Conference Paper

MemReflex: adaptive flashcards for mobile microlearning

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Abstract

Flashcard systems typically help students learn facts (e.g., definitions, names, and dates), relying on intense initial memoriztion with subsequent tests delayed up to days later. This approach does not exploit the short, sparse, and mobile opportunities for microlearning throughout the day, nor does it support learners who need the motivation that comes from successful study sessions. In contrast, our MemReflex system of adaptive flashcards gives fast-feedback by retesting new items in quick succession, dynamically scheduling future tests according to a model of the learner's memory. Full details can be found in the paper [1].

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... Traditionally, these pairs are written on either side of a paper flashcard. A learner is presented with one side of the flashcard and tries to recall what is on the other side -this is known as 'cued-recall learning' [7]. ...
... The Leitner System [13] is a common approach to implementing flashcard-based learning in applications [7,8]. Flashcards are introduced using 'spaced repetition', a learning method that came from Ebbinghaus' research findings that reviewing material at exponentially spaced intervals aids memorisation [14]. ...
... Flashcard-based learning has also been shown to be an effective but 'boring' task for students [15]. One way to mitigate these problems is to design 'microlearning' activities which reflect the way that users adopt these kinds of technologies [7]. With this in mind, it is important to ensure that voice applications designed for language learning can facilitate both long-term retention of vocabulary as well as a satisfying short-term experience for the learner. ...
Conference Paper
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Despite increasing awareness of Alexa’s potential as an educational tool, there remains a limited scope for Alexa skills to accommodate the features required for effective language learning. This paper describes an investigation into implementing ‘spaced-repetition’, a non-trivial feature of flashcard-based learning, through the development of an Alexa skill called ‘Japanese Flashcards’. Here we show that existing Alexa development features such as skill persistence allow for the effective implementation of spaced-repetition and suggest a heuristic adaptation of the spaced-repetition model that is appropriate for use with voice assistants (VAs). We also highlight areas of the Alexa development process that limit the facilitation of language learning, namely the lack of multilingual speech recognition, and offer solutions to these current limitations. Overall, the investigation shows that Alexa can successfully facilitate simple L2-L1 flashcard-based language learning and highlights the potential for Alexa to be used as a sophisticated and effective language learning tool.
... The mobile phone is a great platform to implement anywhere, anytime micro-learning opportunities, since it always accompanies its owner wherever she may go. There is a great deal of mobile language learning systems [1,2,5,6,9,10,11,16,20,30] with which learners can leverage the brief fragments of free time that spaced throughout the day for language learning tasks. A number of mobile applications [1,9,10,11,30] have been developed to address the challenges of learning Mandarin Chinese. ...
... There is a great deal of mobile language learning systems [1,2,5,6,9,10,11,16,20,30] with which learners can leverage the brief fragments of free time that spaced throughout the day for language learning tasks. A number of mobile applications [1,9,10,11,30] have been developed to address the challenges of learning Mandarin Chinese. Some of them focus on vocabulary learning in general [1,10,11], others focus on the tonal sound system [9] and the logographic writing system [30]. ...
... A number of mobile applications [1,9,10,11,30] have been developed to address the challenges of learning Mandarin Chinese. Some of them focus on vocabulary learning in general [1,10,11], others focus on the tonal sound system [9] and the logographic writing system [30]. They were designed for either CSL learners [1,9,10,11] or native speakers in elementary schools [30]. ...
Conference Paper
Acquiring Chinese tones is often considered as the most difficult task in learning Chinese as a Second Language (CSL). Recently, ToneWars, a collaborative mobile learning game, demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of connecting CSL learners with native speakers for tone learning. However, the synchronous gameplay nature in ToneWars can be hard to scale due to the time constraint and limited availability of native speakers. We present principled research to make ToneWars scalable and sustainable. First, we address the scalability issue via asynchronous modeling of native speakers. Second, we quantify whether a CSL learner achieves native level mastery for a specific phrase, and explore the use of fine-grained feedback on language mastery as a sustainable motivator for language learning. The insights in this research are generalizable to designing second language learning technologies beyond Chinese. In a longitudinal study with 18 CSL learners, we found that asynchronous gameplay significantly improved learning with an average gain of 29.7 tones and 16.4 syllables, and helped participants achieve native level mastery on 58.2 out of 69 phrases.
