ArticleLiterature Review

The Effects of Stretching on Performance

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Abstract

Stretching long has been commonplace in the training programs of recreational and competitive athletes. Its role in performance enhancement has been debated. This review discusses the literature concerning the effects of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on performance in three categories of sporting activity: strength- and power-dominant, speed- and agility-dominant, and endurance-dominant activities.

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... Ωστόσο, σύμφωνα με τη βιβλιογραφία οι αθλητές ημιαντοχής και αντοχής εφαρμόζουν κυρίως τις στατικές και τις δυναμικές διατάσεις. Οι στατικές διατάσεις είναι εκείνες όπου ο στατικός τρόπος διάτασης προϋποθέτει τη διατήρηση μιας θέσης, ενώ οι δυναμικές διατάσεις περιλαμβάνουν ταλαντεύσεις, αιωρήσεις, αναπηδήσεις και γενικά κινήσεις με ορμή, που έχουν ως στόχο να διαταθούν οι μύες όσο το δυνατόν περισσότερο, ώστε να αυξηθεί το εύρος κίνησης των αρθρώσεων (Peck, Chomko, Gaz & Farrell, 2014). ...
... Αρκετές έρευνες έχουν δείξει ότι μετά την εφαρμογή στατικών διατάσεων βελτιώνεται η απόδοση σε δρομείς αντοχής (Peck et al., 2014;Lowery et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 2010). Το ίδιο έχει παρατηρηθεί όσον αφορά τις δυναμικές διατάσεις, όπου σε αρκετές μελέτες παρατηρήθηκε βελτίωση της απόδοσης (Peck et al., 2014;. ...
... Αρκετές έρευνες έχουν δείξει ότι μετά την εφαρμογή στατικών διατάσεων βελτιώνεται η απόδοση σε δρομείς αντοχής (Peck et al., 2014;Lowery et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 2010). Το ίδιο έχει παρατηρηθεί όσον αφορά τις δυναμικές διατάσεις, όπου σε αρκετές μελέτες παρατηρήθηκε βελτίωση της απόδοσης (Peck et al., 2014;. Ωστόσο, λίγες έρευνες υπάρχουν στη βιβλιογραφία οι οποίες εξέτασαν την επίδραση των στατικών και δυναμικών διατάσεων σε ελίτ δρομείς ημιαντοχής και αντοχής χωρίς όμως να υπάρχει κάποια ανασκοπική έρευνα. ...
Conference Paper
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Stretching has long been considered an integral part of the training routine for athletes and is used across all disciplines as a tool of preparation, performance enhancement and injury prevention. According to the literature there are two main types of stretching that middle and long distance athletes’ use, static and dynamic. Static stretching means a stretch is held in a challenging but comfortable position for a period of time, while dynamic stretching is a series of challenging motions that are executed repeatedly so that the stretch is felt further with each motion. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of stretching (static and dynamic) on performance in elite middle and long distance runners. The following databases were searched: Pubmed, SPORTDiscus, Medline and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). In each database the title, abstract and keywords search fields were searched. The following keywords, combined with Boolean operators (AND, OR), were used: “stretching”, “dynamic stretching”, “prestretching”, “static stretching”, “performance”, “preperformance”, “middle distance runners”, and “long distance runners”. Search strategy yielded 56 full-text articles, 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Excluded studies had at least one of the following characteristics: (a) participants were not middle and/or long distance runners; (b) performance was not measured; (c) participants were not have injuries; (d) participants had VO2max values < 60mL·kg -1·min -1. There are two studies in the literature showing that static stretching leads to decrements in long distance run performance by 3-8% and two studies have shown no effect. Also, one study found beneficial effect of dynamic stretching on performance by 18.2% and one study have shown no effect. These results indicate that static stretching before an endurance event not improve endurance performance of distance runners. While, further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of dynamic stretching on performance in distance runners.
... However, employing long-duration (>60 s) SS exercises could cause a deficit in performance on subsequent RT exercise-the so-called stretching-induced force deficit [11]-thus, the circumstances in which adding SS to RT are determinant to observe negative, equal, or positive responses, as recently noticed by Nunes et al. [8]. Junior et al. [12] showed that carrying out SS immediately before RT sessions did not affect the strength gains, but blunted the hypertrophic responses (compared to a group that performed RT only), and this was attributed to the acute deficits in training performance [8,[11][12][13]. Kubo et al. [14] applied SS apart from the RT sessions and showed no difference in muscular responses in relation to the RT-only group. ...
... However, employing long-duration (>60 s) SS exercises could cause a deficit in performance on subsequent RT exercise-the so-called stretching-induced force deficit [11]-thus, the circumstances in which adding SS to RT are determinant to observe negative, equal, or positive responses, as recently noticed by Nunes et al. [8]. Junior et al. [12] showed that carrying out SS immediately before RT sessions did not affect the strength gains, but blunted the hypertrophic responses (compared to a group that performed RT only), and this was attributed to the acute deficits in training performance [8,[11][12][13]. Kubo et al. [14] applied SS apart from the RT sessions and showed no difference in muscular responses in relation to the RT-only group. ...
... The SS exercises were performed only for the knee extensors (that is why we analyzed only quadriceps muscle thickness in different portions), but hamstrings and gluteus hypertrophy was assessed additionally to verify whether SS added in the inter-set rest period would impair-like when SS is performed just before the RT [12], or not, the responses to all muscles involved on the exercises performed. Moreover, whether these muscles can grow with squat training is a matter of debate in the literature [21]. ...
Article
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Performing static stretching (SS) during resistance training (RT) rest periods is posited to potentiate muscular adaptations, but the literature is scarce on the topic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding inter-set SS to a lower-limb flywheel RT program on joint flexibility, muscular strength, and regional hypertrophy. Sixteen untrained male adults (21 ± 1 y) completed the study, where they performed progressive flywheel bilateral squatting twice a week for 5 weeks. One leg of each participant was randomly allocated to perform SS during the inter-set rest period (RT+SS), while the other leg served as control (RT only). Before and after the intervention, knee flexion range of motion; knee extension isometric, concentric, and eccentric peak torque; 1-repetition maximum; and muscle thickness of the lower-limb muscles were assessed. Following the training period, additional effects were observed for the inter-set SS side on increasing joint flexibility (p<0.05), whereas the average increase in strength measures was 5.3% for the control side, and 10.1% for the inter-set SS side, however, SS intervention induced significantly greater gains only for knee extension isometric strength, but not for dynamic 1-RM, concentric, and eccentric tests. Hamstrings and gluteus maximus did not hypertrophy with training; increases quadriceps muscle thickness depended on the site/portion analyzed, but no significant difference was observed between legs (average: RT=7.3%, RT+SS=8.0%). The results indicate that adding inter-set SS to RT may provide large gains in flexibility, slightly benefits for muscular strength (especially for isometric action), but do not impact muscle hypertrophy in untrained young men.
... The inclusion of stretching during warming up is a common practice within the training sessions of professional and recreational athletes [1,2]. Historically, this practice was maintained since it enforced possible effects on improved performance and injury prevention [3][4][5]. ...
... Some studies have shown that stretching can negatively influence the physical performance of athletes by generating decreased in muscle strength [13]. Thus, the effect of stretching on performance has been widely discussed [1]. Among the types of stretching, the static is the one that presents the most studies and that show agreeable data that discourages its conduction before strength and power activities [1,2]. ...
... Thus, the effect of stretching on performance has been widely discussed [1]. Among the types of stretching, the static is the one that presents the most studies and that show agreeable data that discourages its conduction before strength and power activities [1,2]. The Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a fairly common type of stretching in the athletic scenario [14], however, unlike static stretching, it presents limited evidence about its effect on the manifestations of force [1,2]. ...
... Specifically, we found small, but significant improvements in single and repeated sprint performance after the DS protocol, when compared to CON and SS. This is in agreement with the majority of studies in this area (Behm et al., 2016;Behm and Chaouachi, 2011;Peck et al., 2014). Some research has reported no effect from DS on indices of performance (Chaouachi et al., 2010;Samuel et al., 2008). ...
... Some research has reported no effect from DS on indices of performance (Chaouachi et al., 2010;Samuel et al., 2008). Following reviews of the literature, it was concluded that DS generally leads to facilitation of power, sprint and jump performance, or at least no adverse effect Peck et al., 2014). In the present study, the DS protocol was the most beneficial for peak power in the 1 st sprint, 5 th sprint and total repeated sprint performance (vs. ...
Article
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This randomized cross-over study examined the effects of typical static and dynamic stretching warm-up protocols on repeated-sprint performance. Thirteen young female handball players performed a 5 min aerobic warm-up followed by one of three stretching protocols for the lower limbs: (1) static stretching, (2) dynamic-ballistic stretching, and (3) no stretching before performing five all-out sprints on a cycle ergometer. Each protocol was performed on a different occasion, separated by 2-3 days. Range of movement (ROM) was also measured before and after the warm-up protocols with a sit-and-reach test. Fixed and random effects of each stretching protocol on repeated sprint performance were estimated with mixed linear modeling and data were evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inferences. In comparison to no stretching, there were small increases in ROM after dynamic stretching (12.7%, ±0.7%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) and static stretching (19.2%, ±0.9%). There were small increases in the average power across all sprints with dynamic stretching relative to static stretching (3.3%, ±2.4%) and no stretching (3.0%, ±2.4%) and trivial to small increases in the average power in the 1st and 5th trials with dynamic stretching compared to static stretching (3.9%, ±2.6%; 2.6%, ±2.6%, respectively) and no stretching (2.0%, ±2.7%; 4.1%, ±2.8%, respectively). There were also trivial and small decreases in power across all sprints with static relative to dynamic stretching (-1.3%, ±2.8%) and no stretching (-3.5%, ±2.9%). Dynamic stretching improved repeated-sprint performance to a greater extent than static stretching and no stretching.
