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Although the use of video may appear appealing to many coaches, little is known as to the effectiveness of this approach to training and match preparation. Often the assumption is made that if the players see what they are doing right or wrong, this will reinforce good or appropriate behaviour, also that the more information the players have the better. However, research from the mainstream motor learning literature has highlighted several key issues relating to the provision of feedback in learning. For example, Williams (1999) highlights ten aspects which can affect the effectiveness of feedback: ● Feedback should be constructive. ● Develop a model for comparison (Performance Goal). ● Feedback should relate to the players' skill level. ● Frequency should depend on the learners' skill level. ● Do not provide too much information. ● Do not provide feedback that is too precise. ● Provide feedback at the right time. ● Provide the learners with the opportunity to practise the skill. ● Try to provide positive rather than negative feedback. ● Provide some variety in the delivery of feedback. Currently, there is a limited amount of research that supports the use of video-based coaching sessions. This is particularly surprising as modern pedagogy has highlighted the importance of "reflective practise" to consolidate and improve new coaching methods (see Knowles, Gilbourne, Borrie, & Nevill, 2001). Also, with advances in video and computer technology, there has been a reduction in the size and cost of cameras and laptop computers, which has enabled video feedback to be used as a tool for developing youth players and not solely a luxury for the 1st team. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to reflect upon the 2003/04 season using video analysis with an U17 team of 1st year scholars.
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Although the use of video may appear
appealing to many coaches, little is known as
to the effectiveness of this approach to
training and match preparation. Often the
assumption is made that if the players see
what they are doing right or wrong, this will
reinforce good or appropriate behaviour, also
that the more information the players have
the better. However, research from the
mainstream motor learning literature has
highlighted several key issues relating to the
provision of feedback in learning. For
example, Williams (1999) highlights ten
aspects which can affect the effectiveness of
Feedback should be constructive.
Develop a model for comparison
(Performance Goal).
Feedback should relate to the players’
skill level.
Frequency should depend on the
learners’ skill level.
Do not provide too much information.
Do not provide feedback that is too
Provide feedback at the right time.
Provide the learners with the opportunity
to practise the skill.
Try to provide positive rather than
negative feedback.
Provide some variety in the delivery of
urrently, there is a limited amount of
research that supports the use of video-based
coaching sessions. This is particularly
surprising as modern pedagogy has
highlighted the importance of “reflective
practise” to consolidate and improve new
coaching methods (see Knowles, Gilbourne,
Borrie, & Nevill, 2001). Also, with advances in
video and computer technology, there has
been a reduction in the size and cost of
cameras and laptop computers, which has
enabled video feedback to be used as a tool
for developing youth players and not solely a
luxury for the 1st team. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to reflect upon the 2003/04
season using video analysis with an U17 team
of 1st year scholars.
The participants in this study were two
professional Advanced Licenced Youth
coaches; both were ex-professional players
and had over seven years of coaching
experience. As no previous research has
attempted to reflect on the coaches’
perceptions of the use of video analysis, an
exploratory qualitative methodology was
employed to examine coaches’ perceptions of
the video analysis sessions carried out during
the 2003/04 season. A semi-structured
interview with the two coaches (C1 & C2) was
used to identify key themes and trends across
the participants.
The semi-structured interview consisted of
questions relating to five key areas:
(1) General usefulness of the video sessions
(2) What had been learnt in the sessions
(3) Whether the sessions had influenced
their reflection on the matches
Many Premiership football teams have adopted video based match analysis into their preparation for matches. Clubs such as Arsenal,
Chelsea, Liverpool, and Manchester United have used match analysis systems to break down matches providing statistical information of
both a
nature. Historically, this information was created using hand notation, where statistical data would be
collected on paper. However, the introduction of computer-based systems, where the statistical information is linked to the video, has
signalled a conceptually different use of the analysis information. Namely, the information itself can be viewed directly by the players as a
selection of video instances. This allows managers and coaching staff to use this information to provide feedback to the players regarding
individual, unit and team performance in matches. This information may vary from
information relating to sprint/walk/jog
ratio data (see Strudwick & Reilly, 2001) to specific
information for example, team shape, midfield pressure, and
the use of diagonal balls. Also, elements of decision-making such as, the selection of passing and marking options and positional play can
be highlighted. Typically, video analysis is often used to highlight strengths and weakness of players, thus attempting to reinforce
behaviours using positive modelling.