... A wide range of computing devices has been exploited to achieve micro learning [14,15,20,22,23,25]. For example, Dingler et al. [22] explored the use of pervasive physical displays for vocabulary learning by placing displays throughout users' homes and work environments. ...
... For example, Dingler et al. [22] explored the use of pervasive physical displays for vocabulary learning by placing displays throughout users' homes and work environments. Smartphones are often leveraged to pursue more handy approaches, such as presenting quizzes through notifcation [23] and scheduling tests repeatedly [25]. Some work also made use of small time segments associated with smartphones, such as using live wallpaper [20] and wait time in messaging and loading [14,15]. ...
Conference Paper
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We demonstrate that recent natural language processing (NLP) techniques introduce a new paradigm of vocabulary learning that benefits from both micro and usage-based learning by generating and presenting the usages of foreign words based on the learner’s context. Then, without allocating dedicated time for studying, the user can become familiarized with how the words are used by seeing the example usages during daily activities, such as Web browsing. To achieve this, we introduce VocabEncounter, a vocabulary-learning system that suitably encapsulates the given words into materials the user is reading in near real time by leveraging recent NLP techniques. After confirming the system’s human-comparable quality of generating translated phrases by involving crowdworkers, we conducted a series of user studies, which demonstrated its effectiveness on learning vocabulary and its favorable experiences. Our work shows how NLP-based generation techniques can transform our daily activities into a field for vocabulary learning.
... Previous studies have simply used digital buttons to reveal the answer and to signify if the user remembered or did not remember the answer. A previous study used large buttons that simply say "check, " "correct, " and "incorrect" (Edge et al., 2012). Whilst theoretically, not being suited to a universal audience, another study uses buttons with ticks and crosses inside them and which are coloured red and green for a more universal approach (Edge et al., 2011). ...
... Whilst theoretically, not being suited to a universal audience, another study uses buttons with ticks and crosses inside them and which are coloured red and green for a more universal approach (Edge et al., 2011). Both studies reported study participants having no problems interacting with the applications (Edge et al., 2011(Edge et al., , 2012. A study which used the application Study Blue also reported no problems with the commercial application presenting flashcards which users tapped on to reveal the answer. ...
Article
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The air traffic control industry is highly regulated, with stringent processes and procedures to ensure that IP (Intellectual Property) and workplaces are kept secure. The training of air traffic controllers (ATCs) and other roles relating to air traffic services is a lengthy and expensive process. The rate in which trainees can be trained is projected to fall significantly short of the demand for staff to work in the air traffic industry. This paper focuses on two prototype mobile training applications—Location Indicators (LI) and the Aircraft Control Positions Operator (ACPO) Starter Pack. LI and the ACPO Starter Pack have been produced to explore how air traffic control training could be improved and supported using digital applications. Each application explores a key learning area for trainees in the air traffic control industry and presents an alternative to the equivalent training that is currently in use. The two prototypes that have been designed focus on producing a succinct user experience alongside gamified elements to improve engagement. As part of this paper, usability testing has been undertaken with LI and the ACPO Starter Pack. A total of nine usability tests have been undertaken at four different locations. These usability tests consisted of participants from differing demographics, varying experience with the current training and differing amounts of time with both applications. The System Usability Scale (SUS) was adapted and used to quantify participant's reactions to the usability of each application. Usability scores for both applications were collected and then averaged to produce an overall score for each application. We can conclude from both usability scores and qualitative feedback that digital applications have the potential to engage future trainees in the air traffic services industry.