... 6 The warm-up period is composed of two subcomponents: a general warm-up and a specific warm-up. 7 The specific warm-up typically includes stretching activities. historically, two main type of stretches have been used in gymnasts: static and dynamic. ...
... 12 dynamic stretching is composed of active and continuous muscular stretching in where -and in contrast to static stretching -there is no relaxation of the muscle. 8,13 dynamic stretching has been shown to improve sprint speed, jumping power, and roM, 7 in Volleyball, 14 football, 15 Basketball, 16 Soccer, 17 and recreational athletes. 18 in previous years, studies have shown dynamic stretching to be more effective than static ties could improve or hinder muscular power expression in gymnastics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Gymnastics is a sport that requires rapid display of explosive power expressed through the vertical jump. Recent studies have shown that a static-stretching based warm-up is ineffective for explosive power development. The aim of this study was to compare different stretching protocols and their effect on vertical jump measures. Methods: Eleven gymnasts (9 males, 2 females; 23.18±2.52 yrs) participated in this randomized crossover study. Participants were measured on the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SQJ), and depth jump (DJ) at baseline (no warm-up). Participants were then randomly placed into one of four stretching protocols: Static (ST), dynamic (DY), static + dynamic (ST+DY), and dynamic + static (DY+ST) and tested on the CMJ, SQJ, and DJ. A photoelectric cell device was used to measure vertical jump height (VJH), flight time (FT), power output (PO), and Reactive Strength Index (RSI). The non-parametric Friedman test was used to test differences between stretching protocols. Results: The DY protocol showed significant improvements in VJH, FT, and PO in the CMJ. The ST, ST+DY, and DY+ST protocols did not show any significant improvements. Conclusions: A warm-up consisting of dynamic movements that resemble those used in the sport of gymnastics can improve vertical jump measures, as reflected through the CMJ.
... Passive movements, joint mobilization and stretching techniques generally produced only modest beneficial effects or even detrimental effects on performance in athletes. 32 Our results also indicate that these therapy modalities appear to be less beneficial compared to more physically demanding modalities aiming to improve mobility in PwMS. The fact that stretching did not emerge as most effective, may be related to the patient sample composition, with limited patients demonstrating a need for stretching. ...
... 10,17,18,20,[33][34][35] Furthermore, the MSWS-12 includes running, stair climbing, balance, concentration and effort needed to walk, therefore, measuring broader aspects of mobility. Moreover, Pilutti et al 32 have shown that the MSWS-12 scores correlate with the T25FW, 6mWT, and gait kinematics in PwMS. Some argue that this scale might not be an ideal choice for measuring walking impairment in mildly disabled PwMS or those who walk without a device. ...
Article
Background: Physical rehabilitation programs can lead to improvements in mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Objective: To identify which rehabilitation program elements are employed in real life and how they might affect mobility improvement in PwMS. Methods: Participants were divided into improved and nonimproved mobility groups based on changes observed in the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 following multimodal physical rehabilitation programs. Analyses were performed at group and subgroup (mild and moderate-severe disability) levels. Rehabilitation program elements included setting, number of weeks, number of sessions, total duration, therapy format (individual, group, autonomous), therapy goals, and therapeutic approaches. Results: The study comprised 279 PwMS from 17 European centers. PwMS in the improved group received more sessions of individual therapy in both subgroups. In the mildly disabled group, 60.9% of the improved received resistance training, whereas, 68.5% of the nonimproved received self-stretching. In the moderately-severely disabled group, 31.4% of the improved, received aerobic training, while 50.4% of the nonimproved received passive mobilization/stretching. Conclusions: We believe that our findings are an important step in opening the black-box of physical rehabilitation, imparting guidance, and assisting future research in defining characteristics of effective physical rehabilitation.
... Although the majority of practitioners still have their athletes or clients perform stretching movements pre-event, the majority of research over the past decade has established an adverse effect of acute static stretching upon various different maximal performances. [1][2][3][4][5] The exact mechanisms behind variables remains to be elucidated, however, it has been reported that pre-event stretching has demonstrated an inhibitory effect upon maximal force or torque production, vertical jump performance, running speed, and muscular endurance. [1][2][3][4][5] In their recent review, Behm et al. 2 have put forward arguments that the majority of the proposed mechanisms, such as changes in tendon stiffness, changes in force-length relationship, induced fatigue or damage, reduced electromechanical coupling, actually have minimal While Behm et al. 2 could not isolate a singular mechanism responsible for the aforementioned performance decrements, they noted that several studies clearly link stretching-induced decrements to reduced central nervous system (CNS) or efferent drive. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5] The exact mechanisms behind variables remains to be elucidated, however, it has been reported that pre-event stretching has demonstrated an inhibitory effect upon maximal force or torque production, vertical jump performance, running speed, and muscular endurance. [1][2][3][4][5] In their recent review, Behm et al. 2 have put forward arguments that the majority of the proposed mechanisms, such as changes in tendon stiffness, changes in force-length relationship, induced fatigue or damage, reduced electromechanical coupling, actually have minimal While Behm et al. 2 could not isolate a singular mechanism responsible for the aforementioned performance decrements, they noted that several studies clearly link stretching-induced decrements to reduced central nervous system (CNS) or efferent drive. ...
Article
Background: Reductions in one repetition maximum lifts (1RM) following static stretching can be attributed to enhanced neural inhibition, which can be reduced by using stimulants like caffeine. This study compared knee-flexion 1RM following either static stretching (SS) or no-stretching (NS), as well as after ingesting either caffeine (C) or placebo (P). Methods: Twenty-four participants (12 female, 12 male) performed four random counterbalanced knee flexion 1RM tests. A 1RM test was performed for each condition at the same time of day with ~48 h separating each test. Static stretching consisted of 5 exercises with the 1RM being performed immediately following the stretching. Caffeine dose was 6 mg•kg-1 body weight, and the placebo was methylcellulose (520 mg). Both doses were administered as pills 60 min before the SS or NS procedures. Results: Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant main effect for [NS vs. SS] (p <0.001, ηG2 = 0.23). The main effect for [C vs. P], and the interaction between [C vs. P] and [NS vs. SS] were not statistically different. Average (± standard deviation) 1RM (N) were as follows: CNS = 512 ± 242, CSS = 474 ± 241, PNS = 498 ± 247, and PSS = 460 ± 247. Conclusions: It is concluded that static stretching induced strength decrements are not removed by using stimulants at doses allowed by sport governing organizations.
... Static stretching has been shown to produce acute effects resulting in either impaired performance or no change in performance at all. 3,4 On the contrary, few negative effects of acute dynamic stretching on performance have been reported and dynamic stretching may in fact improve performance. 3,4 Hough et al. found a significant increase in vertical jump height following a dynamic stretching program as compared to static stretching in competitively active college-aged males. ...
... 3,4 On the contrary, few negative effects of acute dynamic stretching on performance have been reported and dynamic stretching may in fact improve performance. 3,4 Hough et al. found a significant increase in vertical jump height following a dynamic stretching program as compared to static stretching in competitively active college-aged males. 5 Similarly, military cadets who performed a dynamic warm-up performed significantly better on agility and functional power assessments than cadets who performed static stretching or no warm-up at all. ...
Article
Background: Neural mobilization has been used to treat individuals with musculoskeletal and neuromuscular pathologies, but research on neural mobilization in sports rehabilitation is scarce. Furthermore, there have been no studies investigating the effects of neural gliding on sport performance. Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between the acute effects of sciatic nerve gliding and lower extremity dynamic stretching exercises on hamstring flexibility and athletic performance. Study design: A cross-sectional, quasi-experimental design with block assignment was used. Methods: Twenty-seven (16 males, 11 females, age: 23.6 ± 2.65, height (m): 1.74 ± 0.12, weight (kg): 73.73 ± 16.09) healthy college students volunteered for the study. The neural gliding group had 14 subjects and the dynamic stretching group had 13 subjects. Participants performed a jogging or walking up stairs warm up at a self-selected pace prior to testing. Baseline data was obtained for each of the following measurements: bilateral hamstring flexibility using the active straight leg raise test measured by a digital inclinometer, vertical jump height, 20-yard shuttle run and 10 and 20-yard dash sprint. The participants then performed one of the assigned five-minute stretching protocol, bilateral sciatic neural gliding or dynamic stretching of the lower extremities, followed by the post-test data collection of the same measures. Results: There were no significant group by time interaction for any of the six measurements (2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA). However, significant time differences, pre-test vs post-test for all participants as one group, for right hamstring length (p = .001), left hamstring length (p = .002) and vertical jump (p = .028) were observed. Post hoc paired t-tests found a significant increase between the pre and post-tests in right hamstring flexibility, (p = .011) in the dynamic stretching group and left hamstring flexibility of participants in the neural gliding condition, (p = .004). When analyzing the groups individually, pre-test vs post-test, a significant difference in vertical jump was not observed in either group. Conclusion: Similar improvement in hamstring flexibility with both dynamic stretching and neural gliding exercises without a negative effect on three sports performance tests was demonstrated. Therefore, athletic performance will not be negatively affected by a pre-participation warm-up which includes neural gliding, but more research is needed. Level of evidence: Level 3.
