Conference Paper

The identification of deviance and its impact on retention in a multiplayer game

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Abstract

Deviant behavior in online social systems is a difficult problem to address. Consequences of deviance include driving off users and tarnishing the system's public image. We present an examination of these concepts in a popular online game, League of Legends. Using a large collection of game records and player-given feedback, we develop a metric, toxicity index, to identify deviant players. We then look at the effects of interacting with deviant players, including effects on retention. We find that toxic players have several significant predictive patterns, such as playing in more competitive game modes and playing with friends. We also show that toxic players drive away new players, but that experienced players are more resilient to deviant behavior. Based on our findings, we suggest methods to better identify and counteract the negative effects of deviance.

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... The companies of these games are already putting high effort into trying to mitigate such problems [8,9,10]. For example, in LoL (League of Legends) every player can report other players after the game for having a negative attitude or insulting teammates, sabotaging the team et cetera. ...
... Toxicity is an immanent problem in online games [9,41,10] and a popular research topic in the MOBA (Multiplayer Online Battle Arena) genre [10]. Toxicity is a subset of deviant behavior [9], which means that it is non-norm-compliant behavior. ...
... Toxicity is an immanent problem in online games [9,41,10] and a popular research topic in the MOBA (Multiplayer Online Battle Arena) genre [10]. Toxicity is a subset of deviant behavior [9], which means that it is non-norm-compliant behavior. Riot, the developer of League of Legends itself defines toxicity as "any behavior that negatively impacts other players' experiences" [9]. ...
Thesis
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Players of random teams in online games often face the problem of not being able to work together well and thus frustrating players. Our hypothesis is that the personalities of random players do not always constitute a good team. In this thesis, we try to enhance the quality of teamwork in online teams by taking the personality of the players into consideration when forming random teams. As a result we expect players to enjoy their time playing even more and being in an better mood overall, even when they lose the game. We conduct a GPC (Group Personality Composition) research with 115 teams which have been formed by random players. We use the operationalisations mean, min, max, variance, standard deviation and other experimental instruments to calculate correlations with the player reported enjoyment and teamwork of each team. Our main research question is how to form the perfect team based on personality. Further, we research, if a personality based matchmaker would work by answering if any personalities are important and rare in the system, if every player has an equal chance to get a perfect team and if it is possible to form only good teams out of a smaller random set of players by identifying what constraints are necessary and what are optional for teams. Moreover we compare our results with previous work, to answer the question if research with non-gaming tasks is transferable to research with gaming tasks and vice versa. We could show that a personality based matchmaker would increase the enjoyment and teamwork of random online teams. We identified three strong constraints that are necessary for a team to function. The chances to get a perfect team are not distributed fair. Compassionate and respectful players have higher chances to be matched with a good team, shy and anxious players have somewhat lesser chances and toxic players have much lower chances. The comparison with previous work proves to be difficult, because of different criteria used and because of a small data set and thus several insignificant correlations. Altogether we could make good contributions to the research field of GPC.
... Previous research on competitive online games has mostly centered on toxic behavior in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBA) [22,30,37,45], a subgenre of real-time strategy games in which two teams, typically consisting of five players each, compete against each other, with each player controlling a single character and in which strategy revolves around individual character development and cooperative play in combat [53]. Typically, these studies have used data that was either publicly available or provided by the developer, including chat logs, match logs, and publicly available aggregate reports of toxicity [13,30,35,43], as well as player feedback [45]. ...
... Previous research on competitive online games has mostly centered on toxic behavior in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBA) [22,30,37,45], a subgenre of real-time strategy games in which two teams, typically consisting of five players each, compete against each other, with each player controlling a single character and in which strategy revolves around individual character development and cooperative play in combat [53]. Typically, these studies have used data that was either publicly available or provided by the developer, including chat logs, match logs, and publicly available aggregate reports of toxicity [13,30,35,43], as well as player feedback [45]. Some findings from these works [7,43,45] show that toxicity is more commonly encountered when playing ranked game modes, and that teammates are typically more hostile to each other than to opponents, particularly in the absence of cooperative behavior [35]. ...
... Typically, these studies have used data that was either publicly available or provided by the developer, including chat logs, match logs, and publicly available aggregate reports of toxicity [13,30,35,43], as well as player feedback [45]. Some findings from these works [7,43,45] show that toxicity is more commonly encountered when playing ranked game modes, and that teammates are typically more hostile to each other than to opponents, particularly in the absence of cooperative behavior [35]. ...
Article
The present research addresses a gap in the literature concerning the relationship of identity, game play, and toxicity, using longitudinal research. Time spent playing Defence of the Ancients 2 (DOTA 2; a competitive online team video game) was modelled at Time 1 (N =473) in relation to identity and perceived toxicity. We then examined the same relationships longitudinally with players who returned to complete a second survey (Time 2 N =216). The direct effects were modelled of participants’ social identity as a DOTA 2 player and of their perceptions of toxicity, and the potential interaction was tested. Consistent with past cross-sectional research, identification with DOTA 2 was associated with higher game play at Time 1 and 2. However, in longitudinal analyses at Time 2, controlling for Time 1 variables, only Time 1 game play was a significant unique predictor: no unique role of identities was observed. There were also no direct or interactive effects of perceived toxicity in attenuating game play, despite high levels being reported at both Time 1 and 2. Using pre-registered analyses, the data offer a novel longitudinal test of one potential mechanism (social identification), and did not support its role in sustaining resilience here.
... While matchmaking algorithms in MMOs strive to facilitate "fair" matches where both teams have an equal probability of victory (Shores et al., 2014), this does not always occur in practice. Some skill discrepancy between the two teams can still exist, giving one team an advantage over the other. ...
... Playing with already known friends cooperatively leads to improved team and individual performance, possibly due to greater assistance and less instances of betrayal (Mason & Clauset, 2013). By contrast, teams made up of strangers who assume they will never play together again can exacerbate the detrimental consequences of anonymity and the normativity of toxicity (Shores et al., 2014). As previously explained by SIDE theory, when shrouded in anonymity and playing with strangers compared to members of a clan or friends, one may deindividuate and target another teammate based off minimal cues acquired in an interaction, thus becoming more likely to engage in disinhibited toxic behaviors. ...
... In other words, friends are much more civil when playing with each other, but when toxicity does occur, it can set up a firestorm. This could be due to social learning in which deviant or toxic behaviors are more likely to be reinforced and imitated when playing with friends (Shores et al., 2014). If friends or clan members further reinforce the normativity of toxicity, these behaviors would be more pervasive and contagious than when playing with strangers in which norms are not as salient due to a less cohesive group identity (Lea et al., 2001). ...
Article
Toxic behaviors are pervasive in online games and can be harmful to building a positive online environment. Guided by the social identity model of deindividuation, this study represents one of the first efforts to examine the antecedents of toxicity in team-based online games using longitudinal behavioral data. It fills two important gaps in existing research, by 1) exploring non-verbal and behavioral dimensions of toxicity, and 2) examining team-level in addition to individual-level predictors. Employing a large-scale behavioral dataset from the popular game World of Tanks, we found that, in general, experienced and skillful players are more likely to commit toxic behaviors. Teams that are losing, or have a high internal skill disparity among their members tend to breed toxicity. In addition, this study provides empirical evidence that toxicity is contagious among players, especially toxic behaviors in one’s own teams and in clan battles.
... Esports at large has been criticized for having a "toxic gamer culture" that creates barriers for new players [11] and harms players psychologically and socially [22]. Toxic behavior refers to antagonistic actions including harassment, cheating, raging (aggressive outbursts, also called flaming), griefing (targeted attempts to annoy a player), cyberbullying, and intentionally helping opposing player(s) (or throwing the game) [47,64,6,49]. While useful as an umbrella term, the definition of toxicity is ambiguous due to differences across game contexts [26,5,15,18,27,46,51,23,64]). ...
... Toxic behavior refers to antagonistic actions including harassment, cheating, raging (aggressive outbursts, also called flaming), griefing (targeted attempts to annoy a player), cyberbullying, and intentionally helping opposing player(s) (or throwing the game) [47,64,6,49]. While useful as an umbrella term, the definition of toxicity is ambiguous due to differences across game contexts [26,5,15,18,27,46,51,23,64]). This ambiguity could lead to confusion among players who fail to recognize their own intermittent toxic behavior and may be reported by others for their behavior [51]. ...
... While the literature on negative behavior in online multiplayer games is rich (e.g., [5,27,47,51,64]), most studies used log data to identify behavioral effects of toxic behavior or used chat logs to classify toxic conversations [56,24]. These studies provide insights on player behaviors, but it is difficult to understand why players think particular actions are or are not toxic, and how they may cope with them. ...
