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Perceptions of web knowledge and usability: When sex and experience matter

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Abstract

Web users are now a mixture of consumer and web designer. As such, the context within which we are socialized about the web - as both male and female users - moderates the relationship between what we think we know about it and its usability to complete tasks. With online survey data from 2077 web users, we empirically examine the relationship between user perceptions of web knowledge (our confidence in what we think we know) and user beliefs about usability of the web (how easy and useful we believe it to be). We include a user's sex and their website design experience as important moderators on this relationship. Results show a positive relationship between perceived web knowledge and web usability, and under the context of website design experience, more value is placed on the utility of the web, rather than on its ease of use. This moderation effect is stronger for female than it is for male web users. In summary, users with more confidence in their knowledge are more oriented towards the utility of the web than how easy it is to harvest that utility. Our work contributes to an understanding of the influence of the usage context within which the knowledge and beliefs of male and female users are socialized about web technology.

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... Besides, it has been empirically demonstrated that self-efficacy is an antecedent of a person's anxiety (e.g. [15,25,42,71,74], although other authors have found the opposite direction [8,59,80]. In our case, as proposed by Bandura, self-efficacy negatively influences anxiety. ...
... In the ICT environment, gender affects variables such as performance usefulness, self-efficacy and subjective norms [88] and explains the differences in terms of Web/Internet/e-service participation indicators. Likewise, it has been found [71] that women report lower Internet skill levels, exhibit higher levels of discomfort in their online activities and perceive the Web as less useful than men Web users do. Powell [74] finds that women and older people are more likely to experience anxiety than those who are men or younger. ...
... That is to say, the greater their perception of the system's usefulness, the greater their use will be [89]. This is probably because women perceive ICT as being less useful than men do [71] and because they pay more attention to hedonic benefits [15] than to utilitarian benefits. Thirdly, we analyse the indirect relations (Table 6) of technological self-efficacy, IBS self-efficacy and technology anxiety with the model's endogenous variables. ...
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... This research builds on the theory of Moreau et al. (2001), Murray and Häubl (2007), and Page et al., 2012 to underscore the multifaceted nature of expertise in an online context. The results lend support to the paper's main thesis: user expertise is multifaceted and each facet has unique effects on the artifact adoption and acceptance. ...
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... Research has found that gender (Page, Robson, & Uncles, 2012;J. Pearson, A. Pearson, & Green, 2007), age (Laberge & Scialfa, 2005), subject matter knowledge and experience (Laberge & Scialfa, 2005), and computer self-efficacy (Page et al., 2012) influence the perception and navigation of websites; therefore, comparable aspects including gender, age, years of teaching experience, current teaching grade, comfort with technology, and frequency of Internet use for professional purposes, were selected as the key variables used for the group assignment. ...
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... In the context of social influence, research suggests that women tend to be more sensitive to the opinions of others and therefore social influence is more salient when forming an intention to use new technology (Miller, 1976;Venkatesh, Morris, & Ackerman, 2000). Thus, effect declines with experience Venkatesh et al., 2003) and differs on the basis of the social context within which they have been socialized (Page, Robson, & Uncles, 2012). Hence: ...
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... In the context of social influence, research suggests that women tend to be more sensitive to the opinions of others and therefore social influence is more salient when forming an intention to use new technology (Miller, 1976;Venkatesh, Morris, & Ackerman, 2000). Thus, effect declines with experience Venkatesh et al., 2003) and differs on the basis of the social context within which they have been socialized (Page, Robson, & Uncles, 2012). Hence: ...
... As aforementioned, it was stated that usability may vary depending on cultural specifications [11,[58][59][60]. It was also stated that usability may vary depending on personal preferences/differences [51,[67][68][69][70][71] or/and personal purposes of use [72,73]. In line with these statements, for future researches, studying mobile application usability in the contexts that include personal differences such as age, gender etc., usage purposes such as gaming, business etc. is suggested. ...
... This is consistent with recent research studies which arrived to the same conclusions (Bringula, 2013;Wagner, Hassanein, & Head, 2014) emphasizing that the age as a factor, has an influential impact on the performance of users. In alignment to previous studies on gender (Mentes & Turan, 2012;Page, Robson, & Uncles, 2012) reporting that gender can influence the performance and utilization of technology, the obtained results obtained have indicated that female students have shown greater use for the gamification system in terms of involvement and contributions compared to their male colleagues. Inversely, male students are observed to be more competitive gaining more rewards (stars and points) as well as they have longer lifespan duration for the use of the platform. ...