... Although the majority of practitioners still have their athletes or clients perform stretching movements pre-event, the majority of research over the past decade has established an adverse effect of acute static stretching upon various different maximal performances. [1][2][3][4][5] The exact mechanisms behind variables remains to be elucidated, however, it has been reported that pre-event stretching has demonstrated an inhibitory effect upon maximal force or torque production, vertical jump performance, running speed, and muscular endurance. [1][2][3][4][5] In their recent review, Behm et al. 2 have put forward arguments that the majority of the proposed mechanisms, such as changes in tendon stiffness, changes in force-length relationship, induced fatigue or damage, reduced electromechanical coupling, actually have minimal While Behm et al. 2 could not isolate a singular mechanism responsible for the aforementioned performance decrements, they noted that several studies clearly link stretching-induced decrements to reduced central nervous system (CNS) or efferent drive. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5] The exact mechanisms behind variables remains to be elucidated, however, it has been reported that pre-event stretching has demonstrated an inhibitory effect upon maximal force or torque production, vertical jump performance, running speed, and muscular endurance. [1][2][3][4][5] In their recent review, Behm et al. 2 have put forward arguments that the majority of the proposed mechanisms, such as changes in tendon stiffness, changes in force-length relationship, induced fatigue or damage, reduced electromechanical coupling, actually have minimal While Behm et al. 2 could not isolate a singular mechanism responsible for the aforementioned performance decrements, they noted that several studies clearly link stretching-induced decrements to reduced central nervous system (CNS) or efferent drive. ...
... It does not require a high level of fitness, and causes less muscle pain (Matsuo et al., 2015). In particular, static stretching using a load is known to maximize the effects to stretch muscles and tendons Peck et al., 2014;Shrier and McHugh, 2012) compared effect of static stretching with or without a load on the shortened hamstring. They reported that the static stretching using a load improves flexibility within a shorter period of time. ...
... Many researchers apply stretching with a load to increase flexibility. This method is known to maximize the effect to stretch muscles and tendons (Peck et al., 2014). Kim et al. (2015) also reported that the application of stretching using a load to the hamstring showed faster flexibility effects than group treated only stretching. ...
Article
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Stretch of tensor fascia lata (TFL) improves range of motion on hip and pelvis and it reported to help reduce low back pain. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of static stretching using a load on TFL in patients with low back pain. Twenty three subjects were recruited according to the selection criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to static stretching group (control, n=12), and a static stretching using a load group (experimental, n=11). All group performed stretching for 15 min (side for 50 sec per time and a rest for 30 sec) per day in the left side and the right, respectively, for 2 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all groups measured visual analogue scale (VAS), stand and reach test, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In the present results, we found that the experimental group showed significant differences in VAS, stand and reach test, and the ODI (P<0.05) in before and after the intervention. Therefore, static stretching using a load can be actively utilized for low back pain patients with shortened TFL.
... To the author's knowledge, this study is the first controlled trial, investigating the effect of implementing dynamic exercise post static stretching on sprint and jump performance. Although the detrimental effect of static stretching on power performance measures and the positive effect of dynamic exercise on power output is well described in the extensive reviews (Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Behm et al., 2016;Peck, Chomko, & Gaz, 2014;Shrier, 2004;Simic et al., 2012) this is the first study to investigate the effect of performing dynamic exercise following a static stretching protocol. ...
... It has been acknowledged in the literature that static and dynamic stretching has more effect on jumping performance than running/sprint performance (Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Peck et al., 2014). Static stretch-induced changes in muscle compliance, which can affect the lengthetension relationship of the muscle-tendon unit have a significantly and consistently negative effect on measures of strength and power (McHugh & Cosgrave, 2010). ...
Article
Objectives: To determine the effect of three different static-dynamic stretching protocols on sprint and jump performance in Gaelic footballers. Design: Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Setting: Sports Institute research environment. Participants: Seventeen male elite level Gaelic footballers, aged 18-30 years, completed three stretching protocols. Main outcome measures: Athletic performance was measured by countermovement jump height and power, and timed 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m sprints. Results: Static stretching reduced sprint speed by 1.1% over 40 m and 1.0% over 20 m. Static stretching also reduced countermovement jump height by 10.6% and jump power by 6.4%. When static stretching was followed by dynamic stretching, sprint speed improved by 1.0% over 20 m and 0.7% over 40 m (p < 0.05). The static - dynamic stretching protocol also improved countermovement jump height by 8.7% (p < 0.01) and power by 6.7% (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Static stretching reduces sprint speed and jump performance. Static stretching should be followed by dynamic stretching during warm-up to nullify any performance deficits caused by static stretching.
... When movement becomes smooth, excessive burden is not applied to the muscles or the body, and the pressure on each muscle is reduced, thereby decreasing the risk of injuries 8) . Therefore, stretch-ing is effective in preventing damage, and conducting stretching as a cool-down measure before and after exercise is effective in preventing muscle pain and overuse syndrome, which appears as a result of excessive use 9) . ...
... Flexibility is the ability to move the joints through the complete range of motion. This is very important for motor performance and physical activities in everyday life 9) . Maintaining flexibility in all joints is an important element for smooth graded movements, due to which an easy carried out movement of the body structures is possible. ...
Article
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[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of joint exercise, taping, and stretching on hip joint flexion, flexibility, and range of motion. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five college students in their 20s were randomly assigned and equally divided into three groups, as follows: a stretching group, a taping and exercise group, and an exercise group. Changes in trunk range of motion and hip joint flexibility of the three groups were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] Comparison between flexibility before and after the intervention revealed statistically significant changes in all three groups. Moreover, the evaluation of joint range of motion after the intervention showed that there were statistically significant changes in all three groups. [Conclusion] Taping, stretching, and joint exercise are considered effective for the increase in flexibility and joint range of motion.
... Additionally, Pojskić et al. [46] observed 6-8% better performance in explosive tasks following dynamic stretching at the end of the warm-up, which can be a feasible option before sprint tasks [36]. Conversely, a considerable number of studies indicated that static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching performed prior to strength, power-dominant, speed, and agility activities result in performance deficits and should normally be avoided [52][53][54][55][56][57]. However, recent findings suggested that performing dynamic movements after static stretching could have a positive effect on performance [47,58]. ...
... However, recent findings suggested that performing dynamic movements after static stretching could have a positive effect on performance [47,58]. Still, dynamic stretching generally can be recommended in the period immediately prior to activity, while static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are probably best after activity [56]. It seems clear that an acute bout of stretching will decrease the acute ability to generate a maximal force [53], but it may be valid to apply a dynamic stretching routine in the middle of the warm-up or just before a maximum intensity exercise to potentiate performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. In team sports, it is imperative that the warm-up improve acute explosive performance. However, the exact strategies, methods and consequences of different warm-up practices remain unclear. A time delay between the warm-up and match and during half-time could negate the positive metabolic effects of the warm-up. Objectives. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize and analyze the potential effects of strategies during warm-up (before match), post-warm-up (time between the end of warm-up and the start of a match) and re-warm-up (half-time break within a match) on explosive performance in team sports. Furthermore, we examined optimal warm-up strategies based on the included studies. Methods. We performed a search of four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect) for original research articles published between January 1981 and August 2017. A total of 30 articles met the inclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. The results of the included studies were recalculated to determine effect sizes using Cohen's d. Results. Warm-up comprising 8 sets of 60 m sprints (-2.19%, d = 1.20) improved sprint performance. Also, 7 min of dynamic exercises after 5 min jogging improved sprint (-7.69%, d = 1.72), jumping (8.61%, d = 0.61) and agility performance (-6.65%, d = 1.40). The use of small sided games also seems to be a valid strategy, especially for jumping performance (6%, d = 0.8). These benefits were resultant from the warm-up strategies combined with some passive rest (between 2 and 10 min) before the main performance. In this post-warm-up period, the use of heated garments could result in better outcomes than simple rest (-0. 89%, d = 0.39). But if the transition was longer than 15 min, before entering the match, performing a re-warm-up with short-term explosive tasks (-1.97%, d = -0.86) to reactivate was the most effective approach. At half-time, heated garments maintained better sprint (-1.45%, d = 2.21) and jumping performance (3.13%, d = 1.62). Conclusion. Applying properly structured strategies in warm-up and avoiding long rest in post-warm-up improves explosive performance. Studies tend to recommend a short, active warm-up strategy (10 to 15 min), gradually increasing intensity (~50% to ~90% of maximum heart rate: HRmax), and the use of heated garments soon after warm-up to maintain muscle temperature. However, 2 min active re-warm-up with short-term sprints and jumps should be needed for transitions longer than 15 min (~90% HRmax). Lastly, at half-time re-warm-up, combining heated garments to maintain muscle temperature and performing an active strategy, with explosive tasks or small sided games for 5 min before re-entering the game, resulted in better explosive performance than 15 min resting. Key Points 1. A shorter warm-up period of 10 to 15 min appears to result in better explosive performance than traditional warm-up routines currently used in team sports. 2. Passive strategies such as heated garments can help maintain the benefits of the warm-up during transition phases. 3. In transitions longer than 15 min between the end of warm-up and the start of a match or entry into a game, performing 2 min short-term explosive tasks allowed recovery of performance levels achieved during initial warm-up. 4. In commonly observed ambient conditions (10-30ºC), at half-time, rest should be avoided, and at a minimum a heated garment that maintains muscle temperature and subsequent performance should be used.
