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Volatile Flavor Components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.)

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Volatile flavor components of two strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) varieties, Bogyojosaeng and Suhong, were extracted by SDE (Simultaneous steam distillation and extraction) using a mixture of n-pentane and diethylether (1:1, v/v) as an extract solvent. Analysis of the concentrate by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometry led to the identification of 146 and 153 components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong respectively. There were 49 esters, 25 alcohols, 20 ketones, 24 aldehydes, 6 acids, 9 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers, 11 unknowns and miscellaneous in Bogyojosaeng and 67 esters, 21 alcohols, 24 ketones, 17 aldehydes, 4 acids, 12 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers, 9 unknowns and miscellaneous in Suhong. Among these, (E)-2-hexenyl acetae (4.56%) in Bogyojosaeng and (E)-nerolidol (12.38%) in Suhong were major compounds and acetic acid, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and γ-dodecalactone were the main components in each sample, though there were several differences in composition and threshold of volatile compounds. Total contents of volatile components isolated and identified in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong were 9.010 and 12.527 mg/kg, respectively.
Content may be subject to copyright.
J. Food Sci. Nutr.
Vol. 5, No. 3, p.119
125 (2000)
Volatile Flavor Components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong
Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.)
Eun-Ryong Park, Hae-Jung Lee and Kyong-Su Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Kwangju 501-759, Korea
Abstract
Volatile flavor components of two strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) varieties, Bogyojosaeng and Suhong, were
extracted by SDE (Simultaneous steam distillation and extraction) using a mixture of n-pentane and diethylether
(1:1, v/v) as an extract solvent. Analysis of the concentrate by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-
mass spectrometry led to the identification of 146 and 153 components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong respectively.
There were 49 esters, 25 alcohols, 20 ketones, 24 aldehydes, 6 acids, 9 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers,
11 unknowns and miscellaneous in Bogyojosaeng and 67 esters, 21 alcohols, 24 ketones, 17 aldehydes, 4 acids,
12 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers, 9 unknowns and miscellaneous in Suhong. Among these, (E)-2-hexenyl
acetae (4.56%) in Bogyojosaeng and (E)-nerolidol (12.38%) in Suhong were major compounds and acetic acid,
(E)-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and γ-dodecalactone
were the main components in each sample, though there were several differences in composition and threshold
of volatile compounds. Total contents of volatile components isolated and identified in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong
were 9.010 and 12.527 mg/kg, respectively.
Key words: strawberry, Bogyojosaeng, Suhong, flavor, threshold
Corresponding author. E-mail: kskim@mail.chosun.ac.kr
Phone: 82-62-230-7724, Fax: 82-62-224-8880
INTRODUCTION
Cultivated varieties of the strawberry, Fragaria ananassa
Duch. were caused by breeding the genotypes of Fragaria
virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Strawberries are cultivated
in nearly all countries of the world and are one of the most
popular fruits that are consumed fresh, conserved and in manu-
factured products. Fresh strawberries have a very short shelf
life because they easily bruise and quickly succumb to fungal
attack. Therefore, the strawberry is a typical example of a
sought-after quality fruit that is, unfortunately, also highly per-
ishable. To supply high quality strawberries to consumers, care
must be paid to their distribution, storage and final display
in the shops.
Volatile compounds impart the aroma components of flavor
to foods, including those derived from plants. Numerous in-
vestigations have shown that several plant-emitted volatile
compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and other
classes of natural products, exhibit antimicrobial properties
against pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Peni-
cillium and Botrytis, and bacteria (1-3).
Because of its typical aroma, the strawberry has always
been an object in aroma analysis. And its aroma has received
increasing attention from both producers and consumers.
Among many volatile compounds produced by whole and mac-
erated strawberry fruit, only a small number are important
for characteristic odors and, of these, several are odor-active
at an extremely low concentration. Recently many investi-
gators used a GC/FID technique for separation and detection,
and olfactory threshold analysis for determining the impor-
tant compounds in fresh ripened strawberry aroma: methyl
butanoate, ethyl butanoate, methyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate
and ethyl hexanoate (4-6). Ulrich et al. (7) distinguished two
types of cultivated strawberries by the differences in their es-
ter contents.
