, Michael Portzky
, Kathelijne Peremans
and Kurt Audenaert
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium;
PC Dr. Guislain, Psychiatric Hospital, Ghent, Belgium and
Psychiatry, Zorgsaam/RGC, Terneuzen, The Netherlands
Cotard’s syndrome is characterized by nihilistic delusions focused on the individual’s body including loss of body parts, being dead, or not
existing at all. The syndrome as such is neither mentioned in
. There is growing unanimity that Cotard’s syndrome
with its typical nihilistic delusions externalizes an underlying disorder. Despite the fact that Cotard’s syndrome is not a diagnostic entity in
our current classification systems, recognition of the syndrome and a specific approach toward the patient is mandatory.
This paper overviews the historical aspects, clinical characteristics, classification, epidemiology, and etiological issues and includes recent
views on pathogenesis and neuroimaging. A short overview of treatment options will be discussed.
Keywords: Cotard’s syndrome, nihilistic delusion, misidentification syndrome, review
Correspondence: Hans Debruyne, P.C. Dr. Guislain Psychiatric Hospital Ghent, Fr. Ferrerlaan 88A, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Tel: 32 9 216
3311; Fax: 32 9 2163312; e-mail: email@example.com
INTRODUCTION: HISTORICAL ASPECTS AND
Cotard’s syndrome is named after Jules Cotard (18401889),
a French neurologist who described this condition for the
first time in 1880, in a case report of a 43-year-old woman.
Mss X, affirms she has no brain, no nerves, no
chest, no stomach, no intestines; there’s only
skin and bones of a decomposing body. ...She
has no soul, God does not exist, neither the
devil. She’s nothing more than a decomposing
body, and has no need to eat for living, she
cannot die a natural death, she exists eternally if
she’s not burned, the fire will be the only
solution for her. (Translation from Cotard
Cotard formulated a new type of depression, characterized by
anxious melancholia, ideas of damnation or rejection,
insensitivity to pain, delusions of nonexistence concerning
one’s own body, and delusions of immortality. He categor-
ized this under lype
´manie, a kind of psychotic depression,
based on the analogy with five cases described in 1838 by
Later, Cotard introduced de
´lire des negations as new
terminology for the syndrome.
The eponym Cotard’s syndrome
was introduced in 1887 by Se
A few years later, Re
stated that the syndrome (he named it de
´lire de Cotard) was not
only associated with depression, but might be linked to other
psychiatric disorders as well.
Two components of the syndrome were defined by Tissot:
an affective component associated with anxiety and a cognitive
component associated with the presence of delusion.
made a first attempt to classify different types
of the syndrome. They described a nongeneralized de
negation, associated with paralysis, alcoholic psychosis,
dementia, and the ‘‘real’’ Cotard’s syndrome, only found in
anxious melancholia and chronic hypochondria.
1968, Saavedra proposed a classification into three types:
depressive,mixed,andschizophrenic. He drew a distinction
between a ‘‘genuine’’ Cotard’s syndrome occurring during
depressive states and what he described as a pseudonihilistic
or pseudo-Cotard syndrome classified as ‘‘co-anaesthetic
In 1995, for the first time, a classification was made on
evidence basis. In a retrospective factor analysis of 100 cases
in literature, Berrios and Luque subdivided Cotard’s syn-
drome into three types. A first type included a form of
psychotic depression, characterized by anxiety, melancholic
delusions of guilt, and auditory hallucinations. A second
type, described as Cotard’s syndrome type I, was associated with
hypochondriac and nihilistic delusions and absence of
depressive episodes. The third group was the Cotard’s syndrome
type II, with anxiety, depression, auditory hallucinations,
delusions of immortality, nihilistic delusions, and suicidal
behavior as characteristic features.
Cotard’s syndrome is currently not classified as a separate
disorder in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10.InDSM-IV-TR, nihilistic
delusions are categorized as mood congruent delusions within
a depressive episode with psychotic features.
Cotard’s syndrome as a separate entity is an extremely difficult
exercise in our current diagnostic classification system.