... A class of applications that exploit this are flashcards, which split information into independent chunks that are scheduled for review based on factors such as mastery and recency of review. There have been a number of algorithms and models designed for optimizing learners' retention of the material via spaced repetition [9] [2]. However, they tend to be designed for flashcard-like content, such as isolated facts or vocabulary, rather than lecture videos. ...
... For simplicity, we use a score that is inversely proportional to how recently the question was last answered. Ideally, one would instead use a more advanced spaced-repetition algorithm like MemReflex [2]. ...
Preprint
QuizCram is an interface for navigating lecture videos that uses quizzes to help users determine what they should view. We developed it in response to observing peaks in video seeking behaviors centered around Coursera's in-video quizzes. QuizCram shows users a question to answer, with an associated video segment. Users can use these questions to navigate through video segments, and find video segments they need to review. We also allow users to review using a timeline of previously answered questions and videos. To encourage users to review the material, QuizCram keeps track of their question-answering and video-watching history and schedules sections they likely have not mastered for review. QuizCram-format materials can be generated from existing lectures with in-video quizzes. Our user study comparing QuizCram to in-video quizzes found that users practice answering and reviewing questions more when using QuizCram, and are better able to remember answers to questions they encountered.
... Previous studies have simply used digital buttons to reveal the answer and to signify if the user remembered or did not remember the answer. A previous study used large buttons that simply say "check, " "correct, " and "incorrect" (Edge et al., 2012). Whilst theoretically, not being suited to a universal audience, another study uses buttons with ticks and crosses inside them and which are coloured red and green for a more universal approach (Edge et al., 2011). ...
... Whilst theoretically, not being suited to a universal audience, another study uses buttons with ticks and crosses inside them and which are coloured red and green for a more universal approach (Edge et al., 2011). Both studies reported study participants having no problems interacting with the applications (Edge et al., 2011(Edge et al., , 2012. A study which used the application Study Blue also reported no problems with the commercial application presenting flashcards which users tapped on to reveal the answer. ...
... Here the suggested concept of 'bricolage didactics' (Hug, 2010) needs to be further elaborated. First design principles can be found by Edge et al. (2012), who suggest (a) Microlearning applications should support rapid changes in activities as users' contexts change more frequently and in less predictive ways; and (b) Sequences of activities need to adapt to very short time frames as Microlearning might end after a few minutes. Hence doing, reflecting, discussing and testing need to be condensed as much as possible. ...
... Tip Tap Tones uses simplification by focusing on individual syllables rather than entire phrases that are difficult to process. MemReflex is a mobile application that uses flashcards as a method of studying Chinese characters, targeted towards an English-speaking audience [11]. This algorithm builds on prior approaches to spaced repetition [23][16][17], but explicitly targets satisfying learning experiences from short, sparse learning sessions as is characteristic of mobile interaction. ...
Thesis
Learning a second language has become popular not only for people who wish to communicate with those who do not speak their native language, but also for professionals who are required to speak to colleagues around the globe. Unfortunately, learning a language requires time and practice that is difficult to fit into many people's daily schedules. Currently, mobile applications are available to help language learners study "on-the-go;" however, most mobile-based exercises focus on learning to understand input, specifically on memorizing vocabulary, and fail to support users in developing their output skills, such as writing and speaking. In this thesis, I describe the design and implementation for PressToPronounce, a mobile application that helps native Mandarin Chinese speakers practice English speaking skills. Ideas from second language acquisition studies and persuasive technology strategies guided the design of short, focused, user-centered exercises to help learners develop their competency of the target language and improve their performance through practicing pronunciation. The application also takes advantage of Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT), a state-of-the-art pronunciation analysis tool that provides quantitative speech and pronunciation feedback to support users in tracking their progress. Preliminary user tests for the system showed that users were enthusiastic about output-oriented exercises, and given the opportunity, would continue to use the application to practice their speech.
