design (Spencer et al., 2005) More substantive examples can be found in neighboring fields such as psychology. ...
Article
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The number of studies employing mediation analysis has increased exponentially in the past two decades. Focusing on research design, this study examines 387 articles in the Journal of Communication, Human Communication Research, Communication Research, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, and Media Psychology between 1996-2017. Findings show that while most studies report statistically significant indirect effects, they are inadequate to make causal inferences. Authors also often infer that they uncovered the ‘true’ mediator(s) while alternative models and mediators are rarely acknowledged. Future studies should pay more attention to the role of research design and its implications for making causal inferences.
... Marketing and tourism scholars have argued that they are closely linked, for instance, in the hotel industry (Atwal and Williams 2009), or in the context of salsa training (Holmqvist, Ruiz, and Peñaloza 2020), but the relationship between these concepts is not fully clear. In contrast, in the media literature, consensus exists around the notion that entertainment consumption is mainly driven by escapist motivations (Bartsch and Schneider 2014). This evidence suggests that escapism may exert a positive influence on hedonic value. ...
Article
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Previous studies have consistently observed that international visitors are more satisfied with the tourism experience than their domestic counterparts. To date, however, no study has provided empirical evidence of the mechanism that could explain this phenomenon. Building on the experiential paradigm, we conducted two empirical studies (a field study and an online experiment) showing that the reason foreign (vs. domestic) visitors exhibit higher levels of satisfaction lies in the greater hedonic value that these tourists derive from their experience. Moreover, the greater hedonic value observed among international foreign visitors is due to the deeper feeling of escapism they experience by traveling abroad. We also demonstrate that this effect is explained by the concept of psychic distance, whereby going abroad leads to a greater perception of psychic distance, and subsequently escapism, hedonic value, and satisfaction with the tourism experience.
... Political entertainment that emphasizes humor-such as satirical news, parody, and late-night shows-has inspired many empirical investigations (e.g., Becker, 2014;Feldman & Young, 2008;Moy et al., 2014). While these formats are associated with hedonic, fun-seeking motivations of media use, another recent strand of political entertainment research examined truth-and meaning-seeking (eudaimonic) motivations (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Accordingly, users who turn to political entertainment may not merely seek amusement but can also look for truth and learning as well as thought-provoking and moving experiences related to political issues, even in political satire (Young, 2013). ...
Article
Popular entertainment often involves political messages, and entertainment elements are now commonly used in politics coverage. This study examines how suspense drives impacts of political entertainment media content on attitudes, building on the “affective news” extended model. Hypotheses were tested with four texts on controversial political issues (within-subjects), presented in a linear or inverted-pyramid structure and either as news or fiction. The resulting 2 × 2 × 3 × 4 online experiment ( N = 227) showed that linear texts produced greater suspense and attitude change than inverted-pyramid texts. Suspense mediated attitude impacts. Both news and fiction versions influenced attitudes, with impacts still detectable 1 day after exposure.
... What can therefore be concluded is that this retrospective approach grounded in an immediately preceding experience is a fruitful way to capture how people experience and make sense of news content and form (which in practice are usually not seen as separate by informants). The main finding of the study was that informants were able to distinguish between two viewing experiences: "enjoyment" and "appreciation" (Bartsch and Schneider 2014;Oliver and Bartsch 2010). Enjoyment is characterized by pleasure in the sense of fun and amusement and is associated with a lean-back viewing practice in which the news often functions as "background noise" or "companionship" (Lull 1990), whereas appreciation is associated with concentrated, lean-forward viewing and is characterized by a willingness to invest time in exchange for gaining insight and learning new perspectives (an aha-experience) (see Groot Kormelink and Costera Meijer 2017). ...
Article
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This article aims to provide a resource for journalism researchers looking to use a qualitative approach to study news use. It seeks to go beyond justifying qualitative methods vis-à-vis quantitative methods and to be more reflective and critical regarding the limitations and possibilities of the qualitative interview. Making the case for taking experience as point of departure for studying news use, the article explicates this notion by drawing from different theoretical conceptions of experience. Based on three recent user studies, the article critically reflects upon three interview-based methods that center around users’ experience of news use—the think-aloud protocol, watching and discussing news, and the two-sided video-ethnography—and discusses their theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications. A common thread emerging from the different user studies is that people require support to be able to access and communicate their experiences of news use. The methods discussed proved successful at doing so, respectively by having informants comment on what they saw right in front of them (see), by giving them the tools and the vocabulary to reflect on a prior experience (think), and by bringing them in touch with their sensations of using news (feel).
... Entertainment as a category has been often dismissed because it is deemed as an uninteresting form of culture (Harrington, 2017: 2). Media and cultural studies scholars, however, have blurred the lines between informational programming and entertainment (Moy et al., 2005: 113) showing instances of cultural engagement and how this has inspired civic participation (Bartsch and Schneider, 2014;Duncombe, 2007;Fiske, 1989;Jenkins, 2006). Studies on memetic culture have elaborated on debates that discuss whether popular culture and entertainment media are acts of political engagement (Milner, 2016;Mina, 2014;Phillips and Milner, 2017a). ...
Article
In contexts where media and political actors cannot or will not address crucial issues important to ordinary people, alternative forms of communication emerge. This article suggests Internet memes as one of these forms. Analysis on memes, comments and reactions posted on Moroccan satirical Facebook pages suggests that online groups that define themselves as entertainment or ‘just for fun’ can spark instances of political participation. Through digital discourse analysis, I identify hidden discourses on power relations and oppression embodied in memes of the country’s monarchy. Conceptually, I suggest the role of digital amateur activists as architects and instigators of political debates that seek to disempower systems of oppression. Internet memes, this article contends, can build groups of participation that engage in important but often silenced political conversations. Furthermore, theorising memes in Morocco contributes to debates on memetic culture, entertainment media and the significance of amateur culture beyond the Anglophone world.
... With regard to the affective components of RQ1, overall the self-transcendent videos elicited significantly more physiological arousal (as evidenced by greater skin conductance level), less positive emotional responses (as evidenced by decreased orbicularis oculi responses), and more negative emotional responses (as evidenced by greater corrugator supercilii responses) than the hedonic videos. In terms of cognitive resource allocation, overall participants allocated more resources (as evidenced by the heart rate deceleration) to self-transcendent videos than to the hedonic videos, supporting past research on eudaimonic media (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). These findings strongly support what others have proposed (e.g., Oliver, 2018;Oliver et al., 2018) and previously reported (e.g., Dale et al., 2017) about self-transcendent media experiences. ...