Conference Paper
Toxicity in online environments is a complex and a systemic issue. Collegiate esports communities seem to be particularly vulnerable to toxic behaviors. In esports games, negative behavior, such as harassment, can create barriers to players achieving high performance and can reduce enjoyment which may cause them to leave the game. The aim of this study is to investigate how players define, experience and deal with toxicity in esports games that they play. Our findings from an interview study and five monthly follow ups with 19 participants from a university esports club show that players define toxicity as behaviors disrupt their morale and team dynamics, and are inclined to normalize negative behaviors, rationalize it as part of the competitive game culture akin to traditional sports, and participate a form of gamer classism, believing that toxicity is more common in lower level play than in professional and collegiate esports. There are many coping mechanisms employed by collegiate esports players, including ignoring offenders, deescalating tense encounters, and using tools to mute offenders. Understanding the motivations behind collegiate esports players' engagement with toxicity may help the growing sport plot a positive trajectory towards healthy play.
... It would be interesting if and how dominance might be related to toxicity, which is prevalent in multiplayer online game environments [6,51]. Because the dominance scale items are focused towards in-game competition and are not related to verbal insults, we can not say how much overlap or shared variance there would be. ...
... Because the dominance scale items are focused towards in-game competition and are not related to verbal insults, we can not say how much overlap or shared variance there would be. It has been shown that players of fighters show higher levels of toxicity in League of Legends, while support and tank players are less likely to show toxic behaviour [51]. Together with our results, this raises the question of a link between toxic behaviour and dominant power: the same champion types who are more likely to show toxicity are preferred by players high in dominance and the roles preferred by those who are low in dominance are less prone to show negative behaviour. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The power motive describes our need to have an impact on others. Relevant in contexts such as sports, politics, and business, the power motive could help explain experiences and behaviours in digital games. We present four studies connecting the power motive to role and champion type choices in the MOBA game League of Legends (LoL). In Study1 we demonstrate that overall power motive does not predict role preferences. In Study2 we develop a 6-item-scale distinguishing between two facets of power in game settings: prosociality (empowering others) and dominance (overpowering others). In Study3 we show that prosociality and dominance uniquely predict role preferences for Support and Top Lane. In Study4 we demonstrate that champion type choice (tank, fighter, slayer, controller) is uniquely predicted by dominance and prosociality. We provide insight on how the wish for vertical interactions with other players-the power motive-can influence player interactions in multiplayer games.
... However, researchers disagree upon the definition and scope of toxic behavior (e.g., [18,22,43]). To make it worse, researchers have also used many related and/or overlapping concepts like deviant behavior [62], anti-social behavior [11,40], disruptive behavior [39], griefing [26,27], cyberbullying [63], trolling [21], abusive language [17], and mischief [4]. To begin, we use toxic behavior as an umbrella term to denote player behaviors at others' expense, but will revisit this definition later after discussing our findings. ...
... A few scholars have paid attention to the unique game features associated with toxicity. For instance, Shores et al. used a peer review score (i.e., upvotes and downvotes from fellow players) to evaluate toxicity, and discussed toxic behaviors in relation to match length, player role, and number of friends on a team [62]. Kwak et al. evaluated the associations between Riotsupplied taxonomy of toxic behaviors and game features such as match length and server region [43]. ...
Conference Paper
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Toxic behaviors in online gaming such as flaming and harassment have been gaining attention from the research community, yet little consensus has formed about what constitutes toxic behavior. Game developers usually maintain a classification system of toxic behaviors, which oftentimes fails to reflect the dynamic and developing forms of toxicity. In this paper, we consider toxic behavior as situated action, and seek to establish a taxonomy of toxic behaviors from a player perspective in League of Legends, currently one of the largest Esports games in the world. Our findings include five primary types of toxic behaviors, as well as five contextual factors that could lead to toxic behavior. In doing so, we provide a holistic, detailed account of toxic behavior in a team-based competitive gaming context, highlight the role of player perspective in explaining toxic behavior, and extend existing scholarly discussions on toxicity and moderation.
... Given the increasing prevalence of multiplayer digital games as a leisure activity, in a context of decreasing social embeddedness, researchers have started to consider whether the social relationships that are established and enacted through digital games help or harm social aspects of wellbeing, including loneliness and feelings of isolation. Recent studies have demonstrated that digital games-played both in-person and online-can facilitate social interactions that are vital for our social well-being, for example, by connecting us to others (Dabbish, 2008;Hernandez et al., 2014), helping us maintain existing relationships (Wohn et al., 2011), facilitating trust development with strangers (Depping et al., 2016;Depping and Mandryk, 2017), and even combating loneliness (Depping et al., 2018); however, the same mechanics, games, and gaming contexts that foster social closeness in games can instead lead to toxic game environments (Chen et al., 2009;Kwak et al., 2015) or displace offline relationships (Zhong, 2011), resulting in feelings of social exclusion (Shores et al., 2014). ...
... Toxic behavior in multiplayer games often takes the form of harassment through verbal abuse (Foo and Koivisto, 2004); however, toxicity is also expressed through any behavior that harms team cohesion, such as negative attitudes toward teammates, refusing to help your team, purposefully losing, or not participating (Chen et al., 2009;Kwak et al., 2015). Toxic behavior not only affects a player's game experience (Shores et al., 2014), but has been shown to thwart the development of in-game social capital (Depping et al., 2018), and also harm wellbeing by leading to depression, anxiety, and even suicide (Kwak et al., 2015). A 2015 study found that 52% of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) players had been victims of cyberbullying (Ballard and Welch, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Playing digital games can nurture wellbeing by helping players recover from daily stressors, cope with life's challenges, practice emotion regulation, and engage in meaningful social interaction; however, this same leisure activity can also result in problematic gaming (i.e., harmful play at the expense of healthy behaviors), and social isolation that damages wellbeing. Research consistently demonstrates that the value or harm of gaming on wellbeing cannot be determined solely from whether and how much people play, but rather depends on contingent factors related to the player, the game, and the gaming context. In this paper, we aim to model contingent factors that differentiate between beneficial and harmful outcomes within players of the same massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). We model how passion for gaming—defined as a strong desire to engage in a beloved activity that is enjoyed and valued, in which time and energy is invested, and that ultimately integrates into a person's identity—affects loneliness and wellbeing. We employ the dualistic model that divides passion into harmonious passion (HP)—characterized by a balanced and authentic relationship with the beloved activity, and obsessive passion (OP)—characterized by preoccupation and inflexible persistence toward the loved activity. We sampled 300 frequent World of Warcraft (WoW) players, recruited from online forums, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the effects of their passion for playing WoW on in-game social capital, loneliness, and wellbeing. We demonstrate that HP for playing WoW facilitates in-game social capital (both bridging and bonding), combats loneliness, and increases wellbeing, whereas OP also builds social capital, but these social ties do not combat loneliness, and OP is directly associated with increased loneliness. Further, the positive effect of HP on wellbeing is mediated through an increase in bonding social capital and a resulting decrease in loneliness. Our findings highlight that passion orientation is important for characterizing the relationship between gaming and wellbeing. We contribute to the conversation on combating problematic gaming, while also promoting digital gaming as an appealing leisure activity that provides enjoyment, recovery, and meaningful social interaction for the millions of gamers who benefit from its captivation.
... Sassen (2000) suggests different physical trajectories of post-national and denationalised citizenship; yet, applied digitally, both encompass relevant themes, apparent through how denationalised reconstruction of Web governance is required to facilitate a pro-human, postnational identity. Through inhabited residency of the Web, rather than functional anonymous usage, it decreases the likelihood of digitally dystopian outcomes and increases the potential of realising a pro-human vision (Shores et al., 2014). ...
... This emphasises the importance of digital citizenship as a conceptual tool to attach digital rights and responsibilities to; an ambiguous and disconnected Web decreases cohesive communalisation and increases potential hostility and de-individuation (Shores et al., 2014;Douglas and McGarty, 2001). Such reduced self-awareness encourages person-centric inclination, leading to impulse action, inhibited behaviour and communal disregard (Sears et al., 1980;The Guardian 2013;2014a). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation is intended to be an insightful body of work for those interested in the nature of digital citizenship and its relationship to shaping a foundation of a pro-human future for the World Wide Web; readers might include individuals from sociological, historical, political or computer science backgrounds, or anyone interested in the future of the Web. Addressing this issue is a significant theoretical undertaking, requiring intellectually challenging discussion rather than analysis of quantitative or qualitative findings. Digital citizenship and the pro-human Web have been fervently debated, forming diverse interpretations; little association has been drawn, however, to an implicit relationship between the two, necessary to fully realise and shape a more pro-human vision. A complex issue in its own right, digital citizenship is a term predicated on previous conceptual debates that align towards extension of physically rooted, nation-state citizenship, placing little recognition on shaping of the Web itself. Likewise, the concept of a pro-human Web is tentatively expressed by some as fundamental to its future, but dominated through a more pressing epistemological vision of a Semantic Web 3.0; ambiguity is prevalent in both topics. A theoretical argument is formed, influenced by the philosophical paradigm of a hermeneutic circle, a discussion which moves back and forth between the individual components of digital citizenship and the whole of the pro-human Web, substantiated through methodological practices such as interdisciplinary synthesis, traditional reviewing of relevant literature and case study analysis. These methods are utilised to contextualise the issues outlined, enabling formation of new meaning then applied during deconstruction of current debates of digital citizenship, questioning their robustness and appropriateness to supporting the vision of a pro- human Web. Current debates are demonstrated to be ambiguously aligned to scholarship of citizenship itself, as well as affording a view of what is, at best, digitally extended citizenship, incompatible with a pro-human vision and negating of socio-technical and co-constitutional perspectives.