... However, there are many variables that may have an effect on the potential changes in performance, like stretch durations (longer stretches -especially those lasting 60 s or longer -increase the likelihood of detrimental effects on strength, power or speed), time passing from stretching to the target performance and sequencing of stretching in the warm-up protocol [4]). Also, when after a static stretching a general warm-up or dynamic stretching are performed, the negative effect of the former seems not to occur [5]. In our study, finger strength tests were performed shortly after stretching, but it should be taken into account that -as our experiences as a rock and competition climbers imply -that is what some climbers do, although not necessarily for 30 s as in our study. ...
... Z výskumu Shriera (2004) taktiež vyplýva, že pravidelný strečing zvyšuje svalovú silu, výšku výskoku a rýchlosť, ale neexistuje žiadny dôkaz žeby ovplyvňoval ekonomiku behu. Aj v prípade statického strečingu aplikovaného pred rýchlostnými a výbušnými výkonmi autori uvádzajú skôr jeho negatívny vplyv, ktorý pravdepodobne súvisí so zmenami viskoelastických vlastností šliach a s poklesom svalovej sily, čo má za následok pokles výšky výskokov a šprintérskych výkonov(Peck et al. 2014;McMahan 2012;Hough, Ross & Howatson 2009;Kirmizigil, Ozcaldiran & Colakoglu 2014;Snyder, Mc Leod & Hartman 2006;Kistler et al. (2010). Na druhej strane, viacerí autori preukázali pozitívny efekt dynamického strečingu tak na výbušný, ako aj šprintérsky výkon, čo odôvodňujú zvýšením neuromuskulárnej aktivity, najmä zlepšením senzitivity proprioreceptorov, konkrétne svalových vretienok(Hough, Ross & Howatson 2009;Haddad et al. 2014).Kruse et al. (2015) uvádzajú, že zaradenie špecifického dynamického strečingu do fázy zahrievania zvyšuje u volejbalistiek schopnosť vykonať rýchle a maximálne vertikálne výskoky, ale len ak sa uskutočnia do 15 minút od realizácie dynamického strečingu. ...
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SUMMARY The effect of recovery strategies after aerobic and anaerobic sport performance The nature of physical load in sport games puts great demands not only on players’ fitness level but also on the need to cope with repeated short actions performed with maximum intensity. Moreover, the constantly increasing volume of training load and competitions requires athlete’s recovery as quick as possible, which plays a very important role in athlete’s sport performance. In spite of this, the recovery process is one of the least understood and examined factors of the sport training. The purpose of the research was, based on the theoretical background and our own research, to contribute to the knowledge of the effect of the selected recovery strategies on athletes’ recovery processes after aerobic and anaerobic load using monitoring the dynamics of changes in lactate level and indicators of the repeated performance. The implementation of research activities was supported by the funds from VEGA scientific project No. 1/0622/15 titled „The effect of regeneration on recovery of the body after aerobic and anaerobic load in sport “. The first chapter deals with the summary of theoretical knowledge in the chosen research reality. The authors analyse the issue of the response of a body on physical load in sport both generally and specifically in terms of the observed attributes of fatigue. In the next part of this chapter, the authors characterize recovery strategies, the effect of which was examined in the empirical part of the treatise. At the end of the first chapter, the authors provide the reader with the characteristics of physical load of athletes in sport games, among whom the effect of recovery strategies was observed in the empirical part. In the second chapter, the authors specified the research problem when formulated the aim of the research as well as research tasks in order to achieve it. In the third chapter, the design and overall organization is described, including the methods used for examination, collection and evaluation of research data. From the methodological perspective, the research was designed as a three-group multi-factorial experiment. The subjects participating in the research were the players of three sport games, namely soccer, basketball and volleyball in the category of cadets. The research was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the authors observed the effect of the selected recovery strategies (massage, local cryotherapy, active movement and static stretching) and passive recovery on recovery processes after aerobic load using Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) and in the second stage, which took place in at least two weeks, after anaerobic load using Wingate test. The level of recovery processes was assessed based on kinetics of blood lactate and implementation of the repeated performance immediately after the recovery phase. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the collected data and it is continuously followed by the fifth chapter, in which the authors examined causal relationships between the obtained results and compared them with results of other authors. The obtained empirical data showed that active movement recovery appeared as the most effective strategy in relation to the lactate metabolism after both aerobic and anaerobic load, whereas the passive recovery and local cryotherapy belonged to the least effective. However, these results are unambiguous in the case of monitoring the effect of recovery strategies on restoration of aerobic and anaerobic performance in the motor performance tests used. Nevertheless, static stretching and local cryotherapy applied immediately before the performance led to a decrease in performance rather than to a recovery. The conclusions point to the need for further investigation and searching for optimal time intervals and intensity of active movement recovery. An inseparable part of further research activities in this field should be searching for non-invasive options to monitor recovery of the body after physical load. Key words: Fatigue. Blood lactate kinetics. Lactate clearance. Lactate metabolism. Active movement recovery. Massage. Cryotherapy. Passive recovery. Repeated performance.
... Better intramuscular blood flow provides the opportunity to produce higher levels of physical performance [10]. Despite these well-known benefits of stretching, there are studies proposing that, because SS reduces muscle stiffness, it negatively affects athletic performance [33,34]. Our results show that stiffness parameters did not decrease from resting after 2 min of SS and that blood flow significantly increased both after 2 and 5 min of SS. ...
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Aims: To compare the effects of 2 and 5 min of passive static stretching (SS) on stiffness and blood flow in the rectus femoris in adolescent athletes using shear wave elastography (SWE) and superb microvascular imaging (SMI).Material and methods: This prospective study included 20 male athletes with median age of 14.5 (12.5-16.5) years. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the SS duration as follows: 2 min (n=10) and 5 min (n=10). At rest and after 2 and 5 min of SS, stiffness and blood flow values were compared in the rectus femoris for each group. Inter-operator reliability was also analysed. Results: There was no significant difference between resting and 2 min of SS in terms of stiffness. The stiffness values decreased significantly from resting to 5 min of SS. The blood flow increased significantly from resting to 2 and 5 min of SS. Inter-operator reliability was moderate to perfect for SWE and SMI measurements (ICC: 0.52-0.83). Conclusions: SWE and SMI can be used to acquire reliable quantitative data about muscle stiffness and blood flow in adolescents. While stiffness parameters significantly decreased from resting after only 5 min, blood flow significantly increased both after 2 and 5 min. For physical rehabilitation protocols, 5 min of SS may be chosen to reduce stiffness. For competitions, 2 min of SS may be sufficient for warm-up exercise because it increases the blood flow optimally. Five min of SS may be preferred for the cool-down exercise to enhance recovery.
... forma como o alongamento é empregado, antes da atividade principal, este pode afetar os diferentes sistemas neurofisiológico, hormonal, celular e mecânico e, consequentemente, influenciar de forma positiva ou negativa a resposta do tecido aos estímulos subsequentes como a produção de força, potência ou mesmo o padrão de ativação muscular [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Diversos estudos demonstram efeitos deletérios na produção de força após exercícios de alongamento estático [7][8][9][10][11][12] e redução da atividade muscular após os exercícios de alongamento [7,8,[13][14][15][16][17]. Desta forma, uma sessão aguda de alongamento intenso pode levar a diferentes ajustes estruturais e neuronais na função músculotendínea (ex. modificações da relação forçacomprimento)[1, [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25], influenciando o feedback proprioceptivo e, consequentemente, a ativação dos músculos envolvidos [26]. ...