Article
Self-transcendent media experiences are thought to involve cognitive engagement and mixed affect, leading to psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these characteristics were reflected in viewers’ psychophysiological responses and sharing intentions. Multilevel model analyses revealed that viewers (n = 57) allocated more cognitive resources to encoding (heart rate), experienced greater physiological arousal (skin conductance level), and less positive but greater negative affect (facial electromyography), and were more motivated to share content (prosociality) when exposed to self-transcendent videos relative to humorous videos. Moreover, specific self-transcendent portrayals (appreciation of beauty and excellence, gratitude, and hope) elicited greater cognitive effort and mixed affect relative to the average response of these videos. In line with emotional flow, cognitive resources increased after the transformational scene in each self-transcendent video, which was accompanied by a negative-to-positive emotional trajectory shift wherein negative emotion remained statistically the same but positive emotion increased. The current study provides initial evidence for theoretical development into the ways that self-transcendent content and narrative structure influence cognitive and affective responses and prosocial intentions.
... The ELM explains how different message features impact attitude formation and attitude change via different routes. Other domain-specific dualprocess models deal with impression formation (e.g., Fiske, Lin, & Neuberg, 1999), atti tude-behavior relations (e.g., Fazio, 1990), or, more recently in the realm of entertain ment research, with the effects of entertainment media on political outcomes (e.g., Bartsch & Schneider, 2014; see also Schneider, Bartsch, & Leonhard, this volume). Sever al attempts have been made to integrate these domain-specific approaches into general ized dual-process models, which distinguish between two types of processes that serve as building blocks of judgments and behavior (e.g., System 1 and System 2 processing, Kah neman, 2003; associative and rule-based processing, Smith & DeCoster, 2000;reflective and impulsive processing, Strack & Deutsch, 2004). 1 (p. ...
Chapter
Most people have one or more favorite pieces of media entertainment (e.g., movies, TV shows, novels, video games), and some personal candidates for the worst of them ever. But how exactly are such evaluative judgments formed? What are the underlying psychological processes of media entertainment evaluations? And why do we sometimes feel that the heart and mind are in conflict about those evaluations? To cover the whole complexity of individual media entertainment ratings, this chapter applies the associative–propositional evaluation (APE) model to the case of movie evaluation processes before, during, and after exposure. After defining evaluation and introducing the APE model, it discusses its theoretical and methodological implications for movies and entertainment research. Moreover, it highlights similarities and differences concerning common related concepts (e.g., enjoyment).
... Die bisherigen Studien sind nicht in der Lage zu unterscheiden, ob die (geringe) Stabilität auf echte Veränderungen im Sinne von Medieneffekten, andere situative Einflüsse oder Messfehler zurückzuführen ist -gerade in Bezug auf das politische Interesse kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass die traditionelle Ein-Item-Messung mit Reliabilitätsproblemen behaftet ist (Otto & Bacherle, 2011 Im Gegensatz zum (allgemeinen) politischen Interesse wird das Interesse für bestimmte Themen (im Bereich Politik z. B. Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Hullet, Louden & Mitra, 2003;Pinkleton & Austin, 2001;Weinmann, 2015) als situativ beeinflussbares Merkmal gesehen (vgl. Zaichkowsky, 1985Zaichkowsky, , 1994, allerdings sind State-und Trait-Komponenten dieses Merkmals auch hier bisher nicht eindeutig bestimmt. ...
Article
Die Latent-State-Trait-Theorie (LSTT) spielt seit vielen Jahren eine wichtige Rolle für die Modellierung und Unterscheidung von temporären Zuständen (States) und relativ stabilen Eigenschaften (Traits) sowohl im Rahmen von Veränderungsmessungen als auch bei der Konstruktvalidierung und Reliabilitätsschätzung. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, dass die Anwendung der LSTT auch für kommunikationswissenschaftliche Fragestellungen bedeutsame Erkenntnisse liefern kann. Neben einer kurzen Darstellung der LSTT sowie ihrer Relevanz und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten für die Kommunikationswissenschaft werden anhand einer Sekundäranalyse von Daten aus der politischen Kommunikationsforschung exemplarisch die Vorteile der LSTT vorgestellt. Abschließend wird der Nutzen der LSTT im Kontext der Debatte um minimale Medieneffekte diskutiert.
... In a previously mentioned study on the negative effects of news exposure (Boukes & Vliegenthart, 2017), the authors found that short-term exposure to soft news increased self-reported mood. They claim that these findings could be explained by the predominance of entertaining content in their chosen soft newspapers (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). ...
Article
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Past research has shown that news media may contain a disproportionate amount of negative news. Frequent exposure to such negative information could have detrimental effects on our mental well-being. We aimed to gain further insight into the potentially adverse effects of exposure to soft and hard news, as well as to examine potential reasons why individuals might expose themselves to such negative information. To do so, we conducted an online survey involving 176 participants (66 male, 107 female and 3 other) aged 15-65 years. The study included manipulation and additional (correlational) analyses. In the manipulation, we tested for the potential short-term effects of exposure to soft or hard news on the psychological well-being of our participants (as measured by the semi-projective Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank; Rotter, 1950). This was done by setting three conditions (soft news, hard news and control group) wherein participants were exposed to 15 consecutive front page screenshots of the chosen soft and hard newspapers respectively. Hard news is generally more focused on major issues and breaking events-i.e., news that is important for the individual to understand, while soft news usually focuses on personal stories, is less time-bound, and is more incident-based. The correlational part of our study focused on discovering associations between long-term exposure to (different types of) news and the degree of negative emotions and well-being (measured by the DASS-21, Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). The results did not show statistically significant differences between conditions. When comparing the long-term readers of the chosen hard and soft newspapers, statistically significant differences were found only in anxiety levels, however, a forming trend seemed to suggest that long-term exposure to soft news might be associated with reduced psychological well-being. Our findings are discussed in line with the contemporary psychological literature.
... Online computer games could improve behavioral intention of online learning and share with other players (Cohen, 2014). Online game-sharing portals could especially create an intriguing entertaining educational environment, which could improve learners' knowledge and enhance their behavioral intention of engagement in political programs (Roth et al., 2014) and information-seeking activities (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). ...