The aim of this study is to examine the difference in flavor
constituents of two strawberry cultivar (Bogyojosaeng and
Suhong) as measured by the incidence and concentration of
various volatile compounds. Then, it is expected that this
study will provide useful basic data for manufacturing straw-
berry containing goods and developing natural flavors using
flavor precursors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
The varieties of strawberry used for this study wereBogyo-
josaeng and “Suhong” obtained from the southern region of
Korea, in 2000. The strawberries were obtained from normal
retail outlets and were in prime condition. They were washed
and detached from their stalks.
Chemicals
Reagents were purchased from Sigma Co. (USA) and
Fisher Scientific (USA). Organic solvents used for extraction
and chromatography were redistilled with a wire spiral packed
double distilling apparatus (Normschliff, Wertheim, Germany)
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
120 Eun-Ryong Park, Hae-Jung Lee and Kyong-Su Kim
Fig. 1. GC chromatogram of volatile flavor components from Bogyojosaeng.
and Milli-Q water generated with a water purification system
(Millpore Corporation, Bedford, USA).
Extraction of volatile components from strawberry by
SDE
300 g of each sample was homogenized in a blender (MR
350CA, Braun, Spain) for 1 min and mixed with 1 L distilled
water. The resulting slurry was transferred to a 2 liter-round
bottom flask and adjusted to pH 6.5 with 0.1 N NaOH solu-
tion. 1 μl n-butylbenzene was added as an internal standard
for quantitative analysis.
Volatiles were extracted for 2 h with 200 ml of a mixture
of redistilled n-pentane/diethylether (1:1, v/v) using a SDE
(Likens & Nikerson type simultaneous steam distillation and
extraction) apparatus (8) as modified by Schultz et al. (9) un-
der atmospheric pressure.
The extract was dried over sodium sulfate anhydrous, con-
centrated to approximately 2 ml by using a Vigreux column
and then to a final volume of 0.5 ml under a current of nitro-
gen after transferring into a GC vial, used for GC-FID and
GC/MS analysis.
Conditions of GC-FID and GC/MS analysis
The GC analyses were carried out on a HP 5890 Plus
gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector.
DB-Wax capillary column (60 m×0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film
thickness, J&W, USA) were used. Oven temperature was pro-
grammed as follows : from 40oC (isothermal for 3 min) to
150oC at 2oC/min and to 200oC at 4oC/min and isothermal
period at 200oC for 15min. The temperature of injector port
and detector were, respectively, 250oC and 300oC. Helium
was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and in-
jector volume was 1 μl with a split ratio of 1:20.
GC/MS spectra were recorded by a Shimadzu GC/MS QP
5000 equipped with the same column and operating condi-
tions described above. In the electron impact mode (EI), the
mass spectrometer was scanned from m/z 31 to 450, the
ionization voltage was 70 eV and the ion source and interface
temperature kept at 230oC.
Identification of volatile compounds
Mass spectra were identified with aid of the mass spectral
data of our own and the mass spectrum library (NIST 12,
NIST 62 and WILEY 139) and mass spectral data book
(10,11). Also, the compounds were identified by comparison
of retention indices with reference data (12,13) and laboratory
data of authentic compounds (C7C30) in our laboratory.
Quantitative determination
The quantity of the X compound in the strawberry samples
was calculated using the following formula :
Cx (mg/kg of strawberry) = SG×Sx×1000 g / S
E×300 g
SG = specific gravity of internal standard (0.860 (20/20oC))
Sx = peak area (%) of X compound in the organic extract
of strawberry
SE=peak area(%) of internal standard in the organic extract
of strawberry
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Volatile compounds from Bogyojosaeng strawberry
fruit
A total of 146 compounds were collected and concentrated
sufficiently by SDE from Bogyojosaeng whole strawberry
fruit, detected and identified by GC and GC/MS. They are
presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1.