... Traditionally, digital tools made use of only written or audio context and focused only on specific aspects of learning. Tip Tap Tones trains users to recognize tones in Chinese [17]. MemReflex adaptively changes flashcard learning schedules to maximize retention [16]. ...
Conference Paper
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Learning a second language is challenging. Becoming fluent requires learning contextual information about how language should be used as well as word meanings and grammar. The majority of existing language learning applications provide only thin context around content. In this paper, we present Crystallize, a collaborative 3D game that provides rich context along with scaffolded learning and engaging gameplay mechanics. Players collaborate through joint tasks, or quests. We present a user study with 42 participants that examined the impact of low and high levels of task interdependence on language learning experience and outcomes. We found that requiring players to help each other led to improved collaborative partner interactions, learning outcomes, and gameplay. A detailed analysis of the chat-logs further revealed that changes in task interdependence affected learning behaviors.
... MicroLearning can be conceived in many various ways, frequently in combined forms, if some properties in the dimensions defined by Hug are adhered to [13]. We can give "flashcards" combined with mobile learning [27], [28] or mobile learning itself [29], [30] as an example. ...
... Spaced repetition algorithms schedule items for review to ensure long-term retention [11]. We modified the Memreflex algorithm [5] to show the word due for review that has been seen least recently in the feed, as opposed to always showing the most overdue word as Memreflex does. This ensures that users will continue to see different words as they are scrolling through their feeds, even if they are not always answering the in-feed questions. ...
Conference Paper
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Many long-term goals, such as learning a language, require people to spend a small amount of time each day to achieve them. At the same time, people regularly browse social news feeds in their spare time. Our system, FeedLearn, teaches vocabulary in the context of Facebook feeds, by showing users interactive quizzes they can answer without leaving their feeds. It is implemented as a Chrome extension, as Facebook's API does not currently allow developers to insert interactive content into feeds. In our preliminary user study, we compared Japanese vocabulary learning rates when interactive quizzes were inserted directly into feeds, versus inserting links that lead them to quizzes. Our results suggest that users learn more and engage more with microlearning tasks when quizzes can be done without leaving their feeds.
... b) Researchers evaluated the flashcard system MemReflex across three user studies. Overall, the work suggests new directions for mobile microlearning and "micro activities" in general (Edge et al., 2012). c) KnowledgePulse is a new and pioneering learning technology developed by Research Studios Austria FG. ...
Research
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MOBILE LEARNING 2015, Page 99
... The learner is tested throughout the day on new knowledge, with adaptive flashcards. Thus, the student is motivated by being fed with new items, even while walking and being distracted by other activities ( Edge, Fitchett, Whitney & Landay, 2012). As e-learning becomes more and more widespread and accepted, there is also a problem with the great number of withdrawals that occurs. ...
... When the findings of the present research were compared with the results found in literature, it was revealed that those of the current one fit in the previous related studies (e.g. Abdollapour & Asadzadeh Maleki, 2012;Alemi, Anani Sarab, & Lari, 2012;Başoğlu & Akdemir, 2010;Edge, Fitchett, Whitney, & Landay, 2012;Jalalifarahani & Ghovehnodoushan, 2011;Tabatabaei & Heidari Goojani 2012;Zhang, Song, & Burston, 2011). These studies proved that language learners prefer to use mobile phones for learning purposes. ...
Article
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The current study aimed at evaluating the vocabulary gain of advanced learners of English when digitized and non-digitized flashcards served as learning tools. To do so, after a vocabulary pre-test, 109 university students were subdivided into three groups, using mobile, online, and paper flashcards. Each week, 70 flashcards containing frequent words of TOEFL and IELTS were available to them during a ten-week program. Besides taking biweekly progress tests, the participants finally took a post-test to assess their overall vocabulary gain. This study drew attention to some advantages of mobile phones, indicating that they represent a language learning resource worthy of further investigation.
... The learner is tested throughout the day on new knowledge, with adaptive flashcards. Thus, the student is motivated by being fed with new items, even while walking and being distracted by other activities (Edge, Fitchett, Whitney & Landay, 2012). ...