For this article, we started from the search results for
‘‘Cotard syndrome,’’ ‘‘Cotard’s syndrome,’’ and ‘‘nihilistic
MIND & BRAIN, THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY REVIEW ARTICLE
www.slm-psychiatry.com 67 M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011
delusion(s)’’ using PubMed and Web of Science. Relevant
articles in English, French, Dutch, and German were
gathered. Since data on this topic is scarce, we looked at
every article for relevant cross references. A general Internet
search on Google was also used. From this last result, we
only included articles written in peer-reviewed journals. Using
this method, we tried to obtain all available peer-reviewed
data on this topic. This was necessary because there are no
controlled studies available. All literature is dominated by
case studies and some case series.
PRESENTATION AND COURSE
As described earlier, nihilistic delusions concerning the
individual’s body are the central features of Cotard’s syn-
drome. In an analysis of 100 cases, the most prominent
symptoms in Cotard’s syndrome are: depressive mood (89%),
nihilistic delusions concerning one’s own existence (69%),
anxiety (65%), delusions of guilt (63%), delusions of
immortality (55%), and hypochondriac delusions (58%).
Some case reports concerning delusional denial of preg-
nancy despite clear morphologic signs
paralysis in a patient with psychomotor agitation
reported as a special form of Cotard’s syndrome. However,
the classification of these delusions as nihilistic delusions
concerning one’s body can be debated.
A classical description of the course of Cotard’s syndrome is
given by Enoch and Trethowan. In its early stages, Cotard’s
syndrome is characterized by a vague feeling of anxiety, with a
varying time span from weeks to years. This anxious state
gradually augments and can result in nihilistic delusions
where denial of life or denial of body parts are the prominent
features. The patient looses sense of reality.
delusion of being dead, these patients show an increased
tendency to automutilation or suicidal behavior. Additional
symptoms may include analgesia and mutism. The core
symptoms always reflect a preoccupation with guilt, despair,
Delusions can be accompanied by a de
´, a delusion of massive increase of body measures.
This has been described as the manic Cotard’s syndrome.
syndrome often occurs in association with other psychotic
states, symptoms of these specific disorders are likely to be
present. As an example, nihilistic delusions grafted on a
depressive illness are often associated by other characteristics
of a depressive episode such as weight loss and sleeping
difficulties and the syndrome associated with organic disease
is often associated with other symptoms such as disorienta-
tion or neurological signs.
The duration of the syndrome
can vary from weeks to years depending on the underlying
In 1999, Yamada et al
made a proposal for staging
Cotard’s syndrome. Based on a case report, he defined three
stages: germination stage, blooming stage, and chronic
stage. The germination stage is characterized by important
hypochondria, cenesthopathy, and depressive mood. A
diagnosis of Cotard’s syndrome cannot be made in this
stage yet. In the blooming stage, the characteristic features of
Cotard’s syndrome (nihilistic delusions, delusions of im-
mortality together with anxiety and negativism) are seen. The
last stage, the chronic stage is differentiated in two forms: one
with persistent emotional disturbances (depressive type) and
a second where depressive symptoms are less prominent
This hypothesis was supported in a second
The prevalence and incidence of this rare syndrome is not
known. Only one study reported on prevalence in a selected
psychogeriatric population in Hong Kong. In 2 out of 349
patients, Cotard’s syndrome was diagnosed suggesting a
prevalence of .57% in this population. A prevalence of 3.2%
was reached when severely depressed elderly were included.
A recent study found .62% (n3) of patients in a Mexican
sample (screened over a 2-year period) of primary psychiatric
patients having Cotard’s syndrome.
Using the same
methodology they found also .11% (n1) having Cotard’s
syndrome in a sample of neurological patients with mental
The likelihood of developing Cotard’s delu-
sion appears to increase with age.
Berrios and Luque
found a mean age of 56 years in their analysis of 100 cases.
A more recent study of 138 cases reported a mean age of
Women appear to be more vulnerable.
syndrome is found in different ethnic groups.
syndrome is also occasionally described in children and
Diagnosis of Cotard’s syndrome in people
under 25 years old was described to be associated with
Since Cotard’s syndrome is conceptualized as part of an
underlying disorder, several psychiatric and somatic diseases
have been associated with the syndrome. Unipolar
depression are the most common
associated psychiatric disorders but also comorbid psychotic
has been reported. Some studies repor-
ted on the occurrence of Cotard’s syndrome with more
uncommon psychiatric syndromes (hydrophobia,
folie a deux,
). Also Par-
kinsonian symptoms, disappearing with successful treat-
ment, are described.
