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The effects of perceived relevance of travel blogs' content on the behavioral intention to visit a tourist destination

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Abstract

The tourism industry is characterized by ever-increasing competition, causing destinations to seek new methods to attract tourists. Traditionally, a decision to visit a destination is interpreted, in part, as a rational calculation of the costs/benefits of a set of alternative destinations, which were derived from external information sources, including e-WOM (word-of-mouth) or travelers' blogs. There are numerous travel blogs available for people to share and learn about travel experiences. Evidence shows, however, that not every blog exerts the same degree of influence on tourists. Therefore, which characteristics of these travel blogs attract tourists' attention and influence their decisions, becomes an interesting research question. Based on the concept of information relevance, a model is proposed for interrelating various attributes specific to blog's content and perceived enjoyment, an intrinsic motivation of information systems usage, to mitigate the above-mentioned gap. Results show that novelty, understandability, and interest of blogs' content affect behavioral intention through blog usage enjoyment. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are proposed.

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... UGC is seen as a third party in the form of "text, pictures, and videos, etc." and Instagram, in general, has been highlighted as an essential social media tool for developing an image of tourism locations in the context of destination image (Fatanti & Suyadnya, 2015). Hence, this has resulted in UGC having a more substantial effect on consumer decision-making since it allows other consumers to access, discover from, and partake in the experiences of others (Chiu et al., 2014) Since the 1970s, information relevance has been used to determine if the information obtained is relevant to the user's needs as information search for decision making may fulfil and meet users' utilitarian goals, it can be assessed objectively using utilitarian orientation (Chen et al., 2014). Perceived enjoyment explains why travellers share their trip experiences on social media, implying that sharing may relate to pleasure and fun; thus, understanding how social media allows people to share more of their trip experiences, providing numerous pleasurable and enjoyable advantages, may inspire more users to share travel experiences (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... Hence, this has resulted in UGC having a more substantial effect on consumer decision-making since it allows other consumers to access, discover from, and partake in the experiences of others (Chiu et al., 2014) Since the 1970s, information relevance has been used to determine if the information obtained is relevant to the user's needs as information search for decision making may fulfil and meet users' utilitarian goals, it can be assessed objectively using utilitarian orientation (Chen et al., 2014). Perceived enjoyment explains why travellers share their trip experiences on social media, implying that sharing may relate to pleasure and fun; thus, understanding how social media allows people to share more of their trip experiences, providing numerous pleasurable and enjoyable advantages, may inspire more users to share travel experiences (Chen et al., 2014). Consumers' perceptions of their enjoyment of travel blogs and the blogs' novelty, reliability, understandability, and interestingness influence consumers' intentions to visit a destination (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... Perceived enjoyment explains why travellers share their trip experiences on social media, implying that sharing may relate to pleasure and fun; thus, understanding how social media allows people to share more of their trip experiences, providing numerous pleasurable and enjoyable advantages, may inspire more users to share travel experiences (Chen et al., 2014). Consumers' perceptions of their enjoyment of travel blogs and the blogs' novelty, reliability, understandability, and interestingness influence consumers' intentions to visit a destination (Chen et al., 2014). In social media, the most recent content is usually displayed first so that the information users interact with is the most up-to-date (Kim et al., 2017). ...
... This study proposes an empirical research model based on the consumer-based digital content marketing concept, information relevance theory, observational learning theory, consumer-influencer engagement behavior, and brand evangelism to empirically test a conceptual framework, which have disseminated the body of knowledge and fill the research gaps as follows. A previous study examined from a utilitarian or functional perspective [45,46], including topicality, novelty, understandability, and reliability, but overlooked the hedonic perspective. According to the research of Chen et al. [46] and Zhang and Choi [47], they extended the body of knowledge and include the interestingness of content as a hedonic aspect of judging the relevance of information theory by studying the significant impact of influencer-generated content on promoting the relationships between influencers and their followers. ...
... A previous study examined from a utilitarian or functional perspective [45,46], including topicality, novelty, understandability, and reliability, but overlooked the hedonic perspective. According to the research of Chen et al. [46] and Zhang and Choi [47], they extended the body of knowledge and include the interestingness of content as a hedonic aspect of judging the relevance of information theory by studying the significant impact of influencer-generated content on promoting the relationships between influencers and their followers. However, it was found that all of the previous three research studies were conducted from only two perspectives: a functional and a hedonic perspective. ...
... Moreover, the studies of Chen et al. [46] and Zhang and Choi [47] apply the theory of information relevance that focuses on the factors including: novelty, understandability, reliability, and interestingness of content, but the topicality of content is not incorporated into the theoretical framework. Both studies did not carry out a hypothesis test and there was no empirical evidence showing the reason why topicality of content should be excluded from the theory of information relevance in the context of influencer-generated content. ...
Article
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Micro-influencers have become powerful sources of information for consumers in the digital age. Marketers have strategically collaborated with micro-influencers as brand endorsers to generate valuable content, which attract the consumers and encourage them to engage with micro-influencers, leading to brand evangelism. This reflects the sustainable consumer‒brand relationships. In Southeast Asia, Instagram stands out as the preferred choice for fashion influencers for sharing product information and boosting consumer engagement. The current study is the first one incorporating literature-based frameworks, consisting of consumer-based digital content marketing, information relevance theory, observational learning theory, consumer‒influencer engagement behavior, and brand evangelism, into a unified framework to deal with the research gaps. The quantitative method was applied through using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The SmartPLS v. 3.3.9 software application was applied to explore the proposed model. The data were acquired from 499 Thai consumers who have followed and engaged the content with fashion micro-influencers on Instagram. The results revealed that the positive effect of topicality of content is the strongest antecedent that motivates consumer‒influencer engagement, while novelty, understandability, reliability, interestingness, and influencers’ authenticity of content also have a positive influence on consumer‒influencer engagement. Finally, the findings showed that consumer‒influencer engagement have vital effects on brand evangelism.
... This can affect how the local society, economy, and culture grow and change and how likely tourists are to return (Jafari, 1987). Previous studies showed that travel intentions are based on tourist attitudes and destination choice (Chen et al., 2014). Attitudes and preferences can also measure tourists' behavior (Wu, 2015). ...
... Europeans and Oceanians enjoy traveling to experience other cultures, landscapes, and delicacies. They are also interested in self-satisfaction, soul-searching, life-balance programs, and developing their self-awareness of the places they visit as proven in Ahn et al. (2013), Chen et al. (2014), and Lu et al (2016). To make Malaysia a prime destination, it must adapt to psychological needs and visitor behavior. ...
... This study also supported the fourth hypothesis that eWOM significantly influences the travel intention of tourists from Europe and Oceania. This is consistent with previous investigations such as Abubakar (2016), Jalilvand and Heidari (2017), Chen et al. (2014), andOday et al. (2021). eWOM is a new platform and is used as a marketing tool. ...
Article
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This study explores the memorable traveling experience (MTE) of 143 tourists from Europe and Oceanian in Malaysia. The researchers conducted a survey to investigate the factors that influence their revisit intention to Malaysia as an attractive destination. Partial least square structural equation modeling (SEM-PLS) results indicated that tourist attitudes, destination images, electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM), and perceived quality have positive and significant influences on travel intention. However, the eWOM failed to mediate the tourists’ attitudes, perceived quality, and destination image towards their revisit intentions. Keywords: eWOM, Malaysia, Memorable Travelling Experience, Revisit Intentions eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2022. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA CE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., U.K. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians/Africans/Arabians), and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v7i21.3710
... Information quality reflects people's perception about the utility of information (Chen et al., 2014). Information quality is a prominent factor that affects people's information adoption. ...
... Information quality can be measured by three dimensions: novelty, understandability, and relevance (Filieri & McLeay, 2013). The novelty of information means the degree to which the information is new and unfamiliar to people (Chen et al., 2014). If information is perceived to be familiar, recipients may neglect it due to uninterest. ...
... Novel information comes as a surprise for travelers in the form of unexpected attributes of a specific destination, and it generates greater interest. This would produce a cognitive and affective change in the recipient's behavior and encourage him or her to explore the places to have the experience described by people such as travel bloggers (Chen et al., 2014). ...
Article
The rise of social media in the digital era has revolutionized the travel and tourism industry. Some people post their feedback about the places they visit on the internet, while others seek such information on the internet. This has heightened the interest in and value of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) manyfold. This research seeks to examine the factors that may influence travel-related eWOM behavior through social networking sites (SNSs). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied on data collected from 416 travelers who are users of SNSs. The results indicate that information quality and quantity are the two most significant factors that influence travel-related eWOM behavior. Additionally, the intention to use SNSs when making travel-related decisions in the future is the most prominent factor among all. The paper concludes with pragmatic suggestions for travel and tourism businesses to optimally utilize travel-related eWOM for improving their business and earning a competitive edge. KEYWORDS Elaboration likelihood model; electronic word of mouth (eWOM); social networking sites (SNSs); social media; travel; tourism
... However, users are finding it increasingly difficult to locate the information they seek because of information overload [23]. Moreover, the same content shared on social media will have a unique effect on different users [24]. It is interesting to determine what characteristics of influencer-generated content will draw users' attention and affect their behavior, and according to previous studies, it is critical for influencers and their followers to build a strong attachment relationship to achieve effective marketing outcomes [16,25]. ...
... As topicality focuses on users' current needs, there is a greater emphasis on timeliness [23]. Topicality can be assumed when searching for information on social media [24]. Moreover, influencers are active in various fields, and they generate content mainly based on their own expertise. ...
... Interestingness of content can be seen as the attraction people feel when reading the content posted on social media; it is the perceived enjoyment, pleasure, and entertainment derived from the content [24]. Researchers discovered that one of the principal factors individuals utilize social media is for enjoyment, and interesting content can satisfy their entertainment needs [45]. ...