Aroma patterns, 49 esters, 25 alcohols, 20 ketones, 24 alde-
hydes, 6 acids, 9 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers,
11 unknowns and miscellaneous were identified and quantified
(Table 2). Among these compounds, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate
(4.56%), acetic acid (4.02%) and (E)-nerolidol (3.67%) were
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
Volatile Flavor Components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) 121
Table 1. Volatile flavor components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong strawberry fruit
Peak No. RT RI Compound MF MW Bogyojosaeng Suhong
Area% mg/kg Area% mg/kg
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
5.100
5.403
6.065
6.161
6.482
6.616
7.028
7.696
7.826
8.005
8.127
8.284
8.350
8.533
8.714
8.851
8.933
9.175
9.375
9.628
9.854
10.285
10.625
10.967
11.049
11.431
11.967
12.344
12.487
12.658
12.789
12.934
13.874
14.065
14.108
14.392
14.600
14.696
15.557
15.769
16.334
16.583
16.992
17.692
17.880
17.953
18.792
18.904
19.055
19.555
19.633
19.870
19.956
20.061
20.319
21.255
21.290
21.529
22.061
22.605
22.722
22.774
22.994
708
739
800
806
823
830
850
880
886
893
898
904
906
911
916
920
922
929
934
941
946
957
965
973
975
983
994
1002
1005
1009
1012
1015
1034
1037
1038
1043
1047
1049
1064
1068
1078
1082
1088
1099
1102
1104
1118
1120
1123
1131
1132
1136
1137
1139
1143
1157
1158
1161
1169
1177
1179
1179
1182
Acetaldehyde
sec-Butyl ethyl ether
Propanal
Octane
2-Propanone
Ethyl formate
2-Propenal
Butanal
2-Methyl-2-propenal
Ethyl acetate
Diethylacetal
Isopropyl acetate
2-Butanone
Methyl propanoate
2-Methylbutanal
3-Methylbutanal
Methyl 2-methylpropanoate
3-Methyl-2-butanone
2-Propanol
Ethanol
3-Buten-2-one
Ethyl propanoate
Ethyl 2-methylpropanoate
Propyl acetate
2-Pentanone
Methyl butanoate
Decane
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
Methyl 2-methylbutanoate
2-Methylpropyl acetate
3-Methyl-2-pentanone
Methyl 3-methylbutanoate
Ethyl butanoate
1-Methylethyl butanoate
4-Penten-2-one
S-Methyl thioacetate
3-Hexanone
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
Ethyl 3-methylbutanoate
Butyl acetate
Hexanal
Methyl pentanoate
2-Methylpropanol
Methyl (E)-2-butenoate
Propyl isopropyl ether
2-Hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propanal
3-Methylbutyl acetate
3-Penten-2-one
(E)-2-Pentenal
Ethyl pentanoate
(E)-Allyl propenyl ether
5-Methyl-2-hexanone
2-Methyl-4-pentenal
Methyl 4-methylpentanoate
Butanol
1-Penten-3-ol
Ethyl 2-butenoate
2-Ethylbutanal
Pentyl acetate
2-Heptanone
Heptanal
Pyridine
Methyl hexanoate
C2H4O
C5H12O
C3H6O
C8H18
C3H6O
C3H6O2
C3H4O
C4H8O
C4H6O
C4H8O2
C6H14O2
C5H10O2
C4H8O
C4H8O2
C5H10O
C5H10O
C5H10O2
C5H10O
C3H8O
C2H6O
C4H6O
C5H10O2
C6H12O2
C5H10O2
C5H10O
C5H10O2
C10H12
C6H10O
C6H12O2
C6H12O2
C6H10O
C6H12O2
C6H12O2
C7H14O2
C5H8O
C3H6OS
C6H12O
C7H14O2
C7H14O2
C6H12O2
C6H12O
C6H12O2
C4H10O
C5H8O2
C6H14O
C4H8O2
C7H14O2
C5H8O
C5H8O
C7H14O2
C6H10O
C7H14O
C6H10O
C7H14O2
C4H10O
C5H10O
C6H10O2
C6H12O
C7H14O2
C7H14O
C7H14O
C5H5N
C7H14O2
44
88
58
114
58
74
56
72
70
88
118
102
72
88
86
86
102
86
60
46
70
102
116
102
86
102
142
100
116
116
100
116
116
130
84
90
100
130
130
116
100
116
74
100
102
88
130
84
84
130
98