... The method which is proposed in (Edge, Fitchett, Whitney, & Landay, 2012) is called MemReflex. It is used to get fast-feedback from learners. ...
Article
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One of the most important requirements for successful learning experiences is learning activity on a regular basis. The problem with today’s learning system is that the learners often get stuck while using traditional learning systems because they can’t motivate them to fast learning and make a creative mind. Successful learning requires getting knowledge on regular bases and keeping it memorable as long as possible. The problem with traditional learning methods is that the learner's mind glued in its stateand it does not provide any motivation to them to get new knowledge and improve their skills. Microlearning provides a new teaching paradigm which can allow knowledge and information to divided into small chunks and deliver it to the learners. Microlearning can make the learning subjects easy to understand and memorable for a longer period. In this work, we tested microlearning teaching methods for ICT subject in the Primaryschool. We chose two groups from a Primaryschool in Sulaimani city. Then we teachthe class using microlearning methods in one of them and traditional methods in the other for six weeks. After testing both groups getting the results, Microlearning group showed around 18% better learning than traditional group. We can conclude that using microlearning techniques, the effectiveness,and efficiency of learning can be improved. Also, the knowledge can stay memorable for longer periods
... Here the suggested concept of 'bricolage didactics' (Hug, 2010) needs to be further elaborated. First design principles can be found by Edge et al. (2012), who suggest (a) Microlearning applications should support rapid changes in activities as users' contexts change more frequently and in less predictive ways; and (b) Sequences of activities need to adapt to very short time frames as Microlearning might end after a few minutes. Hence doing, reflecting, discussing and testing need to be condensed as much as possible. ...
... Researchers evaluated the flashcard system MemReflex across three user studies. Overall, the work suggests new directions for mobile micro learning and "micro activities" in general ( Edge et al, 2012 .More traditional learning and training methods aren't conducive to constant changing and updating. By funneling your lessons into a more digestible medium, you gain the ability to send out continuous updates via social media, video and interactive content. ...
Conference Paper
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We depict an application for smart android device and PCs intended to help students learn through "micro learning" tools. In this paper we examined the application domain we show is practicing names and faces of individuals in one's field or interpersonal organization. In this paper we examined using small groups is a good way to introduce active learning into one's teaching. There are, however, significantly different ways of using small groups. It discusses the interplay of the characteristics of pedagogic practice which former studies have indicated contain the potential for a better scientific understanding. It also discusses the importance of a mixed pedagogic practice with different groups for the same subject. Micro learning is flexible and cost-effective because it is reusable.
... It could be that they are unaware of the benefit of this feature or its cost. Therefore, some researchers have developed their flashcards and the Leitner system was added as the main feature to their apps, such as MemReflex (Edge et al., 2012), MemoryLifter (Mubarak & Smith, 2008). ...
Article
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Knowledge of multi-word units (MWUs) helps facilitate communicative fluency, and research on them has gained more and more attention in recent years concerning teaching methods and designing materials for second language (L2) acquisition. Incidental and intentional vocabulary learning are two dominant approaches to acquiring MWUs. In lexical studies, much research has examined the effects of these methods in various contexts. However, a gap in the research remains concerning materials development. This study aims to discuss various interventions that affect the teaching and learning of MWUs. This paper will highlight how more exposure and focusing learners' attention on particular MWUs is essential to the efficient acquisition of MWUs fluency. It can be achieved through intentional learning activities such as appropriately designed specialist digital flashcard-style computer applications and smartphone apps. Specifically, pedagogical implications are discussed when such applications employ either spaced repetition or a Leitner algorithm.
... Here the suggested concept of 'bricolage didactics' (Hug, 2010) needs to be further elaborated. First design principles can be found by Edge et al. (2012), who suggest (a) Microlearning applications should support rapid changes in activities as users' contexts change more frequently and in less predictive ways; and (b) Sequences of activities need to adapt to very short time frames as Microlearning might end after a few minutes. Hence doing, reflecting, discussing and testing need to be condensed as much as possible. ...