Article
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The unpredictable pandemic has drastically altered learning approaches, where online learning has been booming. Through VOSviewer, this study visualizes the network of top authors, organizations, sources, and countries that have been devoted to online learning. Through meta-analyses via Stata/MP 14.0, this study identifies nine variables that may exert a significant effect on online learning outcomes during this special pandemic time in various countries and areas. The findings may be generalizable to America, Asia, and Europe. Although relatively fewer publications in Africa have been included, the findings could provide a meaningful reference for African researchers and practitioners. Future research could include more publications from more diversified backgrounds. Online learning design could also keep pace with the development of information technologies. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10639-021-10720-y.
... Nowadays, with better technology advances, governments can spread political knowledge and promote political communication in various ways, namely, through the popularity of the Internet and the transparency and openness of government information. A great deal of news brought by the Internet has improved the level of political knowledge and raises political awareness (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Zhang & Lin, 2014). Moreover, in the era of the Internet, widespread online discussions on political topics have also been noted (Hung, 2003;Sun et al., 2012). ...
Article
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There is a strong ongoing debate about the impact of trust and political knowledge on institutionalized political participation. Based on social exchange theory, this study examines the roles of social trust, political trust, and political knowledge on citizen voting in grassroots elections by using logistic regression. The logistic regression analysis of this study shows that social trust, political trust, and political knowledge have significantly positive effects on the likelihood of voting in grassroots elections in China. More importantly, it finds that the level of citizens’ political knowledge can positively moderate the relationship between political trust and the likelihood of citizen voting in grassroots elections. “Political knowledge” can be regarded as a kind of political self-education for citizens. In view of this, trust and political knowledge can be seen as vital preconditions for citizen voting in grassroots elections. This study suggests that the government should pay more attention to the positive roles of trust and political knowledge in promoting political participation and democracy construction at the grassroots level.
... B. Infotainment-Formate oder "Soft News", und Fragen danach aufwarfen, inwiefern derartige politische Berichterstattung beim Publikum zu einem Unterhaltungserleben führt, das auch z. B. für Lernprozesse von Bedeutung sein kann (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014;Roth, 2016). Darüber hinaus wurde auch das Verständnis von Unterhaltung differenzierter. ...
Book
Durch das Internet hat sich der Zugang zu Nachrichten maßgeblich verändert. Informationen stehen nicht nur unbegrenzt zur Verfügung, sondern sie sind auch zu einem omnipräsenten Bestandteil in digitalen Informationsumgebungen geworden. Dadurch werden Internetnutzer*innen, auch ohne bewusst danach zu suchen, wiederholt mit tagesaktuellen Schlagzeilen konfrontiert, z.B. wenn sie ihren Browser öffnen, oder sich auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten bewegen. Diese kurzen Nachrichtenkontakte haben aufgrund der geringen Informationsmenge wenig Potential für Lerneffekte, können jedoch das Gefühl vermitteln, sich mit einem Thema auszukennen. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern Nachrichten in digitalen Informationsumgebungen die Entstehung einer Wissensillusion begünstigen, wie sich dieser Prozess erklären lässt und mit welchen Folgen dies verbunden ist. Im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit werden dazu Erkenntnisse zum Gedächtnis, dem Metagedächtnis und der Rolle von Medien für Wissen und Wissenswahrnehmung aufgearbeitet. In Studie 1 wird mit einer experimentellen Studie untersucht, wie sich Nachrichten auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten im Vergleich zu vollständigen Nachrichtenartikeln auf objektives und subjektives Wissen auswirken. Außerdem werden Effekte einer Wissensillusion für Einstellungen und Verhalten untersucht. Studie 2 untersucht mit qualitativen Leitfadeninterviews, welche Rolle Medien für Wissen und Lernen aus Sicht der Nutzer*innen spielen. Diese Erkenntnisse liefern Erklärungen dafür, weshalb und aufgrund welcher Merkmale unterschiedliche Nachrichtenkontakte eine Wissensillusion begünstigen können.
... For example, there is a positive relationship between intent to participate in political discussion with their families and friends and viewing political entertainment shows among American college students (Landreville & LaMarre, 2011). Political entertainment is also shown to be able to stimulate individuals' political interest (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) which would impact the societal level of political engagement in the long run. Shifman (2014) lists three potential abilities for memes to influence public opinion: (a) memes have been used in political campaigns such as the integration of memes into Barack Obama's 2012 presidential campaign, which demonstrates the potential of political memes to influence politics; (b) memes have the potential to encourage individuals to participate in political actions; and (c) as user-generated-content memes have the potential to distribute conveniently, which might serve as a form of opinions expression. ...
Article
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The risks that animals and humans face from climate change are frequently featured in climate change memes. Although memes may appear to some as silly jokes, little is known of the impact they may have in the formation and spread of individuals’ perceived risk of climate change and intention to participate in climate change campaigns. This study tests the effect of climate change memes on the perceived risk of climate change and the intention of online engagement regarding climate change issues. Results show that exposure to climate change memes increases individual intentions of online civic engagement regarding climate change. Additionally, empathy is found to mediate this effect. However, risk perception of climate change is not altered after exposure to climate change memes.
... Environmental films may be particularly suited to providing such eudaimonic experiences as they are not often considered 'light fare', and many deal with subjects related to human agency, our place in the universe and the interconnectivity of nature. There is evidence meaningful media experiences can result in greater motivations to engage in pro-social behaviour , greater political engagement (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014) and greater feelings of connectedness in general . Oliver et al. (2018) have gone even further in proposing a 'higher level' of such eudaimonic experiences-self-transcendent media experiences-which relate to thoughts and feelings directed beyond the self. ...