Article
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Devido ao sincronismo muscular necessário para a execução de um exercício multiarticular como o leg press, o alongamento estático agudo monoarticular poderia produzir alterações no controle articular individual afetando, desta forma, o controle dos músculos primários em outras articulações a fim de manter a ação isométrica. Assim, o presente estudo avaliou o efeito agudo de um protocolo de alongamento estático monoarticular, no sinergismo muscular, durante a execução do exercício leg press unilateral (LPU) isométrico. A amostra foi composta por 15 sujeitos adultos, hígidos, do sexo masculino (idade: 25±4 anos, estatura: 174±8 cm, massa corporal total: 71±6 kg, e 2±1 ano de experiência em musculação). O sinal eletromiográfico advindo dos músculos vasto lateral (VL) e glúteo máximo (GM) foram mensurados durante uma ação isométrica de 10" no exercício LPU contra 60% 1RM em três condições de alongamento estático monoarticular (6 séries de 45 " / 15 " e 70-90% da percepção subjetiva de desconforto): sem alongamento, alongamento do joelho (CAQ) e alongamento de quadril (CAG). Uma ANOVA (2x2) foi utilizada para verificar as diferenças entre condições (CAQ e CAG) e músculos (VL e GM) para as variáveis dependentes: eletromiografia integrada (IEMG) e frequência mediana (FMed). Houve aumento da amplitude máxima passiva para articulação do quadril e do joelho (P<0,001). Os resultados da IEMG revelaram diferenças significantes entre as condições CAQ e CAG para o músculo vasto lateral (P=0,004; d=1,22; ∆%=12,1%) e glúteo máximo (P=0,024; d=1,44; ∆%=35,5). Foi observada diferença significante entre músculos apenas na condição CAQ (P=0,012; d=1,5; ∆%=36,9). Concluiu-se que o protocolo de alongamento estático monoarticular aumentou a amplitude de movimento em ambas as articulações avaliadas e afetou o sinergismo muscular durante a execução do exercício LPU isométrico. Palavras-chave: eletromiografia; flexibilidade; musculação; exercício. Due to muscular synchronism of a multi-joint exercise such as the leg press, an acute single-joint static-stretching may produce changes in individual joint control and affect the primer muscle control in correlated joints in order to maintain the isometric action. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of a single-joint static-stretching protocol on muscle synergy during a submaximal isometric leg press exercise. The sample was composed by fifteen adult subjects, healthy male (age: 25±4 years, height: 174±8 cm, total body mass: 71±6 kg, and 2±1 year of experience in resistance training). The electromyographic signal from the muscle Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Gluteus Maximus (GM) were measured during 10sec of a single-leg isometric contraction in leg press exercise against 60%1RM, in three conditions of single-join static-stretching protocols (6sets x 45sec/15sec, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort): without stretching, knee flexion (CAQ) and hip flexion and external rotation (CAG). An ANOVA (2 x 2) was used to evaluate differences between conditions (CAQ and CAG) and muscles (VL and GM) for the dependent variables: IEMG, median frequency. There was an increase of maximum amplitude passive to the hip joint and the knee (P < 0.001). The IEMG results revealed significant differences between conditions CAQ and CAG for the Vastus Lateralis muscle (P=0.004; d=1.22; ∆%=12.1%), and Gluteus Maximus (P=0.024; d=1.44; ∆%=35.5). Significant difference was observed between muscles only to CAQ (P=0.012; d=1.5; ∆=36.9%). It was concluded that the single-joint static-stretching protocol increased the range of motion in both joints (knee and hip), and affected the muscular synergy during the single-leg isometric leg press exercise.
... GPR promotes a functional change in the daily gestures of the patients, allowing these muscles to perform their role in the muscle chain that is responsible for the organization of the static posture and movements [6]. While static stretching of a single muscle or a small group of muscles usually takes 15-30 seconds [7], GPR promotes all muscles of the same chain to be simultaneously stretched during a 15-minute posture [6]. ...
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Background: Stretching represent a therapeutic modality used in physical stress conditions, such as sport performance and musculoskeletal disorders. Different methods of stretching exist to improve flexibility in any of these contexts. Among them Global Postural Reeducation emerges as an integral, full-body approach. Objective: To critically analyze previously published literature to gather the documented effectiveness of GPR method in musculoskeletal disorders in the traumatology and rheumatology areas. Design: Systematic review. Methods: Computerized literature searches were performed in Pubmed, Health and Medical Complete, PEDro and Scopus from 2004-2014. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. The level of scientific evidence was evaluated for each study. Results: Of 73 relevant studies, only 14 met the inclusion criteria. Five (36%) of these studies were assessed to be of high quality. The mean PEDro score was 4.57 ranging from 2 to 8. According to the best evidence synthesis, there is moderate evidence that GPR is efficacious for musculoskeletal disorders when compared with other treatment options. Conclusions: GPR method has shown benefits, but these depend on the pathology and symptoms being treated. There is a need for more, well-designed, good quality randomized trials to answer several remaining questions related to this intervention and increase the precision of future systematic reviews.
... In other words, during FR each muscle position was likely due to the stretching part and compression part with drive the fluid under the skin and muscular area (Okamoto, 2013) while DS was likely due to the stretching and the contraction part of the dynamic movement. This may also explain the non-significant finding in NS that did not provide opportunities for repeated contractions of the muscle (Page, 2012) (Peck, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling compare with dynamic stretching, static stretching and none stretching on flexibility, power, agility and speed performance. Twelve male Kasem Bundit University football players age from 19 to 24 years were randomly assigned to perform four trials on nonconsecutive days, each trial consists of the pre-exercise period with one of four stretching type which instructed by video and then physical performance were tested to examine its effects. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. One-way ANOVA repeated was used to compare the differences between four conditions. All tests used the 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that the speed running time after foam rolling, static and dynamic stretching were less than static stretching significantly. Agility running time after foam rolling and dynamic stretching condition was change significantly when compared with none stretching. Vertical jump in foam rolling and dynamic stretching conditions were greater than non-stretching condition. In addition, foam rolling may affects flexibility by significantly increase the lumbar flexion while other condition does not different when compared with none stretching. These results support that using foam rolling and dynamic stretching prior workout can improve physical performance in football player.
... While CWI method has been shown to have a positive effect on reducing the levels of lactate, cortisol, muscle soreness, depression, anxiety, and stress post-sub-maximal intensity of circuit training, CWT was reported to better maintain post-workout body temperature better, and SS maintains the level of post-workout muscle flexibility. In addition, performing CWI, CWT, and SS alternately according to the types and levels of fatigue being experienced could accelerate the regeneration process faster, reduce the risk of injury due to overtraining, and maintain better performance (Peck et al., 2014). Structural fatigue characterized by high intensity and low volume has a different metabolic effect from hormonal fatigue caused by training with a lowintensity pattern and high volume and long duration, such as long-distance, marathon, or triathlon. ...
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Background. Circuit training (CT) increases the interrelation of bio-motor components but neuromuscular performance contrarily produces a high concentration of lactate, cortisol, muscle inflammation, which disrupts metabolism, thus reducing performance and generating psychological stress. While Contrast Water Therapy (CWT) increases nerve sensitivity and reduces the risk of metabolic disorders, Cold Water Immersion (CWI) reduces local tissue temperature, muscle pain and avoids musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of Contrast Water Therapy and Cold-Water Immersion on lactate, cortisol, flexibility, muscle pain, depression, anxiety, and stress levels post sub-maximal intensity of circuit training. Material and methods. Thirty elite athletes were engaged in a cross-sectional study with pre-and post-test after a 3 series x 3 sets x12 repetitions in a workout session of 85%-90%RM. The prerequisite test employed Shapiro-Wilk, while Bivariate analysis utilized Independent Sample T-test and Paired Sample T-test. Results. CWT maintained body temperature significantly (t=36±0.27, p=0.019). CWI reduced lactate levels (t=2.32±0.27, p=0.001), cortisol (t=12.72±2.27, p=0.001), muscle pain (t=5.32±1.07, p=0.003), depression (t=8.16±1.63, p=0.012), anxiety (t=6.56±1.34, p=0.002), and stress (t=13.02±1.27, p=0.001). Meanwhile, SS increased flexibility (t=17.98±2.76, p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the regeneration process at the 1st, 5th, 10th, and 15th minutes post-manipulation of all three methods. Conclusion. CWI 5°C for 15 minutes accelerates the lactate and cortisol regeneration as well as reduces muscle inflammation, depression, anxiety, and stress, while CWT raises the body's temperature and SS increases flexibility.
... Almost all athletes and coaches believe that warm-up exercises will enhance sports performance, and athletes normally include stretching as part of their warm-up procedure. Even though many studies reported that warmup exercises indeed improve sports performance (Bishop, 2003;Gregson et al., 2002;Gregson et al., 2005;Stewart and Sleivert, 1998;Takizawa and Ishii, 2006a), other studies have also shown that static stretching may inhibit sports performance (Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Blazevich, 2012;Kallerud & Gleeson, 2013;Key and Lowery et al., 2014;Peck et al., 2014;Willson et al., 2010;Yamaguchi & Ishii, 2011). condition compared to the stretching condition (Lowery et al., 2014). ...
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Previous studies have concluded that static stretching impairs running economy and endurance running performance. However these studies examined long durations (90-120 seconds for one muscle) of static stretching. Another study reported that most athletes perform static stretching of each muscle for less than 20 seconds in their warm-up. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of 20-second static stretches of the lower extremities after 15 minutes warm-up on endurance running performance. Seven healthy well-trained middle or long distance male runners (age 21.3 ± 2.1 years; height 170.3 ± 3.1 centimeters; weight 60.0 ± 5.5 kilograms) took part in the present study. Each subject ran on a treadmill at 90% VO2max until exhaustion after one of two warm-up procedures. The two warm-up procedures were 15 minutes running at 70% VO2max (Warm-up) and 15 minutes running at 70% VO2max plus five static stretches of the lower extremities (Warm-up + static stretching). The running performance was evaluated by time to exhaustion. In the results, there were no significant differences in time to exhaustion among the warm-up exercises (Warm-up: 819.3 ± 230.6 sec., Warm-up + static stretching 817.9 ± 213.7 sec.). These results suggested that endurance running performance was not affected by the presence or absence of 20-second static stretches and there may be no need to avoid static stretches before endurance running if the duration is not too long.
... Pre-exercise StS for the purpose of strength and power performance improvements has widely been criticized (Pope et al., 2000;Shrier, 2004b;Shrier, 2004a;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013). In fact, a large body of scientific evidence has recommended not to use StS immediately before the performance of strength and power-related activities (Shrier, 2004a;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013;Peck et al., 2014). This is based on evidence showing acute stretch-related declines in muscle strength and power. ...