Several organic conditions were also
major depressive episode in mild
depression in frontotemporal atro-
severe mental retardation,
superior sagittal sinus thrombosis,
temporal lobe epilepsy,
limbic epileptic in-
cerebral arteriovenous mal-
cerebral arteriovenous malformation and
a noninfectious complication of heart transplan-
as a consequence of an adverse drug reaction to
aciclovir and its prodrug valaciclovir
and in herpetic
Mind & Brain, the Journal of Psychiatry
M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011 68 www.slm-psychiatry.com
ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
The first structural imaging study was performed in 1986,
using Computed Tomography (CT). An association of
Cotard’s syndrome with multifocal brain atrophy and inter-
hemispheric enlargement was suggested.
described an enlargement of the third and lateral ventricle,
a specific lesion to the temporoparietal areas,
in the nondominant temporoparietal areas, sometimes to-
gether with frontal damage.
In general, these studies point
to an important role for the frontotemporoparietal circuitry
in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. However, in most
cases, gross structural changes on structural brain imaging
Several functional imaging studies in Cotard’s syndrome
patients were published. A dopamine D2 receptor SPECT
I-iodobenzamide (IBZM), performed in one
patient, showed an asymmetric striatal D
receptor binding in
favor of the left hemisphere. These SPECT-findings persisted
after remission. In this specific patient, no perfusion altera-
tions were found with
ime (HMPAO) SPECT before treatment.
Several, but not all,
case studies reported decreased perfusion in several cortical
areas measured with the same perfusion SPECT tracer. In one
patient, a left-sided hypoperfusion in temporal, parietal, and
frontal lobes was found with full recovery of the left inferior
frontal hypoperfusion and minimal remaining hypoperfusion
in the left temporal lobe after successful treatment using
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
A similar recovery of
perfusion was found in another patient after ECT-treatment
in the medial parietal cortex, medial and dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and thalamus.
ful treatment with ECT in a patient with underlying major
depressive disorder resulted in recovery of left and right
and normalization of perfusion in
the frontal cortex was reported after treatment with anti-
In one patient, severe right hemispheric
dysfunction on neuropsychological tasks was not accompa-
nied by perfusion abnormalities measured with
Cysteine Dimer (ECD) SPECT.
Psychological and Neuropsychological Factors
A depersonalization phenomenon was reported as an
essential step in the development of Cotard’s syndrome by
Alheid elaborated depersonalization in the
Cotard’s syndrome context using the German terminology
‘‘Leib’’ (body for me) and ‘‘Ko¨rper’’ (body as such). Deperso-
nalization may occur when ‘‘Ko¨rper’’ prevails over ‘‘Leib’’ and
when the body is less associated with the self (Leib). However,
in depersonalization the patient feels like being dead
(indifference of affect), while in Cotard’s syndrome the
patient is convinced to be dead (lack of feeling).
In the development of bizarre psychiatric syndromes related
to parietal brain dysfunction, Critchley stated that the role of
premorbid personality characteristics is essential.
regard to this premorbid personality characteristic, it is
proposed that in Cotard’s syndrome, patients with a more
internal attributional style (which is often co-occurring with
depression) are more vulnerable to develop the syndrome.
While patients with a more external attributional style (which
is more co-occurring with paranoia) are more prone to
develop Capgras’s syndrome (a delusion where familiar
persons are replaced by identical impostors).
esis that Cotard’s patients have a more internal attribution
style was empirically tested in one case.
A significant higher
score on two attribution bias indices (internalizing bias index,
internalizing bias for negative events) calculated on the
IPSAQ (Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Ques-
tionnaire) was found in this patient with Cotard’s syndrome
compared to control subjects.
However, several authors
reported the co-occurrence of both Cotard’s syndrome and
Vinkers suggested that a
combination of attribution styles occur in these patients, in
so far that these patients are both depressed and paranoid or
that they suffer from delusions about self-identity and about
identity of others.
Unfortunately, evidence-based proof for
this hypothesis is lacking.
The origin of both syndromes (and other delusional
misidentification syndromes) is supposed to be related to a
dysfunction of an information processing subsystem where
face and body recognition is associated with recognition of
familiarity. When a feeling of familiarity is absent, the
patients may experience a feeling of derealization and
This hypothesis is supported by several
studies for a number of misidentification syndromes and
especially for Capgras’s syndrome.
studies on face recognition tasks with skin conductance as
outcome measure the differential autonomic response to
familiar faces compared to unknown faces is absent in
patients with Capgras’s syndrome.