Article
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Researchers in conservation fields have recently highlighted the potential for visual storytelling to convey environmental messages to large audiences. However, an effective model for how such narratives can produce environmental outcomes, such as human–nature connection and pro‐environmental behaviour (PEB), has not yet been developed. Substantial evidence now suggests that narrative is an effective means of changing beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. This effect is demonstrated in diverse disciplines and understood within the theoretical frameworks of narrative persuasion. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the impacts of environmental films on environmental behaviours, and connection with nature. Linking insights from the narrative persuasion field with those of conservation psychology, we identify three promising pathways through which environmental films might influence their audiences: (a) reduced resistance to environmental messages, (b) interactions with audience identity and (c) meaningful media experiences. This analysis raises key questions and illuminates priority areas for future research, with an aim to complement and extend existing calls to better appreciate the role of film in addressing environmental problems. Research moving forward should focus on understanding the role environmental films can play in connecting people with nature, promoting PEB and the relationship between the two. Specifically, more attention should be paid to the role of deictic shift in encouraging environmental outcomes, the relation between audiences and characters and the power for film to support self‐expansion. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
... Numerous scholars have also turned their attention to the behavioral outcomes of consuming inspiring media, finding evidence that audiences often report being motivated to be more compassionate and altruistic (Algoe & Haidt, 2009). Importantly, research examining actual behaviors has shown evidence that, generally, people demonstrate greater helping behaviors (Schnall et al., 2010), charitability (Freeman et al., 2009), and information seeking about issues depicted in the media stimuli subsequent to viewing inspiring media (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014). Additionally, some media-related outcomessuch as social sharing of the media messagehave also been reported and discussed (Jang et al., 2019;Ji et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Scholars have increasingly explored the ways that media content can touch, move, and inspire audiences, leading to numerous beneficial outcomes including increased feelings of connectedness to and heightened motivations for doing good for others. Although this line of inquiry is relatively new, sufficient evidence and patterns of results have emerged such that a clearer picture of the inspiring media experience is coming into focus. This article has two primary goals. First, we seek to synthesize the existing research into a working and evolving model of inspiring media experiences reflecting five interrelated and symbiotic elements: exposure, message factors, responses, outcomes, and personal/situational factors. The model also identifies theoretical mechanisms underlying the previously observed positive effects. Secondly, the article explores situations in which, and precipitating factors present, when these hoped-for outcomes either fail to materialize or result in negative or maladaptive responses and outcomes. Ultimately, the model is proposed as a heuristic roadmap for future scholarship and as an invitation for critique and collaboration in the emerging field of positive media psychology.
... These bounds are examined experimentally by Baldwin and Bente (2021), who use psychophysiological measures to differentiate the effects of hedonic and eudaimonic entertainment narratives about sports (Rocky and Rocky II). In line with the assumption that eudaimonic entertainment motivates deliberative processing (Bartsch & Schneider, 2014), the authors found that participants who viewed a eudaimonic narrative exhibited slower, more gradual increases in arousal and positive affect during exposure compared to participants who viewed a hedonic narrative. They also demonstrated the third step of the inspirational process, motivational consequences, as viewers of the eudaimonic narrative were more likely to indicate intentions to exercise following exposure. ...
Article
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This editorial introduces the thematic issue on inspirational media; including its role in the elicitation of meaning and self-transcendence, audience responses to inspirational narratives, and the potential for inspirational media to be used for manipulative purposes. We first set the stage for the thematic issue by describing an organizing framework by Thrash and Elliot (2003) to study inspiration. We then situate the seven articles published in this thematic issue along the logic of different components of this framework, namely media content capable of invoking transcendence through emotions and excitatory responses, and a motivational impulse to act upon the ideas acquired from content. This thematic issue thereby highlights unique perspectives for understanding media’s ability to serve as the source of inspiration — be it for social benefit or detriment. Finally, we consider directions for future research on inspirational media.
Article
This study examined the effects of semi-fictional biographical political films on political learning and attitude change in audiences of fictionalized accounts of female politicians. Data from 310 participants indicated that content-related political learning significantly increased and attitude toward female politicians positively changed after exposure. A conceptual model of the political entertainment effects indicated that initial political learning transported the audience into the biographical narrative, which led to greater enjoyment, as well as learning gain and a positive attitude toward female politicians. Our findings provide important clarification to existing research and offer both theoretical, methodological, and practical implications.
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News organizations increasingly depend on subscriptions, donations, memberships and audience engagement figures, calling up the question of what kind of journalism audiences would find so valuable that they might be willing to pay for it, in money or attention. To answer this question, I have fleshed out the concept of Valuable Journalism by performing a meta-analysis of the results of twenty-two audience research projects (2005–2020) involving 3068 informants. By focussing on what audiences experience as valuable journalism, rather than on its content or approach, I will demonstrate how Valuable Journalism crystallized over the years into three key experiences: Learning something new, Getting recognition and Increasing mutual understanding. In the final part of the paper, I address the challenges raised by Valuable Journalism for practicing journalists and journalism scholars.
Chapter
The question of how the media are being used by individuals has not really entered the canon of traditional research interests and is not commonly used to characterize an established field of research in the discipline. We think this is worth changing. This volume therefore brings together a number of contributions that represent different perspectives, theoretical foundations and methodological approaches on this topic. In their entirety, they provide an overview of the work already done in the field so far and at the same time further develop it. This introductory chapter starts with some reflections on the relevance of this field of research. We then would like to attempt a rough overview of the relevant branches of research in this context in order to finally present and explain the selection of contributions collected in this volume.
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This paper identifies three main aspects of emotional engagement in journalistic news practice and outlines moments of tension between journalistic principles and (imagined) audience expectations. It investigates the relationship between emotionally (dis)engaging elements featured in television news coverage, and the rationale behind their deployment by journalists. In doing this, the article aims to address both journalism content and production dimension. It combines two qualitative approaches. This comprises semi-structured interviews conducted with around 50 journalists across both countries, supported by a close reading of TV news. The study is set within a cross-national comparative framework of two very different television cultures – the United Kingdom and India, where debates about emotional engagement contrasts a strongly regulated public service television market in the UK standing against highly competitive commercial 24-hour news programmes in India. The study presents how journalists imagine news programmes today. By highlighting journalistic practices outside of the normative model of Anglo-American journalism, this paper also seeks to include a de-Westernizing perspective within journalism studies. The paper will show that despite defending “classical” professional principles and news values, journalists across borders consider engagement and emotionalizing elements as indispensable in linking to audiences.
Article
Purpose To elaborate the nature of infotainment as a mediating concept between information and entertainment by analysing how the concept of infotainment is approached in diverse domains such as communication research. Design/methodology/approach Conceptual analysis was conducted by focussing on 41 key studies on the topic. First, it was examined how researchers have approached the relationships between informational and entertaining elements of infotainment. Thereafter, attention was directed to the ways in which people make use of infotainment. The conceptual analysis is based on the comparison of the similarities and differences between the characterizations of the above issues. Findings Early studies characterized infotainment in terms of soft news which is distinct from hard news offering factual information. Later investigations offer a more nuanced picture by approaching infotainment as phenomenon with diverse dimensions depicting the topics, focus and presentation style. Studies on the use of infotainment offer contradictory evidence of the extent to which infotaining programmes can increase people's interest in social, political and health issues, for example. Research limitations/implications As the study concentrates on the analysis of an individual concept, that is, infotainment, the findings cannot be generalized to concern the ways in which informational and entertaining phenomena are related as a whole. Originality/value By elaborating the conceptual nature of infotainment, the study contributes to information behaviour research by refining the picture of the relationships between information and entertainment.