Article
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The effects of static-stretching (StS) on subsequent strength and power activities has been one of the most debated topics in sport science over the past decades. The aim of this review is i) to summarize previous and current findings on the acute effects of StS on muscle strength and power performances ii) to update readers’ knowledge related to previous caveats and iii) to discuss the underlying physiological mechanisms of short-duration StS when performed as single-mode treatment or when integrated into a full warm-up routine. Over the last two decades, StS has been considered harmful to subsequent strength and power performances. Accordingly, it has been recommended not to apply StS before strength and power-related activities. Recent evidence suggests that when performed as a single-mode treatment or when integrated within a full warm-up routine including aerobic activity, dynamic-stretching, and sport-specific-activities, short-duration StS (≤60s per-muscle group) trivially impairs subsequent strength and power activities (∆1-2%). Yet, longer-durations StS (>60s per-muscle group) appear to induce substantial and practically relevant declines in strength and power performances (∆4.0-7.5%). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that when included in a full warm-up routine, short-duration StS may even contribute to lower the risk of sustaining musculotendinous injuries especially with high-intensity activities (e.g., sprint running and change of direction speed). It seems that during short-duration StS, neuromuscular activation and musculotendinous stiffness appear not to be affected compared with long-duration StS. Amongst other factors, this could be due to an elevated muscle temperature induced by a dynamic warm-up program. More specifically, elevated muscle temperature leads to increased muscle fiber conduction-velocity and improved binding of contractile proteins (actin, myosin). Therefore, our previous understanding of harmful StS effects on subsequent strength and power activities have to be updated. In fact, short-duration StS should be included as an important warm-up component before the uptake of recreational sports activities due to its potential positive effect on flexibility and musculotendinous injury prevention. However, in high-performance athletes, short-duration StS has to be applied with caution due to its negligible but still prevalent negative effects on subsequent strength and power performances, which could have an impact on performance during competition.
... Metode CWI memberikan efek positif terhadap penurunan kadar laktat, rasa nyeri otot dan tingkat stres setelah latihan berbeban, sedangkan SS mampu menjaga tingkat fleksibilitas otot. Hal lain dijelaskan pada penelitian serupa dimana penggunaan metode CWI dan SS secara bergantian yang disesuaikan dengan jenis dan tingkat kelelahan yang dialami, mampu mempercepat proses regenarasi, mengurangi resiko cidera akibat overtraining sekaligus mempertahankan performa (Peck et al., 2014). Beberapa literature menjelaskan bahwa CWI merupakan metode yang tepat untuk diberikan pada jenis kelelahan yang bersifat structural dimana mengakibatkan penumpukan laktat yang tinggi, muscle soreness dan tingkat stress yang tinggi namun akan memberikan efek negatif jika diberikan pada jenis kelalahan yang bersifat hormonal yang diakibatkan oleh latihan endurance (Baar, 2014). ...
Article
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Weight Training adalah metode latihan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan dan kinerja neuromuskular melalui proses hyperthropy, namun juga meningkatkan produksi Laktat, menyebabkan inflamasi otot, menggangu metabolisme tubuh sehingga menurunkan performa. Stimulus dingin pada Cold Water Immersion dapat mengurangi laju metabolisme, menyerap suhu jaringan lokal, menurunkan kepekaan saraf dan mengurangi rasa nyeri sehingga menurunkan resiko terjadinya cidera musculoskeletal dan kelainan metabolisme. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji Pengaruh Cold Water Immersion 5°C (CWI5°C) terhadap Laktat pada Darah, Nyeri Otot, Fleksibilitas dan Tingkat Stress pasca Latihan Berbeban Intensitas Sub Maksimal. Pre- dan Posttest menggunakan Kelompok Kontrol dengan pendekatan Cross Sectional. Sebanyak 15 Sampel kelompok Eksperimen diberikan CWI5°C selama 15 menit setelah Latihan Berbeban, sedangkan 15 Sampel Kelompok Kontrol menggunakan Metode Statis Stretching (SS) salama 15 menit. Uji prasarat menggunakan Shapiro-wilk, sedangkan Analisa Bivariate menggunakan Paired Sample T-test dan Independent Sample T-tes. hasil yang didapatkan bahwa metode CWI5°C lebih cepat menurunkan Kadar Laktat (t=2.32±0.27, p=0,001), mengurangi Nyeri Otot (t=5.32±1.07, p=0,003) dan menurunkan Stress (t=13.02±1.27, p=0,001), sedangkan SS meningkatkan Fleksibilitas (t=17.98±2.76, p=0,001). Dapat disimpulkan Cold Water Immersion suhu 5°C selama 15 menit mempercepat Proses Recovery, mengurangi Inflamasi Otot dan menurunkan Stress, sedangkan Statis Stretching meningkatkan Fleksibilitas setelah Latihan Berbeban Intensitas Sub Maksimal. AbstractStrength is one of the main components of bio-motor affecting the development of other physical components. Strength training improves strength and neuromuscular coordination, muscle hypertrophy, contrary causes physical stressor, muscle inflammation, produce muscular disease, increases lactate levels, interferes body metabolism, thus decreases performance. Appropriate recovery methods can prevent over-training, musculoskeletal injuries, stress levels. The study examines the effect of cold water immersion 5°C (CWI5°C) on blood lactate, muscle soreness, flexibility, and stress level after high-intensity resistance training. The study design was pre- and posttest using a cross-sectional approach with a control group. It gave selected 15 samples treated with CWI5°C for 15 minutes directly after high-intensity resistance training, while control samples with static stretching for 15 minutes. The prerequisite test uses Shapiro-Wilk, while the bivariate analysis uses paired sample T-test and independent sample T-test. The prerequisite test uses Shapiro-Wilk, while the bivariate analysis uses paired sample T-test and independent sample T-test. The results showed there were significant differences between the two groups (p=0.001). The CWI-5 C method recover lactate levels faster (p = 0.001), reduces muscle pain (p=0.003), decrease stress (p=0.002), while SS increase muscle flexibility (p=0.001). We can conclude that 15°C cold water immersion for 15 minutes accelerates recovery, reduce muscle inflammation and stress level, while static stretching increases flexibility after high-intensity resistance training.
... 6 One of the potential factors associated with the increased utilization of SMR has been the fact that previous research has demonstrated increases in joint ROM after an acute bout of SMR, theoretically due to an increase in muscle tissue extensibility, without any subsequent decreases in force output. [7][8][9] The lack of influence on force output after SMR-related increases in joint ROM also differs from the static stretching (SS) literature, which has routinely demonstrated a decrease in force and power output after an acute bout of SS. [10][11][12] As such, an emerging body of evidence suggests that practitioners can prescribe SMR interventions without detrimentally influencing subsequent athletic performance. 13 The physiological mechanisms in which SS and SMR influence muscle tissue extensibility have been largely associated with either neural and/or morphological mechanisms. ...
Article
Background: In contrast to static stretching (SS), previous research has demonstrated increases in flexibility after an acute bout of self-myofascial release (SMR) without any subsequent decreases in force output. Previous research has utilized measures of surface electromyography (sEMG) and mechanomyography (MMG) to examine the influence of SS on the electrical and mechanical processes of muscle activation, respectively. However, there is a lack of research examining the potential changes in electro-mechanical muscle activation post-SMR. Purpose: To examine the influence of SMR, via an acute bout of foam rolling (FR) to the vastus lateralis (VL), on the expression of knee extension force output and the inter-muscular electro-mechanical activation of the quadriceps musculature. Study design: Randomized crossover trial. Methods: Twenty (10 males, 10 females) recreationally-active participants with prior FR experience completed both SMR and control (CON) testing protocols during separate testing sessions that were conducted in a randomized order 48 hours apart. During the SMR protocol, participants performed 3 sets of 60 seconds of FR over the VL portion of their quadriceps musculature, with 60 seconds of rest between sets. During the CON protocol, participants quietly sat upright for 10 minutes. Peak knee extension force output -(Forcepeak) data, as well as sEMG and MMG data from the VL and the rectus femoris (RF) were collected during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) before and after both testing protocols. Root mean square sEMG and MMG amplitudes were calculated to represent electro-mechanical muscle activation of the VL (VL-sEMGRMS, VL-MMGRMS) and RF (RF-sEMGRMS, RF-MMGRMS) musculature. Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance (RM ANOVAs) identified a significant (p < 0.05) increase in Forcepeak within the SMR protocol among males, but no change among females. No statistically significant changes in any electro-mechanical muscle activation measures were identified pre-to-post-SMR within either sex. Conclusion: In contrast to the SS literature body, these results suggest that SMR does not influence the electro-mechanical aspects of muscle activation during MVICs. These results provide support for the absence of decreases in force output post-SMR, but further examination regarding the potential muscle mass influence of SMR on electro-mechanical muscle function remains warranted. Level of evidence: 2c.
... A review carried out by Peck et al. (6) demonstrated that the static stretching preceding the various sports may result in decreased muscle strength; however, this review did not stipulate the dichotomy adopted by Dantas (4) between lengthening and flexing. In a study by our research group, it was evaluated the acute effect of lengthening and flexion on the resistance strength of young people who had previous experience in RT. ...