Another patient with
atypical Capgras’s delusion showed impaired interpretation
of facial expressions. This leads to mistake differences in
expression for differences in identity.
For Cotard’s syn-
drome, a lack of differential autonomic response to anything
is suggested. This can lead to the delusion of being dead,
where in Capgras’s delusion there is only lack of familiarity to
familiar faces, leading to the delusion of familiar persons
being replaced by identical impostors. In this hypothesis, the
psychopathology in Cotard’s syndrome is more severe and
On the other hand, the lack of feeling
of familiarity cannot completely explain the pathophysiology
of delusional misidentification syndromes. Patients with
brain damage of the ventromedial region of the frontal cortex
also demonstrate absence of differential autonomic respon-
sivity to familiar faces, despite the absence of delusions. The
same is seen in patients suffering from pure autonomic
failure. There a lack of differential autonomic responsivity to
anything is seen despite the absence of delusions. Therefore,
to explain delusions a second factor is needed. This factor is
responsible for the failure to reject the hypothesis (eg, I’m
dead as a explanation for the lack of feeling of familiarity to
anything) despite the presence of (often overwhelming)
www.slm-psychiatry.com 69 M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011
evidence against it.
Hence, for Cotard’s syndrome, a two-
factor hypothesis is proposed. Here, the first factor con-
tributes to the total lack of autonomic response to anything
(as in pure autonomic failure), the second to not being able to
reject the hypothesis ‘‘I’m dead.’’
In this hypothesis the
loss of affect (first factor) is more pronounced and general-
ized than in Capgras patients.
On the other hand, the
difference in attributional style could also be an explanation
for the different hypothesis formation in the first factor.
The importance of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
(RDLPFC) for hypothesis evaluating was demonstrated with
It has also been observed that right frontal damage
is commonly occurring in cases of delusional misidentifica-
tions (including Cotard’s syndrome).
PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Complete recovery may occur as spontaneously and as
suddenly as its onset, even in the most severe cases.
link the prognosis to the underlying
If the nihilistic delusions are related to an acute
psycho-organic syndrome, the prognosis is
good and the condition tends to resolve. If,
however, it is associated with a depressive
illness, it may well persist even when the other
symptoms of the depressive illness have
cleared. Under this circumstance, and where
the condition becomes chronic, the delusional
state of negation usually waxes and wanes in
intensity, depending on the periodic fluctua-
tions of the depressive disorder. When the
phenomenology is part of a schizophrenic
illness, it usually improves when the other
symptoms respond to therapy, but it can also
persist for years as part of a chronic schizo-
In general, no further statements can be made about
prognosis from the available literature. In most publications,
prognosis is not discussed. It seems prognosis can widely
vary from spontaneous recovery to a very severe chronic
condition. An important exclusion for this is when Cotard’s
syndrome is diagnosed under the age of 25 years. In these
cases, there seems to be an association with bipolar
Diagnostic work-up of the underlying disorders should
therefore be a guide for treatment. Several reports are
published about successful treatments. Pharmacological
monotherapy such as amitriptyline,
has been reported as effective. However, usually
combination strategies are used (clomipramine/
Adding bromocriptine to clomipramine and
lithium had a beneficial effect in a patient with bipolar
disorder type I.
The most reported treatment strategy for Cotard’s syndrome
is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
Based on the classification of Berrios and
a suggestion was made that ECT is indicated in
patients with Cotard’s syndrome and psychotic depression,
while antipsychotics exert better effects in Cotard’s syndrome
In one patient, spontaneous recovery after two grand
mal seizures was reported illustrating the usefulness of
seizure activity in the treatment of Cotard’s syndrome.
Treatment should initially follow current treatment guidelines
of the underlying conditions, since no randomized studies are
performed on this Cotard’s syndrome. In depressive disorder
with psychotic features, ECT (often in combination with
farmacotherapy) seems to be the most supported strategy.
Enoch and Trethowan rightly argue that apart from these
treatments, special measures can be needed. The severe
distress may lead to important suicide risk, especially in
patients suffering from major depressive disorder. This may
be in contrast with the delusion of being already dead. During
recovery this risk may even become more pronounced when
the patient becomes more active.