Conference Paper
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The phenomenon of Microlearning - learning small chunks during short interactions with content or peers – seems to be a sign of changing assumptions about the nature of knowledge; knowledge is becoming more short-lived in its relevance, less coherent and more distributed than ever before (Hug & Friesen, 2007). Learning under these circumstances is not always a clearly distinguishable activity, e.g. separated from working or leasure. Learning is becoming an integral part of short task flows or a network of tasks, often executed across multiple media, following continuously shifting foci (ibid.). Although Microlearning fits well with the trends of flexibilisation in today’s labor markets, it is worth recalling Liessmann’s (2006) critique of today’s ‘knowledge society’, where decisions about the usefulness of knowledge and best practices seem to be made in a rather arbitrary fashion. For example, Liessmann argues that too much focus on learning outcomes leaves no room for learning contextual or historical references. However, context and history are important conditions for understanding something systematically and becoming able to adapt and further develop knowledge when circumstances change. Not surprisingly learning formats that support contextually integrated learning are receiving increased attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Confirming the trend, the latest ‘Innovating Pedagogy’ report from the OU UK lists “crowd learning” and “geo-learning” among the top ten innovations in 2013 (Sharples et al., 2013). Hence our overall objective is to suggest a cross-fertilisation framework for crowdsourced Microlearning, which can contextualise Microlearning on the one hand and improve the impact and the quality of crowdsourcing initiatives on the other hand. To achieve this objective, the paper proceeds as follows: - Define the conceptual characteristics of Microlearning and Microtasking (crowdsourcing), providing a brief overview of the research on the topics; - Derive a framework for ‘crowdsourced Microlearning’ matching archetypes of crowdsourcing scenarios with typical design challenges in Microlearning; - Discuss existing cases that show a potential for combining crowdsourcing and microlearning; - Suggest future research needs for crowdsourced Microlearning. This way, we hope to contribute to an objective that has been on the Microlearning agenda since the first Microlearning conference in 2005: “We want to better understand the motivational factors of learners and how to integrate information acquisition and learning for organisations into the ongoing flow of daily activities.” (Bruck, 2005).
... The so-called forgetting curve (retention curve) has been studied for some time now in the investigation of human memory [5,7,14,16]. Related studies have shown that revising knowledge over gradually extending intervals has a positive effect on recall [13,33,43]. Apps for memorising, for example, utilise this effect [47,50]. ...
Conference Paper
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This study seeks an answer to the question of whether MicroLearning (ML) as another possible developmental shift in e-Leaning is the right way to go, whether it is effective and how it is received by students. The study's authors seek an answer to these questions in this pilot research, which can be perceived as a springboard for further more detailed investigation and options for implementation within the education process. The study provides the results of the pilot ML course applied in the teaching of the subject Computer Architecture and Operating System Basics designed for students in their first year studying at the Department of Information and Communication Technologies at the University of Ostrava's Faculty of Education. This validated course syllabus is based on the original e-learning course, which was transformed into ML format. The described ML course was implemented over a period of one semester. The effectiveness of this course is calculated based on comparing an experimental and a control group of students who have traditional study materials in electronic form. In addition to the results of the research, the authors here give a brief description of the procedure for creating a course and the tools and environment used in creating the course. The study is a preliminary outcome of a two-year investigation looking at the application of ML within the higher education environment in technical and humanities subjects in distance learning and full-time studies.
... Investigations have also tried to identify how suitable retrieval exercises can be adapted and integrated into courses [3,5,13,15,35]. However, much of the related work for utilizing or exploring the different ways of reaping the benefits of retrieval exercises have been done in a formal scholastic settings, mostly involving students enrolled in courses or a more mixed audience for MOOCs [1,5] or in language learning settings [9,32,39]. In contrast, we investigate learners' perceptions and explore designs for retrieval exercises in nonscholastic situations, such as with the use of informational videos online. ...