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Antecedentes: O alongamento muscular é frequentemente aplicado como preparação para o treinamento de resistência, no entanto, uma literatura diverge quanto à sua resposta à força de resistência muscular. Objetivo: mostrar se a intensidade e o tempo de alongamento modificam a força da resistência. Métodos: O estudo inclui 30 homens jovens saudáveis, com 22 ± 2,5 anos de idade, praticando exercícios neuromusculares há menos de seis meses. Os participantes fizeram um teste de previsão de carga máxima (MLPT) no supino e após uma semana retornaram ao sorteio e execução do: Stretch Protocol (SP) - 60 segundos na amplitude máxima sem assistência; Protocolo de Flexão (FP) - 60 segundos de acompanhamento com assistência externa;e Protocolo de Base (PA) - exercício imediato. Todos os participantes passaram por todos os protocolos sempre realizados em segundas-feiras, realizando como repetições máximas com 70% da carga utilizada no MLPT. Para comparar os resultados dos diferentes dias de coleta, foi usado um ANOVA com TUKEY post-hoc. Todas as análises adotaram um valor de p≤0,05 como significativo. Resultados: a PA apresenta resultados maiores do que no SP e FP. Não houve diferença estatística entre SP e FP. Conclusão: 60 segundos de alongamento muscular passivo causam uma diminuição da força de resistência muscular, a redução de intensidade.
... Massage provides very interesting benefits in the preparation of an effort, in the prevention of injuries and in post-exercise recovery (Moraska et al., 2005). According to Peck (Peck et al., 2014), massage helps maintain athlete health and increase performance. In Benin and in many other countries, athletes and coaches, based on their personal experiences, believe that the massage performed before the warm-up has beneficial effects on vertical relaxation. ...
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The use of sports massage as part of passive warm-up is a practice that has been trivialized by many clubs, which consider that massage is only useful in the context of recovery or rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to check if the massage before warming up further increases the vertical relaxation in basketball players from Zou. 57 players were selected including 13 players from Flambeau Abomey; 15 Lumière players from Abomey and 29 players from Olympic of Bohicon using the simple random method by reasoned choice. Our players are aware of the existence of massage but not as passive warm-up. Without warming up or massage our subjects have on average 43.19 cm of relaxation. After the players warmed up without being massaged we observed an increase in relaxation of an average of 48.96cm and 50.61cm when the players massaged and warmed up. The results of our study reveal that massage before heating further increases the vertical relaxation of basketball players from Zou, Benin.
... SS may lead to performance degradation when it is performed before activity. To decrease this risk, the following stretching exercises are recommended: resting period following SS, a general warm-up period or DS (13). ...
... The majority of triathletes also followed current recommendations to reduce the warm-up duration in hot conditions (McGowan et al., 2015). However, half of the triathletes employed the out-dated strategy of static stretching, which is not recommended prior to endurance exercise (Lowery et al., 2014;Peck, Chomko, Gaz, & Farrell, 2014;Wilson et al., 2010). Finally, two of the triathletes performed foam rolling and none received massage, which suggests that most of the triathletes do not feel that they gain benefits from these strategies. ...
... Acutely, dynamic stretching could be hypothesized to improve performance. However, studies have revealed that it is, at best, slightly beneficial (Behm et al., 2016;Opplert & Babault, 2017;Peck, Chomko, Gaz, & Farrel, 2014). This fact might imply some redundancy: exercises specifically designed to promote dynamic stretching will probably add little to regular warm-up exercises, which also require movement and, therefore, imply dynamic stretching. ...
Article
Flexibility is a measurable physical capacity considered as a key component of physical fitness. Poor flexibility is usually attributed to excessive tension exerted by the antagonist muscles of the movement and, supported by weak scientific evidence, passive stretching is considered as the most effective intervention in the promotion of the muscle extensibility, in attempting to improve mobility. The proposal of this paper is a review of the effects of static stretching in human movement and a presentation of strength training as a more robust alternative based on scientific evidence. First, we try to define which factors influence the ability of the human body to move into their functional safety range of motion. Second, we present a critical scientific literature review of the effects of static stretching in the promotion of range of motion, injury prevention, and sports performance. Third, we propose alternatives to static stretching such as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic stretching, and especially strength/resistance training, in the promotion of a better range of motion. Finally, we conclude that perhaps problems of flexibility/mobility should not be addressed with static processes, but with movement.
... Mūsų duomenys sutampa su U. Sekir ir bendraautorių (2010) atliktu tyrimu, kuriame blauzdos lenkiamųjų raumenų jėga po dinaminio tempimo statistiškai reikšmingai padidėjo 10 Nm (p<0,05) [10]. Šie rezultatai atspindi literatūroje vyraujančią nuomonę, jog dinaminis raumenų tempimas yra labiau susijęs su sprogstamąją jėgą didinančiu poveikiu [3,11]. Kita vertus, II grupės tiriamųjų kairės blauzdos lenkiamųjų raumenų jėga, vertinant tuo pačiu kampiniu greičiu, sumažėjo, bet šis pokytis buvo statistiškai nereikšmingas (p>0,05). ...
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Į apšilimo programas dažnai įtraukiamas raumenų tempimas, tačiau dėl jo poveikio raumenų jėgai vis dar ginčijamasi. Kyla klausimas, ar statinis tempi­mas gali turėti neigiamą poveikį raumenų jėgai ir didinti traumų riziką? Darbo tikslas buvo įvertinti statinio ir dinaminio tempimo poveikį blauzdos len­kiamųjų ir tiesiamųjų raumenų sprogstamajai jėgai. Tyrime dalyvavo 30 (21 moteris ir 9 vyrai) sveikų, laisvalaikiu fiziškai aktyvių studentų (amžiaus vidur­kis 21,8±1,16 m.). Tiriamieji buvo suskirstyti į dvi grupes: I grupė (n=15) atliko statinį, II grupė (n=15) – dinaminį šlaunies raumenų tempimą. Prieš ir po tempimo pratimų izokinetiniu dinamometru buvo nustatyta blauzdos lenkiamųjų ir tiesiamųjų raumenų sprogstamoji jėga (Nm) 600/sek. ir 1800/sek. kampi­niais greičiais. Išanalizavę šlaunų raumenų sprogs­tamosios jėgos rodiklius, esant 600/sek. kampiniam greičiui, po tempimo nustatėme, kad I grupėje dešinės blauzdos lenkiamųjų raumenų jėga nereikšmingai pa­didėjo 0,87 Nm, o kairės – 0,4 Nm (p>0,05). II gru­pėje dešinės kojos raumenų jėga reikšmingai padidėjo 7,60 Nm (p<0,05), o kairės – nereikšmingai suma­žėjo 0,33 Nm (p>0,05). Tarp I ir II grupių reikšmingų skirtumų nebuvo (p>0,05). Analizuojant blauzdos tiesiamųjų raumenų jėgos pokyčius nustatėme, kad I grupės dešinės kojos raumenų jėga padidėjo 0,47 Nm, kairės – 2,07 Nm, o II grupės atitinkamai 2,73 ir 1,67 Nm, tačiau šie pokyčiai buvo nereikšmingi (p>0,05). Tarp grupių reikšmingų skirtumų nebuvo (p>0,05). Analizuojant raumenų sprogstamosios jė­gos pokyčius esant 1800/sek. kampiniam greičiui, nustatėme, kad I grupės tiriamųjų dešinės blauzdos lenkiamųjų raumenų jėga nereikšmingai sumažėjo 1,53 Nm, kairės – padidėjo 0,4 Nm, o II grupėje ne­reikšmingai 1,3 Nm padidėjo dešinėje, bei 1,2 Nm sumažėjo kairėje kojoje (p>0,05). Skirtumo tarp gru­pių nebuvo (p>0,05). Blauzdos tiesiamųjų raumenų jėga I grupės dešinėje kojoje padidėjo 1,8 Nm, kai­rėje – 0,13 Nm, II grupės atitinkamai 1,8 ir 4,13 Nm. Pokyčiai grupėse ir tarp grupių buvo nereikšmingi (p>0,05). Tyrimo rezultatai parodė, kad po dinaminio tempimo padidėjo tiriamųjų dešinės blauzdos lenkia­mųjų raumenų sprogstamoji jėga (p<0,05), o po sta­tinio tempimo reikšmingų pokyčių nebuvo (p>0,05). I ir II grupių blauzdos lenkiamųjų ir tiesiamųjų rau­menų sprogstamoji jėga po skirtingų tempimo metodų reikšmingai nesiskyrė (p>0,05), tad tiek statinis, tiek dinaminis tempimas šlaunies raumenų sprogstamajai jėgai neigiamo poveikio neturėjo.
... Pre-exercise StS for the purpose of strength and power performance improvements has widely been criticized (Pope et al., 2000;Shrier, 2004a,b;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013). In fact, a large body of scientific evidence has recommended not to use StS immediately before the performance of strength-and power-related activities (Shrier, 2004a;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013;Peck et al., 2014). This is based on evidence showing acute stretch-related declines in muscle strength and power. ...
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The effects of static stretching (StS) on subsequent strength and power activities has been one of the most debated topics in sport science literature over the past decades. The aim of this review is (1) to summarize previous and current findings on the acute effects of StS on muscle strength and power performances; (2) to update readers’ knowledge related to previous caveats; and (3) to discuss the underlying physiological mechanisms of short-duration StS when performed as single-mode treatment or when integrated into a full warm-up routine. Over the last two decades, StS has been considered harmful to subsequent strength and power performances. Accordingly, it has been recommended not to apply StS before strength- and power-related activities. More recent evidence suggests that when performed as a single-mode treatment or when integrated within a full warm-up routine including aerobic activity, dynamic-stretching, and sport-specific activities, short-duration StS (≤60 s per muscle group) trivially impairs subsequent strength and power activities (∆1–2%). Yet, longer StS durations (>60 s per muscle group) appear to induce substantial and practically relevant declines in strength and power performances (∆4.0–7.5%). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that when included in a full warm-up routine, short-duration StS may even contribute to lower the risk of sustaining musculotendinous injuries especially with high-intensity activities (e.g., sprint running and change of direction speed). It seems that during short-duration StS, neuromuscular activation and musculotendinous stiffness appear not to be affected compared with long-duration StS. Among other factors, this could be due to an elevated muscle temperature induced by a dynamic warm-up program. More specifically, elevated muscle temperature leads to increased muscle fiber conduction-velocity and improved binding of contractile proteins (actin, myosin). Therefore, our previous understanding of harmful StS effects on subsequent strength and power activities has to be updated. In fact, short-duration StS should be included as an important warm-up component before the uptake of recreational sports activities due to its potential positive effect on flexibility and musculotendinous injury prevention. However, in high-performance athletes, short-duration StS has to be applied with caution due to its negligible but still prevalent negative effects on subsequent strength and power performances, which could have an impact on performance during competition.