... Harrison and Roberts [46] also defines session-level retention, the percentage of players that complete a single game session. Another case is the differentiation between shortand long-term retention, which refers to continue playing the same session and quitting the game or leaving it for an extended period, respectively [47]. Also, there are the aggregate and individual retention, which refer to measurements that consider the entire player base and those applied to a player in specific, respectively [44]. ...
... Hence, a retained participant played more than half of all participants. Thereby, this is a type of aggregate retention because it considers the entire player base [44], it is session independent [46], and might reflect both short-and long-term retention [47]. Additionally, it is based on the number of played levels [45], capturing players' commitment towards the game [48] in terms of those who continued playing after achieving the average number of levels [43]. ...
Article
Link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZxxK6gYiZhy3K Abstract: Developing games can be improved with Procedural Content Generation (PCG), the automatic creation of game contents, such as levels, music, and vegetation. However, few researches have addressed the impacts of PCG on players, especially in terms of games with educational ends. Hence, this understanding is a research area that demands further studies. To expand on this gap, this article presents a study concerning whether PCG for level creation impacts players’ in-game behavior, based on interactions with a digital math game. This game features two versions that contain a unique difference: while one features human-designed levels, these are procedurally generated on the other version. To compare them, PCG’s impact on players’ in-game behavior was measured through the total played time, number of played levels, and number of retained players. In this context, the findings demonstrated a significant difference in the number of retained players, which was higher for the PCG version in comparison to the other. In contrast, the other two metrics were insignificantly different between versions. Therefore, game designers and developers can exploit these findings to employ PCG in games, taking advantage of its impacts on development and players, knowing how it is expected to affect players’ in-game behavior.
... This toxicity has an impact on the game experience as well as the well-being of players: the study reports that 64% of gamers feel harassment is shaping their gaming experiences, and such that players perform less, avoid and stop playing certain games, become less social and feel isolated, and, most concerning, have depressive or suicidal thoughts. It is thus not a surprise that toxicity has an impact on the retention and Life Time Value of games [16,66]. ...
... There is no standard definition of toxic behavior. In fact, as noted by Kou [39], researchers disagree upon the definition and scope of toxic behavior, and use many related and/or overlapping concepts like deviant behavior [66], griefing [21,60], cyberbullying [44], trolling [32], anti-social behavior [45], prejudice [12], etc. However, in the context of games it is generally defined as behavior that intentionally disturbs other player's experience and well-being. ...
Article
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Is it possible to detect toxicity in games just by observing in-game behavior? If so, what are the behavioral factors that will help machine learning to discover the unknown relationship between gameplay and toxic behavior? In this initial study, we examine whether it is possible to predict toxicity in the MOBA gameFor Honor by observing in-game behavior for players that have been labeled as toxic (i.e. players that have been sanctioned by Ubisoft community managers). We test our hypothesis of detecting toxicity through gameplay with a dataset of almost 1,800 sanctioned players, and comparing these sanctioned players with unsanctioned players. Sanctioned players are defined by their toxic action type (offensive behavior vs. unfair advantage) and degree of severity (warned vs. banned). Our findings, based on supervised learning with random forests, suggest that it is not only possible to behaviorally distinguish sanctioned from unsanctioned players based on selected features of gameplay; it is also possible to predict both the sanction severity (warned vs. banned) and the sanction type (offensive behavior vs. unfair advantage). In particular, all random forest models predict toxicity, its severity, and type, with an accuracy of at least 82%, on average, on unseen players. This research shows that observing in-game behavior can support the work of community managers in moderating and possibly containing the burden of toxic behavior.
... However, retaining the players is an ongoing challenge as the reasons for leaving a game are manifold. Previous studies show that the decision to leave the game can be related to social features and the level of collaborative play, game progress and achievements, or adverse in-and outof-game experiences such as cheating, griefing, or account theft [2,3,4,5,6,7]. A player's decision manifests itself in changing gaming behavior, which we anticipate by a thorough analysis of such behavior in our study. ...
... We use the R package Boruta.4 Full and reduced feature sets are available at https://github.com/johuellm/ ...
Article
Churn describes customer defection from a service provider.This can be observed in online freemium games, where users can leave without further notice. Game companies are looking for methods to detect and predict churn to enable management reaction. The recorded data of games can be analyzed for this purpose. We conducted a case study based on data from the freemium game The Settlers Online. Churn detection was achieved by application of four different labeling approaches,based on common churn and disengagement definitions within the game analytics literature. In order to model predictive classifiers,features were computed from the raw game data. Eight different machine learning algorithms returning binary classifications were applied. The results were compared for all algorithms regarding all labeling approaches. Random forests with sliding windows were the best solution in our case, returning AUC values higher than 0.99, thereby enabling prediction accuracies of 97%. The results were confirmed by tests on an independent data set and in our discussion, we offer guidance on the interplay of feature engineering,labeling approaches—in particular disengagement—and machine learning algorithms for churn prediction. Our recommendations are valuable for game companies and academics, who pursue similar studies.
... The intense competition of an eSports game is often seen to be related to its notorious reputation for its players' toxic behaviors such as racial slur, harassment, and personal attacks [57,87]. Riot has dedicated much effort in curbing player toxicity for the past decade. ...
Preprint
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become prevalent in our everyday technologies and impacts both individuals and communities. The explainable AI (XAI) scholarship has explored the philosophical nature of explanation and technical explanations, which are usually driven by experts in lab settings and can be challenging for laypersons to understand. In addition, existing XAI research tends to focus on the individual level. Little is known about how people understand and explain AI-led decisions in the community context. Drawing from XAI and activity theory, a foundational HCI theory, we theorize how explanation is situated in a community's shared values, norms, knowledge, and practices, and how situated explanation mediates community-AI interaction. We then present a case study of AI-led moderation, where community members collectively develop explanations of AI-led decisions, most of which are automated punishments. Lastly, we discuss the implications of this framework at the intersection of CSCW, HCI, and XAI.
... The intense competition of an eSports game is often seen to be related to its notorious reputation for its players' toxic behaviors such as racial slur, harassment, and personal attacks [57,87]. Riot has dedicated much effort in curbing player toxicity for the past decade. ...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become prevalent in our everyday technologies and impacts both individuals and communities. The explainable AI (XAI) scholarship has explored the philosophical nature of explanation and technical explanations, which are usually driven by experts in lab settings and can be challenging for laypersons to understand. In addition, existing XAI research tends to focus on the individual level. Little is known about how people understand and explain AI-led decisions in the community context. Drawing from XAI and activity theory, a foundational HCI theory, we theorize how explanation is situated in a community's shared values, norms, knowledge, and practices, and how situated explanation mediates community-AI interaction. We then present a case study of AI-led moderation, where community members collectively develop explanations of AI-led decisions, most of which are automated punishments. Lastly, we discuss the implications of this framework at the intersection of CSCW, HCI, and XAI.
... LoL is a team-based eSports game and a major eSports title. Previous research has reported how the highly competitive environment of LoL is associated with immense peer pressure [49], toxic behavior [51,54,73], and social support [21]. Building upon existing research, we turn our focus to the emotion regulation practice of LoL players. ...
Article
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Today eSports gaming is enjoying growing popularity in the world and much attention from various research areas, including CSCW. eSports gaming is a highly competitive environment commonly associated with negative emotions such as anxiety and stress. However, little attention has been paid to emotion regulation in eSports gaming. In this study, we empirically investigated how players experience emotion and regulate emotions in League of Legends, one of the largest eSports games today. We identify four emotive factors, as well as emotion regulation strategies that players deploy to manage the emotions of their selves, teammates, and opponents. We further report on how they use emotion regulation in emotional self-care and emotional leadership. Building upon this set of findings, we discuss how the competitive eSports gaming context conditions emotion regulation in League of Legends, foreground emotion regulation expertise in competitive gaming, and derive implications for designing emotion regulation technologies. CCS Concepts: • Human-centered computing → Collaborative and social computing → Empirical studies in collaborative and social computing • Human-centered computing → Human computer interaction (HCI) → Empirical studies in HCI
... Typical toxic behaviors include using abusive language in game, as well as griefing in game. Prior scholarship has documented various types of toxicity in LoL [1,29,52,106]. However, what is different here is that Riot's punishments against pro players' toxicity in everyday game were usually severer. ...
Conference Paper
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Esports, like traditional sports, face governance challenges such as foul play and match fixing. The esports industry has seen various attempts at governance structure but is yet to form a consensus. In this study, we explore esports governance in League of Legends (LoL), a major esports title. Through a two-stage, mixed-methods analysis of rule enforcement that Riot Games, LoL’s developer and publisher, has performed against esports participants such as professional players and teams, we qualitatively describe rule breaking behaviors and penalties in LoL esports, and quantitatively measure how contextual factors such as time, perpetrator identity, and region might influence governance outcomes. These findings about rule enforcement allow us to characterize the esports governance of LoL as top-down and paternalistic, and to reflect upon professional players' work and professionalization in the esports context. We conclude by discussing translatable implications for esports governance practice and research.