Article
Many internet news sites have introduced recommendation systems to help users mitigate information overload. However, these systems may exacerbate mindless information consumption by reducing opportunities for people to voluntarily select news. We propose prototypes of personal informatics tools based on a self-regulatory process and quantified self-theories, which can be used to help people fulfill a eudaimonic motivation through self-observation and self-control and thus lead to deliberate news consumption. A longitudinal field experiment demonstrates that self-control and self-observation tools promote deliberate news consumption and reveals synergistic effects between the two tools. Our results indicate that the effect of the self-observation tool persists longer.
Article
Online health information-seeking behavior (OHIS) has been typically operationalized in an aggregate form representing either depth (e.g., how long) or breadth (e.g., how much) of seeking, which is irrespective of what types of information are sought. Recognizing limitations of such practice, this research employs cluster analysis to reflect the content and types of health information sought in studying OHIS. Three online studies providing participants with opportunities to actually seek information about meningitis (Study1; N=408), Alzheimer’s disease (Study2; N=190), and cancer (Study3; N=208) recorded the participants’ information-seeking activities unobtrusively. Across the three studies, cluster analysis identified three common clusters representing distinctive information-seeking patterns (i.e., combinations of different types of information sought): One cluster sought information on “overview,” the second one focused on “protection” information, and the third cluster sought “all” types of information provided. The relative preference for these types of information was predicted by several antecedents of information-seeking behavior proposed in Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (CMIS) including age, fear, self- and response-efficacy. The findings demonstrate the utility of taking the actual content or types of health information sought into consideration and suggest several fruitful avenues it paves for future research on OHIS.
Article
Because social media have become a primary means by which fake news is received and disseminated, verifying the accuracy of such news has become an increasingly critical practice for individual users. Drawing on the dual-information-processing model, this study uses two-wave panel survey data collected in Taiwan to investigate users’ verification processes. Results reveal three user-types based on motivation for Facebook use—omnivores, entertainment-oriented mixers, and leisure-convenience seekers—and show that omnivores who are high in all motivations are more likely to engage in elaborative processing and subsequent verification of news than leisure-convenience seekers who use Facebook mainly for leisure and convenience purposes. Further, the indirect effects are weaker for entertainment-oriented mixers with higher levels of mobile Facebook use, compared to leisure-convenience seekers.
Article
Objective Prior research has noted Olympic and Paralympic athletes are often unaware and unprepared for upcoming career transitions, resulting in experiences of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of digital video as a delivery method for psychoeducation about an upcoming career transition. Design Post-survey design. Method Video development was guided by entertainment-education theory. Participants were shown the video at a centralised training location and asked to fill in questionnaires following viewing and again within 72 hours of viewing. Specifically, subjective and objective recall of the intended learning points was assessed. In addition, participants’ appreciation of the content and design was measured. Analysis was descriptive in nature. Results Participants included 168 Olympic/Paralympic athletes ( N = 116), coaches ( N = 10) and athlete support providers ( N = 42). Immediately following viewing, participants could accurately recall between one and three learning points, but at 72 hours post-viewing, this range had fallen to one to two learning points. Participants indicated they enjoyed the video, identified with the narrators and found it informative and personally relevant. Conclusion The results of this study suggest a digital video 2 minutes 35 seconds in length is a useful psychoeducation tool for up to three learning points. The results support the development of video psychoeducation resources using education-entertainment theory and the social validity of video as a psychoeducation tool in Olympic and Paralympic sport.
Chapter
Emotionen spielen bei der Verarbeitung von Gesundheitsbotschaften eine wichtige Rolle. Sie können Einstellungs- und Verhaltensänderungen begünstigen, aber auch kontraproduktive Wirkungen hervorrufen. Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über emotionspsychologische Grundlagen, die für das Verständnis emotionaler Prozesse in der Gesundheitskommunikation von Bedeutung sind. Im Anschluss werden Kernbefunde zu einzelnen Emotionen (z. B. Furcht, Ärger, Empathie) sowie gemischten Emotionen und aufeinanderfolgenden Emotionen vorgestellt.
Article
Purpose Scholars have expressed great hopes that social media use can foster the democratic engagement of young adults. However, this research has largely ignored non-political, entertainment-oriented uses of social media. In this essay, I theorize that social media use can significantly dampen political engagement because, by and large, young adults use social media primarily for non-political purposes, which distracts rather than mobilizes. Design/methodology/approach I illustrate this argument using aggregate level data from the U.S., Germany, Switzerland, and Japan by comparing relative voter turnout and social media use data of young adults. Findings Data suggest a so called Social Media Political Participation paradox in those countries: The gap in voter turnout between young adults and older generations has not significantly decreased, despite a skyrocketing rise of social media use on the side of young adults, and the overwhelming research evidence that social media use fosters offline political participation. Implications When trying to understand the implications of social media for democracy across the globe, entertainment-oriented content needs to be brought back in. Originality/value This essay challenges the dominant research paradigm on social media use and political participation. It urges future research to theoretically develop, describe, and empirically test a comprehensive model of how social media use has the potential to mobilize and to distract.
Article
Political Internet memes significantly contribute to discourse around contemporary events. By studying memes, scholars understand these ‘units of culture’ as forms of participatory content that can fulfill political functions. To explore whether users ascribe memes a political role and consider them an alternative to or supplement of traditional political participation, this study provides a user-centered perspective focusing on core motives of meme use. Via a Delphi method interview approach, participants discuss uses and gratifications of memes in political contexts. A qualitative content analysis provides insight into the role and impact of memes in social movements and everyday politics. The findings show that users perceive memes as a tool for easy, effortless engagement in the public sphere driven by the interplay of self-expression, social identity, and entertainment motives. Participants also discuss potentials and limitations of memes in political contexts, concluding that political memes can only support other efforts. The study contributes to our understanding of memes from a psychological perspective and establishes a basis for further research on deliberative political practices from a user perspective.