Article
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It has become a marketing trend for marketers to use influencers to advertise and sell products because influencers can affect the attitudes and decision-making of other social media users. Most previous research on influencer marketing has concentrated on its effectiveness as a promotional tool. In contrast, there have been limited studies on the influencer-social media user relationship. The relationship that influencers have with other social media users is the foundation for the success of influencer marketing. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the factors that affect the influencers’ relationships with other users. In accordance with the concept of information relevance, this study presents a model relating the various attributes of influencer-generated content with emotional attachment and information quality to examine the relationship between influencers and other social media users. The findings of a survey of 280 respondents indicate that the interestingness, novelty, reliability, and understandability of influencer-generated content can effectively increase users’ emotional attachment to influencers. Reliability and understandability can also have a significant positive impact on information quality. This eventually inclines social media users to follow or recommend influencers to others, which can increase the popularity of influencers. This study helps researchers and marketers advance their understanding of influencers’ relationships with other social media users and offers management-related recommendations for influencers and marketers.
... Among the hygiene factors, our study identifies trustworthiness of source, information quality, functional characteristics of the blog and communicative and conversational style (Table 3). Information quality (understood as correctness, accuracy and credibility of information and a refined narrative register) plays an important role in generating the trust needed for decision-making (Burgess et al., 2011;Hsiao et al., 2013;Chen et al., 2014) and satisfaction (Ho and Lee, 2015;Choi and Lee, 2021;Sarmiento Guede et al., 2021). Information quality generates trust (Burgess et al., 2011), which, in turn, influences satisfaction and loyalty and the intention to buy travel products (Ho and Lee, 2015). ...
... Information quality generates trust (Burgess et al., 2011), which, in turn, influences satisfaction and loyalty and the intention to buy travel products (Ho and Lee, 2015). The research reveals how travel blogs can influence a tourist's future behavioral intention (Yang et al., 2013;Magno and Cassia, 2018) through unpublished, understandable and interesting content (Chen et al., 2014;Pirolli, 2018). These aspects elicit enjoyment in the use of travel blogs, influencing tourists' intentions to visit (Chen et al., 2014;Choi and Lee, 2021). ...
... The research reveals how travel blogs can influence a tourist's future behavioral intention (Yang et al., 2013;Magno and Cassia, 2018) through unpublished, understandable and interesting content (Chen et al., 2014;Pirolli, 2018). These aspects elicit enjoyment in the use of travel blogs, influencing tourists' intentions to visit (Chen et al., 2014;Choi and Lee, 2021). Messages with emotional value and that evoke empathy are more likely to be perceived as worthy of consideration (Hsiao et al., 2013). ...
Purpose Even if the relationship between travel bloggers and followers has implications for tourists’ decision-making process, the literature does not individuate the main determinants of this relationship. This paper aims to study the drivers and motivations to follow travel bloggers and the main consequences. Moreover, the paper seeks to highlight the metamorphosis of travel bloggers and their role in the tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review was used, and 76 papers were selected. A thematic map of the literature and a summary of key findings are proposed. Findings Although authenticity is the main trigger for following travel bloggers, other factors (e.g. transparency and credibility), if lacking, can erode the relationship with followers. Results demonstrate that hygiene factors are important but that the relationship with followers can be compromised if motivational factors are lacking. Loyalty and the continued use of travel blogs are the main consequences of a relationship based on trust, credibility and engagement. Practical implications Tourism and hospitality managers must define sophisticated segmentation procedures to select the right travel blogger with which to engage for destination promotions. Travel bloggers must clearly define the role that they want to have in the market if they are to instill loyalty in their followers. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that attempts to identify the pillars of the follower–travel blogger relationship in the tourism and hospitality literature.
... Information seeking is an important motive for internet users, especially for travelers, and because of the proliferation of information sources for tourists online, tourists may spend a large amount of time researching for information to support their decision-making (Y.-C. Chen et al., 2014). In recent years, personal blogs have increasingly become an important source of information for tourists as well, and the decision to visit a destination will be influenced by the characteristics of the information gathered online (Y.-C. ...
... In recent years, personal blogs have increasingly become an important source of information for tourists as well, and the decision to visit a destination will be influenced by the characteristics of the information gathered online (Y.-C. Chen et al., 2014;Yoo & Gretzel, 2012). Several studies have analyzed motives affecting the behavioral intention of consumers, and many find that information-seeking is a significant factor (Hur et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Vaccine tourism is a new type of medical tourism that allows tourists to travel internationally to receive the vaccine occultation while they are traveling. There are strong possibilities that vaccine tourism will grow in popularity due to recent COVID-19 vaccine discrepancy between rich and poor countries and uncertainty of the current and future variation in diseases. Vaccine tourism can play important role to revive the stagnant tourism industry resulted from COVID-19 pandemic and serve as possible alternative type of tourism package for the future. This study aims to investigate factors that influence potential tourists to adopt vaccine tourism. Two hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were collected through tourism social media sites in Thailand. PLS-SEM was conducted to examine the causal relationships. The findings show that innovative and informative users are more likely to adopt vaccine tourism. The study confirms the need to consider personal attitudes when studying behavioral intentions. Furthermore, it highlights opportunities for the tourism industry to further promote the new type of medical tourism to the innovative and informative tourists.
... GPQ has been described as the judgment of the customer about a product's/brand's overall environmental superiority or excellence [1]. Numerous studies have explored the significant positive role of GPQ in predicting CGBIs, such as green purchase intention (GPI), green word-of-mouth (GWoM) as well as the willingness and acceptance to pay more to stay at green/eco-friendly hotels [25,[27][28][29][30]. Furthermore, GS has been characterized as a pleasing consumption-related fulfillment level that meets customers' sustainable expectations and satisfies their environmental needs, desires, and green demands [31]. ...
... Fourth, the result of the study showed that CGBIs were found to be influenced by GS. The significance of the influence of GS on CGBIs has been emphasized by Chen et al. [27] and Al-Quran et al. [70]. The GS has been mentioned as a key predictor of CGBIs such as GWoM [32], customer repurchase intention of green products [71], customer retention and repurchase intention [33], and green customer loyalty [72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing awareness of the climate change effects, hotel customers progressively intend to favor green products and services that minimize adverse environmental effects. The key factors affecting customers’ green behavioral intentions in the hospitality industry context are still under research. Accordingly, this study primarily aims at empirically investigating the nexus between green perceived quality (GPQ), green satisfaction (GS), green trust (GT), and customers’ green behavioral intentions (CGBIs) in a sample of five-star eco-friendly hotels in Egypt. More specifically, the study first endeavors to investigate the direct impact of GPQ on GS, GT, and CGBIs besides exploring the direct impact of GS and GT on CGBIs in addition to examining the potential effect of GS and GT as mediators in the nexus between GPQ and CGBIs. To achieve the study’s aim and associated objectives, a self-administrated questionnaire was developed and distributed to a convenience sample of local guests staying at certified five-green star hotels. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and only 304 valid forms, representing 60.8%, were used in the statistical analysis. Seven hypotheses, reflecting the direct and indirect relationships between study constructs, were examined by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with bootstrapping technique. The study findings revealed that GS, GT as well as CGBIs are significantly positively affected by GPQ, respectively. Furthermore, GT and GS have a significant positive effect on CGBIs. Moreover, GT as well as GS partially mediate the nexus between GPQ and CGBIs. From the previous findings, it could be concluded that the increase in investment in enhancing GPQ significantly contributes to the improvement in GS, GT, and CGBIs. Additionally, the higher the GT, GPQ, and GS, the greater the revisit intention to green hotels, positive green word-of-mouth (GWoM), and intention to pay a premium for staying in environmentally friendly hotels. As a result, for enhancing CGBIs and sustaining a customer-hotel long-term relationship, hotel operators should make efforts towards maintaining GT, improving GPQ, and increasing customers’ GS as key predictors of CGBIs in the hotel industry context.
... The fast expansion and broad acceptance of social media have piqued the attention of tourist and leisure marketers [100]. Nowadays, social media sees a resurgence, with hundreds of individuals posting their thoughts on their travel experiences on the platform [30,37,59]. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc., have become important add-ons to share travel-related views and experiences [59,132]. ...
... If a person comes across a positive eWOM, it is likely to increase visit intention. Intention to visit can be defined as the desire to visit a tourist destination by potential tourists [37]. eWOM communication has been captivating the attention of researchers in recent years [133], such as the impact on travel intention/behavior and destination selection [2,84,134]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study intends to unwrap the influence of social media electronic word of mouth (eWOM) on revisit intention post-COVID-19 applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Two additional constructs, viz., eWOM and destination image, have been undertaken in the present study to enhance the robustness of the TPB model. An online questionnaire was employed to collect data, and the research relied upon 301 correct and useable responses. The survey's population includes potential tourists who intend to revisit India post-COVID-19. SPSS 20 and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data. The posited model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings indicate that all of the constructs under study, namely "electronic word of mouth (eWOM), destination image (DI), attitude (ATT), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC)," significantly and positively influence "tourists' revisit intention (RI)" post-COVID-19. These constructs explained approximately 71% ( R ² = 0.709) of the variance in the revisit intention post-COVID-19. A number of theoretical and practical implications can be delineated to make recommendations to the ministry of tourism, tour and travel agencies, central and state government-owned tourism departments, marketers and promoters of travel destinations. The distinctiveness of the present study lies in the fact that it measures the influence of eWOM on revisit intention post-COVID-19 in the Indian context by incorporating destination image with the TPB model.
... These gastronomic contents reach other consumers through different platforms, thus influencing the eating behavior of consumers (Törőcsik & Pál 2015) and their consumption intentions. Gastronomy also plays an important role in the development of destinations (Gordin & Trabskaya 2013), so online opinion-sharing platforms on food have a significant impact on the everyday life of the destination, with a positive impact on visiting a tourist destination (Chen et al. 2014). Destinations use gastronomy as a marketing tool to promote their culture, to which tourism is the link, connecting them with the consumer and providing an offer to consumers (Gyimóthy 1999). ...
... Thus, the results confirm the statements made in the theoretical part (Hung 2014, Albert et al. 2017, Xu & Pratt 2018, Lee et al. 2021) that the content produced by influencers serve as valuable information for consumers and influence consumers' purchasing intention and decision-making outcome when choosing a restaurant. Furthermore, the research confirms that Chen et al. (2014) state influencers activity has a positive effect on visiting destinations. So, based on the results of the research, it can be said that the majority of consumers are interested in the destination itself when visiting restaurants. ...
