Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments

Department of Psychology, Boston University, MA 02215, USA.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.8). 06/2009; 33(7):1089-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.05.004
Source: PubMed


In the 15 years since the publication of two previous reviews on restraint stress much advancement has been made in the field. However, while previous reviews have focused mainly on drug effects, recent research has focused on broader implications in the health fields. This research has placed an increased emphasis on stress effects in physiological, immunological, endocrine and developmental processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders. A major problem with our review was the inability to identify a large number of articles focusing on restraint and immobilization, since those keywords were often omitted from the title or not referred to within the body of the article. It seems likely that additional reviews with extended literature research of this field are required.

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    • "Thus, the stress response to restraint may begin prior to confinement. Cellular signaling pathways mediating physiological changes in response to restraint and the duration of responses following release from restraint have not been well characterized[69]. "
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    • "Except naive group, all mice were subjected to restraint stress by confining inside 50 mL conical tube (with 0.5 cm air holes for breathing) after 1 h of drug treatment. Restraint stress was performed 5 h without access of food or water every day, according to the previous description (Buynitsky and Mostofsky, 2009). The restraint process was conducted between 10:00 am and 15:00 pm daily. "
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    • "Acute stress was induced by movement restraint for 1 or 4 h (Pacák and Palkovitz, 2001; Buynitsky and Mostofsky, 2009). Subjects randomly assigned to be submitted to stress were gently placed in polycarbonate cylinders (20 cm long, 6.5 cm in diameter ) for either 1 or 4 h; these were designed to restrain major head and limb movement. "
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