(4) Whether the length of the session was right
(5) Whether the video sessions had had an impact on any mental
(Mental Aspects).
Coaching Philosophy
Central to the construction and delivery of the video feedback
sessions was the experience and philosophy of the coaches who
identified the themes of the session: Technical/tactical content, how
the information is delivered (timing/style), and the tone of the
sessions (positive/negative). In the interview with the coaches a
clear philosophy had developed, which was to try to create a
positive learning experience for players, whilst providing them with
the information they required to improve on previous team and
individual performances:
“The first thing we said at the start is that we did not want it to be
a negative thing (C2).”
“We’ve won games, quite comfortably, threes, fours, but we’ve
always been able to come in on a Monday morning, and go well
done in this area, but you could have improved on that, but I
don’t think it has been in a negative way, I think the balance has
been right (C1).”
Data Analysis Coaches Perceptions
The coaches found that the video analysis sessions were useful
for providing feedback on specific areas of the game that players
often found hard to recall. This enabled the coaches to discuss
“If someone’s made a technical mistake on the ball, we can say
this is what you did, a cross where instead they could have stood
it up at the back post, which would have been the best option
but then elected to whip it, we can stop and say look (C2).”
Also, the video provided the players with a view of the game that is
often reserved for the coaches:
“We can talk about it but until they actually see it up on the board
on the screen, then they don’t know what we are saying, they
can see it for themselves the mistakes that they are making, but
they have also gained so much confidence seeing themselves up
there doing well (C1).”
The coaches perceived that the video sessions had been useful in
improving players’ game understanding. The main advantages the
coaches highlighted using a video-based approach was that you
could work on the players understanding of their positions in relation
to the team both “on and off the ball”:
“For me it’s their positional sense, whereas we can do it out there
on the training ground, which is a great starting point, but in
games they’ve got to make decision really quickly, on a Monday
morning you can say see the position you were in, and work with
the team to get a bit more understanding (C1).”
The coaches also identified that the session had encouraged players
to analyse the game and their own performance in a critical manner:
“It’s a learning curve for them, it’s probably the first time that they
have had to sit down and maybe look at themselves (C1).”
Technical Information
The coaches also perceived that the video analysis was particularly
useful for highlighting technical information for the players. The video
enabled the coaches to highlight the players “in-game performances”
relating to their decision-making skills and their roles and
responsibilities within the team, for example:
Technical mistakes on the ball.
The selection of passing options.
To highlight overplaying in certain areas of the field.
Goals scored against us at set plays.
Players caught wrong side.
Positional play.
Defending at set pieces.
Marking positions.
The next section highlights some of the main themes, concerned with
how video analysis sessions have altered the coaches’ own reflection
on the previous game. In the initial video session both coaches
reported that they were pleasantly surprised with both the team and
individual performances, given the chance to review the game
analytically using the video:
“We were better than we thought, the players are better
individually and as a team, than I thought myself personally, in
terms of what we have done with the video, we look more
organised, using the video equipment they understand their jobs
and roles, it can only help them as players really (C1).”
Importantly, the video analysis gave the coaches a chance to reflect on
the match when the emotions from the game had passed:
“Sometimes I think that the players have performed better at
times when you see them on the video than when you are
actually there at the game (C2).”
The coaches perceived that the video had been particularly useful in
highlighting action “off the ball” as sometimes the coaches were
concentrating towards the “on the ball” play:
“Sometimes, because you think you’ve seen the game you think
that you’ve seen everything, but then when you look back on the
video you realise that, missed that, didn’t know he did that, that
was good or that was bad, sometimes you can see a reoccurring
thing, where someone is making a constant mistake in a certain
situation (C2).”