114
98
130
74
86
114
100
130
114
114
79
130
1.81
0.01
0.04
0.06
0.25
0.93
0.02
0.15
0.01
2.02
0.05
0.07
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.16
-
-
0.05
1.08
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.37
1.03
0.01
0.40
0.02
0.01
0.04
0.15
1.18
0.06
-
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.23
0.07
2.11
0.06
0.02
0.03
-
0.10
0.55
-
0.03
-
0.08
-
0.02
-
0.02
0.07
-
0.04
0.05
0.28
0.21
-
1.46
0.275
0.002
0.006
0.009
0.037
0.140
0.003
0.023
0.001
0.306
0.007
0.010
0.004
0.002
0.003
0.025
-
-
0.007
0.164
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.057
0.156
0.002
0.061
0.004
0.001
0.007
0.023
0.178
0.010
-
0.001
0.001
0.007
0.035
0.010
0.318
0.010
0.003
0.004
-
0.015
0.083
-
0.005
-
0.013
-
0.003
-
0.003
0.011
-
0.007
0.007
0.042
0.032
-
0.220
1.53
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.22
0.77
-
0.04
0.01
2.97
0.08
0.15
0.01
0.05
0.01
0.07
0.01
0.02
0.03
1.24
0.03
0.16
0.05
0.01
0.30
3.73
0.01
0.18
0.18
0.02
0.09
0.34
4.64
0.15
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.53
0.45
0.13
0.34
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.39
-
-
3.22
0.01
0.03
-
0.04
-
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.10
0.01
0.03
0.63
-
0.25
2.03
0.278
0.004
0.004
0.007
0.039
0.140
-
0.007
0.002
0.538
0.014
0.027
0.002
0.009
0.002
0.013
0.002
0.003
0.006
0.225
0.005
0.029
0.010
0.002
0.055
0.677
0.002
0.033
0.033
0.004
0.017
0.062
0.843
0.028
0.003
0.006
0.002
0.095
0.082
0.023
0.061
0.004
0.007
0.009
0.071
-
-
0.584
0.002
0.006
-
0.007
-
0.005
0.005
0.002
0.018
0.002
0.005
0.115
-
0.044
0.368
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
122 Eun-Ryong Park, Hae-Jung Lee and Kyong-Su Kim
Peak No. RT RI Compound MF MW Bogyojosaeng Suhong
Area% mg/kg Area% mg/kg
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
I.S.
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
23.634
23.848
24.028
24.601
25.127
25.142
25.468
26.195
27.524
28.318
28.658
29.158
30.092
30.591
30.799
32.255
32.571
33.356
33.540
33.725
34.036
34.863
35.317
35.976
36.244
36.470
36.887
37.171
37.389
37.675
37.831
38.454
38.683
39.097
39.817
39.929
40.383
40.484
41.137
41.400
41.715
42.160
43.171
43.680
45.766
46.725
46.958
47.312
47.602
48.288
49.350
49.810
49.942
50.499
50.683
51.463
51.859
52.057
52.502
52.595
53.118
53.440
53.776
54.592
1191
1194
1196
1205
1213
1213
1219
1230
1250
1261
1266
1273
1285
1292
1294
1316
1321
1333
1336
1338
1343
1355
1361
1371
1374
1377
1383
1387
1390
1394
1396
1405
1409
1416
1428
1430
1437
1439
1449
1454
1459
1466
1481
1489
1521
1535
1539
1544
1549
1559
1574
1580
1582
1590
1593
1604
1611
1614
1622
1623
1632
1638
1643
1656
Methanethiol
(Z)-3-Hexenal
Docosane
3-Methylbutanol
(E)-2-Hexenal
Butyl butanoate
2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol
Ethyl hexanoate
Pentanol
2-Butyl acetate
Isopentyl butanoate
Hexyl acetate
Methyl-2-hexenoate
1-Hydroxy-2-propanone
2-Octen-4-one
Butylbenzene
(E)-2-Heptenal
(E)-2-Hexenyl acetate
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one
Hexyl propanoate
Ethyl 2-hexenoate
Hexanol
(Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol
Ethylidene diacetate
Methyl 2-hydroxybutanoate
5-Methylindan
(E)-3-Hexen-1-ol