... For instance, whether professional esports athletes go through different motivational shifts than more casual players, due to experiencing more pressure to play or succeed (Deterding, 2016;Peters et al., 2018). Or whether the experience of toxic social interactions (Kwak and Blackburn, 2014;Shores et al., 2014) result in initially intrinsically motivated players shifting toward external regulation or even amotivation. Identifying such contributing factors could facilitate the design of interventions to counteract negative effects early on, as well as inform game design to promote mastery over performance orientation in players. ...
Article
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Player motivation is a key research area within games research, with the aim of understanding how the motivation of players is related to their experience and behavior in the game. We present the results of a cross-sectional study with data from 750 players of League of Legends, a popular Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game. Based on the motivational regulations posited by Self-Determination Theory and Latent Profile Analysis, we identify four distinct motivational profiles, which differ with regards to player experience and, to a lesser extent, in-game behavior. While the more self-determined profiles “Intrinsic” and “Autonomous” report mainly positive experience-related outcomes, a considerable part of the player base does not. Players of the “Amotivated” and “External” profile derive less enjoyment, experience more negative affect and tension, and score lower on vitality, indicating game engagement that is potentially detrimental to players' well-being. With regards to game metrics, minor differences in the rate of assists in unranked matches and performance indicators were observed between profiles. This strengthens the notion that differences in experiences are not necessarily reflected in differences in behavioral game metrics. Our findings provide insights into the interplay of player motivation, experience, and in-game behavior, contributing to a more nuanced understanding of player-computer interaction.
... Zubek and Khoo (2002) note that when gameplay is more about competition than cooperation, the social environment is more characterized by competitiveness, trash-talking, and gloating. Shores et al. (2014) found that players who choose to play more competitively scored higher on a toxic behavior measure than those who chose to play less competitively. Additionally, Adachi and Willoughby (2011) found that competitiveness in video games was more related to aggressive behavior than violent content of games. ...
Article
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With the advent of digital games came the advent of gamer cultures and identities. A "gamer" became a new social first for the group of individuals who played video games (primarily in arcades) in the late 1970's. Over time, however, gamer cultures have grown into what is largely discussed as "toxic cultures," and come to become more associated with exclusion than inclusion if you don't fit a certain mold. Despite its prevalence, deviant behaviors in games as a subject of academic study is a confusing space, with different researchers using different criteria to describe the same things. This article provides the first comprehensive cataloging and overview of dark participation in games. This includes defining these behaviors, cataloging their variants, and discussing their social and psychological impact and their potential underpinnings. It is critical to establish a shared language about what these behaviors are in order to effectively understand and combat them.
... A key feature related to the occurrence of toxic behavior is the combination of the design elements of team competition and multiplayer exchange, which allows players to attribute failure while playing with other players (Adinolf and Turkay, 2018). Consistently, toxic behavior predominantly emerges over the course of a game as a response to negative events, to discourage existing players (Blackburn and Kwak, 2014) and scare away new players (Shores et al., 2014). In contrast to related and already well researched constructs of the dark side of technology use, such as cyberbullying (Lowry et al., 2016(Lowry et al., , 2019, toxic behavior is much more temporary, is a rather normalized part of the ordinary culture of play, and is more anonymous (Kwak et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose Toxic behavior in multiplayer video games diminishes the potential revenue of gaming companies by spreading a bad mood, negatively affecting game play, and subsequently leading to the churn of players. However, research investigating why toxic behavior occurs is still scarce. To address this issue, this study disjunctively tests three different theoretical approaches (social cognitive theory, theory of planned behavior, and online disinhibition effect) to explain toxic behavior and propose a unified theory of toxic behavior. Design/methodology/approach In total, 320 respondents participated in a questionnaire study. This study analyzes the data with covariance-based statistics (i.e. regression analysis and structural equation modelling), and the approach is twofold. First, the hypotheses of three theories are disjunctively tested. Second, a unified theory of toxic behavior is proposed. Findings The results of this study indicate that online disinhibition best explains toxic behavior, whereby toxic behavior victimization, attitude, and behavioral control also play an important role. Research limitations/implications The findings of this study offer an opportunity to better understand a contemporary and especially meaningful form of negative behavior online. Practical implications To maintain revenue and popularity, the computer game industry can use the findings of this study to prevent and better address toxic behavior and its negative consequences. Originality/value Toxic behavior among video game players is a relatively new and unexplored phenomenon; therefore, this study makes a valuable contribution to the research field by testing the explanatory power of three theoretical approaches and proposing a unified theory of toxic behavior.
... The issues of toxic gamer communities did not go unnoticed in the industry as well. The hostility between players in online video games have been gaining attention from video game developers as players may withdraw from such a hostile online environment, threatening their revenue stream Shores et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Online video games are social spaces for players from around the world. They use this space to form communities, relationships, and identities. However, gaming communities are not always welcoming, and some are even perceived as being “toxic.” A prevalent issue is online sexual harassment, which is keeping many women from participating in the gaming community. Research on the factors contributing to the problem is limited, though. The present study replicates and expands previous research, using a sample of 856 online gamers. The study supports earlier findings that found hostile sexism and social dominance orientation as predictors of sexual harassment perpetration in online video games. In addition, we expanded the previous research with additional predictors: machiavellianism, psychopathy, and gamer identification predicted higher sexual harassment perpetration. Our results have implications for the gaming community's role in curtailing sexual harassment and making itself a more inclusive community.
... Game companies also make deliberate design decisions to support communities (e.g., designing to deal with negative behaviors in games [4]). Toxicity is found to impact players' experiences, retention and player communities [6,47]. Kou and colleagues [28,29] studied a game community through the lenses of governance and prosocial behaviors in the Tribunal system of League of Legends, a Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game by Riot Games. ...
Conference Paper
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Online Collectible Card Games (OCCGs) are enormously popular worldwide. Previous studies found that the social aspects of physical CCGs are crucial for player engagement. However, we know little about the different types of sociability that OCCGs afford. Nor to what extent they influence players' social experiences. This mixed method online survey study focuses on a representative OCCG, Hearthstone [24] to 1) identify and define social design features and examine the extent to which players' use of these features predict their sense of community; 2) investigate participants' attitudes towards and experiences with the game community. The results show that players rarely use social features, and these features contribute differently to predicting players' sense of community. We also found emergent toxic behaviors, afforded by the social features. Findings can inform the best practices and principles in the design of OCCGs, and contribute to our understanding of players' perceptions of OCCG communities.
... Designers should take an active role in teaching and encouraging positive community norms, especially when interacting with newer players and researchers could help by defining and testing what these normsshould be in order to be effective. Furthermore, a deeper understanding of the factors that can be used to identify toxic players is needed as variables in(Shores et al., 2014) were not experimentally manipulated and this causal inferences are limited. ...
Thesis
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In spite of the popularity of Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games such as League of Legends (LoL), both the Player Experience (PE) and the structure of the social networks that arise in this relatively new genre remain largely unexplored. As players spend increasingly more time playing online competitive games, the positive and negative impacts of doing so become relevant; it is, therefore, important to understand how PE is structured to systematically address mechanisms that elicit a response from the players. This work begins by obtaining and characterizing a sample of League of Legends players and proceeds to use the resulting variables and structural social relationships as inputs to explore their links to PE. In the end, PE is pivotal to engage players and, therefore, it is key to the success of any digital game. Our results show, among other findings, how League of Legends players perceive the game as “fair” for their competence level for all ranks, while their relatedness towards teammates is affected by their social structure. Empathy and negative feelings, however, seem to be unaffected by team composition. Knowledge about PE in League of Legends can not only be employed to improve LoL or MOBA games, but also to develop better and more engaging games while improving their quality. As online competitive gaming is quickly becoming one of the largest collective human activities globally, PE research also becomes crucial.
... Scholars have drawn from a range of ethical theories to argue that such actions in multiplayer games require more ethical scrutiny, particularly given that they can cause harm to 2 other human players (Danaher, 2018;Huff et al., 2003;Luck, 2009;Powers, 2003;Wolfendale, 2007). More researchers still highlight the 'toxic' and damaging qualities of such acts (Adinolf & Turkay, 2018;Coyne et al., 2009;Kwak et al., 2015), which can drive away new players (Shores et al., 2014(Shores et al., , p. 1363, negatively impact team performance (Neto et al., 2017), and cause anger and frustration . Some scholars take a different approach and explore the subversive value of disruptive play (Bakioğlu, 2019;Beale et al., 2016), while others adopt more contextual understandings of multiplayer ethics (Dunn, 2012) and examine how acts like killing other players (Ryland, 2019) and trash talk (Nguyen & Zagal, 2016) can be acceptable when they are fully consented to. ...