Also, because of the success the team had experienced in the filmed
matches, the coaches where able to analyse where the success had
Ryan Groom previously worked as a match analyst with the England
youth squads. He has an undergraduate degree in Sports Science
and MPhil degree in cognitive development in youth soccer players.
He is currently working at Brunel University examining the application
of match analysis in soccer.
Dr Chris Cushion is a Research Lecturer in Sports Science and
Coaching at Brunel University. He is an Advanced Licence coach and
has published several scientific papers in the area of coach behaviour
and coach education. He is also an Academy coach at Fulham FC.
come from, and use this information to develop the team’s playing style:
“We now have a style of play, where, and its come sort of
through the video seen where how well we have done through a
lot of pressurising, because we have seen it work, its really honed
it down, that we did not really have at the start of the season, the
style of play (C2).”
The coaches felt that on reflection, the use of video analysis with the
players had given them an extra medium to express their coaching
ideas through:
“It’s certainly helped me in my development as a coach, I’ve
never had that video equipment, but now we can do it, on a
Monday morning to sit down with yourself and go through it’s
helped us as coaches ourselves (C1).”
The coaches were asked to reflect on their perceptions of the timings of
the video analysis sessions. Typically, the sessions consisted of a 30-40
minute debrief of the game. Video instances were selected to reflect
key themes from the game, which the coaches had decided they
wanted to highlight (eg pressuring, attacking play, defensive play, team
shape, and goals). These video clips were then displayed by a projector
onto a wall in their sections and the coaches would highlight key points
and ask the players questions relating to their decision-making and
examine alternative options:
“At times we were maybe long winded, at the end we had a fair
idea of what you were going to show us, and we got quite hot on
it (C2).”
The coaches both felt that as they became more comfortable with the
use of the video session, that their efficiency improved:
“As the season went on it got better, at first for me we were
going into the unknown, because I’d never done it before, and
you know it’s a learning curve for me, and as the season went on
we got quicker and quicker and went crash, bang wallop, got the
points and that was it, we moved on (C1).”
They also felt that the players experienced a similar learning curve to
the introduction of video analysis sessions into their weekly training
“The players got an understanding of it as well, the longer the
season went on mentally if you like, when they were coming in
for training, right were going to sit there and go through the
video, for both parties really from the coaching point of view and
the players (C1).”
Mental Aspects
Two main themes came through the interview with the coaches,’
firstly, that they were able to give the players Technical Feedback
relating to game performance and secondly, the positive impact both
coaches felt that the video sessions had had on their players
“Due to just how we have played especially in our home games it
has improved their confidence on the video to see them winning
games and scoring goals (C2).”
The coaches also felt that it was important for the players themselves
to see how well they had performed, as in the past the coaches could
only give the players this information using general praise. Both
coaches felt that this was a particularly powerful way to build
confidence in the team:
“The big thing is they have seen themselves being a success on
the video (C2).”
Further Reading
Knowles, Z, Gilbourne, D. Borrie, A. and Nevill, A. (2001). Developing the reflective
sports coach: A study exploring the processes of reflective practice within a higher
education coaching programme. Reflective Practice. Vol. 2, pp.185-207.
Strudwick, T. and Reilly, T. (2001). Work-rate profiles of elite premier league football
players. Insight. Issue 2, Volume 4, pp 28-29.
Williams, A.M. (1999). Providing feedback during skill learning: The ten
commandments. Insight. Issue3, Volume 3, pp 12-13.
For the coaches, the video analysis had been a useful tool in the
development of their players. Specifically, the coaches felt that the
video feedback had improved four key areas of the players’
Benefit for the Players
Players Technical and Tactical Knowledge was improved.
Critical Thinking was developed.
Decision-Making was improved.
Confidence was improved.
The coaches also felt that the video session had improved three key
aspects of their own coaching practise:
Benefit for the Coaches
Assisted in the development of an effective style of play for the
Enhanced their own professional development and coaching
Allowed for an in-depth review of matches.
... The key use of performance analysis-based debriefing in team sports is evident (Francis & Jones, 2014;Groom & Cushion, 2004;Groom et al., 2010;McArdle et al., 2010;Wright et al., 2016), however, there appears a lack of research surrounding individual sports, such as boxing. Albeit more limited, research within the feedback and debriefing domains for individual sports include Martin et al. (2018) and Nicholls et al. (2018);(2019). ...