They also mention the
importance of therapeutic support for these patients. They
indeed suffer from severe fright and despair, making contact
with caring professionals essential.
Despite that Cotard’s syndrome was first described more
than a century ago, literature on this topic remains restricted
to case reports. Although the syndrome is rare, more larger
scale research is needed to further clarify the pathophysiolo-
gic underpinnings of the disease and its relation to other
delusions of misidentification such as Capgras syndrome.
Promising hypotheses have been formulated but evidence-
based support is lacking. To elucidate uncertainties regarding
epidemiology, course, associated diseases, treatment options,
and prognosis, a careful registration of all cases could be of
great value. In this regard, recognition of this condition is
essential. The restriction of publications to case reports is a
potential pitfall. Sometimes general conclusions on course,
pathophysiology, or treatment are made, based on one or a
few cases. On this topic, the literature has to be read
The syndrome as such is not catalogued in our current
classification system. It has to be diagnosed as part of an
underlying disorder. Also treatment is guided by this
diagnosis. Although Cotard’s syndrome is more like a
symptom of its underlying condition, in our opinion
recognition of this phenomenological entity remains impor-
tant. Its very specific presentation, in spite of the extensive list
of etiologies indicating a shared pathological pathway, is
intriguing. In the management of these patients, a better
Mind & Brain, the Journal of Psychiatry
M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011 70 www.slm-psychiatry.com
understanding of the psychopathology and its neuropsycho-
logic mechanisms can be of great value. Specific safety
measures can also be required due to the dramatic sympto-
Disclosures: The author declares no conflict of interest.
1. Cotard J. Du de
´lire hypocondriaque dans une forme grave de la
´lancholie anxieuse. Ann Med Psychol. 1880;4:168174.
2. Cotard J. Du de
´lire des ne
´gations. Arch Neurol. 1882;4:282428.
´glas J. Me
´lancholie anxieuse avec de
´lire des negations. Progr Med.
´gis E. Notre historique et clinique sur le de
´lire de negations. Gaz Med
5. Tissot F. De
´lire des negations termine
l’hypochondrie et la melancholie. Ann Med Psychol. 1921;79:321328.
6. Loudet O, Martinez DL. Sobre la psicoe
´nesis y el valor pronostico del
sindrome de Cotard. Arch Argent Neurol. 1933;1:112.
7. Saavedra V. El syndrome de Cotard. Consideraciones psicopathologicas y
nosograficas. Rev Neuropsiquiatr. 1968;11:175211.
8. Berrios GE, Luque R. Cotard’s syndrome: analysis of 100 cases. Acta
Psychiatr Scand. 1995;91:185188.
9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of
Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC:
10. Walloch JE, Klauwer C, Lanczik M, Brockington IF, Kornhuber J.
Delusional denial of pregnancy as a special form of Cotard’s syndrome.
11. Reif A, Murach WM, Pfuhlmann B. Delusional paralysis: an unusual
variant of Cotard’s syndrome. Psychopathology. 2003;36:218220.
12. Enoch D, Trethowan W. Cotard’s syndrome. In: Uncommon Psychiatric
Syndromes. 3rd ed. Oxford: Butterworth & Heinemann; 1991:162183.
13. Hansen ES, Bolwig TG. Cotard syndrome: an important manifestation of
melancholia. Nord J Psychiatry. 1995;36:218223.
14. Yamada K, Katsuragi S, Fujii I. A case study of Cotard’s syndrome: stages
and diagnosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999;100:396399.
15. Duggal HS, Jagadheesan K, Haque Nizamie S. Biological basis and
staging of Cotard’s syndrome. Eur Psychiatr. 2002;17:108109.
16. Chiu HFK. Cotard’s syndrome in psychogeriatric patients in Hong Kong.
Gen Hosp Psychiatr. 1995;17:5455.
17. Ramirez-Bermudez J, Aguilar-Venegas LC, Crail-Melendez D, Espinola-
Nadurille M, Nente F, Mendes MF. Cotard syndrome in neurological and
psychiatric patients. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;22:409416.
18. Edelstyn NMJ, Oyebode F. A review of the phenomenology and cognitive
neuropsychological origins of the Cotard delusion. Neurol Psychiatry Brain
19. Consoli A, Soultanian C, Tanhuy M, et al. Cotard’s syndrome in
adolescents and young adults is associated with an increased risk of
bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9:665668.