Article
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This paper introduces the ludic ethics approach for understanding the moral deliberations of players of online multiplayer games. Informed by a constructivist paradigm that places players' everyday ethical negotiations at the forefront of the analysis, this study utilises a novel set of game-related moral vignettes in a series of 20 in-depth interviews with players. Reflexive thematic analysis of these interviews produced four key themes by which participants considered the ethics of in-game actions: 1) Game Boundaries; 2) Consequences for Play; 3) Player Sensibilities; and 4) Virtuality. These results support the conceptualisation of games as complex ethical sites in which players negotiate in-game ethics by referring extensively-though not exclusively-to a framework of 'ludomorality' that draws from the interpreted meanings associated with the ludic digital context.
... For instance, whether professional esports athletes go through different motivational shifts than more casual players, due to experiencing more pressure to play or succeed (Deterding, 2016;Peters et al., 2018). Or whether the experience of toxic social interactions (Kwak and Blackburn, 2014;Shores et al., 2014) result in initially intrinsically motivated players shifting toward external regulation or even amotivation. Identifying such contributing factors could facilitate the design of interventions to counteract negative effects early on, as well as inform game design to promote mastery over performance orientation in players. ...
Preprint
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Player motivation is a key research area within games research, with the aim of understanding how the motivation of players is related to their experience and behavior in the game. We present the results of a cross-sectional study with data from 750 players of League of Legends a popular Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game. Based on the motivational regulations posited by Self-Determination Theory and Latent Profile Analysis, we identify four distinct motivational profiles, which differ with regards to player experience and, to a lesser extent, in-game behavior. While the more self-determined profiles "Intrinsic'' and "Autonomous'' report mainly positive experience-related outcomes, a considerable part of the player base does not. Players of the "Amotivated'' and "External'' profile derive less enjoyment, experience more negative affect and tension, and score lower on vitality, indicating game engagement that is potentially detrimental to players' well-being. With regards to game metrics, minor differences in the rate of assists in unranked matches and performance indicators were observed between profiles. This strengthens the notion that differences in experiences are not necessarily reflected in differences in behavioral game metrics. Our findings provide insights into the interplay of player motivation, experience, and in-game behavior, contributing to a more nuanced understanding of player-computer interaction.
... Previous research occasionally has dealt with TB deriving insights that are important to better understand the phenomenon. Accordingly, toxicity predominantly emerges over the course of a game as a response to negative events (Blackburn and Kwak, 2014), and toxic players also often scare away new (and novice) players (Shores et al., 2014). Furthermore, the quality of communication during a game is directly linked to performance (Neto et al., 2017), and players are inclined to normalize negative behaviours (Adinolf and Turkay, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate toxic behaviour (TB) that significantly harms individuals’ gameplay experience in multiplayer online video games. Multiplayer online video games allow to simultaneously interact with others in real time. They can be considered as digital communities unifying a group of players within a video game. TB is characterized by spreading a bad mood (e.g. upsetting and insulting) leading to unsatisfying outcomes in team-based multiplayer environments. Design/methodology/approach: Using mixed methods, the authors show that handling TB should be addressed more firmly on a level of game design. First, the authors test the explanatory power of the online disinhibition effect (ODE) and its antecedents on TB using a quantitative survey (N = 320) and structural equation modelling. Specifically, the authors show that dissociative anonymity, asynchronicity, solipsistic introjection, dissociative imagination and minimization of authority have a mediated effect through toxic disinhibition as predictors of TB. Second, the authors conduct a focus group workshop (N = 10) with experts from diverse disciplines to derive design principles on a level of game design. Findings: The results indicate that transparency and imminent feedback are still underutilized elements in game design that can significantly buffer several forms of TB. By developing a heuristic prototype and exemplary design principles in subsequent categories, the authors address all relevant in-game scenarios. With this study, the authors provide researchers and practitioners helpful insights on how to increase the well-being and safety of gaming communities. Originality/value: ODE already showed its explanatory potential in the neighbouring context of cyberbullying. Embedded in theories of negative behaviour on the internet, the authors propose a holistic and theory-driven approach to handle TB on a level of game design. The authors’ insights allow for a better understanding of an innovative entity of the dark side of technology diffusion and adverse side effects linked to it.
... While this would be a stretch, there are a number of studies that link the implicit personalized (dominant) power motive to unfavourable impulses such as heavy drinking, fast driving, gambling, collecting prestige items as well as somewhat following the "law of the jungle" [29]. Another study has recently linked the dominant facet of the explicit power motive to a preference for playing those roles in League of Legends [43] that have previously been associated with the highest toxicity levels in the game [50]. However, the mechanisms of this relationship are not clear and have not yet been studied in a games context. ...
... Personal factors can impact the amount and kind of abuse receivedit is well-documented that women, racial minorities, and those who identify as LGBTQ receive a disproportionate share of abuse (Gray, 2012;Ortiz, 2019;Shaw, 2012;Tang & Fox, 2016). Further, players who experience harassment may abandon the game (Cote, 2017;Shores, He, Swanenburg, Kraut, & Riedl, 2014). In this article, we use 'toxicity' as a general term to refer to the above kinds of antisocial behaviour, as it is typically used in game communities and by game developers. ...
Article
Toxicity in online multiplayer games has long been an issue, and game developers implement various strategies such as reputation systems to curb such behaviour. Although Foucault’s notion of discipline seems an ideal lens through which to analyse such reputation systems, as of yet there has been little work on the subject. This article addresses the reputation system implemented in 2018 by Blizzard, who created an endorsement system in the team-based multiplayer shooter Overwatch. This successfully encouraged positive player behaviour by implementing rewards, rather than only punishments. In this article, we examine the endorsement system as an example of Foucault’s discipline, one that is particularly relevant to game design because it uses incentives as well as deterrents. We argue that the endorsement system is particularly effective as a form of discipline because it includes players as part of the process, by actively constructing subjects (gamers) to fit a pre-defined mould.
... In any case, toxic players intend to spoil the experience of their co-players. Accordingly, victims of toxic behavior often suffer from negative emotions and are more likely to completely refrain from playing the game [2,5,19,21]. ...
... Ranked matches form the competitive backbone of LoL esports. Shores et al. (2014) find that ranked matches are associated with more toxic behaviors than the normal ones due to their competitive nature. Gao et al. (2017) assert that there are gendered differences between play styles and toxicity, and female players are likely to face more toxicity than males. ...
Article
We investigate how the Proteus effect, which is players changing their way of communication based on characters with which they play, is associated with players’ champion usage in the popular online game League of Legends, where champions are the characters that the players control. First, we create two sets of variables: (a) objective champion characteristics based on information from the game developer, which we further enrich by semiotic coding, and (b) subjective champion characteristics based on crowdsourced opinions about the champions. Then, we analyze 13.6 million in-game chat messages to measure whether the players’ vocality (character counts of messages), valence (negative versus positive scores of language use), and toxicity (frequency of toxic word usage) change depending on the characteristics of the champions they employ. We find that champions’ body type, role, and gender are associated with players’ higher vocality, toxicity, and negative valence. We also find that the players’ communication significantly changes in toxicity and valence when they play using different champions. We discuss our methodology and results in detail and propose design directions and other implications based on them.
... Many of these have used in-game telemetry, public APIs, or game logs to analyze player behavior for a single game or small number of games, e.g. [10,11,13,14,42,50]. Among the studies which consider a large number of games as we do, a few gather data primarily from platforms other than digital distribution platforms. ...
Article
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The market for virtual reality (VR) games is growing rapidly, and is expected to grow from $3.3B in 2018 to $ 13.7B in 2022. Due to the immersive nature of such games and the use of VR headsets, players may have complaints about VR games which are distinct from those about traditional computer games, and an understanding of those complaints could enable developers to better take advantage of the growing VR market. We conduct an empirical study of 750 popular VR games and 17,653 user reviews on Steam in order to understand trends in VR games and their complaints. We find that the VR games market is maturing. Fewer VR games are released each month but their quality appears to be improving over time. Most games support multiple headsets and play areas, and support for smaller-scale play areas is increasing. Complaints of cybersickness are rare and declining, indicating that players are generally more concerned with other issues. Recently, complaints about game-specific issues have become the most frequent type of complaint, and VR game developers can now focus on these issues and worry less about VR-comfort issues such as cybersickness.
... These critiques of game development practices are necessary and important. Toxic player behaviour can upset players [20], impede team performance [58], and drive away new players [75]. Many such behaviours are harmful and can be considered unethical [31,44,53,66,92]. ...
Conference Paper
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Game industry professionals are frequently implementing new methods of addressing ethical issues related to in-game toxicity and disruptive player behaviours associated with online multiplayer games. However, academic work on these behaviours tends to focus on the perspectives of players rather than the industry. To fully understand the ethics of multiplayer games and promote ethical design, we must examine the challenges facing those designing multiplayer games through an ethical lens. To this end, this paper presents a reflexive thematic analysis of 21 in-depth interviews with games industry professionals on their ethical views and experiences in game design and community management. We identify a number of tensions involved in making ethics-related design decisions for divided player communities alongside current game design practices that are concerned with functionality, revenue and entertainment. We then put forward a set of design considerations for integrating ethics into multiplayer game design.
... Figure 1 is a screenshot of the beginning of a match. LoL players frequently experience immense frustration and anxiety [47], and are notorious for their toxic behaviors such as racial slur, harassment, and personal attacks [50,72]. ...