... Such ease of use was identified by Mooney et al. (2016) as the most important user requirement of any tools incorporated within coaching. Groom and Cushion (2004) suggested that video facilitates recall, develops understanding, encourages self-reflection, provides the opportunity to reflect at a future time without emotions, and aims to improve athlete confidence (Francis & Jones, 2014 made similar inferences). The literature surrounding the duration of debriefing sessions appears to have progressed from 30-40 minutes sessions (Groom & Cushion, 2005) towards a much more condensed implementation of sessions lasting < 20 minutes in more recent research (Nicholls et al., 2018;Wright et al., 2013). ...
... As a result, it is important for the coach to focus the athlete's attention on the most important aspect from their performance within debriefing whilst limiting any potential negative impacts. Debriefing has psychological benefits that aid the athlete, namely, confidence and self-belief development, provide an understanding, reinforce correct performance, and provide a view often reserved for coaches (Groom & Cushion, 2004). The idea that confidence is positively impacted through this process was apparent throughout the interviews, for example, Coach 2: Its good and important for their psychological welfare and it can build that confidence which I keep coming back to, that confidence, that self -belief of completing the task at hand and as it is a solo sport, a quite aggressive, all on the line kind of sport the self-confidence needs to be sky high going into any of these events. ...
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The use of debriefing by 6 elite coaches (9-16 years' experience coaching professional boxers) and 6 professional boxers (minimum 3 professional bouts) was explored via interviews (25-40 minutes). Boxers represented the featherweight, welterweight, and heavyweight divisions. Interview questions were framed around, 1) the use of video and data analysis, 2) coach-athlete interaction, and 3) learning and development. The importance of data, video, and the effective integration of performance analysis to facilitate comprehensive feedback to maximise learning opportunities was identified. The coach-athlete relationship, and engagement of the athlete within the debriefing process emerged as an aspect needing continual micro-management to ensure ongoing effectiveness. The development of an "open and honest" relationship and a "safe space" to air thoughts and opinions was greatly encouraged. The length of debriefing session did not appear to impact overall engagement. The use of video debriefing to facilitate a coach's ability to develop the athletes mentally, in addition to their physical boxing capabilities, was a key and standout aspect that should be appropriately considered. The findings add to the limited investigation within boxing, providing insight into the debriefing processes within professional boxing by those on both sides, i.e. the coach and the athlete. ARTICLE HISTORY
... It is also transmitted to athletes (Wright et al., 2016). Currently, because it is vital to involve players in the pursuit of sports performance (Bampouras et al., 2012;Middlemas et al., 2018), high-level sports teams typically incorporate meetings into their training schedules in order to present information to their players (Groom and Cushion, 2004;Mesquita et al., 2005). ...
... Other analyses offer information on the strengths and weaknesses of rivals (Sarmento et al., 2015). This for the preparation of future matches is very useful (Groom and Cushion, 2004;Kraak et al., 2018). ...
... In addition, these reports took into account other types of information including the possible player changes during the course of the game, the characteristics of the coach, the characteristics of the court, the public, etc. (see Table 2). Because understanding the weaknesses and strengths of an opponent can help guide a team's strategic plan (Groom and Cushion, 2004), the above information was collected to help the study team prepare for future encounters with their opponents. ...
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... Performance analysis has evolved from statistical data collected by hand on paper to computer systems, where statistical information has been now linked to video (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Hughes & Franks, 2005). While, for some coaches, this evolution could be seen as a threat (Butterworth et al., 2012), for others, it is well accepted within the overall coaching process. ...
... Performance analysis can provide objective feedback, develop knowledge about the opponents and also about their game performance (Almeida et al., 2019;Butterworth et al., 2012). At the same time, it enables to develop their players in areas such as technical and tactical knowledge, critical thinking, decision-making and confidence (Groom & Cushion, 2004). Thus, coaches can use performance analysis data to provide information to their players through adaptation of training exercises, video analysis and also team meetings (Sarmento et al., 2015. ...