Methyl octanoate
Nonanal
Methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate
Pentyl butanoate
(E)-2-Hexenol
Butyl hexanoate
Hexyl butanoate
(E)-2-Octenal
Hexyl 2-methylbutanoate
Ethyl octanoate
Acetic acid
(Z)-Linalool oxide
7-Octen-4-ol
Furfural
Pentyl hexanoate
(E)-Linalool oxide
Butandiol diacetate
Benzaldehyde
2,3-Epoxyhexanol
Propanoic acid
(E)-2-Nonenal
Linalool
Octanol
Nonanyl acetate
Dimethyl sulfoxide
(E,Z)-2,6-Nonadienal
1,2-Propanediol
2-Undecanone
Hexyl hexanoate
Octyl butanoate
Butan-3-one-2-yl butanoate
Pentyl 3-methylbutanoate
1,2-Ethanediol
Ethyl decanoate
(E)-2-Decenal
Methyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
Nonanol
CH4S
C6H10O
C12H26
C5H12O
C6H10O
C8H16O2
C5H10O
C8H16O2
C5H12O
C6H12O2
C9H18O2
C8H16O2
C7H12O2
C3H6O2
C8H14O
C10H14
C7H12O
C8H14O2
C8H14O
C9H18O2
C8H14O2
C6H14O
C6H12O
C6H10O4
C5H10O3
C10H12
C6H12O
C9H18O2
C9H18O
C6H12O3
C9H18O2
C6H12O
C10H20O2
C10H20O2
C8H14O
C11H22O2
C10H20O2
C2H4O2
C10H18O2
C8H16O
C5H4O2
C11H22O2
C10H18O2
C8H14O4
C7H6O
C6H12O2
C3H6O2
C9H16O
C10H18O
C8H18O
C11H22O2
C2H6OS
C9H14O
C3H8O2
C11H22O
C12H24O2
C12H24O2
C8H14O3
C10H20O2
C2H6O2
C12H24O2
C10H18O
C7H14O3
C9H20O
48
98
170
88
98
144
86
144
88
116
158
144
128
74
126
134
112
142
126
158
142
102
100
146
118
132
100
158
142
132
158
100
172
172
126
186
172
60
170
128
96
186
170
174
106
116
74
140
154
130
186
78
138
76
170
200
200
158
172
62
200
154
146
144
0.06
0.06
0.03
0.16
3.16
-
0.11
1.32
0.13
-
0.02
2.58
-
0.02
-
18.96
0.03
4.56
0.04
0.03
0.10
1.16
-
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.15
0.04
0.19
0.08
0.10
1.61
-
0.37
0.02
0.03
0.04
4.02
1.16
0.11
0.07
0.08
1.45
-
0.09
-
0.05
0.02
1.73
0.06
0.01
0.06
0.04
1.22
0.03
0.46
0.07
0.14
-
0.10
-
0.03
0.06
0.02
0.010
0.010
0.005
0.025
0.477
-
0.017
0.200
0.019
-
0.002
0.390
-
0.003
-
2.867
0.004
0.689
0.006
0.005
0.014
0.176
-
0.011
0.011
0.009
0.022
0.007
0.029
0.012
0.015
0.243
-
0.057
0.003
0.005
0.006
0.607
0.176
0.016
0.011
0.012
0.220
-
0.013
-
0.007
0.003
0.261
0.008
0.002
0.009
0.006
0.184
0.005
0.069
0.010
0.022
-
0.015
-
0.005
0.009
0.003
-
-
-
0.23
1.08
0.03
-
3.44
0.12
0.04
0.05
0.97
0.01
-
0.05
-
0.12
1.98
-
0.01
0.03
0.57
0.01
0.09
0.08
0.04
0.02
0.12
-
0.10
0.02
0.75
0.01
0.21
-
0.06
0.17
2.45
1.90
0.29
-
0.16
0.96
0.08
-
0.02
0.12
0.09
2.93
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.44
0.05
0.23
0.10
0.77
0.06
-
0.08
-
0.08
-
-
-
-
0.041
0.195
0.005
-
0.624
0.021
0.008
0.010
0.177
0.002
-
0.009
-
0.023
0.360
-
0.002
0.005
0.104
0.002
0.017
0.014
0.006
0.004
0.021
-
0.018
0.004
0.136
0.002
0.038
-
0.010
0.030
0.445
0.344
0.053
-
0.029
0.175
0.014
-
0.003
0.021
0.016
0.532
0.009
0.010
0.009
0.011
0.079
0.009
0.042
0.018
0.140
0.011
-
0.014
-
0.014
-
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
Volatile Flavor Components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) 123
Peak No. RT RI Compound MF MW Bogyojosaeng Suhong
Area% mg/kg Area% mg/kg
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
54.689
54.880
55.077
55.500
55.651
55.787
56.848
57.042
57.284
58.035
58.242
58.414
58.590
59.262
59.708
59.837
61.203
61.314
61.966
62.163
62.351
62.521
63.091
64.250
64.492
64.844
65.806
66.049
66.759
67.277
67.548
67.937
69.172