... Taken together, TB remains a sincere problem for different video game communities. While previous research occasionally dealt with TB and it is still unclear how to holistically buffer toxicity from a theoretical standpoint on a level of game design [8,18,19]. ...
Chapter
Enabled by technological advancements, a contemporary form of technology use that particularly became popular are online multiplayer video games, which are played with others in real time. Besides various positive impacts on the user experience (e.g., fun, additional social exchange) adverse consequences have occurred as well (e.g., stress, anger). Most recently, a sincere problem gaining increased attention is toxic behavior (i.e., a behavior spreading negative effects and bad mood during play). With our study, we propose a way to handle toxic behavior on a level of video game design by using a multi-method approach. First, we will consult the online disinhibition effect and its antecedents to identify design related relationships. Afterwards, we will conduct a qualitative workshop engaging video game designers and players to reshape in-game experiences by incentivizing players to buffer toxicity.
... Taken together, TB remains a sincere problem for different video game communities. While previous research occasionally dealt with TB and it is still unclear how to holistically buffer toxicity from a theoretical standpoint on a level of game design [8,18,19]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enabled by technological advancements, a contemporary form of technology use that particularly became popular are online multiplayer video games, which are played with others in real time. Besides various positive impacts on user experience (e.g., fun, additional social exchange) adverse consequences have occurred as well (e.g., stress, anger). Most recently, a sincere problem gaining increased attention is toxic behavior (i.e., a behavior spreading negative effects and bad mood during play). With our study, we propose a way to handle toxic behavior on a level of video game design by using a multi-method approach. First, we will consult the online disinhibition effect and its antecedents to identify design related relationships. Afterwards, we will conduct a qualitative workshop engaging video game designers and players to reshape in-game experiences by incentivizing players to buffer forms of toxic behavior.
... For instance, in League of Legends, player statistics could motivate players to act aggressively towards their teammates with poor statistics [30]. Toxic behaviors are also associated with match length, player role [53], and even server region [37]. ...
Conference Paper
Online platforms rely upon users or automated tools to flag toxic behaviors, the very first step in online moderation. While much recent research has examined online moderation, the role of flag remains poorly understood. This question becomes even more urgent in automated moderation, where flagging becomes a primary source of human judgment. We conducted a qualitative study of flagging practices in League of Legends (LoL), a popular eSports game. We found stark differences between how flag is designed to identify toxicity, and flaggability, or how players use and appropriate flag. Players distrust flag, but also appropriate flag for instrumental purposes. Thus, flaggability diverges decidedly from the conception of toxicity, and must be understood within the highly competitive gaming context of LoL. These findings help shed light on the situated nature of flaggability, the role of flag in online moderation, as well as implications for designing flag and moderation.
... Researchers have investigated the characteristics of toxic players to better understand the factors that contribute to in-game toxicity. Using player feedback and game metrics data from League of Legends, Shores et al. [44] identifed several patterns of toxic players-such as playing in more competitive (e.g., ranked) game modes and playing with friends. Further, less experienced players were more susceptible to discontinuing play after encountering toxic players. ...
Article
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In this paper, we present churn prediction techniques that have been released so far. Churn prediction is used in the fields of Internet services, games, insurance, and management. However, since it has been used intensively to increase the predictability of various industry/academic fields, there is a big difference in its definition and utilization. In this paper, we collected the definitions of churn used in the fields of business administration, marketing, IT, telecommunications, newspapers, insurance and psychology, and described their differences. Based on this, we classified and explained churn loss, feature engineering, and prediction models. Our study can be used to select the definition of churn and its associated models suitable for the service field that researchers are most interested in by integrating fragmented churn studies in industry/academic fields.
Article
Since the release of video games numerous studies have assessed the impact of violence within video games on aggression, yet few have assessed the impact of competition. Initial studies that include competition indicate that competition within video games does impact aggression, and that it is the competitive nature of violent video games rather than the actual violence that has increased aggression. However, previous competitive video game studies have assumed levels of competition within video games or have used different games across conditions, both of which may have confounded results. As such, this study aimed to assess the impact of both competition and violence on aggression using a true experimental design and using the same game across conditions. Sixty-four participants played one of four versions of a video game (2 [Competitive] x 2 [Violent]) and it was found that competition, but not violence, impacted aggressive affect. In addition, participants who lost in the competitive version of the game had even higher levels of aggressive affect. Neither competition nor violence impacted aggressive behaviour. Possible limitations to this study included the poor validity of the Taylor Competitive Reaction Time Task (TCRTT) and the delay between participants finishing the game and then competing the TCRTT. Overall, these findings further support the notion that competition rather than violence within video games impacts aggression. Future research should assess ways to encourage fair play within video game communities to reduce the impact of competition on aggression.
Article
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji korelasi antara self-esteem dan stress terhadap perilaku harassment di online game. Ada 136 responden dewasa awal yang berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini, mereka semua dipilih menggunakan teknik non-probability sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Setiap partisipan diminta menyelesaikan Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, dan skala The Video Game Harassment Scale milik Fox and Tang. Semua skala telah terbukti reliable dimana alpha cronbach untuk RSES adalah 0.856, 0.917 untuk Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, dan 0.806 untuk skala The Video Game Harassment Scale. Hasil menunjukan bahwa ada korelasi yang signifikan antara stress dan harassment (r = 0.197, p = 0.022), dan tidak ada korelasi signifikan antara self-esteem dan harassment (r = -0.062, p = 0.472)
Conference Paper
Toxicity in online environments is a complex and a systemic issue. Esports communities seem to be particularly suffering from toxic behaviors. Especially in competitive esports games, negative behavior, such as harassment, can create barriers to players achieving high performance and can reduce players' enjoyment which may cause them to leave the game. The aim of this study is to review design approaches in six major esports games to deal with toxic behaviors and to investigate how players perceive and deal with toxicity in those games. Our preliminary findings from an interview study with 17 participants (3 female) from a university esports club show that players define toxicity as behaviors disrupt their morale and team dynamics, and participants are inclined to normalize negative behaviors and rationalize it as part of the competitive game culture. If they choose to take an action against toxic players, they are likely to ostracize toxic players.
Thesis
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Developing a successful game is challenging. Prior work shows that gamers are extremely difficult to satisfy, making the quality of games an important issue. Prior work has yielded important results from mining data that is available on the online distribution platforms for software applications, helping practitioners save valuable resources, and improving the user-perceived quality of software that is distributed through these platforms. However, much of the work on mining online distribution platforms focuses on mining mobile app stores (e.g., Google Play Store, Apple App Store). Video game development differs from the development of other types of software. Hence, knowledge derived from mining mobile app stores may not be directly applicable to game development. In this Ph.D. thesis, we focused on mining online distribution platforms for games. In particular, we mined data from the Steam platform, the largest digital distribution platforms for PC gaming, with over 23,000 games available and over 184 million active users. More specifically, we analyzed the following four aspects of online distribution for games: urgent updates; the early access model (which enables game developers to sell unfinished versions of their games); user reviews; and user-recorded gameplay videos on the Steam platform. We observed that the choice of update strategy is associated with the proportion of urgent updates that developers have to release. Early access game developers can use the early access model as a method for eliciting early feedback and more positive reviews to attract additional new players. In addition, although negative reviews contain more valuable information for developers, the portion of useful information in positive reviews should not be ignored by developers and researchers. Finally, we proposed an approach for determining the likelihood that a gameplay video demonstrates a game bug, with both a mean average precision at 10 and a mean average precision at 100 of 0.91. Our approach can help game developers leverage readily available gameplay videos to automatically collect otherwise hard-to-gather bug reports for games. The results of our empirical studies highlight the value of mining online distribution platforms for games in offering practical suggestions for game developers.
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Online multiplayer games like Minecraft, gaining increasing popularity among present-day youth, include rich contexts for social interactions but are also rife with interpersonal conflict among players. Research shows that a variety of socio-technical mechanisms (e.g., server rules, chat filters, use of in-game controls to ban players, etc.) aim to limit and/or eliminate social conflict in games like Minecraft. However, avoiding social conflict need not necessarily always be a useful approach. Broadly defined in CSCW literature as a phenomenon that may arise even amidst mutual cooperation, social conflict can yield positive outcomes depending on how it is managed (e.g., [Easterbrook et al.,1993]). In fact, the aforementioned approaches to avoid conflict may not be helpful as they do not help youth understand how to address similar interpersonal differences that may occur in other social settings. Furthermore, prior research has established the value of developing conflict-resolution skills during early adolescence within safe settings, such as school/after-school wellness and prevention interventions (e.g.,[Shure, 1982], [Aber et al., 1998]), for later success in any given interpersonal relationship. While games like Minecraft offer authentic contexts for encountering social conflict, little work thus far has explored how to help youth develop conflict-resolution skills by design interventions within online interest-driven settings. Drawing from prior literature in CSCW, youth wellness and prevention programs, we translated offline evidence-based strategies into the design of an online, after-school program that was run within a moderated Minecraft server. The online program, titled Survival Lab, was designed to promote problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills in youth (ages 8-14 years). We conducted a field study for six months (30 youth participants, four college-age moderators, and one high-school volunteer aged 15 years) using in-game observations and digital trace ethnographic approaches. Our study data reveals that participating youth created community norms and developed insightful solutions to conflicts in Survival Lab. Our research offers three key takeaways. Firstly, online social games like Minecraft lend themselves as feasible settings for the translation of offline evidence-based design strategies in promoting the development of conflict-resolution and other social competencies among youth. Secondly, the design features that support structured and unstructured play while enabling freedom of choice for youth to engage as teams and/or individuals are viable for collective or community-level outcomes. Third and finally, moderators, as caring adults and near-peer mentors, play a vital role in facilitating the development of conflict-resolution skills and interest-driven learning among youth. We discuss the implications of our research for translating offline design to online play-based settings as sites and conclude with recommendations for future work.