Article
THE AIM OF THE PAPER The aim of the study is to explore the impact of gastronomic influencers on Instagram on consumer decision before choosing a restaurant. It also examines the role of the characteristics of destination in consumer decision-making process. The article also highlights the impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic and its impact on consumers’ decision process in that context. METHODOLOGY In order to analyze the main research questions, a quantative survey with 329 valid responses was implemented and descriptive statistics, relationship analysis methods and linear regression were used to answer the research questions. The research question also required the use of a subsample (n=185) in which respondents who are willing to travel for gastronomic purposes were examined during the Pandemic. MOST IMPORTANT RESULTS According to the results, the collection of information from gastronomic influencers on the Instagram interface is popular among the respondents, and the influencers’ activity has a positive effect on the number of visitors to the destinations. Thus, it can be said that the relationship between the influencer and the destination is characterized by a significant, medium strength relationship. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the Pandemic has led to an increase in consumers’ intentions to consume in restaurants. RECOMMENDATIONS As social media plays an increasingly important role in the decision-making process, it is important that professionals, service providers and researchers explore the views of consumers in the context under study. The results are highlighted in terms of destination development and in terms of consumer behavior.
... Numerous studies have shed light on how user-generated content on review websites (e.g., booking.com, TripAdvisor) can impact tourist decisions (Chen, Shang, & Li, 2014;Liu et al., 2020). Furthermore, with the increasing popularity of smartphone apps, not only are there traveloriented apps, such as TripAdvisor, but many multi-functional social media and content apps (hereinafter as "integrated social apps") also became popular platforms for people to share their travel experience. ...
... Exploratory in nature, the study aims to understand the effects of user-generated content on integrated social apps on tourist decisionmaking. User-generated travel posts may showcase a wide range of information, varying in content, quality, and quantity (Chen et al., 2014). To delineate the effects of travel posts, the study was conducted in two stages. ...
Article
With the growing popularity and versatility of mobile applications, this study examined consumers' usage of multi-functional social media content apps and the influence of user-generated travel posts on their travel decision-making. Using the case of Chinese millennial travelers and Weibo and Xiaohongshu as representative apps, semi-structured interviews and surveys were conducted. Results showed that while respondents used Weibo more often in daily life, Xiaohongshu was more likely to influence their destination selection. Key attributes of travel posts and preferences of different user groups were identified. The relative importance of each attribute in guiding dining/accommodation/transportation/shopping/attraction decisions was examined. The most active app users placed lower importance on the number of images and higher importance on length of text and language style.
... Calon wisatawan yang terpapar media akan membentuk keinginan untuk melakukan perjalanan wisata, karena mereka mengenali konten yang memuaskan tentang tujuan tersebut . Menurut Chen et al., (2014) menjelaskan bahwa citra positif suatu destinasi yang dihasilkan oleh konten informasi akan meningkatkan keinginan untuk mengunjungi destinasi tersebut. Citra merek yang baik akan membentuk kepercayaan (Prasetya et al., 2014). ...
Article
This study examines how the influence of social media exposure in shaping the behavior of tourists visiting the destination. The destination referred to in this study is a film tourism destination such as Studio Alam Gamplong and also how it affects the desires and gratification of destination content. Questionnaires were distributed as many as 202, but the number of samples used in this study were 173 respondents, respondents who had access to information about the Bumi Manusia and knew the Studio Alam Gamplong as the shooting location. The results of the study note that exposure to social media affects the intention to visit tourist destinations through the desire to travel and gratification of destination content, as well as the direct effect between social media exposure on the intention to visit tourist destinations. In addition, the mediation test results in a complementary and partial mediation model that can influence between independent variables on the dependent variable in the model both directly and indirectly. The desire to travel is an important variable in this study in formulating the intention of visiting tourists to the Studio Alam Gamplong.Keywords: social media exposure; desire to travel to destination; gratification destination content; intention to visit destination ABSTRAKPenelitian ini melihat bagaimana pengaruh paparan media sosial dalam membentuk perilaku wisatawan yang mengunjungi destinasi wisata. Destinasi wisata yang diteliti pada penelitian ini adalah destinasi wisata film seperti Studio Alam Gamplong dan pengaruhnya terhadap keinginan dan gratifikasi konten destinasi. Kuesioner yang dibagikan berjumlah 202, namun sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 173 responden, yaitu para responden yang memiliki akses informasi tentang film Bumi Manusia dan mengetahui Studio Alam Gamplong sebagai tempat syuting film. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa paparan media sosial mempengaruhi niat mengunjungi destinasi wisata melalui keinginan untuk melakukan perjalanan dan gratifikasi konten destinasi, serta terdapat pengaruh langsung paparan media sosial pada niat mengunjungi destinasi wisata. Selain itu, hasil pengujian mediasi menunjukkan model mediasi komplementer dan parsial yang mempengaruhi hubungan antara variabel independen dan variabel dependen baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Keinginan melakukan perjalanan merupakan variabel yang penting dalam penelitian ini di dalam merumuskan niat mengunjungi destinasi wisata Studio Alam Gamplong. Kata kunci: paparan media sosial; keinginan melakukan perjalanan; gratifikasi konten destinasi; niat mengunjungi destinasi
... The main section of the questionnaire had a scale adapted from the previous research and modified to determine the relationship between different variables. The scale item for tourism v-logging was adapted from (Chen, Shang, & Li, 2014). Secondly, the scale items for social media influencers were adapted from (Jaya & Prianthara, 2020). ...
Article
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The Marketers and residents of tourist places are facing tourism promotion-related challenges. The trends of digital marketing are stimulating traditional marketers for tourism promotion. Recently, the trend of digital media influencers has been getting considerable attention among marketing academicians and practitioners. However, this study aims to determine the role of modern digital marketing tools for green tourism promotion of foreign tourism in Pakistan. Consequently, 450 questionnaires for data collection were distributed among foreign tourists visiting different tourist destinations. The Partial Least Square (PLS) software was used to analyze the data, and the threshold for significant variables was (P<0.05). The study points out the critical role of modern digital marketing tools, i.e. YouTube marketing and social media influencers, in promoting green tourism through tourism v-logging in Pakistan. The practical implications of this study would enhance the experiences of marketers for green tourism promotion in Pakistan. Moreover, the current research fills the literature gap in the digital marketing domain by thoroughly discussing emerging digital marketing tools.
... One of the main reasons that increases the popularity of the influencers is due to the fact that their followers identify with them. In other words, interacting with a person who is interested in or likes the same things as themselves has effects that will cause changes in people's thinking and behavior styles (Li, et. al., 2014). Accordingly, İnfluencers become individuals who play a key role when people buy a product with the content they have produced on social media and while they guide the followers and inform them about the product (Bor & Erten, 2019). According to Bor and Erten, the background areas of the influencer are categorized as "twitter phenomenon ...
Article
Influencers have entered our lives as a new communication tool with the developments in social media. The aim of the study is to reveal the relationship between the trust in the influence and the purchase intention in the influencer communication process. An online questionnaire was applied between 21-28 May 2020 to the students who were studying at the Near East University in the spring term of 2019-2020 and followed an influencer. It was found that influencers expressing opinions increased the trust towards them and that there is a positive correlation between trust in the influencer and purchasing intention. It was found that there were no significant difference between genders in terms of trust in influencer and purchase intentions of the participants following the influencer were moderate. There was no significant difference between the time spent on social media and the purchase intention however, significant differences were found between trust in influencer and education and monthly income. The subject being up-to-date and limited number of studies in the field can be considered as the originality of this study. Since it was implemented in the first period of the pandemic, the study sheds light to this process. The purchasing and trust scale has been adapted and developed for influencers. In this case, it is among the features of the study.
... Intention and behavior are used to look at from two different perspectives. Tourist intention was defined as the willingness to visit some destination; the decision to visit is interpreted as a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of a set of alternative destinations which were derived from external information sources, including electronic eWOM or travelers' blogs (Chen et al., 2014). Besides that, travel motivation is an integral part of travel behavior; the need to see what has not been seen and the need to know what has not been known leads people to visit new places and motivates them to go to a new destination (Wijaya et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The effects of electronic word of mouth on travel intention have been investigated extensively. However, the interrelationships among electronic word-of-mouth communication, destination image, attitude toward the destination, travel intention, satisfaction toward tourist complaints, and loyalty in the tourism industry have yet to be determined. This study tries to extract some informed conclusions about the relationship through a meta-analysis. This study proposed a research framework in which 12 hypotheses were developed, and a total of 44 independent studies were collected and analyzed. The results from the research framework suggest that: (1) e-Word-of-Mouth communication positively influences the destination image, tourist attitude toward the destination, and travel intention; (2) tourist satisfaction is positively influenced by the destination image, tourist attitude toward the destination, and travel intention; (3) tourism satisfaction positively influence tourist complaints and loyalty. The theoretical and practical implications were discussed and applied to destination marketing and management.
... As users create individual content on rating portals, the question of credibility regarding this content in particular and the evaluation portal as a whole is essential to assess the performance expectancy [63]. Therefore, an increase in credibility can lead to web-based portals being perceived as more useful [64,65]. Thus, we expect the following: a higher credibility leads to a higher performance expectancy toward PRWs (hypothesis 4). ...