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... A study [15] found a positive relationship between web knowledge of subjects and their perception of web usability. This effect is moderated by sex and website design experience in the sense that subjects with website design experience place more value on the usefulness of web sites and this moderation effect is stronger for females than for males. ...
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... An online survey, conducted by Page, Robson, and Uncles (2012), discussed the social aspects of websites, and concluded that females with design experience have a higher self-belief and that their knowledge of the web's value is stronger than that of males. Cyr, Hassanein, Head, and Ivanov (2007) found that the influence of social value encourages people to use technology and is stronger for women than for men. ...
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... Second, even these studies have mostly considered the attributes related to websites such as website anxiety and website personalization rather than the website brand (e.g. Page et al., 2012;Xu, 2016). Third, Xiang et al. (2017) conducted an exploratory study to investigate the differences among three major online review websites of TripAdvisor, Expedia, and Yelp and found that the aforementioned review platforms are distinct from each other in many aspects such as supply of hotel products and information quality. ...
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... Männer legen weniger Wert auf Usability als Frauen. Die eigene Erfahrung in der Webgestaltung hat allerdings bei Frauen einen stärkeren Effekt als bei Männern, das heißt, Geschlechtsunterschiede verschwinden je nach Nutzungskontext und Erfahrung (Page, Robson & Uncles, 2012). ...
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Im Laufe eines Softwareentwicklungsprozesses muss eine Vielzahl von Entscheidungen getroffen werden – Zeit und Geld sind dabei meist knapp. Warum also noch einen weiteren Aspekt in den Prozess einbauen? Die Antwort ist einfach: Die Berücksichtigung der Genderperspektive kann die Bedarfsgerechtigkeit und Qualität von Software steigern, neue Marktpotenziale erschließen und Entwicklungskosten minimieren. Die vorliegenden Leitlinien geben hierzu eine Hilfestellung. Dabei soll es nicht darum gehen, Software „für Männer“ oder „für Frauen“ zu gestalten. Vielmehr geht es darum, sich bewusst zu machen, für wen eine Anwendung erstellt wird, wem welche Aufgaben zugeordnet werden. Und nicht zuletzt darum, niemanden auszuschließen – vielleicht ganz ohne es zu wollen. Die Leitlinien basieren auf dem menschzentrierten Gestaltungsprozess zur Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher interaktiver Systeme, wie die ISO-Norm 9241-210 ihn vorgibt. Es wird beschrieben, was zu beachten ist, um Gender-Blindheit zu vermeiden, also Gender in der Gestaltung von interaktiven Bedienoberflächen angemessen zu berücksichtigen.
... This is intuitively due to the proportional relationship between the age and the academic qualification. In alignment to previous studies on gender (Page et al., 2012;Mentes and Turan, 2012) which argued that gender is a factor that can impact the performance and acceptance users for utilizing technology, the results obtained in this study show male staff uses technology more than their female colleagues but marginal difference for the other constructs including TTF, attitude and social norms. However, female academics have expressed greater self-content with the online educational system. ...
... This is intuitively due to the proportional relationship between the age and the academic qualification. In alignment to previous studies on gender (Page et al., 2012;Mentes and Turan, 2012) which argued that gender is a factor that can impact the performance and acceptance users for utilizing technology, the results obtained in this study show male staff uses technology more than their female colleagues but marginal difference for the other constructs including TTF, attitude and social norms. However, female academics have expressed greater self-content with the online educational system. ...
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... A study conducted by McDaniel et al. (2012) reveals that females are very much engaged with the gamification elements. The studies conducted by Mentes and Turan, (2012) and Page et al. (2012) also support the influence of gamification elements on the female users. The studies also establish that female users tend to involve and engage more with a gamified system. ...
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... Users are focused on their needs and get easily frustrated if they cannot achieve these needs in simple way and really quickly (Krug, 2006). Users also take impressions and mental models from previous experiences (Page et al., 2012). Credibility of website is important too (Roghanizad, 2015). ...