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A revised and updated version of this chapter (to appear in the 2nd edition of The Oxford Handbook of Social Cognition) is available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352192780_Dual-Process_Theories
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This chapter outlines the two basic routes to persuasion. One route is based on the thoughtful consideration of arguments central to the issue, whereas the other is based on the affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues in the persuasion context. This chapter discusses a wide variety of variables that proved instrumental in affecting the elaboration likelihood, and thus the route to persuasion. One of the basic postulates of the Elaboration Likelihood Model—that variables may affect persuasion by increasing or decreasing scrutiny of message arguments—has been highly useful in accounting for the effects of a seemingly diverse list of variables. The reviewers of the attitude change literature have been disappointed with the many conflicting effects observed, even for ostensibly simple variables. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) attempts to place these many conflicting results and theories under one conceptual umbrella by specifying the major processes underlying persuasion and indicating the way many of the traditionally studied variables and theories relate to these basic processes. The ELM may prove useful in providing a guiding set of postulates from which to interpret previous work and in suggesting new hypotheses to be explored in future research. Copyright © 1986 Academic Press Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Guided by the risk information-seeking and processing model, this study examines positive and negative affect separately in their influence on information-seeking intentions and avoidance through structural equation analyses. The highlight is that information avoidance seems to be driven by positive affect, while information seeking seems to be more heavily influenced by negative affect. Another interesting finding is that informational subjective norms are positively related to both seeking and avoidance, which suggests that one’s social environment has the potential to strongly influence the way he or she handles climate change information. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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This study attempted to (a) extend traditional mood management theory research by investigating the influence of the intrinsic needs for competence and autonomy on selective exposure to video games and (b) test the influence of satisfying these needs on resultant mood repair. An experiment varied satisfaction of competence and autonomy needs using false feedback. Subjects then selected media that varied in level of user demand. Measures of need satisfaction were taken before and after media selection. Results demonstrated that (a) thwarted intrinsic needs significantly predict the choice of video games with different levels of user demand and (b) the satisfaction of these needs predicts enjoyment. Findings indicate that mood management can result from mood repair through need satisfaction.
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The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which news story format (narrative vs. non-narrative) can initiate empathic processes that produce more favorable evaluations of stigmatized groups. Participants (N = 399) read one of two versions of a story that described health care–related dilemmas for either immigrants, prisoners, or the elderly. Narrative-formatted stories produce more compassion toward the individuals in the story, more favorable attitudes toward the group, more beneficial behavioral intentions, and more information-seeking behavior.
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This article extends current theorizing in media psychology on audience responses to cinema by examining individuals' perceptions of meaningfulness. Specifically, it presents the results of a study designed to expand upon research on psychological and subjective well-being to experiences and memories of films that are perceived as particularly meaningful by viewers. Characteristics and themes of such films are examined and identified, as well as the specific emotional responses that accompany perceptions of meaningful cinema.
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We examine the notion of eudaimonic entertainment during exposure to a sad but meaningful movie, using a new measure consisting of 5 dimensions derived from research on positive psychology. We, thereby, transfer the conception of eudaimonic well-being to the conception of entertainment. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis show that the 5 dimensions can be further condensed into 2 second-order factors. We applied these new measures in a study in which the ending of a movie was manipulated (sad vs. happy). The results provide both discriminant and convergent validity and show that hedonic entertainment measures were affected by the manipulation, but that eudaimonic entertainment measures were unaffected. A second study provided further evidence for the validity of the construct.
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Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, n = 209; Study 2, n = 249) were undertaken to identify the convergent and divergent aspects of these constructs. As expected, there was a strong positive correlation between personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Analyses revealed significant differences between the 2 conceptions of happiness experienced in conjunction with activities for the variables of (1) opportunities for satisfaction, (2) strength of cognitive-affective components, (3) level of challenges, (4) level of skills, and (5) importance. It thus appears that the 2 conceptions of happiness are related but distinguishable and that personal expressiveness, but not hedonic enjoyment, is a signifier of success in the process of self-realization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[the authors'] research project, Cultural Indicators, has tracked the central streams of television's dramatic content since 1967 and has explored the consequences of growing up and living with television since 1974 / [Cultural Indicators] investigated the extent to which television viewing contributes to audience conceptions and actions in areas such as gender, minority and age-role stereotypes, health, science, the family, educational achievement and aspirations, politics, religion, and other topics, all of which are increasingly also being examined in cross-cultural comparative contexts / summarize and illustrate our theory of the dynamics of the cultivation process, both in the US and around the world (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a model of enjoyment rooted in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) that includes the satisfaction of three needs related to psychological wellbeing: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In an experiment designed to validate this conceptualization of enjoyment, we manipulate video game characteristics related to the satisfaction of these needs and examine their relative effects on enjoyment. The validated model explains 51% of the variance in enjoyment, even without including needs usually studied in relation to enjoyment such as pleasure seeking. Results indicate the utility of defining enjoyment as need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of a broader conceptualization of enjoyment represented as the satisfaction of a comprehensive set of functional needs.
Article
Three studies investigated the influence of mood states on the processing of positive and negative information regarding caffeine consumption and on the impact of this information on one's mood, attitudes, and intentions. The results were consistent with the predictions of the mood-as-a-resource hypothesis: First, the induction of positive mood in high (compared with low) caffeine consumers enhanced recall of negative information about caffeine consumption. Second, processing information about caffeine consumption undermined the positive mood of high (but not low) caffeine consumers. Third, the induction of positive mood enhanced the impact of negative information about caffeine on high (compared with low) caffeine consumers' attitudes and intentions toward caffeine consumption.
Book
What happens when media and politics become forms of entertainment? In the season of Trump and Hillary, Neil's Postman's essential guide to the modern media is more relevant than ever.Originally published in 1985, Neil Postman’s groundbreaking polemic about the corrosive effects of television on our politics and public discourse has been hailed as a twenty-first-century book published in the twentieth century. Now, with television joined by more sophisticated electronic media—from the Internet to cell phones to DVDs—it has taken on even greater significance. Amusing Ourselves to Death is a prophetic look at what happens when politics, journalism, education, and even religion become subject to the demands of entertainment. It is also a blueprint for regaining control of our media, so that they can serve our highest goals."It's unlikely that Trump has ever read Amusing Ourselves to Death, but his ascent would not have surprised Postman.” -CNN
Chapter
Political figures and events often elicit strong emotional responses in citizens. These responses have the power to impact judgments and information processing, as well as the types of information that individuals seek out. Recent examples of political events that have elicited strong emotional reactions are easily accessible. The fiasco in Florida during the presidential election of 2000 led many voters to experience anger at the outcome of the election and disgust at the process whereby it was decided. The terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, led citizens to experience a collective sense of fear and anxiety, along with sadness for the loss of life and anger at Osama bin Laden for masterminding the attacks. Along with these negative emotions was a sense of enthusiastic patriotism in the United States. Positive affective reactions, however, tend to be more general than negative reactions. That is, while positive reactions may be experienced as general positivity, negative feelings are typically more differentiated and may be experienced, for example, as fear, anger, sadness, disgust, or guilt (e.g., Averill 1980; Ellsworth and Smith 1988).