69.292
69.410
69.757
69.943
70.270
70.668
71.738
72.340
72.533
73.134
73.528
73.848
74.350
75.262
75.671
76.875
77.492
82.162
82.819
1658
1661
1664
1671
1673
1676
1692
1695
1699
1713
1717
1721
1724
1737
1745
1748
1773
1775
1787
1791
1794
1797
1810
1837
1843
1851
1874
1879
1896
1909
1917
1928
1963
1967
1970
1980
1985
1994
2005
2033
2049
2054
2070
2080
2088
2101
2141
2159
2208
2227
2354
2369
(Z)-β-Farnesene
Ethyl benzoate
(E)-2-Hexenyl hexanoate
3-Methylbutanoic acid
Decyl acetate
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
α-Terpineol
γ-Hexalactone
Unknown
Octyl butanoate
(Z,E)-α-Farnesene
α-Muurolene
Benzyl acetate
Epoxylinalool
4,8-Dimethyl-nonanol
Butyl butyrolactate
4-Methyl-5-nonanone
2-Heptyl hexanoate
2-Nonyl butanoate
1-Phenyl-1-butanone
Methyl dodecanoate
6,7-Dodecanedione
β-Phenethyl acetate
Ethyl dodecanoate
Undecanol
Hexanoic acid
Benzyl alcohol
Dodecyl acetate
Dimethyl sulfone
2-Phenethyl alcohol
Dodecanol
6,7-Tridecandione
Heptanoic acid
2-Hexenoic acid
1-Phenyl-1-butanol
Unknown
Nerolidol oxide
(Z)-Nerolidol
Unknown
(E)-Nerolidol
(E,E)-Farnesol
3-Methylbutyl dodecanoate
Methyl cinnamate
Acetoveratrone
7-Tridecanol
Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone
γ-Decalactone
Tetradecanol
δ-Undecalacton
2-Heptadecanone
Hexadecanol
γ-Dodecalacton
C15H24
C9H10O2
C12H22O2
C5H10O2
C12H24O2
C8H16O3
C10H18O
C6H10O2
-
C12H24O2
C15H24
C15H24
C9H10O2
C10H18O2
C15H32O
C11H20O4
C10H20O
C13H26O2
C13H26O2
C10H12O
C13H26O2
C12H22O2
C12H12O2
C14H28O2
C11H22O
C6H12O2
C7H8O
C14H28O2
C2H6O2S
C8H10O
C12H24O
C13H24O2
C7H14O2
C6H10O2
C10H14O
-
C15H26O3
C15H26O
-
C15H26O
C15H26O
C17H34O2
C10H10O2
C10H12O3
C13H28O
C18H36O
C10H18O2
C14H30O
C11H20O2
C17H34O
C16H34O
C12H22O2
204
150
198
102
200
160
154
114
-
200
204
204
150
170
228
216
156
214
214
148
214
198
164
228
170
116
108
228
94
122
184
212
130
114
150
-
254
222
-
222
222
270
162
180
200
268
170
214
184
254
242
198
-
0.06
0.47
0.06
-
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.54
0.04
-
0.06
0.20
0.12
0.03
0.17
0.10
-
-
0.10
0.02
0.02
0.07
-
0.05
0.17
0.39
-
0.23
0.12
0.55
-
0.14
0.67
0.49
2.55
0.54
-
1.98
3.67
0.06
-
-
0.10
0.02
0.49
0.07
0.05
0.05
-
0.13
1.80
-
0.010
0.071
0.009
-
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.082
0.006
-
0.009
0.030
0.019
0.004
0.025
0.016
-
-
0.015
0.003
0.004
0.010
-
0.008
0.026
0.059
-
0.034
0.019
0.083
-
0.022
0.101
0.075
0.386
0.082
-
0.300
0.555
0.009
-
-
0.015
0.003
0.075
0.011
0.008
0.008
-
0.020
0.273
0.05
0.07
0.26
-
0.04
0.06
0.04
-
0.67
0.04
0.02
0.11
0.17
0.05
-
0.17
0.15
0.04
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.15
0.07
0.06
0.04
0.20
0.01
0.06
-
0.15
0.03
0.03
-
0.07
1.41
0.21
0.15
1.52
12.38
0.09
0.02
0.04
0.19
-
0.17
0.10
0.05
0.09
0.01
0.09
2.40
0.008
0.013
0.048
-
0.007
0.011
0.008
-
0.122
0.008
0.004
0.020
0.031
0.008
-
0.031
0.027
0.007
0.012
0.009
0.006
0.015
0.027
0.012
0.011
0.007
0.036
0.003
0.011
-
0.027
0.005
0.006
-
0.013
0.256
0.038
0.027
0.276
2.248
0.016
0.004
0.007
0.034
-
0.031
0.019
0.010
0.016
0.002
0.016
0.436
Total 78.5 9.010 84.80 12.527
the major compounds and (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, hexa-
nal, ethyl acetate and γ-dodecalactone were the main com-
ponents.