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Background Physician rating websites (PRWs) have become increasingly important in the cross-section between health and digitalization. Social influence plays a crucial role in human behavior in many domains of life, as can be demonstrated by the increase in high-profile influential individuals such as social media influencers (SMIs). Particularly in the health-specific environment, the opinion of family and friends has a significant influence on health-related decisions. However, so far, there has been little discussion about the role of social influence as an antecedent of behavioral intention to use PRWs. Objective On the basis of theories of social psychology and technology acceptance and theories from the economic perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of social influence on the behavioral intention to use PRWs. Methods We conducted 2 studies by applying a mixed methods approach including a total of 712 participants from the Austrian population. The impact of social influence on the behavioral intention to use PRWs was investigated through linear regression and mediation and moderated mediation analysis using the PROCESS macro 4.0 in SPSS 27 (IBM Corp). Results The 2 studies show similar results. In study 1, an experiment, no direct effect of social influence on the behavioral intention to use PRWs could be detected. However, an indirect effect of social influence on the behavioral intention to use PRWs via credibility (b=0.572; P=.005) and performance expectancy (b=0.340; P<.001) could be confirmed. The results of study 2, a cross-sectional study, demonstrate that social influence seems to have a direct impact on the behavioral intention to use PRWs (b=0.410; P<.001). However, when calculating the proposed mediation model, it becomes clear that this impact may partly be explained through the 2 mediator variables—credibility (b=0.208; P<.001) and performance expectancy (b=0.312; P<.001). In contrast to the observed direct and indirect effect, neither demographic nor psychographic variables have a significant moderating impact on the influencing chain in study 2. Conclusions This study provides an indication that social influence has at least an indirect impact on the behavioral intention to use PRWs. It was observed that this impact is exerted through credibility and performance expectancy. According to the findings of both studies, social influence has the potential to boost the use of PRWs. As a result, these web-based networks might be a promising future interface between health care and digitalization, allowing health care practitioners to gain a beneficial external impact while also learning from feedback. Social influence nowadays is not just limited to friends and family but can also be exerted by SMIs in the domain of PRW use. Thus, from a marketing perspective, PRW providers could think of collaborating with SMIs, and our results could contribute to stimulating discussion in this vein.
... , turizm bölgesi(Kozak, 2008: 139) ve turistik yer(Fojtik ve Somogyi, 2008: 1) olarak farklı şekillerde de ifade edilebilmektedir.Turistler kendi deneyimleri ile birçok kaynaktan bilgi toplarlar ve değerlendirmesini yaparak destinasyon seçimleri hakkında kararlarını inceleyen çeşitli çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca, sosyal medyada önemli ölçüde yer alan seyahat blogları ve destinasyonu ziyaret etme niyeti ilişkisini inceleyen(Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010;Vijayasarathy, 2002;Chen, Shang ve Li, 2014) çalışmalar da alan yazında mevcuttur. YouTube kanallarının destinasyon ziyaret niyetleri üzerinde etkisini inceledikleri çalışmalarında Crowel, Gribben ve Loo (2014), ABD'li gezginlerin üçte ikisinin seyahatlerini rezerve etmeden önce çevrimiçi seyahat videoları izlediklerini belirtmiştir. ...
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Teknolojinin hızla gelişimiyle birlikte sosyal medya ağları, hayatımızın vazgeçilmez bir unsuru haline gelmekte ve yaşantımızı etkilemektedir. Bu sosyal ağlardan biri olan YouTube aracılığıyla kullanıcılar her türden görsel ve işitsel videolarını, hızlı ve kolay bir biçimde geniş kitlelerle paylaşabilmektedirler. Rekabetin yoğun bir şekilde yaşandığı turizm sektöründe destinasyon pazarlama çabaları için YouTube video paylaşım sitesi önem kazanmıştır. Bu çalışmayla, destinasyonlara yönelik YouTube videolarının turistlerin destinasyonu ziyaret etme niyeti üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmıştır. Veri toplama yöntemi olarak anket tekniği kullanılmıştır. 2021 yılı Mart ve Nisan ayları arasında çevrimiçi (surveymonkey) olarak gerçekleştirilen veri toplama süreci sonunda 398 geçerli anket toplanmıştır. Analizlerde tanımlayıcı istatistiklerin yanı sıra, faktör analizi, korelasyon ve regresyon analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Katılımcıların YouTube videolarına karşı tutumlarının destinasyonu ziyaret etme niyetini etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. YouTube videolarının özgünlüğünün ve kullanımından alınan keyfin destinasyonu ziyaret etme niyetini artırdığını göstermektedir. Buna karşın, YouTube videolarına karşı duyulan güvenin ise destinasyonu ziyaret etme niyeti üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi olmadığı belirlenmiştir.  Doç. Dr., Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Turizm Fakültesi Turizm Rehberliği Bölümü,
... Numerous studies have measured the tourists' behavioral intention through three variables as follows; (1) the tourist intention to visit "is a tourist behavioral intention that exists before a tourist takes a trip and is influenced by tourist destination image, " (2) the intention to revisit "tourists repeat their actions where they want to revisit a tourist destination that has been visited before, " and (3) intention to recommend "the intention of tourist to recommend the destination to their friends and families when they have a positive perception toward their experience" (Wang and Hsu, 2010;Chen et al., 2014;Dolnicar et al., 2015;Hsu et al., 2016;Stylos et al., 2016). In addition, Jalilvand et al. (2012) stated that positive WoM regarding a tourist destination is also an example of a behavioral intention. ...
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of perceived service quality (PSQ) on tourist satisfaction and behavioral intentions and explore the potential mediating role of tourist satisfaction in the relationship between service quality and behavioral intentions in the yoga tourism context during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, this is to examine to what extent yoga tourist satisfaction directly affects their behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach Based on a review of literature, the study proposes a conceptual model to test four hypothesized relationships among the constructs of perceived service quality, tourist satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Data was collected by using a self-administrated questionnaire that was developed and directed to a convenience sample of yoga tourists (380 forms). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to determine the relationship between study constructs. Findings The results of SEM illustrated that all the hypothesized relationships are supported. The findings confirm that yoga tourists’ behavioral intentions are significantly affected directly and indirectly (through tourist satisfaction) by perceived service quality. Additionally, tourist satisfaction significantly partially mediates the relationship between PSQ and tourists’ behavioral intentions. Research limitations The subject of this study was yoga tourists staying in yoga retreats/studios in Egyptian destinations (South Sinai Governorate). Future research may focus on other geographical destinations and other influential variables of yoga tourists’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions should be investigated. Practical implications For improving tourists’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions, yoga service providers should take care by giving tourists personalized attention, and understanding, fulfilling their specific needs. Health and hygiene practices must be considered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This study is perhaps the first empirical study that examines the relationship between PSQ and tourists’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in the yoga tourism context. A new integrated conceptual model that combined three service quality dimensions, namely, tangibles, intangibles as well as health and hygiene was developed and validated.
... It aims to generate positive emotions in tourists and strengthen their interest of tourists to be able to visit a tourist attraction. As time passes, all tourist attractions use content marketing as a promotional medium and pay for paid advertising on social media platforms to increase tourist interest in visiting a tourist attraction (Chen et al., 2014). The Path Analysis test results in the results of the Path Analysis test conducted in this study. ...
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Objective: This study aims to determine the role of social word of mouth in mediating the influence of digital content marketing on visiting interests. Design/Methods/Approach: This research uses a purposive sampling technique on 385 respondents who used social media and had never visited Melasti Beach tourist attractions. The data collection technique uses a questionnaire. This research uses SmartPLS 4 to test the validity, reliability, and various tests. Findings: As a result of the study, it is found that digital content marketing has a positive effect on visiting interest, digital content marketing has a positive effect on social word of mouth, social word of mouth has a positive effect on visiting interest, and social word of mouth mediates digital content marketing on visiting interest. Originality: The development of digitalization has led to new ways for tourists to look for references through social word of mouth on social media. This research topic becomes very important for marketers considering that the application of content marketing strategies presents social word of mouth on social media. This is important, especially for a tourist attraction, to generate interest in visiting. Practical/Policy implication: Identification of social word of mouth on social media can be used as a benchmark in mediating digital content marketing and visiting interest. The results of this study have implications for the tourist attraction of Melasti Beach to create interesting content.
... La plataforma viajera más destacada en la web 2.0 es el blog, por su extensión, facilidad de uso, autonomía y proximidad al entorno periodístico. Ello ha favorecido que el contenido creado por los usuarios se haya convertido en una fuente de información clave para otros (Chen et al., 2014), con un gran impacto en sus decisiones (Lozanov, 2018). A ello cabe sumar la influencia en decisiones que representan un importante volumen de gasto (Ting et al., 2014). ...
Article
This article analyzes the transformation of travel journalism in the digital age, based on 22 in-depth interviews with Spanish and Russian professionals. The research delves into the evolution of this type of journalism with regard to the emergence of blogs in the age of low-cost tourism. The main challenges of travel journalism include narrative quality with a unique perspective, specialization, and the integration of digital tools.
... Destination visit intention refers to the customer's travel plans induced by information received, e.g. from the internet, friends, family and advertisements (Hosany et al., 2020). Traditionally, the decision to visit a destination is based on a rational comparison of the costs/benefits of alternative destinations (Chen et al., 2014). Benefits also relate to different destination attractions. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on Ducoffe’s advertising value model, this study aims to integrate additional constructs (credibility, fantasy and visual appeal) as important antecedents to the perceived advertising value of vlogs. The study also examines the mediating role of place attachment between perceived advertising value and intention to visit a destination. Design/methodology/approach A total of 267 valid online questionnaires were collected among Pakistanis who (regularly, frequently, weekly or at least monthly) watch vlogs of tourist places on social networking sites and YouTube. Findings The empirical results using the partial least squares structural equation modeling approach show that informativeness, entertainment and credibility have significant positive effects, whereas irritation negatively impacts advertising value. The study also supports the positive effect of advertising value on visit intention and the mediating role of place attachment. Originality/value These findings reinforce a paradigm shift in advertising building on personal credibility, experiences and trustworthiness. This study contributes to the line of research that links promotional activities, destination image, tourists’ attitudes, visit intention and behavior.
... Travel intention is the intention of tourists to transform the results and motivation of the psychological process into actual behavior, which can also be regarded as a form of behavior intention (45). Travel intention is generated by rationally evaluating the potential benefits and costs of a series of alternative tourist destinations through external information (46). Thus, medical tourism intention can be regarded as tourists' rational evaluation of medical and tourism information, and then, they transfer the decision-making and motivation into the intention of actual behavior. ...