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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Investigated the behavior of alternative covariance structure estimation procedures in the presence of nonnormal data. Monté Carlo simulation experiments were conducted with a factorial design involving 3 levels of skewness, 3 levels of kurtosis, and 3 different sample sizes. For normal data, among all the elliptical estimation techniques, elliptical reweighted least squares (ERLS) was equivalent in performance to maximum likelihood (ML) estimates. However, as expected for nonnormal data, parameter estimates were unbiased for ML and the elliptical estimation techniques, whereas the bias in standard errors was substantial for generalized least squares and ML. Among elliptical estimation techniques, ERLS was superior in performance. On the basis of the simulation results, it is recommended that researchers use ERLS for both normal and nonnormal data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The World Wide Web doubles in size roughly every 2–3 months and dramatic claims are made about the effectiveness of Web-based commercial efforts. The centrality of non-price mechanisms of differentiation to the perception, enjoyment and ease of use felt using websites is acknowledged but the only statistically rigorous studies of factors such as form and content have been conducted within a universalist paradigm of aesthetics. This paper reports on an interactionist approach to web aesthetics involving an analysis of 60 male- and female-produced websites. The analysis reveals statistically significant differences between the male- and female-produced websites on 13 out of the 23 factors analysed. These differences span issues of navigation as well as linguistic and visual content. The paper argues that the appeal of websites can be maximised if they mirror the needs and interests of their target populations and that websites targeted at male or female dominated markets need to reflect the aesthetic diversity found in the male- and female-produced websites analysed here. It also presents information on the demographics of the IT profession, showing that there is a potential imbalance between the percentage of women involved online and those involved in the IT profession. This suggests that the male domination of the IT profession could be a barrier to the effective mirroring of female Website preferences. Copyright
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Although a considerable amount of research has investigated consumer knowledge of individual prices, consumer knowledge of marketer pricing tactics (e.g., partitioned prices, pennies a day) has received only limited attention. In the current research, a model depicting hypothesized antecedents of consumer knowledge (both accurate and self-perceived) regarding pricing tactics marketers use is proposed and then investigated in two studies. Tests of the model provided support for the hypothesized antecedents of both objective and subjective pricing tactic knowledge and suggested that experience is a key moderator of the objective pricing tactic knowledge–subjective pricing tactic knowledge relationship. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Previous research indicates that perceived usefulness is a major determinant and predictor of intentions to use computers in the workplace. In contrast, the impact of enjoyment on usage intentions has not been examined. Two studies are reported concerning the relative effects of usefulness and enjoyment on intentions to use, and usage of, computers in the workplace. Usefulness had a strong effect on usage intentions in both Study 1, regarding word processing software (β=.68), and Study 2, regarding business graphics programs (β=.79). As hypothesized, enjoyment also had a significant effect on intentions in both studies, controlling for perceived usefulness (β=.16 and 0.15 for Studies 1 and 2, respectively). Study 1 found that intentions correlated 0.63 with system usage and that usefulness and enjoyment influenced usage behavior entirely indirectly through their effects on intentions. In both studies, a positive interaction between usefulness and enjoyment was observed. Together, usefulness and enjoyment explained 62% (Study 1) and 75% (Study 2) of the variance in usage intentions. Moreover, usefulness and enjoyment were found to mediate fully the effects on usage intentions of perceived output quality and perceived ease of use. As hypothesized, a measure of task importance moderated the effects of ease of use and output quality on usefulness but not on enjoyment. Several implications are drawn for how to design computer programs to be both more useful and more enjoyable in order to increase their acceptability among potential users.
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An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three invitation and incentivecombinations in a web-based survey. A stratified convenience sample of 434 researchers who were target users of a collaboratory for earthquake engineering was randomly divided into three experimental conditions: (a) a $5 bill sent with the survey instructions via first class mail, (b) a $5 gift certificate code to Amazon.com sent with the survey instructions via first-class mail, or (c) a $5 gift certificate code to Amazon.com sent with the survey instructions via e-mail. Overall response was 43%. Results show that $5 bills led to significantly higher response rates than either gift certificate condition (57% for cash vs. 36% for the two gift certificate conditions, [UNKNOWN]2(1) = 9.3, p < .01). This suggests that cash is a superior incentive for an online survey, even with technologically sophisticated respondents. This may be due to the perceived limitations, delayed payoff, or reduced visibility of online gift certificates.