Article
This article distinguishes between hedonic and eudaimonic approaches to wellness, with the former focusing on the outcome of happiness or pleasure and the latter focusing not so much on outcomes as on the process of living well. We present a model of eudaimonia that is based in self-determination theory, arguing that eudaimonic living can be characterized in terms of four motivational concepts: (1) pursuing intrinsic goals and values for their own sake, including personal growth, relationships, community, and health, rather than extrinsic goals and values, such as wealth, fame, image, and power; (2) behaving in autonomous, volitional, or consensual ways, rather than heteronomous or controlled ways; (3) being mindful and acting with a sense of awareness; and (4) behaving in ways that satisfy basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. In fact, we theorize that the first three of these aspects of eudaimonic living have their positive effects of psychological and physical wellness because they facilitate satisfaction of these basic, universal psychological needs. Studies indicate that people high in eudaimonic living tend to behave in more prosocial ways, thus benefiting the collective as well as themselves, and that conditions both within the family and in society more generally contribute toward strengthening versus diminishing the degree to which people live eudaimonic lives.
Article
Hypotheses were derived from downward comparison and attachment theory to address the tragedy paradox: more sadness produces greater tragedy enjoyment. Participants (n = 361) watched a tragedy and reported affect, enjoyment, life happiness, and spontaneous thoughts (categorized into self- vs. socio-focused). Greater sadness led to greater enjoyment, mediated by life reflection; specifically, both self- and socio-focused thoughts mediated this sadness impact on tragedy enjoyment. Furthermore, more sadness led to greater life happiness increase during exposure, mediated by socio-focused thoughts only. No parallel effects emerged for positive affect. The present findings suggest that tragedy-induced sadness instigates (a) life reflection that increases tragedy enjoyment as well as (b) specifically thoughts about close relationships that, in turn, raise life happiness, which (c) subsequently increases tragedy enjoyment further.
Article
'Tabloidization' is a new, frequently used term equally employed by journalists, media critics and academics to characterize a recent, dubious trend in the mass media. This article sets out to define this diffuse, multidimensional concept and discusses its usefulness for communication research. It emerges that 'tabloidization' can only be analysed adequately with a long-term cross-national design that focuses on quality news media and employs a wide range of empirical measures. This approach is taken here by comparing the press of Britain, Germany and the US, whereas the focus remains on the first two countries. A three-seep empirical analysis based on a definition developed before - demonstrates that journalistic values, media cultures as well as economic and legal conditions are responsible for the degree of 'tabloidization' in a given country.
Article
Research on audience interest in violent media content is extended to include individuals' appreciation of certain types of violent portrayals as a meaningful and valuable reflection of reality. A sample of 482 German and U.S. adults aged 18–82 watched movie trailers that varied in pretest ratings of gore and meaningfulness, but were equivalent in suspense. As hypothesized, perceived levels of gore and meaningfulness interacted to predict individuals' reported likelihood of watching the full movie, such that a negative influence of gore on viewing likelihood was compensated at high levels of meaningfulness. These findings suggest that, in addition to other motivations such as suspense, some types of violent and even gory content might be sought as an opportunity for meaning-making.
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This article presents four studies designed to assess different types of gratifications that can be associated with the experience of emotions in movie and television audiences. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of a pool of statements derived from qualitative interviews revealed three factors that reflect rewarding feelings: 1) fun, 2) thrill, and 3) empathic sadness, and four factors that reflect the role of emotional media experiences within the broader context of individuals' social and cognitive needs: 4) contemplative emotional experiences, 5) emotional engagement with characters, 6) social sharing of emotions, and 7) vicarious release of emotions. Validation analyses showed that the scales developed to assess these factors are predicted by the experience of emotions and meta-emotions and served in turn to predict different aspects of positive content evaluation. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical issues including entertainment audiences' voluntary exposure to unpleasant feelings, and the role of entertainment in psychosocial need satisfaction and eudaimonic wellbeing.
Article
The effects of agenda-setting and priming are well established in regard to the news media. Considerably less attention has been paid to these phenomena in entertainment media, in spite of the fact that entertainment media enjoy larger audiences than do news media and often address political topics. This article argues that the psychological mechanism hypothesized to lead to agenda-setting and priming effectsthat is, changes in construct accessibilityapplies as equally to entertainment media as it does to news media. Moreover, we contend that the frequency, consistency, and duration of entertainment media treatments of political issues encourage chronic accessibility of those issues. We test these hypotheses looking at television crime dramas as a source of political information. Using data from two controlled laboratory experiments and the 1995 National Election Study Pilot Study, we demonstrate that viewing crime dramas significantly increases concerns about crime and that these concerns significantly affect viewers' opinions of the president. The NES Pilot Study data suggest that these effects are restricted to frequent viewers of crime dramas, supporting a chronic accessibility model of agenda-setting and priming. These findings extend our growing understanding of how non-news sources of political information contribute to the construction of political attitudes.
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis of 34 studies of the positive effects of television on children's social interactions, levels of aggression, altruism, and levels of stereotyping (a total of 108 effect sizes, 5,473 children). Across dependent measures, there were consistent moderate positive effects for those who watched prosocial content in experimental settings compared to control groups or those who watched antisocial content. Moreover, the positive effect of self-selected exposure to prosocial content was as strong as the negative effect of self-selected exposure to violent content. Effects were largest for depictions of altruism, primarily because such content tended to involve explicit modeling of desired behaviors. Strong negative effects occurred in the few studies where children watched aggressive prosocial content.
Article
This paper examines the interactive effects of the perceived strength of the verbal claims and the intensity and direction of the emotional appeal of public service announcements (PSAs) on audience perceptions of message effectiveness. The results show that PSAs containing strong verbal claims are rated as more effective than those with weak claims. Arousing messages with weak claims are perceived as least effective. Increasing claim strength increased memory for negative but not for positive messages. It is suggested that the combination of intense emotional appeal and weak claims may be partially responsible for the boomerang effects in antidrug campaigns.
Article
Research indicates that the extent to which one becomes engaged, transported, or immersed in a narrative influences the narrative's potential to affect subsequent story-related attitudes and beliefs. Explaining narrative effects and understanding the mechanisms responsible depends on our ability to measure narrative engagement in a theoretically meaningful way. This article develops a scale for measuring narrative engagement that is based on a mental models approach to narrative processing. It distinguishes among four dimensions of experiential engagement in narratives: narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence. The scale is developed and validated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with data from viewers of feature film and television, in different viewing situations, and from two different countries. The scale's ability to predict enjoyment and story-consistent attitudes across different programs is presented. Implications for conceptualizing engagement with narratives as well as narrative persuasion and media effects are discussed.