Total contents of volatile components isolated and identi-
fied were 9.010 mg/kg of Bogyojosaeng strawberry.
Volatile compounds from Suhong strawberry fruit
Approximately 153 volatiles were collected and identified
using the above method and are presented in Table 1 and
Fig. 2. 67 Esters, 21 alcohols, 24 ketones, 17 aldehydes,
4 acids, 12 terpenes and terpene derivatives, 2 ethers, 9 un-
knowns and miscellaneous were identified and quantified
(Table 2). (E)-Nerolidol (12.38%) was the predominant vola-
tile compound and ethyl butanoate (4.64%), methyl butanoate
(3.73%), ethyl hexanoate (3.44%) and 3-penten-2-one (3.22%)
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
124 Eun-Ryong Park, Hae-Jung Lee and Kyong-Su Kim
Fig. 2. GC chromatogram of volatile flavor components from Suhong.
Table 2. Relative content of functional groups in strawberry
Functional group Bogyojosaeng Suhong
Number Area% Number Area%
Esters
Aldehydes
Alcohols
Ketones
Terpenes and derivatives
Acids
Ethers
Miscellaneous
49
24
25
20
9
6
2
11
19.31
8.48
7.90
4.25
8.81
5.11
0.09
5.59
67
14
21
24
12
4
2
9
26.95
3.47
4.47
8.14
18.89
2.64
0.41
3.83
Total 135 53.95 144 64.97
were relatively more abundant than other compounds.
Total contents of volatile components isolated and identi-
fied were 12.527 mg/kg of Bokyochosaeng strawberry.
Volatile flavor compounds from strawberry fruit
The major component of the volatiles was (E)-nerolidol
(12.38% in Suhong, especially) with other carbonyl com-
pounds present in small amounts. Apart from (E)-nerolidol,
the other principal components were esters, which would con-
tribute significantly to the flavor of strawberry. In addition
to common esters, methyl, ethyl, 3-methylbutyl (isoamyl) and
2-methylpropyl (isobutyl), pentyl and hexyl were detected in
volatiles. They would probably be responsible for the fruity
ester aroma of the strawberry.
In general, unsaturated esters in fruit volatiles have a dou-
ble bond in the acidic moiety in pear (14) and pineapple (15).
Among such esters, (E)-2-hexenyl esters that were identified
in this study are available and well-known in the flavor and
fragrance industry as those with an unsaturated alcoholic moi-
ety (16).
Aroma does not necessarily depend on the quantitative con-
centration of any volatile compound. Compounds that are high-
ly significant as regards their concentration may have no
significance as regards the aroma and, conversely, some com-
pounds that are only present in trace amounts could be very
important to the aroma (17). For strawberries, similar analyses
were performed to determine that methyl butanoate, ethyl
butanoate, methyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate
play an important role in aroma (4-6) as indicated by the re-
sults of this study. It does not mean that the above compounds
are necessarily present in large quantities, but their con-
tribution to the characteristic flavor was high because the
thresholds were very low despite the small quantity.