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Games and play research at CHI employs psychological theory to investigate the ways that varied qualities of people, videogames, and play contexts contribute to nuances in player experience (PX). Play is often characterised as self-endorsed and freely chosen behaviour, and self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that this autonomous quality contributes to wellbeing restoration. However, prior research has produced only inconsistent support for this claim. In this study, 148 participants experienced an autonomy-satisfying or -frustrating puzzle before playing Spore, a videogame likely to satisfy autonomy. Need-frustrated participants showed comparatively greater improvement in autonomy, vitality, and intrinsic motivation when playing Spore, and in-game autonomy satisfaction was shown to index post-play wellbeing outcomes. However, further results were mixed, and only competence frustration was found to predict ill-being outcomes. These findings are contextualised by post-study interviews that investigate the ways that autonomy, wellbeing, and motivation emerge in and through play in daily life.
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Social interaction acts as a key motivation for playing online games; however, some players engage in in-game intra-group aggressive behavior, such as swearing, ignoring, and sabotaging their teammates. This study uses the motivation theory and techniques of the neutralization theory to understand this phenomenon in the multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) game. A partial least squares analysis conducted on the data collected from 221 League of Legends players revealed three types of aggressive acts: psychological, passive, and active. Psychological acts have the least negative impact on victory, while passive and active acts have the greatest negative impact. Players’ achievement, immersion, and social motivations have limited contribution to aggressive acts. Those engaging in psychological acts deploy many neutralization techniques to justify their actions, while players who only engage in active acts employ a very limited set of neutralization techniques. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon that deviates from the MOBA norm of intra-team co-operation and cohesion through the techniques of the neutralization theory.
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Online social games, played within social networks or games requiring social interaction with peers, are revolutionizing the nature of video-games due to their social aspect and the ability of users to compare their performance with their friends or people in their network. Social comparison features, such as leaderboards, individual scores, achievement badges and level maps, are commonly used in online games to enforce the social interaction of players. However, one of the biggest challenges that the social game industry is currently facing is the ability to increase user enjoyment, and keep its players engaged in the games. To probe more deeply into whether and how players’ continuance intention is influenced by social comparison processes, we combine two theoretical lenses: social comparison theory and self-efficacy theory. We conducted real-world data collection to measure the impact of social comparisons in player perceived enjoyment, online social gaming self-efficacy and game continuance. The results indicate that upward identification and downward contrast are the most influential comparison elements in game continuance. The results of these two comparisons have significant implications for both the theoretical application of social comparison in online settings and for the practical implications of future game design.
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Online social games such as World of Tanks (WoT) have attracted hundreds of millions of users not only to play the games but also to share game replays and to watch games played by others in online game replay sharing communities. To date, user retention, including player retention for games and uploader retention for replay sharing communities, remains a key challenge in game design and in maintaining the community prosperity. In this article, we revisit the user retention problem and we deal with the player and the uploader retention problem simultaneously, through leveraging both the in- and out-game features uniquely provided by online game replay sharing communities. To this end, we have collected a large-scale dataset from a replay sharing community named WoTreplays, which contains records of over 380 000 game replays and nearly 2 million users. For the player retention problem, we examine traditional factors including the activity level, the gaming performance, and the social relationships of players, and we include additional features that are intuitively informative, such as how many users have watched a player, which are provided uniquely by the game replay sharing communities. Similarly, for the uploader retention problem, we study the activity level and the popularity of uploaders in game replay sharing communities and additionally include their gaming performance and social relationships in the games as a supplement. Based on our findings, we build machine-learned classifiers that can accurately predict users who will play intensively and users who will share a large number of game replays in the future. Among other results, we find that: 1) for both game playing and replay sharing, the activity level and the popularity of the users are highly skewed; 2) the influence between the gaming activity and the gaming performance is mutual; 3) while the majority of users do not form long-term relationships, a small fraction of users connect very closely; and 4) the gaming performance and the user popularity are very informative for predicting highly active users.
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In this paper, we present churn prediction techniques that have been released so far. Churn prediction is used in the fields of Internet services, games, insurance, and management. However, since it has been used intensively to increase the predictability of various industry/academic fields, there is a big difference in its definition and utilization. In this paper, we collected the definitions of churn used in the fields of business administration, marketing, IT, telecommunications, newspapers, insurance and psychology, and described their differences. Based on this, we classified and explained churn loss, feature engineering, and prediction models. Our study can be used to select the definition of churn and its associated models suitable for the service field that researchers are most interested in by integrating fragmented churn studies in industry/academic fields.
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Many quantitative, log-based studies of participation and contribution in CSCW and CMC systems measure the activity of users in terms of output, based on metrics like posts to forums, edits to Wikipedia articles, or commits to code repositories. In this paper, we instead seek to estimate the amount of time users have spent contributing. Through an analysis of Wikipedia log data, we identify a pattern of punctuated bursts in editors' activity that we refer to as edit sessions. Based on these edit sessions, we build a metric that approximates the labor hours of editors in the encyclopedia. Using this metric, we first compare labor-based analyses with output-based analyses, finding that the activity of many editors can appear quite differently based on the kind of metric used. Second, we use edit session data to examine phenomena that cannot be adequately studied with purely output-based metrics, such as the total number of labor hours for the entire project.
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This article compiles results from a century of social psychological research, more than 25,000 studies of 8 million people. A large number of social psychological conclusions are listed alongside meta-analytic information about the magnitude and variability of the corresponding effects. References to 322 meta-analyses of social psychological phenomena are presented, as well as statistical effect-size summaries. Analyses reveal that social psychological effects typically yield a value of r equal to .21 and that, in the typical research literature, effects vary from study to study in ways that produce a standard deviation in r of .15. Uses, limitations, and implications of this large-scale compilation are noted. In 1898 Norman Triplett published an early experiment in social psychology, about an ef-fect of the presence of others on task perfor-mance. In the 100 years since Triplett's inves-tigation, many social psychological effects have been documented. The current article summa-rizes the best established of these findings, with data from more than 25,000 research studies and 8 million people. Our goal is to quantify the magnitude and variability of social psychologi-cal effects. We begin by considering previous summaries of social psychology, note some un-resolved issues, and review developments that permit a century of scholarly work to be quan-titatively described. For present purposes, we follow Manstead and Hewstone (1995) in re-garding social psychology as the study of "the reciprocal influence of the individual and his or her social context" (p. 588).
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Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) can be fascinating laboratories to observe group dynamics online. In particular, players must form persistent associations or "guilds" to coordinate their actions and accomplish the games' toughest objectives. Managing a guild, however, is notoriously difficult and many do not survive very long. In this paper, we examine some of the factors that could explain the success or failure of a game guild based on more than a year of data collected from five World of Warcraft servers. Our focus is on structural properties of these groups, as represented by their social networks and other variables. We use this data to discuss what games can teach us about group dynamics online and, in particular, what tools and techniques could be used to better support gaming communities.
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Are people who remain active as webloggers more socially con- nected to other users? How are the number and nature of social ties related to people's willingness to continue contributing con- tent to a weblog? This study uses longitudinal data taken from Wallop, a weblogging system developed by Microsoft Research, to explore patterns of user activity. In its year long operation Wallop hosted a naturally occurring opportunity for cultural com- parison, as it developed a majority Chinese language using popu- lation (despite the English language focus of the system). This allows us to consider whether or not language communities have different social network characteristics that vary along different activity levels. Logistic regression models and network visualiza- tions reveal two key findings. The first is that not all ties are equal. Although a count of incoming comments appears to be a significant predictor of retention, it loses its predictive strength when strong ties created by repeated, reciprocal interaction and ties from other dedicated webloggers are considered. Second, the higher rate of retention among the Chinese language users is partly explained by that population's greater ability to draw in participants with pre-existing social ties. We conclude with con- siderations for weblogs and directions for future research.
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Open content web sites depend on users to produce information of value. Wikipedia is the largest and most well-known such site. Previous work has shown that a small fraction of editors --Wikipedians -- do most of the work and produce most of the value. Other work has offered conjectures about how Wikipedians differ from other editors and how Wikipedians change over time. We quantify and test these conjectures. Our key findings include: Wikipedians' edits last longer; Wikipedians invoke community norms more often to justify their edits; on many dimensions of activity, Wikipedians start intensely, tail off a little, then maintain a relatively high level of activity over the course of their career. Finally, we show that the amount of work done by Wikipedians and non-Wikipedians differs significantly from their very first day. Our results suggest a design opportunity: customizing the initial user experience to improve retention and channel new users' intense energy.