Article
Positive self- and emotional development is often measured by optimization of happiness, but a second aspect of positive development—the ability to tolerate tension and negativity in the interest of maintaining objective representations—needs to be integrated with this hedonic emphasis. The integration of these two aspects, optimization and differentiation, reflects a dynamic balance. Such integration is possible when emotional activation or arousal is moderate, but is impaired at very high levels of activation. From youth to middle adulthood, the capacity for integration increases, but later in life, limitations or poor regulation strategies foster compensatory processes that compromise integration.
Article
In "Any Good News in Soft News?" Markus Prior investigates whether, beyond enhancing their attentiveness to select political issues (Baum, 2002a), consumers also learn about politics from soft news. He presents evidence suggesting that the audience for soft news is much smaller than that for hard news, and that a self-expressed preference for soft news outlets is associated with at most sporadic gains in factual political knowledge. In this commentary, I argue that the audience for soft news outlets is, in fact, quite large, even rivaling that for hard news. I further argue that long-term retention of factual political knowledge--the focus of Prior's web-based survey--is an overly restrictive definition of learning. By broadening our definition--taking into account recent insights from cognitive and social psychology concerning human information processing--it becomes possible to understand how consuming soft news might indeed be associated with learning about politics, but not necessarily with an enhanced long-term store of factual political knowledge. I present evidence that consuming soft news influences the attitudes of politically inattentive individuals and that, in at least some fairly predictable contexts, doing so is also associated with enhanced factual political knowledge. I conclude that while Prior's finding of an absence of evidence of consistent factual political knowledge effects represents a valuable contribution to our understanding of the political significance of the soft news media, it does not constitute compelling evidence of absence of any meaningful learning about politics associated with consuming soft news. Hence, it is premature to conclude that there is no good news in soft news.
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine the experience of appreciation to media entertainment as a unique audience response that can be differentiated from enjoyment. To those ends, the first section provides a conceptualization of appreciation in which we outline how we are using the term and how it is distinct from questions of emotional valence. The second section discusses the types of entertainment portrayals and depictions that we believe are most likely to elicit feelings of appreciation. Here, we suggest that appreciation is most evident for meaningful portrayals that focus on human virtue and that inspire audiences to contemplate questions concerning life’s purpose. In the final section we consider the affective and cognitive components of appreciation, arguing that mixed-affective responses (rather than bi-polar conceptualizations of affective valence) better capture the experience of appreciation and its accompanying feelings states such as inspiration, awe, and tenderness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Provides an intuitive introduction to the key elements of the authors' theory, the Transportation-Imagery Model, and presents the postulates and their implications. Next, this chapter compares the Transportation-Imagery approach to persuasion with dual-process models of rhetorical persuasion, specifically it contrasts the authors' theory with the Elaboration-Likelihood Model. Selected research implications are discussed. This chapter concludes with a discussion of possible areas in which the ideas of narrative persuasion can be applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This contribution explores the relationship of emotion and cognition in entertainment experience. Drawing on the reflective model of aesthetic experience (Cupchik, 1995) and the concept of appreciation (Oliver & Bartsch, 2010), we propose a multi-level view of affective processing that includes simple affect schemata as well as more elaborate forms of sociomoral reasoning that build on this basic layer of emotional meaning. To better understand how affective factors can stimulate or impede cognitive elaboration processes, we review research on motivated cognition that has dealt with the influence of arousal, valence, and personal relevance on cognitive depth. The role of affect in defensive information processing (i.e., the motivated neglect or denial of information) is also considered. Specifically, we discuss how research on motivated cognition can help explain thought-provoking entertainment experiences, and the potential of such experiences to stimulate self-reflection and personal growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter lays out the basics of mood management theory and describes related empirical research. It also aims to pinpoint some gaps and inconsistencies in the existing evidence to inspire future empirical work. For instance, many studies that have been linked to the mood management framework did not precisely look at moods or content choices as postulated by the theory, or they tested hypotheses that were not included in the original theoretical claim. On the other hand, some of the original suggestions have only rarely been investigated in rigorous terms. Furthermore, some recent advancement from studies on mood-based media choices and related motivations are discussed, especially inasmuch as they help to address challenges from empirical findings to the original theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this research is to broaden the conceptualization of entertainment selection to identify not only pleasure-seeking (hedonic concerns) as a motivator, but to also recognize that individuals may choose media as a means of “truth-seeking” (eudaimonic concerns). This article conceptualized and developed measures to illustrate that entertainment can be used as a means of experiencing not only enjoyment, but also as a means of grappling with questions such as life's purpose and human meaningfulness. Four studies were conducted in the development of these measures, providing evidence for their validity in terms of entertainment preference and individual differences, and illustrating how these motivations predict preferences for entertainment that elicits unique affective experiences.
Article
The concept of transportation into narrative (Green & Brock, 2002) is used to gain new insights into cultivation processes. A theoretical framework is developed where cultivation is seen as the result of a self-reinforcing interaction between persuasive and motivational effects of transportation: Repeated highly transportive experiences contribute to the overall cultivation effect by adjusting the viewers’ worldviews after each exposure. At the same time, viewers are motivated to return to programming of a given genre because transportation is an enjoyable experience. Our study uses transportability as an indicator of repeated transportive experiences and seeks to test its validity and usefulness for cultivation research. Results indicate that transportability predicts transportation within specific viewing experiences. Although no linear moderation effects of transportability are found, the data suggest a nonlinear moderation. Genre-consistent attitudes held prior to exposure facilitate transportation, but transportation was not consistently related to increases in genre-related judgments after a single exposure. Limitations of the transportability measure to represent repeated transportive exposures are discussed.
Article
Four studies were conducted to explore how tender affective states (e.g., warmth, sympathy, understanding) predict attraction to entertainment that features poignant, dramatic, or tragic portrayals. Studies 1 and 2 found that tenderness was associated with greater interest in viewing sad films. Studies 3 and 4 found that tender affective states were associated with preferences for entertainment featuring not only sad portrayals but also entertainment featuring drama and human connection. Results are discussed in terms of how these forms of entertainment may provide viewers the opportunity to contemplate the poignancies of human life - an activity that may reflect motivations of media use related to meaningfulness or insight rather than only the experience of pleasure.