The contribution of these compounds to the total aroma
impression is the aroma value, which is defined as the quo-
tient of concentration and odour thresholds. For example, by
comparing ethyl hexanoate to ethyl acetate, these have thresh-
olds of 1 and 13,500 μL/103L (18,19) and relative peak areas
of 1.32% and 2.02% in Bogyojosaeng, respectively. While the
concentration of ethyl hexanoate in the strawberry extract
is lower, it contributes to the strawberry aroma more (13,200-
fold) than ethyl acetate, because aroma values ware 1.32 and
0.0001.
Sanz et al. and Hirvi reported that furaneol (2,5-dimethyl-
4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone, DMF) and its methyl ether (2,5-
dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone, DHF), which can be pres-
ent at low levels relative to other volatile compounds (20,21),
and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) (17,21-
23) play an important role in flavor acceptability of straw-
berry fruit. Despite the relatively high sensitivity of FID,
DMF and DHF were not detected with purge-and-trap sam-
pling and GC/FID or GC/MS (4,16,24), also these compounds
were not found in our work. The failure to detect DHF may
be caused either by its low abundance in the volatiles and/or
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
Volatile Flavor Components in Bogyojosaeng and Suhong Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) 125
by chemical instability (25). Another reason was discovered
in the report by Ulrich et al. (26). They said that all genotypes
investigated can be subdivided into methylanthranilate-con-
taining and methylanthranilate-free types. The methylan-
thranilate-free group is divided into a sensorial pleasant
group (ester-type) and a less pleasant group (DHF-type).
Fragaria ananassa Duch. with a fresh and fruity aroma (used
in this investigation) may be grouped into ester-type.
Green odour notes based on hexenals and hexenols have
an exceptional quality. In particular, (Z)-3-hexenal, with its
very low threshold value of 0.25 μL/103L, contributes essen-
tially to the fresh aroma impression and is necessary for the
positive strawberry aroma (27). But, thermally processed or
frozen berries lack such ‘green note' components and differ
significantly from fresh fruit. As precursors to green note com-
ponents are multiple-unsaturated fatty acids, the formation
of these substances only starts after destruction of cell tissue
during homogenization (28).
Besides green notes, a series of saturated and unsaturated
γ- and δ-lactones ranging from chain length C6 to C
12, with
concentration maxima for γ-dodecalactone, were a major class
of constituents. Lactones and peroxidation products of unsatu-
rated fatty acids (i.e. C6 aldehydes and alcohols) were major
constituents of the volatiles.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was supported by research funds from Chosun
University, 1999.
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(Received June 28, 2000)
Copyright (C) 2005 NuriMedia Co., Ltd.
... Carboxylic acids such as acetic acid (45.4%) and butanoic acid (34.8%) were the predominant volatile organic compounds in the ripe fruits, while they were detected only in ripe fruits. On the other hand, ripe fruits of 'Bogyojosaeng' and 'Suhong' cultivars mainly included butylbenzene (19.0%) and E-nerolidol (12.4%), respectively (Park et al., 2000). Furthermore, ripe fruits of 'Seolhyang' strawberry plants included monoterpene (delta-3-Carene; 0.040 mg·m -3 ) and sesquiterpene (E, E-alpha-Farnesene; 0.060 mg·m -3 ), which were not found in the other parts. ...
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Kent' strawberries were harvested at red, pink, and white stages of development, and stored at 15C in the light. Fruit were sampled over a 10-day period and evaluated for volatile production and surface color. Volatile production by red and pink fruit peaked after 4 days of storage. Maximum volatile production by red fruit was 8-and 25-fold greater than maximum production by pink and white fruit, respectively. Aroma volatiles were not detected in the headspace over white berries until 4 days following harvest after which volatile production increased through the tenth day of storage. Changes in the surface color of white berries during postharvest ripening coincided with the production of volatiles. In another experiment, red, pink, and white 'Kent' strawberries were stored for 3 days at 10 or 20C in the dark or light. Fruit were then evaluated for volatile production, weight loss, anthocyanin content, and surface color changes. White berries produced volatile esters after 3 days of storage at 20C in the light. Both light and temperature influenced the relative production of the volatiles produced by pink fruit. Fresh weight loss, color change, and anthocyanin content were temperature and light dependent.
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