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The COVID-19 global pandemic and the uneven distribution of vaccines have resulted in alternative medical tourism, vaccine tourism. The purpose of this study is to identify the antecedents of vaccine tourists' travel intention. The Stimulus-organism-response model was used as a framework to understand the relationship between risk perception (stimulus), pandemic prevention attitude (organism), decision making (organism), and travel intention (response) in vaccine tourism. An online questionnaire survey method was adopted to address the purpose of the research. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select eligible respondents who were over 18 years old and had experience in vaccine tourism. A total of 520 online questionnaires were collected, and description analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were utilized to analyze the collected data. The findings indicated that pandemic prevention attitude is a full mediator between risk perception and travel intention. There is a significant causal relationship between risk perception and pandemic prevention attitude and between pandemic prevention attitude and travel intention. Furthermore, tourists' travel decision-making also significantly influences their travel intention. However, the relationship between tourists' risk perception and travel decision-making has no significant effect. Vaccine tourism was created based on the COVID-19 context. Therefore, in order to avoid vaccine travel becoming an infection control breach, pandemic prevention planning and the medical quality of the destination, and the prevention policies between the countries should be completely assessed and conducted.
... Niat berkunjung disebutkan sebagai kemauan untuk mengunjungi suatu destinasi wisata. Lebih lanjut niat berkunjung mengacu pada probabilitas apa yang dirasakan wisatawan selama waktu tertentu, sehingga dapat membangun persepsi subyektif yang memengaruhi perilaku dan keputusan akhir untuk berkunjung (Chen et al., 2014). Niat berkunjung adalah kegiatan melakukan atau tidak melakukan suatu perjalanan ke tempat wisata yang telah dipilih melalui informasi yang didapatkan. ...
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The tourism sector also brings social, economic, and environmental, natural resources, and cultural impacts that are increasingly prudent and prudent. One of the facilities developed is the concept of e-tourism. E-Tourism provides information on tourist destinations with various needs for tourists. This research aims to find out the role of tourism marketing communication through the utilization of e-tourism marketing to Increase Tourist Visiting Intentions. So as to increase tourist visits in Kerinci Regency in the new normal era in the Covid 19 era. Respondents in this study were all visitors from destinations in tourist attractions in Kabuten Kerinci Jambi Province. The number is unknown and can be said to be in infinite categories. Sampling techniques in this study use non probability techniques, namely incidental sampling techniques. Sampling techniques in this study use non probability techniques, namely incidental sampling techniques. The number of samples taken in this study used the lemeshow formula so that 96 samples were obtained in the study. The results of the study obtained results from the coefficient of determination is from E Tourism influenced by the variable promotion, e-WOM and advertising by 91%. While the coefficient of determination from the variables Promotion, e-WOM and advertising and e-tourism to visit intention is 9.3%.
... Mobile apps have been defined as "end-user software applications designed for a mobile device operating system and extend that device's capabilities [51]; mobile apps are selfcontained software that can download and run on mobile devices [52]. Blogging scales are adopted from [53,54]. According to the present study, it is an essential component of digital marketing strategy [55]. ...
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Ecotourism is the most encompassing alternative approach, and it is usually regarded as a panacea capable of combining economic development, environmental protection, and community well-being. Pakistan’s ecotourism industry is relatively new and has significant growth potential, with approximately 6 million domestic and international tourists visiting various northern destinations in 2018. However, as the number of tourists grows, so do the difficulties or obstacles associated with visitor/tourist behaviour, such as pollution, forest cutting, wildlife turmoil, filthy waste/garbage, and forest fire. These potential hazards have become natural environment-harming concerns that occur daily. Prior studies and government policies have emphasised the increasing knowledge and responsibility of ecotourism behaviour among tourists to address the issues. Digital marketing is known as a flashy way to connect with tourists by providing them with diverse tour information and destination images; however, reviews show that a smaller number of previous research in the tourism industry has been involved with digital marketing strategies. They use a quantitative design and Structural Equation Model testing. The guaranteed validity and reliability is an adaptive questionnaire created and tested in pilot research. For data gathering, a multistage sampling method is utilised. This research included 384 tourist respondents from three regions that used digital marketing for their travelling. It was chosen using a random and purposeful sampling process. The study found that destination image is positively connected to ecotourism. The current study employs the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical contribution. The study’s findings suggest that visitors, the government, the tourism industry, and the community may use digital marketing strategies to encourage ecotourism behaviour.
... Setiap pertanyaan penelitian dibangun dari beberapa penelitian sebelumnya. Untuk intention to visit diadopsi dari penelitian dari Chen et al., (2014) (Hair et al., 2010). Sedangkan uji reliabilitas dilakukan dengan melihat nilai variance extracted (VE) dan construct reliability (CR), jika indikator pertanyaan memiliki nilai construct reliability (CR) diatas 0.7 dan nilai variance extract (VE) diatas 0.5 maka indikator tersebut dikatakan reliabel (Hair et al., 2010). ...
... Indeed, some started to create video content as complete amateurs, while being student or having a full time job, but some of them have since become full-time Youtubers, after finishing their studies or quitting their job, and professionalized their production and improved the overall quality of their videos. While most research has focused on the characteristics of travel videos as well as on the influence of the travel influencers on their followers (Chen, Shang and Li 2014), there is still a lack of research projects that investigate the specificities of these kind of videos made by vloggers living in a foreign country, not just visiting it. Overall, there is a need to develop more studies based on intercultural communication in order to not only conceptualize more precisely these digital activities as well as the representation of (inter)cultural dynamics, but also to explore how these videos influence viewers' perspective on foreign countries and outgroups as well as on the possible intergroup contacts. ...
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The contemporary world goes through a fundamental change with the acceleration of processes and events, which has had an impact on the interactions between people and the ways in which we represent ourselves. Even if it has become easier to travel abroad, to meet and interact with people globally, through new technologies and modes of transport, our recent times have also seen tensions and prejudices growing within social and cultural in-groups and between out-groups. In this context, this paper aims to emphasize the importance of intercultural communication in crafting a global future. Too often in the literature about interculturality, the experience of living abroad is presented as an interculturalizing experience by itself. However, this research, based on a critical approach to interculturality, highlights the fact that international mobility is important but not sufficient to develop intercultural competences. Drawing on research about transnational cultural practices and global cultural connectivity, this paper will present the results of a case study on French people living in South Korea who produce videos on Youtube where they broadcast themselves but also frequently introduce South Korean-related topics to their French audience. Using both a critical intercultural communication approach and a media discourse analysis, I analyze how these French Youtubers broadcast themselves and represent their experiences of living abroad. The study shows that despite trying to engage in an intercultural perspective with their host country, their videos contribute, even implicitly, to reinforce several cultural stereotypes.
... In the tourism industry, Electronic-Word-of-Mouth (e-WOM) is regarded as the most influential and trustworthy source of information, having a significant impact on tourist destination selection. According to Chen, Shang, and Li (2014) electronic word of mouth is relevant with regard to tourists' intention toward visiting a particular destination. They also study explored the underlying e-Word of mouth relationships between a traveler's perception regarding a particular tourist destination and the actual intention to visit. ...
Article
In light of the implementation of the strategies of Vision 2030 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the remarkable development in the tourism sector in particular, this paper examined the influence of using social media to access travel-related information on the intention to visit from a domestic tourism perspective in Saudi Arabia. The paper used a correlation research design and quantitative and deductive research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses of this study. A structured questionnaire was used to gather the respondent’s views on tourist visit intention. A sample of 394 local tourist respondents was selected to administer the survey questionnaire. The paper used the convenience sampling method to collect the responses from the respondents. The empirical findings of data showed a significant direct relationship of social influence, price value, and habit with e-word-of-mouth, as well as confirm the significant direct relationship of e-WOM with intention to visit. The findings confirmed the mediating role of e-WOM in influencing the relationship of social influence and habit with tourist visit intention, while it was found that there was no mediating effect in the relationship of price value with tourist visit intention. This paper provides several practical contributions to practitioners in electronic tourism field.
... It is difficult to estimate the credibility of the source of information in e-WOM communications given that they are usually written by anonymous sources that are not related to the recipient . Existing research that has sought to understand CGM-based traveler behavior has focused on aspects such as participation in online communities (Wang & Fesenmaier, 2004), the implications of CGM on travel decisions (Cox et al., 2009), the various forms of user-generated content (Chen et al., 2014), the perceived usefulness of CGM content (Neijens et al., 2011), the trustworthiness of the CGM source , and information and regulatory influence (Book & Tanford, 2020). ...
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This research proposes a scale to measure the credibility of consumer-generated media (CGM). Two studies were carried out: first, a qualitative study based on eleven in-depth interviews with experts in tourism decisions; and second, we ran a quantitative analysis on a sample of 300 frequent users of tourism CGM platforms. The resulting scale, which consists of 4 dimensions and 12 items, is used to measure the credibility of information published in the tourism CGM platforms. The scale was tested for its dimensionality, reliability, and validity; and the results corroborate its accuracy and value as a source of information for travel decision-making. Finally, future lines of research are presented
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The study aims to develop a new framework that explains domestic travelers’ behavior to Ho Chi Minh City by applying the extended TPB to evaluate and validate the influence of significant variables on travel intention and lead to increasing tourist behavior in post COVID-19 era. This study empirically examines the factors impacting domestic tourist behavior by using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method. The data were collected from 473 domestic travellers who visit Ho Chi Minh City in the post COVID-19 period. The empirical finding is that the extended TPB with two additional constructs variables consisting of trust and risk perception has a significantand positive impact on travel intention and in turn leads to increasing tourist behavior in post COVID-19 period. The primary value of this paper is that it tested the extended theory of planned behavior to prominently explain and understand tourist behavior in post COVID-19 period.
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This research explores the effectiveness of destination awareness, destination image, perceived quality, and brand engagement on visit intention among TikTok users toward destinations in Yogyakarta. The sample in this research is TikTok users who have seen tourism video content in Yogyakarta. Data was obtained through an online survey constructed with Google Forms which 225 respondents filled out. The data used in this study were analyzed using the PLS-SEM method by SPSS and SmartPLS. According to the research findings, destination awareness and destination image positively impact the perceived quality of TikTok users. Furthermore, perceived quality positively affects the intention to visit and brand engagement for TikTok users. These findings provide implications and empirical studies related to encouraging marketing potential on social media TikTok for visiting the tourism industry in Yogyakarta.