Conference Paper
Learners increasingly refer to online videos for learning new technical concepts, but often overlook or forget key details. We investigated how retrieval practice, a learning strategy commonly used in education, could be designed to reinforce key concepts in online videos. We began with a formative study to understand users' perceptions of cued and free-recall retrieval techniques. We next designed a new in-context flashcard-based technique that provides expert-curated retrieval exercises in context of a video's playback. We evaluated this technique with 14 learners and investigated how learners engage with flashcards that are prompted automatically at predefined intervals or flashcards that appear on-demand. Our results overall showed that learners perceived automatically prompted flashcards to be less effortful and made the learners feel more confident about grasping key concepts in the video. However, learners found that on-demand flashcards gave them more control over their learning and allowed them to personalize their review of content. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing hybrid automatic and on-demand in-context retrieval exercises for online videos.
... Although learners can enjoy the benefits of microlearning on online platforms, instructors need to be actively engaged in guiding the content and put effort and time into micro-lecture development [25,26]. Other kinds of microlearning materials are brief social media posts [27], short prompts or tests as supplementary instructional resources [28,29], and learning materials chunked into interactive modules [25,30,31]. Moreover, personalized recommendation systems can be applied to tailor-make the microlearning pathways for learners based on their learning history or other contextualized factors like learners' feedback [26,32,33]. ...
Article
With the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic and its inevitable consequences in education, increased demand for robust online learning frameworks has occurred at all levels of the education system. Given the transformative power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms, there have been determined attempts through the design and application of intelligent tools to overcome existing challenges in online learning platforms. Accordingly, educational providers and researchers are investigating and developing intelligent online learning environments which share greater commonalities with real-world classroom conditions in order to better meet learners' needs. However, short attention spans and the widespread use of smart devices and social media bring about new e-learning systems known as microlearning (ML). While there has been ample research investigating ML and developing micro-content, pedagogical challenges and a general lack of alternative frameworks, theories and practices still exist. The present models have little to say about the connections between social interaction, including learner–content, learner–instructor and learner–learner communication. This has prompted us to investigate the complementary aspects of Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) as an interactive learning model, along with an embedded ML module in the design and development of a comprehensive learning platform. The purpose of this study is to explore the pedagogical frameworks and challenges with reference to interaction and retention in online learning environments, as well as the theoretical and pedagogical foundations of ML and its applications. In addition, we delve into the theories and principles behind CSCL, the main elements in CSCL, identifying the issues and challenges to be faced in improving the efficacy of collaboration processes and outcomes. In short, we aim to synthesize how microlearning and CSCL can be applied as effective modules within a comprehensive online learning platform, thereby offering STEM educators a relevant roadmap towards progress that has yet to be offered in previous studies.
... Several studies look at the effectiveness of flashcards as a studying tool [10,12,14], the use of digital flashcards [3,4,9], and using flashcards to learn images/shapes [6]. Some of the research focused on the types of flashcards being used while other studies looked into how flashcards are used and the best ways to use them. ...
Conference Paper
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Mobile learning apps such as Duolingo have allowed millions of students to study new subjects that they might not otherwise be able to. One study mode utilized in mobile learning is a digital “flashcard,” a tool used by students for studying and memorizing content both in and out of the traditional classroom. Here I investigate whether a multiple-choice type flashcard, which asks the user to identify the picture from one of 4 options, performs better than a digital flashcard to help users identify pictures of fake, cartoon fish. The results of the study so far are inconclusive, not finding statistically significant differences in quiz scores between participants who use the standard flashcards and those who used the multiple-choice flashcard. However, the results may indicate that participants who studied using the multiple-choice flashcard achieved similar scores while studying less on average than those who studied using the standard flashcards.