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The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad information is processed more thoroughly than good. The self is more motivated to avoid bad self-definitions than to pursue good ones. Bad impressions and bad stereotypes are quicker to form and more resistant to disconfirmation than good ones. Various explanations such as diagnosticity and salience help explain some findings, but the greater power of bad events is still found when such variables are controlled. Hardly any exceptions (indicating greater power of good) can be found. Taken together, these findings suggest that bad is stronger than good, as a general principle across a broad range of psychological phenomena.
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This research investigated the intergroup properties of hostile 'flaming' behaviour in computer-mediated communication and how flaming language is affected by Internet identifiability, or identifiability by name and e-mail address/geographical location as is common to Internet communication. According to the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE; e.g. Reicher, Spears, & Postmes, 1995) there may be strategic reasons for identifiable groups members to act in a more group-normative manner in the presence of an audience, to gain acceptance from the in-group, to avoid punishment from the out-group, or to assert their identity to the out-group. For these reasons, it was predicted that communicators would produce more stereotype-consistent (group-normative) descriptions of out-group members' behaviours when their descriptions were identifiable to an audience. In one archival and three experimental studies, it was found that identifiability to an in-group audience was associated with higher levels of stereotype-consistent language when communicators described anonymous out-group targets. These results extend SIDE and suggest the importance of an in-group audience for the expression of stereotypical views.
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A new questionnaire on aggression was constructed. Replicated factor analyses yielded 4 scales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility. The scales showed internal consistency and stability over time. Men scored slightly higher on Verbal Aggression and Hostility and much higher on Physical Aggression. There was no sex difference for Anger. The various scales correlated differently with various personality traits. Scale scores correlated with peer nominations of the various kinds of aggression. These findings suggest the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.
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This study investigated the effect of a single work group deviant on other group members' perceptions of the deviant, and their perceptions of the cohesiveness of the group as a whole. Group members, particularly those high in perceived self-typicality, were expected to downgrade the deviant, and view groups containing a deviant as less cohesive. Undergraduate management students were placed in a simulated organizational context in which deviance was manipulated so that the participant's work group contained either a single negative deviant or no deviant. Results showed that the deviant colleague was judged less favorably than the normative colleague, particularly by those high in perceived self-typicality. Groups that contained a deviant were perceived as having lower levels of task cohesion, but ratings of social cohesion varied depending on perceivers' self-typicality. The findings suggest that as well as attracting negative evaluations, deviant group members can adversely affect group cohesion.
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Online antisocial or 'bad' behavior appears to be a serious and pervasive problem in a variety of online social settings. This paper presents results from an online survey designed to collect information about the frequency, context, and effects of aversive behavior, and the methods they employ to combat it. As expected, respondents perceived that bad online behavior occurs frequently and has a strong negative effect on online interactions. Most respondents reported that others' bad behavior had caused them to leave or avoid online social spaces. Participants reported that the methods they use to combat bad behavior are not very effective. Descriptions of bad behavior suggest that many are perpetrated by people users do not know, but a surprising number are perpetrated by acquaintances. Further, bad behavior often spans online domains, such that while the behavior may start in one place (e.g., a chat room), it may continue through other channels (e.g., email). Implications for designing more effective methods to thwart bad behavior using established social principles are discussed.
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Moreland and Levine (1982) proposed a model of group socialization that describes and explains the passage of individuals through groups. In that model, the relationship between the group and the individual is assumed to change in systematic ways over time and both parties are viewed as active social influence agents. This chapter summarizes the group socialization model, discusses theoretical elaborations and extensions of the model, and reviews some empirical studies stimulated by the model.
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Reputations that are transmitted from person to person can deter moral hazard and discourage entry by bad types in markets where players repeat transactions but rarely with the same player. On the Internet, information about past transactions may be both limited and potentially unreliable, but it can be distributed far more systematically than the informal gossip among friends that characterizes conventional marketplaces. One of the earliest and best known Internet reputation systems is run by eBay, which gathers comments from buyers and sellers about each other after each transaction. Examination of a large data set from 1999 reveals several interesting features of this system, which facilitates many millions of sales each month. First, despite incentives to free ride, feedback was provided more than half the time. Second, well beyond reasonable expectation, it was almost always positive. Third, reputation profiles were predictive of future performance. However, the net feedback scores that eBay displays encourages Pollyanna assessments of reputations, and is far from the best predictor available. Fourth, although sellers with better reputations were more likely to sell their items, they enjoyed no boost in price, at least for the two sets of items that we examined. Fifth, there was a high correlation between buyer and seller feedback, suggesting that the players reciprocate and retaliate.
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The influences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace deviant behavior (WDB) on business unit performance were investigated using data from branches of a fast food organization. Data included measures of WDB and OCB obtained from staff, ratings of performance provided by supervisors, and objective measures of performance. It was found that WDB was negatively and significantly associated with business unit performance measured both subjectively and objectively. OCB, however, failed to contribute to the prediction of business unit performance beyond the level that was achieved by WDB. It appeared, therefore, that the presence of deviant employees among business units impinges upon the performance of the business unit as a whole, whereas OCBs had comparatively little effect. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We analyze collaborative play in an online video game, World of Warcraft, the most popular personal computer game in the United States, with significant markets in Asia and Europe. Based on an immersive ethnographic study, we describe how the social organization of the game and player culture affect players' enjoyment and learning of the game. We discovered that play is characterized by a multiplicity of collaborations from brief informal encounters to highly organized play in structured groups. The variety of collaborations makes the game more fun and provides rich learning opportunities. We contrast these varied collaborations, including those with strangers, to the "gold standard" of Gemeinschaft-like communities of close relations in tightknit groups. We suggest populations for whom similar games could be designed.
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For buyers and sellers alike, there's no better way to earn one another's trust in online interactions.
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This paper discusses social psychological processes in computer-mediated communication (CMC) and group decision-making, in relation to findings that groups communicating via computer produce more polarized decisions than face-to-face groups. A wide range of possible explanations for such differences have been advanced, in which a lack of social cues, disinhibition, “de-individuation” and a consequent tendency to antinormative behaviour are central themes. In these explanations, both disinhibition and greater equality of participation are thought to facilitate the exchange of extreme persuasive arguments, resulting in polarization. These accounts are briefly reviewed and attention is drawn to various problematic issues. We provide an alternative model and explanation based on social identity (SI) theory and a re-conceptualization of de-individuation, which takes into account the social and normative factors associated with group polarization. Predictions from both sets of explanations are explored empirically by means of an experiment manipulating the salience of the discussion group, and de-individuation operationalized as the isolation and anonymity of the participants. In this experiment we were able to partial out the effects of the CMC technology which have confounded comparisons with face-to-face interaction in previous research. The results challenge the explanations based on persuasive arguments, while being consistent with our SI model. We discuss our approach in relation to other very recent research in group computer-mediated communication and offer a reinterpretation of previous findings.
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We articulate the role of norms within the social identity perspective as a basis for theorizing a number of manifestly communicative phenomena. We describe how group norms are cognitively represented as context-dependent prototypes that capture the distinctive properties of groups. The same process that governs the psychological salience of different prototypes, and thus generates group normative behavior, can be used to understand the formation, perception, and diffusion of norms, and also how some group members, for example, leaders, have more normative influence than others. life illustrate this process across a number of phenomena and make suggestions for future interfaces between the social identity perspective and communication research. We believe that the social identity approach represents a truly integrative force for the communication discipline.
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Examines the Dollard et al. (1939) frustration-aggression hypothesis. The original formulation's main proposition is limited to interference with an expected attainment of a desired goal on hostile (emotional) aggression. Although some studies have yielded negative results, others support the core proposition. Frustrations can create aggressive inclinations even when they are not arbitrary or aimed at the subject personally. Interpretations and attributions can be understood partly in terms of the original analysis but they can also influence the unpleasantness of the thwarting. A proposed revision of the 1939 model holds that frustrations generate aggressive inclinations to the degree that they arouse negative affect. Evidence regarding the aggressive consequences of aversive events is reviewed, and Berkowitz's cognitive-neoassociationistic model is summarized.
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We consider the problems of societal norms for cooperation and reputation when it is possible to obtain "cheap pseudonyms", something which is becoming quite common in a wide variety of interactions on the Internet. This introduces opportunities to misbehave without paying reputational consequences. A large degree of cooperation can still emerge, through a convention in which newcomers "pay their dues" by accepting poor treatment from players who have established positive reputations. One might hope for an open society where newcomers are treated well, but there is an inherent social cost in making the spread of reputations optional. We prove that no equilibrium can sustain significantly more cooperation than the dues-paying equilibrium in a repeated random matching game with a large number of players in which players have finite lives and the ability to change their identities, and there is a small but nonvanishing probability of mistakes. Although one could remove the ine...
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