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In previous research on consumer network usage behavior, the focus was mainly on how to collect information. Few studies have delved into consumers’ psychological responses to information and whether they are also affected by emotional contagion. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, uncertainties and risks for travel have increased. Both the positive and negative emotional performance of travel information sharers often affect receivers’ feelings. This study explores whether the sharing of travel information on social network sites will have an emotional impact. It also explores how that might influence site members’ attitudes and behavioral intentions related to travel. According to the study, people have recently been infected with negative emotions. They hope those emotions will be transformed into positive ones by sharing travel information during the pandemic. This study shows that emotional contagion can occur in both physical and virtual spaces, and it will further affect the recipient’s attitudes toward certain tourist destinations and travel willingness.
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Outdoor recreation is considered within the nature tourism potential of destinations. The study aims to measure the effect of the psychological levels of the ski athletes skiing in Ilgaz Mountain in the context of the flow experience dimensions on their perceived value for their activity and their behavioral intentions towards the destination. In addition, measuring the effect of the perceived value of the activity on the behavioral intention towards the destination is also within the scope of the other purpose. The study population consists of ski athletes coming to Ilgaz National Park. The Flow Experience Scale, developed by Jackson and Marsh (1996), was used in the study. The questionnaire method – a face-to-face interview technique, was preferred as a data collection tool. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS and AMOS package programs. As a result of the regression analysis, it was determined that the flow experience had a positive effect on the perceived value and behavioral intention. In addition, it was concluded that perceived value positively affected behavioral intention. The perceived value of amateur and professional skiers coming to the Ilgaz ski area is important for the destination. Athletes' enjoyment in the context of their flow experiences influences their goal-directed behavioral intentions. Local government support is needed to develop the potential of destinations where winter tourism and recreation activities are carried out. This study is important for promoting and sustaining eco-tourism activities and outdoor recreation.
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Due to people’s anxieties about COVID-19, it may take years before international tourism returns to pre-pandemic levels. Thus, it is crucial to understand how tourists’ health beliefs influence their travel decision-making processes during and after the SARS-COV2 pandemic, and to develop new strategies to support and meet tourists’ current needs and concerns. The current study employs a Health Belief Model (HBM) perspective to examine the influence on tourists’ health risk prevention – and subsequently on their travel intention – of reading travel health information online, while considering tourists’ perceptions of threat susceptibility and severity, and usefulness of travel health information. As risk perception is influenced by individual differences such as gender and previous experience, the study model includes the demographic factors of age, gender, and health status. The model was tested using a survey questionnaire completed by 261 respondents in Saudi Arabia who were considering travelling abroad for tourism. Results were analyzed using PLS-SEM. The study found that perceived susceptibility and perceived usefulness each significantly and positively influenced the perception of importance of reading health information, and the perception of importance of reading travel health information online significantly and positively influenced travel intention. The discussion includes additional findings as well as implications for industry practice and policy regarding online pandemic-related information, in order to improve protection efficacy and enhance information content and style to adequately serve the needs of tourists from a health belief perspective.
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Purpose This study aims to explore the relationship between the content characteristics of destination online reviews and travel intention under three individual circumstances: temporal distance, social distance and experiential distance. Design/methodology/approach Based on construal-level theory (CLT), this study divides online travel reviews into concrete and abstract reviews. Three experiments were conducted to test the moderating effects of temporal distance, social distance and experiential distance on the influence of review content characteristics on tourists' travel intentions. Findings The results show that abstract reviews would lead to higher travel intentions than concrete reviews. Furthermore, tourists' travel intentions differed depending on social distance and were significantly affected by reviews posted by reviewers similar to review recipients. In addition, the study contributes by discovering that the moderating effects of temporal distance, social distance and experiential distance were not significant, which differs from most of the previous research conclusions. Originality/value This study focused on review content characteristics, which provided a novel perspective for constructing online travel reviews. Furthermore, this research defined the concept of experiential distance in the context of online travel and expanded the research on psychological distance.
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Teknolojik gelişmelerle birlikte farklılaşmaya başlayan tüketici alışkanlıklarının şekillendirilmesinde daha çok ön plana çıkan sosyal medya kanalları pazarlama süreçlerinde yoğun olarak kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Tüketicilere, ürünler ve hizmetler hakkında genel bilgilere daha hızlı ve etkin erişim imkanı sağlayan sosyal medya kanalları içerik üreticiler aracılığıyla bu bilginin aktarılmasına olanak sağlamaktadır. Takipçileri ile aralarında başarılı bir etkileşim kurarak karşılıklı güvenin etkili ve hızlı biçimde oluşmasını sağlayan içerik üreticiler aynı zamanda tüketici davranışlarını da şekillendirebilmektedir. Sosyal medya kanalları değerin yeniden oluşturulmasında aktörlerin etkin katılımını sağlayarak satın alma ve tüketim süreçlerini yeniden şekillendirilmektedir. İçerik üreticilerle takipçileri arasındaki ilişkide önemli bir rolü bulunan benzeşme ise bu kanallar aracılığıyla işletme-müşteri arasındaki ilişkinin sürdürülebilir olmasında etkili olmaktadır. Sosyal medya kanalları İşletmelerin ekonomik sürdürülebilirlik kaygılarının yanı sıra dünyadaki sosyal ve ekolojik sürdürülebilirlik kaygılarına etkin ve verimli tüketim alışkanlıkları oluşturarak katkı sağlayabilecek bir potansiyele sahiptir. Özellikle dünya üzerindeki kaynakların şu anda yaşayan ve gelecek nesillerde yaşayacak olan canlıların yaşam alanlarına zarar vermeden kullanılması konusunda yol gösterici olabilmektedir. Bu bağlamda çalışma son dönemlerde tüketici alışkanlıklarını belirleyici hale gelmeye başlayan içerik üreticileri paylaşımları ile tüketicilerin seyahat alışkanlıkları ve katılım davranışı arasında nasıl bir ilişki olduğunu ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada seyahat içeriği üreten sosyal medya içerik üreticilerini takip eden tüketicilerden literatür taraması aracılığıyla hazırlanan anket formu ile veriler toplanmıştır. Pilot olarak tasarlanan çalışmada, seyahat içeriği üreticilerini takip ettiklerini ifade eden 93 katılımcıya ait veriler kullanılarak hipotezler test edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular içerik üreticilerle benzeşim ve takipçi katılım davranışı arasında istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı bir ilişki bulunduğu ancak benzeşim ve seyahat etme niyeti arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığını ortaya koymuştur. Social media channels, which have become more prominent in shaping consumer habits that have begun to differentiate with technological developments have started to be used intensively in marketing processes. Social media channels, which provide consumers with faster and more effective access to general information about products and services, allow this information to be transmitted through content producers. Content producers, who ensure mutual trust effectively and quickly by establishing a successful interaction with their followers, can also shape consumer behavior. Social media channels reshape purchasing and consumption processes by ensuring the active participation of actors in the re-creation of value. Homophily, which has an important role in the relationship between content producers and their followers, is effective in the sustainability of the relationship between the business and the customer through these channels. Social media channels have the potential to contribute to the economic sustainability concerns of businesses, as well as to the social and ecological sustainability concerns of the world, by creating effective and efficient consumption habits. In particular, it can be a guide for the use of the resources on earth without harming the living spaces of living things that are living now and will live in future generations. In this context, the study aims to reveal the relationship between the sharing of content producers, which have recently become determinants of consumer habits, and the travel habits and participation behavior of consumers. The study collected data from consumers who follow social media content producers who produce travel content, with a questionnaire prepared through a literature review. The pilot study tested hypotheses using data from 93 participants who stated that they followed travel content producers. The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between content creators, homophily, and follower engagement behavior, but there is no significant relationship between affinity and intention to travel.
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Məqalədə sosial işin təşkilində rəqəmsallaşmanın əsas məsələləri, o cümlədən problemlər və perspektivlər qiymətləndirilmişdir. Rəqəmsallaşmanın təsiri nəzərə alınmaqla sosial işdə milli səviyyədə rəqəmsal texnologiyaların tətbiqi, innovativ layihələrinin reallaşdırılması üçün dövlət siyasətinin formalaşdırılması, sosial işin inkişaf hədəflərinin rəqəmsal əsaslandırılması məqsədilə alternativ konsepsiyalar təqdim edilmişdir. Azərbaycanın sosial müdafiə sistemində sosial işin idarə edilməsi məqsədilə rəqəmsal texnologiyaların rolu, onun ölkə reallığında həyata keçirilmə şərtləri, inkişaf hədəflərinin rəqəmsal əsaslandırılması, zəruri tədbirlərin qısa müddətdə reallaşdırılması və tətbiqi istisamətində tövsiyyələr təqdim olunmuşdur. Sosial işçilərin müəyyən şərtlər çərçivəsində rəqəmsal imkanlarını inkişaf etdirmələri üçün istiqamətlər müəyyənləşdirilmişdir. Sosial işçilərin texnologiyadan istifadəsinin spesifik nümunələri təsnifləşdirilmişdir. Sosial iş apararkən və texnologiyanı tətbiq edərkən nəzərə alınması zəruri olan bəzi problemlər şərh edilmişdir. Sosial iş karyerasında texnologiyaların tətbiqi ilə bağlı etik problemlərin aradan qaldırılması istiqamətləri göstərilmişdir. Tədqiqat zamanı texnologiya standartlarına geniş yanaşmalar həyata keçirilmişdir. Sosial işdə rəqəmsal texnologiyadan istifadə etmənin müsbət yolları göstərilmişdir.
Based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), this study examined behavioral intentions within the hospitality and tourism industries in the early days of the pandemic. We examined the intentions to participate in regular hospitality and tourism-specific services using data from 1,100 US participants collected in early May 2020. The results from the structural equation modeling indicated that perceived knowledge of COVID-19 positively influenced perceived vulnerability and perceived severity. Perceived control over COVID-19 was negatively influenced by only perceived severity, but not by the perceived vulnerability. Additionally, a significant positive effect of perceived control over COVID-19 was confirmed on the intention to travel by air and intention to go on vacations, but not on the intention to visit restaurants.