... These highlights are supported by the fact that smaller chunk size, single-topic, and autonomous MLs are easier to be integrated into our daily and timely learning routine. In addition, ML is often associated with mobile learning by dint of its personalized, situated, authentic, spontaneous and informal attributes (e.g., Cates, Barron, & Ruddiman, 2017;Edge, Fitchett, Whitney, & Landay, 2012). This association has led researchers to consider ML in mobile Massive Online Open Courses of various disciplines (e.g., Sun, Cui, Yong, Shen, & Chen, 2015;Sun et al., 2018). ...
The notion of “Micro-Learning” (ML) has been repeatedly accented as a successful learning approach in different learning phenomena. Despite these optimistic emphases, several studies lack a theoretical grounding in adoption of ML, thus missing a shared perspective of the education community. The scarce theoretical justification for understanding the nuanced dynamics of ML restricts the practical use of this pedagogical approach in “Second Language” (L2) instruction. Therefore, this paper seeks to fill the gap by proposing a theoretical model of ML for L2 instruction. First, a brief background on ML is provided evaluating its benefits and pitfalls in general teaching and learning enterprise. Second, three established theories are explicitly discussed based on a careful examination of the conceptual characteristics and empirical observations of ML. A theoretical model of ML is then devised based on relations postulated among proposed theories and application of the model to existing L2 MLs is made explicit. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed to offer a more robust and descriptive picture of how ML can promote L2 teaching and learning across different contexts. Drawing from these theoretical insights, a principled way to integrating ML into L2 instruction can be made available for future research.
... They presented a mobile application that supports microlearning by leveraging a location-based service to provide contextually relevant content about Mandarin Chinese learning. The method proposed in [22] exploited the microlearning concept and provided the learners with the opportunity to quickly retest new items. Beaudin et al. [23] explore ubiquitous computing for context-sensitive microlearning of foreign language vocabulary. ...
Article
This paper presents a method for predicting the evaluation results of learners interacting with a context-aware microlearning system. We use ASUM-DM to guide different data analytics tasks, including applying a genetic algorithm that selects the prediction’s highest weight features. Then, we apply Machine Learning models like Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Tree, Decision Tree, SVM, and Neural Networks to train data and evaluate the context’s effects, either success or failure of the learner’s evaluation. We are interested in finding the model of significant context-influence to the learner’s evaluation results. The Random Forest model provided an accuracy of 94%, which was calculated with the cross-validation technique. Thus, it is possible to conclude that the model can accurately predict the evaluation result and relate it to the learner context. The model result is a useful insight for sending notifications to the learners to improve the learning process. We want to provide recommendations about learner behavior and context and adapt the microlearning content in the future.
... Modern approaches in this area depend on using machine learning and data science for personalized learning [31]. Existing algorithms can be implemented in adaptive learning scenarios [7]. The effectiveness of spaced repetition in language acquisition settings, along with prior research in ELLs' interactions with immersive systems (e.g., [3,34]), are good indicators of the potential for using it in personalizable VR applications for English language learners. ...
Conference Paper
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Virtual Reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity for non-native speakers of a language to learn within an immersive platform. This may be particularly useful for English Language Learners (ELLs), who may face many difficulties learning English and acclimating to their new environment and culture. However, many current educational tools use a static, one size-fits-all approach to teach students. We believe that empirical research in VR pedagogy-specifically focused on how to personalize and adapt to, and support second language learners (e.g., ELLs) in these interactive and immersive systems-is an important step in providing educational equity to those that may easily fall behind their peers due to cultural and language barriers. In this paper, we discuss the current state of ELL education, and propose personalized and adaptable VR educational tools to help reach a wide range of users with different skills, abilities, and needs.
... Spaced repetition algorithms schedule items for review to ensure long-term retention [14]. We modified the Memreflex algorithm [6] to show the overdue word that appeared least recently in the feed (or to introduce a new word if there are no overdue words), instead of always showing the most overdue word. This ensures that users will continue to see different words as they are scrolling through their feeds, even if they are not always answering the in-feed quizzes. ...
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