... Has it been highlighted by the available literature in performance analysis, the video would be a tool which would facilitate the analyses of the opponent/own team (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Hughes & Franks, 2004;Liebermann & Franks, 2004;McGarry, 2009). Because of the congested calendar, head coaches are not always able to carry out live observations of their opponents, despite enabling the analysis of environmental factors, which are not always perceptible on video. ...
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... Opta Sports™ and StatsPer-form™). Alongside the collection of metrics, PA also utilises video footage to further support the quantitative data as well as providing coaches and athletes with visual feedback to change behaviours and further develop understanding and awareness [3,4]. With increased multimodal technology, there has been an abrupt concomitant rise in available PA for coaches to influence their practices, selections, and tactics [2,5,6]. ...
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... Consequently, the use of frontal 2D imagery in 360 dynamic environments where the quality of task-relevant knowledge is imperative for accurate and quick decisionmaking should be challenged (Ferrer, Kitahara & Kameda, 2017). Coaches should seek to gain a better understanding of how players are learning by reviewing performance, and alternative approaches to coach-player feedback should be explored (Court, 2004;Groom & Cushion, 2004;Groom, Cushion & Nelson, 2011). ...
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This research is aimed to evaluate the parameters of the successful teams in the FIFA 2018 World Cup group and Knockout stage matches in terms of technique-tactics and time motion relationship. The data collected for the research were obtained from the official website of FIFA, and matches covered the matches in which the 90-minute regular time did not end in a draw and there was a winner as a result. SPSS 22.0 package program was used for all the data obtained in the research. The distribution of the data and the homogeneity of the variances were examined. In order to determine the difference between the two independent groups, the indepented t-Test or the Mann Whitney U test were used.Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine whether there is a linear relationship between two numerical measurements in line with the specified parameters, and if so, what the direction and severity of this relationship is. There were significant differences between the goals scored by the players, the average shot per match, shot success, ball winning and yellow card values (p<0.05). According to the results of the findings regarding the first goal, it was concluded that the teams that scored the first goal were the winners with 86%. In the results of the correlation analysis, it was determined that there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) and positive relationship between the total number of goal attempts and the number of goals, the total number of shots and the number of goals, and the number of key passes and shots.
Performance analysis (PA) has become a key requirement for association football coaches within England to aid their practice but less is known in other countries. We examined the perceptions of Danish association football coaches towards the use and engagement with PA. An online survey with 34 open-ended and close-ended questions was completed by 200 UEFA A and Pro Licenced coaches, gaining insights into how the coaches’ engaged with PA, how PA supported their practice and the future of PA in Denmark. Additionally, five male coaches completed a semi-structured interview. UEFA Pro Licenced coaches had greater experience with analysis support and perceived the importance of video for opposition and reviewing their own team’s performance with higher regard than UEFA A Licenced coaches. Cost and time were highlighted as barriers, but a clear desire to have a dedicated performance analyst was acknowledged by all coaches. The research findings provide key considerations regarding the knowledge and understanding of how Danish football coaches review and evaluate performances, highlight the perceived benefits of PA and acknowledge a desire to increase investment. The insights can be used to inform future decision making regarding the direction of PA provision and the education and development of Danish coaches. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
To date, little consideration has been given to the context in which performance analysis (PA) is used by female athletes, in women’s sports and in an Asian context. Through the use of an online questionnaire and follow-up semi-structured interviews, the perspectives towards the use of PA and feedback by athletes and coaches in two female’s sports in Singapore (water polo: one coach and 13 athletes; netball: one coach and eight athletes) were explored. Four key themes emerged from the inductive analysis of the data: (1) learning environment in teams, (2) considerations on the use of PA to aid development and learning, (3) application of game-related learning into practice through PA and (4) organisation of PA sessions: duration and design. The results indicated female athletes from Asian cultures welcomed group discussions, viewed information around areas for development in a positive light and were receptive to longer video reviews. Coaches and analysts should acknowledge the culture of the learner or group in addition to the session format when planning and delivering PA provisions to best meet the learners’ needs.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.