Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes
UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Nature
(Impact Factor: 41.46).
07/2009; 459(7247):657-62. DOI: 10.1038/nature08064
Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine-to-serine genetic-code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the Candida albicans gene catalogue, identifying many new genes.
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Available from: Karina Gramacho
- "The biosynthetic pathways for ergosterol and steroids have been studied mostly in model organisms such as Kluveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in those that cause public health problems, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (Goffeau et al., 1996; Dujon et al., 2004; Jones et al., 2004; Nierman et al., 2005; Butler et al., 2009). However, there is little information on the steroid "
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Available from: Sheng Sun
- "However, bioinformatic studies of whole genome sequences revealed the existence of both opposite alleles of the mating-type locus (MAT), and population genetics studies revealed genetic recombination within the population. These advances first suggested sexual reproduction is an integral life cycle feature for these and other fungal species that have been thought to be asexual (Butler et al., 2009; Ene and Bennett, 2014; Heitman, 2006). "
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Available from: Chris Curtin
- "Nonetheless, formation of allotriploids such as AWRI1499 and AWRI1608 most likely required some form of sexual cycle and there has been substantial loss-of-heterozygosity across the genomes of the two sequenced diploid strains, which in S. cerevisiae is associated with genome renewal through homothallism (Mortimer et al., 1994). Signatures of sex in genome assemblies are difficult to assess and predictions based solely upon presence or absence of key orthologs have proven inaccurate – for example, both sexual and asexual Candida species are missing some of the same notionally key genes involved in fungal meiosis (Butler et al., 2009), implying "
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