20. Allen JR, Pfefferbaum B, Hammond D, Speed L. A disturbed child’s use
of a public event: Cotard’s syndrome in a ten-year-old. Psychiatry.
21. Butler PV. Diurnal variation in Cotard’s syndrome (copresent with
Capgras delusion) following traumatic brain injury. Aust N Z J Psychiatry.
22. Camarero M, Real V. Sindrome de Cotard en adolescente. Psiquiatria
23. Cohen D, Cottias C. Basquin M. Cotard’s syndrome in a 15-year old girl.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997;4:164165.
24. Dugas M, Haflon O, Badoual AM, Golse B, Huet S. Le syndrome de
Cotard chez l’adolescent. Neuropsychiatr Enf. 1985;33:493498.
25. Fillastre M, Fontaine A, Depecker L, Degiovanni A. Cinq cas de syndrome
de Cotard de l’adolescent et de l’adulte jeune. Ence
26. Haflon O, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Dugas M. Le syndrome de Cotard chez
l’adolescent. Ann Med Psychol. 1985;149:876879.
27. Liebowitz MC, McGrath PJ, Bush SC. Mania occurring during treatment
for depersonalisation: a report of two cases. J Clin Psychiatry. 1980;41:
28. Mendhekar DN, Gupta N. Recurrent posticatal depression with Cotard
delusion. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:529531.
29. Soultanian C, Perisse D, Re
´vah-Levy A, Luque R, Mazet P, Cohen D.
Cotard’s syndrome in adolescents and young adults: a possible onset of
bipolar disorder requiring a mood stabilizer? J Child Adolesc Psychophar-
30. Yalin S, Varol Tas F, Gu
¨venir T. The coexistence of Capgras, Fregoli and
Cotard’s syndromes in an adolescent case. Arch Neuropsychiatry.
31. Christensen RC. Cotard’s syndrome in a homeless man. Psychiatric
32. De Berardis D, Serroni N, Campanella D, Marasco V, Moschetta FS, Di
Giannantonio M. A case of Cotard’s syndrome successfully treated with
aripiprazole monotherapy. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.
2010;37:1348. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.06.015
33. De Risio S, De Rossi G, Sarchiapone M, et al. A case of Cotard syndrome:
123I-IBZM SPECT imaging of striatal D2 receptor binding. Psychiatry Res.
34. Hagen S, Voss SH. Cotard’s syndrome in depression and maintenance
electroconvulsive therapy [abstract]. Ugeskr Leager. 2002;164:34523453.
35. Hamon JM, Ginestet D. De
´lire des ne
`propos de quatre
observations. Ann Med Psychol. 1994;152:425443.
36. Hashioka S, Monji A, Sasaki M, Yoshida I, Baba K, Tashiro N. A patient
with Cotard syndrome who showed an improvement in single photon
emission computed tomography findings after successful treatment with
antidepressants. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2002;25:276279.
37. Ko SM. Cotard’s syndrome*two case reports. Sing Med J. 1989;30:277
38. Kucia K, Delkowski RS. ECT treatment of Cotard’s syndrome in a patient
with combined valvular heart disease and persistent atrial fibrillation
[abstract]. Wiad Lek. 2004;57:290292.
39. Leistedt S, Coumans N, Ladha K, Linkowski P. La ne
´gation du corps: a
propos de trois observations concernant les de
´lires de Jules Cotard. Ann
Med Psychol. 2009;167:669676.
40. Lohmann T, Nishimura K, Sabri O, Klosterko¨tter J. Successful electro-
convulsive therapy of Cotard syndrome with bitemporal hypoperfusion.
41. Nejad AG. Hydrophobia as a rare presentation of Cotard’s syndrome: a
case report. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;106:156158.
42. Petracca G, Migliorelli R, Vazquez S, Starkstein SE. SPECT findings
before and after ECT in a patient with major depression and Cotard’s
syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7:505507.
43. Takahashi T, Nibuya M, Nomura S. Delusion of Cotard’s syndrome
successfully treated with a dopamine agonist. J Neuropsychiatry Clin
44. Wani ZA, Khan AW, Baba AA, Khan HA, Wani QA, Taploo R. Cotard’s
syndrome and delayed diagnosis in Kashmir, India. Int J Ment Health Syst.
45. Baeza I, Salva J, Bernardo M. Cotard’s syndrome in a young male bipolar
patient. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;12:119120.