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Blogs have the potential to be integrated as learning tools to help students learn and reflect. Many educators have incorporated the use of teaching blogs to enhance teaching and learning outcomes in higher education settings. However, research conducted to empirically examine the effectiveness of blog use in education is rare. This study intends to help fill the remaining gaps in the research; there are two main purposes: (1) to examine, using a field quasi-experiment, whether the use of teaching blogs in university course instruction enhances student learning outcomes; and (2) to empirically understand the determinants and impacts of the extent of student blog use on university’s course learning via a questionnaire analysis. Two separate studies were conducted. The experimental results of Study 1 show that using teaching blogs not only enhances learner satisfaction, but also increases university students’ learning achievement. The Study 2 results show that higher quality teaching blogs positively influence the extent of student blog use, which in turn positively influences student learning satisfaction and achievement. This study extends our knowledge and insights regarding the use of teaching blogs within the higher education domain.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of user-generated content (UGC) on intention to select a travel destination (ISTD) in the context that Internet users passively access to travel-related UGC. The paper further examines the mediating role of desire to visit a travel destination (DVTD), destination image, attitude toward visiting a travel destination (AVTD), and envy. This study developed a theoretical model on the basic of existing literature and empirical studies on consumer behavior and UGC. An online questionnaire was used to organize empirical research, and the structural equation model (SEM) method was employed to test the data of 407 respondents. The empirical results suggest that passive access to travel-related UGC (PAU) positively influences ISTD, DVTD, AVTD, and envy. Destination image significantly impacts DVTD, AVTD, and ISTD. DVTD, AVTD, and envy positively affect ISTD. DVTD, AVTD, and envy mediate the relationship between PAU and ISTD. This paper enriches the online consumer behavior research by contributing a predictive model of influence process of the exposure to UGC on user’s intention in the background of tourism industry.
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Virtual reality has been applied in assisting teaching and facilitating learning in different disciplines of education, yet how VR can be used to assist and even to enhance student learning of hospitality management remains unknown to us. This study aims to examine student learning experiences with virtual reality technology and their behavioral intentions in a hospitality classroom. A Virtual Reality (VR) hotel tour simulation was designed and developed to examine student learning experiences. A total of 220 college students participated in the current study and 209 valid responses were collected and analyzed using the structural model. The findings of the current exploratory study suggested that the use of VR was well received by students as being useful in learning hospitality concepts. The findings suggested that perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment were significantly positive indicators of students’ intention to take and recommend the class, while perceived ease of use and the flow experience were not significant factors.
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Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel özelliklerine özgü faaliyetleri kullanarak turistlerin basit materyaller ile oluşturdukları öğrenme sürecini kapsamaktadır. Bu özelliği ile yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların farklılaşmasını sağlayarak turistlere deneyim sunabilmektedir. Kültür turizminin kaynaklarını kullanan yaratıcı turizm, deneyim yaşamak isteyen turistlerin taleplerine uygun bir alternatif turizm çeşididir. Turistler destinasyon ziyaretlerinde deniz, kum, güneş üçlüsünün dışında alternatif deneyim arayışı içindedir. Kültürel özelliklere ilgi gösteren turistler, yerele özgü faaliyetleri ve kültürü tanıyarak daha fazla deneyim yaşama isteğindedir. Turistlerin gerçekleştirmek istedikleri bu deneyimlerin unutulmaz deneyimlere dönüşmesi destinasyonlar için önemli bir yere sahiptir. Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel öğelerinde farklılık sağlayarak unutulmaz deneyimler oluşturabilmesine yardımcı olabilir. Yapılan çalışmada, yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini; çömlek yapımı, halı/kilim dokuma, mücevher yapımı, yöresel yemek pişirimi, porselen boyama, çini yapımı, şarap yapımı, zeytinyağı yapımı, seramik yapımı, ebru sanatı ve taş oymacılığı gibi benzer faaliyetlerin bulunduğu destinasyonları ziyaret eden turistler oluşturmaktadır. Evrene ulaşmak adına yargısal örneklem tekniği kullanarak yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerine katılan turistlere ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Yaratıcı turizm faaliyetine katılan 270 turiste anket tekniği uygulanarak veriler elde edilmiştir. Toplanan verilerin analiz edilmesinde SPSS 18 ve AMOS 26 istatistiki programlar kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler güvenirlilik analizi, açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve frekans analizine tabi tutulmuştur. AMOS 26 programı ile araştırma modelinin test edilmesi amacıyla doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi yapılmıştır. Analiz bulguları doğrultusunda yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde istatiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisinin bulunmadığı saptanmıştır. Ancak yaratıcı turizm deneyimi alt boyutu olan benzersiz katılımının; hazcılık, yenilik, yerel kültür, anlamlılık ve bilgi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu, iç huzurun yenilik boyutu üzerinde, öğrenmenin bilgi boyutu üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Creative tourism, includes the learning process created by tourists with simple materials using activities specific to the cultural characteristics of destinations. With this feature, creative tourism can offer tourists an experience by enabling the differentiation of destinations. Creative tourism, which uses the resources of cultural tourism, is an alternative type of tourism that meets the demands of tourists who want to have an experience. Tourists are in search of alternative experience outside the sea, sand, sun trio. Tourists, who are interested in cultural features, want to experience more by getting to know local activities and culture. The transformation of these experiences that tourists want to realize into memorable experiences has an important place for destinations. Creative tourism can help create memorable experiences by providing differences in the cultural elements of destinations. In this study aimed to determine whether creative tourism activities have an effect on memorable tourism experiences or not. The population of the study; pottery, carpet/rug, weaving, jewelry making, local cooking, porcelain painting, tile making, winemaking, olive oil, pottery, stone carving, marbling art form destinations with similar activities. In order to reach the population, it has been tried to reach the tourists participating in creative tourism activities by using the judicial sampling technique. Data were obtained by applying the questionnaire technique to 270 tourists participating in the creative tourism activity. SPSS 18 and AMOS 26 statistical programs were used to analyze the collected data. The obtained data were subjected to reliability analysis, explanatory factor analysis, and frequency analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to test the research model with the AMOS 26 program. In line with the analysis findings, it has been determined that creative tourism activities do not have a statistically significant effect on the memorable tourism experience. However, the unique involvement of the creative tourism experience sub-dimension; It has been determined that hedonism has a significant effect on novelty, local culture, meaningfulness and knowledge, peace of mind has a significant effect on the novelty dimension, and learning has a significant effect on the knowledge dimension.
Chapter
The use of digital technology in school settings is increasing every year, where one aspect of digital technology is robotics in education. In relation to that and of uttermost importance is the issue of how to design teaching and learning activities that includes robot technology in education. In this paper we investigate how open-ended designs can allow children to playfully explore robotics in educational settings, drawing from workshops carried out with three third grade classes of Danish school children, aged 9–10 years old, that interact with robotics in a cross-case study. By the use of video recordings, the unit of analysis focuses on the activities with a special interest on children’s interactions with the robots and with each other. The research questions posed in the study are: (1) What happens when school children use robotics designed for open-ended interactions? And (2) In what ways do children’s playful experiences unfold while engaged with robotics? The study applies a qualitative approach and the theoretical framework used describes open-ended designs as resources to develop playful experiences. In doing so, Vygotsky’s theory on mediation, Hutt’s studies into children’s play with novel objects, and Bird and Edwards’ digital play framework are used as an analytical framework. The results of this study imply that by using an open-ended design in the teaching activity with the robot, which included an exploratory and problem-solving approach, conditions were created for playful and collaborative learning.
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The majority decisions of online customers make are by tracing the electronic word of mouth and online comments which belong to previous customers and is affected by some fears. This study applied a decision tree method to customer data of those who visit a popular group on Facebook (SouqEgypt). Findings in this study indicated that social media marketing for increasing customer's retention and loyalty are influenced by customer's income, education level and occupation. This study helps marketing managers to enhance customer loyalty and in the long run maximize returns on marketing.
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This book chapter looks at use patterns, impacts of use and characteristics of travel-related social media users and creators. It finds that significant differences exist among social media types in terms of their usage and that social media creators are a minority with specific demographic characteristics.
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Virtual communities provide an attractive place for organizations to mine information regarding customer perceptions, needs, and demographics; as well as to generate revenue through sales of products, services, information, and advertising. However, the community conversation provides information about only one type of community user, the poster. Information about the lurker, who never posts, is conspicuously absent from the obvious community data source, the postings. Lurkers may be a large portion of the user community and could provide key revenue sources and vital information, or they potentially could turn into posters. This research contrasts the differences in the underlying motivations of lurkers, infrequent posters, and posters in order to understand the resulting differences in their behavior. 518 users from 20 virtual communities were categorized into three groups based upon their posting behaviors: lurkers who never posted, infrequent posters who posted three or less times per month, and frequent posters. Results revealed that lurkers differed significantly from posters, especially in their willingness to give information and exchange social support. There was a gradual progression from lurker to poster regarding the desires to get knowledge and obtain shopping information. Implications about a possible psychological barrier regarding giving information and social support are discussed.
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Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the author's institution, sharing with colleagues and providing to institution administration. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: http://www.elsevier.com/copyright Abstract The purpose of this study is to identify the dimensions of e-travel service quality, and to develop a reliable and valid measurement instrument. The concept of an e-service quality construct is first clarified and the processes involved in scale development are then presented. Five core components of e-travel service quality are identified, namely, information quality, security, website functionality, customer relationships and responsiveness. The reliability and validity of this five-factor scale are verified using empirical data, and it is found that the e-travel quality service scale has strong predictive capability in relation to online customer satisfaction and loyalty intention. Moreover, a second-order factor is constructed due to the high correlation among the five factors. Finally, the managerial implications in regard to the research findings are discussed. r 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Although often credited with prompting a paradigm shift in social comparison theory, T. A. Wills's (1981) downward comparison (DC) theory has received some criticism recently. In particular, several recent studies have failed to find support for T. A. Wills's (1981) contention that threat and accompanying negative affect lead to a desire for DC. These apparent failures have led some investigators to question basic principles of the theory. To resolve this controversy, 5 studies were conducted examining preferred comparison level (PCL) after performance; 4 of the studies also assessed change in this preference. Results supported DC theory, but with modifications. Specifically, individuals who performed poorly lowered their PCLs. Under some circumstances, this "downward shift" included an increased interest in "true" DC - comparing with worse-off others. A reconciliation of these results with those of previous studies is offered.
