Early-Onset Formation of Parenchymal Plaque Amyloid Abrogates Cerebral Microvascular Amyloid Accumulation in Transgenic Mice.

Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 05/2014; 289(25). DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.536565
Source: PubMed


The fibrillar assembly and deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a key pathology of Alzheimers disease (AD), can occur in the form of parenchymal amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Familial forms of CAA exist in the absence of appreciable parenchymal amyloid pathology. The molecular interplay between parenchymal amyloid plaques and CAA is unclear. Here we investigated how early-onset parenchymal amyloid plaques impact the development of microvascular amyloid in transgenic mice. Tg-5xFAD mice, which produce non-mutated human Aβ and develop early-onset parenchymal amyloid plaques, were bred to Tg-SwDI mice, which produce familial CAA mutant human Aβ and develop cerebral microvascular amyloid. The bigenic mice presented with elevated accumulation of Aβ and fibrillar amyloid in brain compared to either single transgenic line. Tg-SwDI/Tg-5xFAD mice were devoid of microvascular amyloid, the prominent pathology of Tg-SwDI mice, but exhibited larger parenchymal amyloid plaques compared to Tg-5xFAD mice. The larger parenchymal amyloid deposits were associated with a higher loss of cortical neurons and elevated activated microglia in the bigenic Tg-SwDI/Tg-5xFAD mice. The periphery of parenchymal amyloid plaques was largely composed of CAA mutant Aβ. Non-mutated Aβ fibril seeds promoted CAA mutant Aβ fibril formation in vitro. Further, intrahippocampal administration of biotin-labeled CAA mutant Aβ peptide accumulated on and adjacent to pre-existing parenchymal amyloid plaques in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings indicate that early-onset parenchymal amyloid plaques can serve as a scaffold to capture CAA mutant Aβ peptides and prevent their accumulation in cerebral microvessels.

Download full-text


Available from: Ziao Fu, Jan 09, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid peptides in the brain parenchyma and in the cerebral vessels. The sporadic form of AD accounts for about 95% of all cases. It is characterized by a late onset, typically after the age of 65, with a complex and still poorly understood aetiology. Several observations point towards a central role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the onset of sporadic AD (SAD). According to the “vascular hypothesis”, AD may be initiated by vascular dysfunctions that precede and promote the neurodegenerative process. In accordance to this, AD patients show increased hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke risks. It is now clear that multiple bidirectional connections exist between AD and cerebrovascular disease, and in this new scenario, the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular cells and blood platelets appear to be central to AD. In this review, we analyze the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular function and platelet activation and its contribution to the cerebrovascular pathology associated with AD and the progression of this disease.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental evidence point to a possible role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 5xFAD mouse model of AD expresses human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes with mutations found in AD patients. It remains unknown whether amyloid deposition driven by these mutations is associated with cerebrovascular changes. 5xFAD and wild type mice (2 to 12months old; M2 to M12) were used. Thinned skull in vivo 2-photon microscopy was used to determine Aβ accumulation on leptomeningeal or superficial cortical vessels over time. Parenchymal microvascular damage was assessed using FITC-microangiography. Collagen-IV and CD31 were used to stain basal lamina and endothelial cells. Methoxy-XO4, Thioflavin-S or 6E10 were used to visualize Aβ accumulation in living mice or in fixed brain tissues. Positioning of reactive IBA1 microglia and GFAP astrocytes at the vasculature was rendered using confocal microscopy. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) staining was used to visualize perivascular pericytes. In vivo 2-photon microscopy revealed Methoxy-XO4(+) amyloid perivascular deposits on leptomeningeal and penetrating cortical vessels in 5xFAD mice, typical of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Amyloid deposits were visible in vivo at M3 and aggravated over time. Progressive microvascular damage was concomitant to parenchymal Aβ plaque accumulation in 5xFAD mice. Microvascular inflammation in 5xFAD mice presented with sporadic FITC-albumin leakages at M4 becoming more prevalent at M9 and M12. 3D colocalization showed inflammatory IBA1(+) microglia proximal to microvascular FITC-albumin leaks. The number of perivascular PDGFRβ(+) pericytes was significantly decreased at M4 in the fronto-parietal cortices, with a trend decrease observed in the other structures. At M9-M12, PDGFRβ(+) pericytes displayed hypertrophic perivascular ramifications contiguous to reactive microglia. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microvascular inflammation occur in 5xFAD mice concomitantly to parenchymal plaque deposition. The prospect of cerebrovascular pharmacology in AD is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Neurobiology of Disease