46. Debruyne H, Portzky M, Van den Eynde F, Audenaert K. Cotard’s
syndrome: a review. Curr Psychiatr Rep. 2009;11:197202.
47. Kondo S, Hayashi H, Eguchi T, Oyama T, Wada T, Otani K.
Bromocriptine augmentation in a patient with Cotard’s syndrome. Prog
Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr. 2003;27:719721.
48. Nejad AG, Toofani K. Co-existence of lycantrophy and Cotard’s
syndrome in a single case. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111:250252.
49. Silva JA, Leong GB, Weinstock R, Gonzales CL. A case of Cotard’s
syndrome associated with self-starvation. J Forensic Sci. 2000;45:188190.
50. Caliyurt O, Vardar E, Tuglu C. Cotard’s syndrome with schizophreniform
disorder can be successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy: case
report. Rev Psychiatr Neurosci. 2004;29:138141.
51. Joseph AB. Cotard’s syndrome in a patient with coexistent Capgras’
syndrome in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.
www.slm-psychiatry.com 71 M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011
52. Matsukura S, Yoshimi H, Sueoka S, Chihara K, Fujita T, Tanimoto K.
b-endorphin in Cotard’s syndrome. Lancet. 1981;17:162163.
53. Nejad AG, Kerdegari M, Reihani-Kermani H. Self-mutilation of the nose
in a schizophrenic patient with Cotard syndrome. Arch Iranian Med.
54. Wolff G, McKenzie K. Capgras, Fregoli and Cotard’s syndromes and
Koro in folie a
`deux. Brit J Psychiatry. 1994;106:842.
55. Shiraishi H, Ito M, Hayashi H, Otani K. Sulpiride treatment of Cotard’s
syndrome in schizophrenia. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.
56. Wright S, Young AW, Hellawell DJ. Sequential Cotard and Capgras
delusions. Br J Clin Psychol. 1993;32:345349.
57. Conchiglia G, Della Rocca G, Grossi D. When the body image becomes
‘empty’: Cotard’s delusion in a demented patient. Achta Neuropsychiatrica.
58. Fazzari G, Benzoni O, Sangaletti A, et al. Improvement of cognition in a
patient with Cotard’s delusions and frontotemporal atrophy receiving
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. Int Psychiogeriatrics.
59. Kearns A. Cotard’s syndrome in a mentally handicapped man. Brit J
60. Campbell S, Volow MR, Cavenar JO. Cotard’s syndrome and the
psychiatric manifestations of typhoid fever. Am J Psychiatr.
61. Drake MEJ. Cotard’s syndrome and temporal lobe epilepsy. Psychiatr J
Univ Ott. 1988;13:3639.
62. Hu WT, Diesing TS, Meissner I. Cotard’s syndrome in a patient with
superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Biol Psychiatr. 2006;56:263S.
63. Bathia MS. Cotard syndrome in parietal lobe tumor. Indian Pediatr.
64. Greenberg DB, Hochberg FH, Murray GB. The theme of death in
complex partial seizures. Am J Psychiatr. 1984;141:15871589.
65. Gardner-Thorpe C, Pearn J. The Cotard syndrome. Report of two
patients: with a review of the extended spectrum of ‘de
´lire des ne
Eur J Neurology. 2004;11:563566.
66. Bathia MS, Agrawal P, Malic SC. Cotard’s syndrome in migraine (a case
report). Indian J Med Sci. 1993;47:152153.
67. Lerner V, Bergman J, Greenberg D, Bar El Y. Laurence-Moon-Bardet-
Biedl syndrome in combination with Cotard’s syndrome. Case report. Isr J
Psychiatr Relat Sci. 1995;32:291294.
68. Cannas A, Spissu A, Floris GL, et al. Bipolar affective disorder and
Parkinson’s disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognised associa-
tion. Neurol Sci. 2002;23:S67S68.
69. Factor SA, Molho ES. Treating auditory hallucinations and Cotard
syndrome in Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2004;27:205207.
70. Kundlur SNC, George S, Jaimon M. An overview of the neurological
correlates of Cotard syndrome. Eur J Psychiat. 2007;21:99116.