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This study explores the relevance criteria and search strategies elementary school children applied when searching for information related to a class assignment in a school library setting. Students were interviewed on two occasions at different stages of the research process; field observations involved students thinking aloud to explain their search processes and shadowing as students moved around the school library. Students performed searches on an on-line catalog, an electronic encyclopedia, an electronic magazine index, and the World Wide Web. Results are presented for children selecting the topic, conducting the search, examining the results, and extracting relevant results. A total of 254 mentions of relevance criteria were identified, including 197 references to textual relevance criteria that were coded into nine categories and 57 references to graphical relevance criteria that were coded into five categories. Students exhibited little concern for the authority of the textual and graphical information they found, based the majority of their relevance decisions for textual material on topicality, and identified information they found interesting. Students devoted a large portion of their research time to finding pictures. Understanding the ways that children use electronic resources and the relevance criteria they apply has implications for information literacy training and for systems design.
Chapter
Conformity to the group is a complex phenomenon, which should be differentiated into several distinct psychological processes, and has often been contrasted with nonconformity or independence. This chapter describes the various aspects of conformity, public compliance and private change, conditions of responding, characteristics of the group, and nature of the task. Nonconformity consists of two conceptually distinct types of behavior, and may reflect independence, or it may actually be anticonformity. These three types of behavior—conformity, independence, and anticonformity—are related to each other as the apexes of a triangle. It makes a great deal of difference whether agreement with the group is public compliance, or true private change, or whether nonconformity represents independence or anticonformity. Although, there have been a few studies of generalization of conformity, little is known of the generality of conformity, and investigations have not been conducted on the generality of conformity across situations outside the laboratory. A subject in a conformity situation has information and beliefs about several important features of the situation: the task, other members of the group, and the experimenter. Theories of conformity, which have been advanced in recent years, include psychoanalytic, cognitive, reinforcement, and even mathematical models. Research should be directed toward understanding the variables that affect nonconformity, as well as conformity.
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Past research has revealed that social comparisons often lead to contrast effects in self-evaluation (such that people who encounter a highly talented person come to feel less talented by comparison). In this report, however, it is argued that when people possess confidently held self-views in a particular area, they are unlikely to engage in explicit social comparisons with close others. Instead, they assume that because ''birds of a feather flock together,'' the strengths and weaknesses of their close relationship partners reflect directly (rather than comparatively) on themselves. A cross-sectional survey, a prospective survey, and a quasi-experiment all supported this idea. The implications of these findings for social comparison and for self-regulation are discussed.
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Brand images are created by consumers on the basis of inferences drawn from salient elements in the total communications mix of a marketer. The psychological processes involved are relatively well understood and can be used with profit in controlling images.
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In an effort to extend research on the recently proposed notion that upward and downward comparisons do not necessarily lead to particular affective reactions, 151 people with multiple sclerosis were studied. Responses to social comparisons differed as a function of comparison dimension (physical condition vs coping ability). Specifically, downward comparisons led to more reported affect on the physical condition dimension than the coping dimension, a result interpreted in terms of salience, distortability, and controllability of dimensions. Although beliefs about the future course of illness were unrelated to affective consequences from comparisons, a generalized expectancy measure of one's outlook regarding the future was related to negative affective consequences Regarding the ambivalence principle of social comparison, respondents who believed it was more appropriate to make comparisons with others reported a greater number of downward, but not upward, comparisons. Moreover, appropriateness was relate...
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Presents a theory of norms and normality and applies the theory to phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norms are assumed to be constructed ad hoc by recruiting specific representations. Category norms are derived by recruiting exemplars. Specific objects or events generate their own norms by retrieval of similar experiences stored in memory or by construction of counterfactual alternatives. The normality of a stimulus is evaluated by comparing it with the norms that it evokes after the fact, rather than to precomputed expectations. Norm theory is applied in analyses of the enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of the generation of predictions and inferences from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms in causal questions and answers. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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An information-exchange virtual community (VC) is an IT-supported virtual space that is composed of a group of people for accessing, sharing and disseminating topic-related experiences and knowledge through communication and social interaction [36,43]. With the increasing number of VCs and low switching cost, it is challenging to retain existing users and encourage their continued participation. By integrating the IS post-adoption research and IS Success model, we propose a research framework to investigate VC users' continuance intention from a quality perspective. Based on a field survey, we find that information and system quality directly affect perceived individual benefits and user satisfaction, which ultimately determine user continuance intention to consume and to provide information. Furthermore, by modeling information quality and system quality as multifaceted constructs, our results reveal key quality concerns in information-exchange VCs. Implications for VC design and management are also discussed.
Article
Earlier experiments (see Wheeler et al., 1969) showed that when a person has a vague idea that he is somewhere in the middle of the group with respect to an ability, he will choose the person ranking highest in the ability as a comparison other when given the chance to gain more information about his position. These experiments utilized a private comparison situation where the outcome of the comparison would be known only by the subject. It was predicted that in a public situation, where comparison occurs through compettition with another member while others evaluate the outcome, there would be more defensive avoidance of the highest ranking person than in the private situation. It was also predicted that in the public situation a person with high self-esteem would be more likely to choose the highest in ability as a comparison other while those with low self-esteem would choose someone lower in ability. Further, it was expected that in the public situation, defensive avoidance of the highest ranking person, and the effect of self-esteem would be greater when a person was certain about his standing in the group. An experiment was designed to test these predictions. The predictions were supported for male subjects while females showed some deviations from the predictions.
Article
We attempted to clarify the dimensions of e-service quality and their role in producing perceived value and loyalty among customers of e-commerce websites. We particularly examined whether e-quality consisted of two groups of dimensions: (i) functional; or (ii) hedonic quality. Based on a survey of 1201 online customers of Spanish travel agencies, we used structural equation modelling to show that both types of quality are distinct dimensions of e-quality and that both have positive and significant influence on perceived value. In addition, perceived value was shown to have a significant impact on loyalty, thus validating the chain from service quality-to-perceived value-to-loyalty in the context of e-commerce. The implication for e-service managers is that they must be aware of the importance of hedonic quality in seeking to attract and retain customers.
Article
Social comparison consists of comparing oneself with others in order to evaluate or to enhance some aspects of the self. Evaluation of ability is concerned with the question “Can I do X?” and relies on the existence of a proxy performer. A proxy's relative standing on attributes vis‐à‐vis the comparer and whether the proxy exerted maximum effort on a preliminary task are variables influencing his or her informational utility. Evaluation of opinions is concerned with the questions “Do I like X?”“Is X correct?” and “Will I like X?” Important variables that affect an individual's use of social comparison to evaluate his or her opinions are the other person's expertise, similarity with the individual, and previous agreement with the individual. Whether social comparison serves a self-enhancement function depends on whether the comparer assimilates or contrasts his or her self relative to superior or inferior others. The kinds of self‐knowledge made cognitively accessible and variables such as mutability of self-views and distinctiveness of the comparison target may be important determinants of assimilation versus contrast.
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Construct definition, Object classification, Attribute classification, Rater identification, Scale formation, and Enumeration and reporting (C-OAR-SE) is proposed as a new procedure for the development of scales to measure marketing constructs. C-OAR-SE is based on content validity, established by expert agreement after pre-interviews with target raters. In C-OAR-SE, constructs are defined in terms of Object, Attribute, and Rater Entity. The Object classification and Attribute classification steps in C-OAR-SE produce a framework (six types of scales) indicating when to use single-item vs. multiple-item scales and, for multiple-item scales, when to use an index of essential items rather than selecting unidimensional items with a high coefficient alpha. The Rater Entity type largely determines reliability, which is a precision-of-score estimate for a particular application of the scale.
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This paper explores determinants of brand equity and the role of destination familiarity for travel intentions in culinary tourism from the perspective of foreign tourists. This analysis advocates four elements for brand equity (brand loyalty, brand image, perceived quality and brand awareness) for culinary travel intentions in Taiwan. Building on extensive literature, this study developed and empirically tested a model of the relationship using survey data collected from 407 foreign tourists from ten regions. The results indicate that there is a direct positive relationship between brand equity and travel intentions in culinary tourism. Moreover, the study recognizes the moderating role of destination familiarity, which positively moderates the effect of brand loyalty and perceived quality on travel intentions.
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Client integrity concerns auditors when they plan new audit engagements because it is related to both fraud risk and the source credibility of clients. Auditors may increase audit work and fees when they judge integrity to be below normal. In an experiment, a sample of 63 Canadian audit partners read information about a prospective audit client, including information about the client's CFO. This information was manipulated to support a judgment of either high or low integrity. As hypothesized, judgments of client integrity were negatively related to risk judgments, audit evidence extent recommendations (indirectly through risk judgments) and fee recommendations (indirectly through risk judgments and extent recommendations).
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Communication theory suggests that the effectiveness of a communication is related to who says what, how, and to whom. This study, using a communication theory paradigm, examined the impact of different simulated evaluation report styles (use of jargon and data) on audience (educators) agreement with an evaluator's recommendations and ratings of the evaluator and the report. It was found that use of jargon and data were related to ratings of difficulty and technicality, but not to ratings of the evaluator or to agreement with the evaluator. The jargon-loaded, data-free report was rated most dafficult and most technical.
Article
This study is based on the theoretical background of the consumer's buying process incorporating product awareness, familiarity, interest, and purchase. Using a sample of 750 U.S. households, a series of hypotheses were tested to analyze whether consumer aware ness and familiarity with Central Florida as a vacation destination had an impact on the consumer's destination image and on the interest and likelihood to visit it. The results indicate that those who were familiar with Central Florida (i.e., had previously visited it) had a more positive image of the destination and were more interested in and likely to revisit it than those who were only aware of the destination. However, contrary to our expectations, interest or likelihood to visit Central Florida was not significantly higher among those who were aware of Central Florida as a tourist destination than those who were not aware of it. For this case, it is possible to conclude that as consumers move from the awareness stage to the familiarity stage their interest and likelihood to visit increase, although the same may not be true when consumers move from the nonawareness to the awareness stage.