71. Paulig M, Bo¨ttger S, Sommer M, Prosiegel M. Depersonalisationssyn-
drom nach erworbener Hirnscha
¨berblick anhand von 3 Fall-
beispielen und Literatur sowie Diskussion a
72. Young AW, Robertson IH, Hellawell DJ. Cotard delusion after brain
injury. Psychol Med. 1992;22:799804.
73. Munoz P, Valerio M, Palomo J, et al. Infections and non-infectious
neurologic complications in heart transplantations recipients. Medicine.
´n A, Odar-Cederlo¨f I, Larsson K, Fehrman-Ekholm I, Linde
Death delusion. BMJ. 2007;335:1305.
75. Joseph AB, O’Leary DH. Brain atrophy and interhemispheric fissure
enlargement in Cotard’s syndrome. J Clin Psychiatr. 1986;47:518520.
76. Gerrans P. Refining the explanation of Cotard’s delusion. Mind Lang.
77. McKay R, Cipolotti L. Attributional style in a case of Cotard delusion.
Conscious Cogn. 2007;16:349359.
78. Vinkers DJ. Reactie op ‘Het syndroom van Cotard. Een overzicht’.Tijdschr
79. Young AW, Leafhead KM. Betwixt life and death: case studies of Cotard
delusion. In: Halligan PW, Marshall JC, eds. Method in Madness: Case Studies
in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. Hove, East Sussex: Taylor & Francis;
80. Ellis HD, Young AW, Quayle AH, de Pauw KW. Reduced automatic
responses to faces in Capgras delusion. Proc Biol Sci. 1997;264:10851092.
81. Hirstein W, Ramachandran VS. Capgras syndrome: a novel probe for
understanding the neutral representation of the identity and familiarity of
persons. Proc Biol Sci. 1997;264:437444.
82. Breen N, Caine D, Coltheart M. The role of affect and reasoning in a
patient with a delusion of misidentification. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry.
83. Davis M, Coltheart M, Langdon R, Breen N. Monothematic delusions:
towards a two-factor account. Philosophy. Psychiatry Psychol. 2001;8:133
84. Coltheart M. The 33rd Sir Frederick Barlett Lecture: cognitive neurop-
sychiatry and delusional belief. Q J Exp Psychol. 2007;60:10411062.
85. Coltheart M, Langdon R, McKay R. Schizophrenia and monothematic
delusions. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33:642647.
86. Coltheart M. The neuropsychology of delusions. Ann N Y Acad Sci.
87. Corlett PR, Aitken MR, Dickinson A, et al. Prediction error during
retrospective evaluation of causal associations in humans: fMRI evidence
in favor of an associative model of learning. Neuron. 2004;44:877888.
88. Fletcher PC, Anderson JM, Shanks DR, et al. Responses of human frontal
cortex to surprising events are predicted by formal associative learning
theory. Nat Neurosci. 2001;10:10431048.
89. Turner DC, Aitken MR, Shanks DR, et al. The role of the lateral frontal
cortex in causal associative learning: exploring preventative and super-
learning. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:872880.
90. Gerrans P. Delusions as performance failures. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry.
91. Kozian R. Duloxetin bei Cotard Syndrom. Psychiatr Prax. 2005;32:412413.
92. Jitsuiki H, Sasaki T, Wada K, Takaishi Y, Mifune Y. Two cases of senile
mood disorders successfully treated with olanzapine. Intl Clin Psycho-
93. Madani Y, Sabbe BGC. Het Cotardsyndroom. Differentie
volgens subclassificatie. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2007;49:4953.
94. Chan JH, Chen CH, Robson D. Case report: effective treatment of
Cotard’s syndrome: quetiapine in combination with venlafaxine. Psychia-
try Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:125126.
95. Ruminjo A, Mekinulov B. A case report of Cotard’s syndrome. Psychiatry
96. Bourgeois M. Le syndrome de Cotard aujourd’hui. Ann Med Psychol.
97. Mahgoub NA, Hossain A. Cotard’s syndrome and electroconvulsive
therapy. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55:1319.
98. Montgomery JH, Vasu D. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in
a typical psychotic presentations: a case review. Psychiatry (Edgmont).
99. Malone K, Malone JP. Remarkable resolution of an uncommon
psychosyndrome*epilepsy-induced remission of Cotard’s syndrome. Ir
J Psychological Med. 1992;9:5354.
Mind & Brain, the Journal of Psychiatry
M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011 72 www.slm-psychiatry.com