... Stretching is an exercise in which a specific muscle is flexed or stretched to improve the muscle elasticity and to achieve a comfortable muscle tone. Stretching exercise aims to improve the joint range of motion (flexibility), decrease muscle tension, improve circulation, and relative muscle pain [10]- [12]. ...
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Objective: The study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of stretching exercise and tissue mobilization techniques with piriformis syndrome patients. Methods: Thirty-two participants were included in this study and they were classified into two groups. Group A, stretching exercise, hot pack, and group B, tissue mobilization technique, hot pack. Every group obtained two sessions in a week, for four weeks. The participants were assessed by (VAS), (RMQ), and (HAM-A). Results: The comparison revealed that for RMQ there was a significant difference between groups in terms of the stretching exercise group (P >0.05). For HAM-A and VAS, there were no statically significant differences between groups (P <0.05), but the impact of both exercises indicates that stretching exercises have a higher positive effect comparing to tissue mobilization on pain. Conclusion: The study proved which the stretching exercise was more efficient than the tissue mobilization technique on the pain outcome measures. It’s reported that stretching exercise improves low back function more than tissue mobilization technique. In the end, the study indicated that significantly there was no difference between both groups on the anxiety outcome measure. Keywords: Stretching exercise, Tissue mobilization technique, Piriformis syndrome, Positional release therapy
Article
Available data on the associations between motor competence and flexibility is limited and results inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and motor competence in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7 ± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push up tests) and flexibility (back-saver sit and reach and trunk lift tests) were evaluated using the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Z-scores by age and gender for the physical fitness tests were constructed. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed. Participants in the healthy zone groups of both flexibility tests exhibited significantly better scores of motor competence than the participants under the healthy zone (p<0.001). Back-saver sit and reach and trunk lift Z-scores, either individually or as a sum, were significant predictors of motor competence (p<0.05 for all) after adjustments for the other physical fitness components, age, body mass index and socioeconomic status, in both genders. Our findings highlight the importance of promoting and developing flexibility, as well as the other health-related physical fitness components in schoolchildren to reach adequate levels of motor competence.
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Target Panic is a disruption of an archer's rhythm, routines, and techniques due to psychological and neurological conditions [1]. The purpose of this study was to understand this disturbance and obtain latest feedback on how to mitigate target panic, through the feedback received. This study used a ‘multi-method’ qualitative approach that involved interviewing 10 National and International level archery coaches at State Training Centers.The results of the study show that archers experience 'Target Panic' problems after reaching the high score target, after practicing for too long, after not practicing for a long time and others (eager to hit yellow, changing equipment, over thinking). The main types of target panic are in line with previous studies (Holding, Premature release and mixed) [1-2]. However, this study found there was an additional type of target panic namely ‘loss of balance and coordination’. Better understanding of target panic, will help coaches at various levels to deal with target panic promptly and effectively.
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BACKGROUND: The recovery process should be optimized to enable performance capabilities as soon as possible. METHODS: The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different recovery methods on heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate concentration (BLa) in young wrestlers after an exhausting intensive exercise. Sixteen cadet and junior elite freestyle wrestlers (mean ± SD: age: 17.44±1.15 years; 173.25±5.79 cm; BMI 22.1±1.68 kg/m 2 ; body mass 66.7±8.4 kg and 4.4±1.6 years of wrestling training experience) volunteered to participate in this study. The recovery protocols were performed in 4 consecutive weeks, using a counterbalance method. The active recovery session consisted of 15 minutes (1) jogging; 2) jogging and static stretching; 3) jogging and dynamic stretching) and 4) passive recovery among a control group. All data were reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD), with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The R-Pearson was calculated among variables. The statistical significance was considered P<0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the three active and passive recovery methods for any of the dependent variables (p<0.05). All recovery methods have been equally effective at removing and restoring dependent variables to baseline in 15 minutes and none has had priority over others. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that there was no significant correlation between rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and selected physiological variables, except VO2max in the jogging and dynamic stretch
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This book is a collection of innovative work from ASEAN countries. It is our pleasure to welcome you to the IMIT SIC 2021 extended abstract proceedings. The proceedings are collections of research reports contributed by researchers, academicians and students from Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. My sincere gratitude goes to the authors, reviewers and technical program committee members for their contribution, hard work and support in promoting IMIT SIC 2021 in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. More than 290 extended abstracts went through a peer review process and each was accepted based on its relevance, innovation and application to the respective field it represents. The proceedings house a collection of extremely interesting and most current innovations, inventions and research findings, hence would be a valuable source of information and reference for researchers, academicians and students alike.
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Introdução: A manipulação do intervalo entre séries pode influenciar o desempenho de atividades subsequentes. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito do intervalo de alongamento estático de forma continua e intermitente no desempenho de flexores de punho. Métodos A amostra foi composta por 14 adultos jovens, hígidos, do gênero masculino (idade 31±9 anos; estatura 178±0,7 cm; massa 85±12 Kg). Foi avaliada a amplitude de movimento passivo (ADMP) em extensão de punho, a força isométrica máxima de flexão de punho associado a eletromiografia superficial antes e depois de dois protocolos de alongamento com diferentes intervalos entre séries. Para cada sujeito, um dos membros superiores foi alongado com o protocolo contínuo (CON) e o outro com o intermitente (INT), de forma aleatória. O protocolo CON consistiu na realização do alongamento durante 6 minutos ininterruptos, e o INT consistiu na realização de seis séries de 1 minuto por 20 segundos de intervalo entre as séries. A intensidade foi mantida a 70-90% da percepção subjetiva de desconforto. Resultados Os resultados de ADMP mostraram aumento significante entre as condições pré e pós-intervenção, em ambos os protocolos INT (81°±10 e 94°±10, P<0,001) e CON (87°±12 e 96°±11, P=0,004). Os resultados para o pico de força mostraram redução significante nas condições pós-intervenção para ambos os protocolos: INT (205±54 Kgf e 148±56 Kgf, P<0,001) e CON (211±39 Kgf e 144±36 Kgf, P<0,001). Os resultados para a taxa de produção de força mostraram aumento significante nas condições pré e pós-intervenção, para ambos os protocolos INT (0,52±0,29 Kgf/ms e 1,24±0,45 Kgf/ms, P<0,001) e CON (0,43±0,29 Kgf/ms e 1,11±0,34 Kgf/ms, P<0,001). Conclusão Ambos os protocolos aumentaram a amplitude passiva de movimento, reduziram a força pico e taxa de produção de força, sem modificações na ativação dos flexores de punho.
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Stretching during warm-up has been widely discussed for exerting a possible influence on performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) in the explosive force (EF) and the jump resistance (JR) of athletes. Eight male basketball players (21 ± 5 years; 176 ± 0 cm; 74.93 ± 14.2 kg; 23 ± 3.9 kg/m2) underwent two PNF protocols: a) Protocol 1: four repetitions with 5- second maximum voluntary isometric contraction followed by 30 seconds of passive stretching and b) Protocol 2: four repetitions with 5-second maximum voluntary isometric contraction followed by 60 seconds of passive stretching. For the assessment of EF and JR the height of the countermovement vertical jump was considered measured through the Jump System Pro. The Student t test was used to compare the heights of the jumps between pre and post stretching moments for the two analyzed variables. EF (Protocols 1 and 2 t (7) = 1,372, p = 0,212, and t (7) = 1,315, p = 0,229, respectively) and JR (Protocols 1 and 2, t (7) = 1,491, p = 0,179, and t (7) = 0446, p = 0,668, respectively) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) after both stretching protocols. The results of this study show that the stretching protocols used did not acutely affect the performance of EF and JR of basketball athletes.
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Objetivo principal: Analizar el efecto a corto plazo de un protocolo de estiramientos dinámicos y otro de estiramientos estáticos activos en tensión activa, de corta duración, sobre el rendimiento deportivo en el salto de altura vertical. Objetivos secundarios: 1) Revisar la literatura científica acerca del efecto a corto plazo de los estiramientos dinámicos y estáticos activos en tensión activa sobre el rendimiento deportivo en el salto de altura vertical. 2) Comparar el efecto de ambos protocolos de estiramientos entre sí y con un protocolo de calentamiento general sin estiramientos sobre el rendimiento en el salto vertical. Un total de 10 militares hombres completaron este estudio. Todos los sujetos participaron en tres grupos experimentales diferentes en tres días consecutivos. El primer día realizaron un calentamiento consistente en 10 minutos de carrera continua, más 5 Squat Jumps y 5 Countermovement Jumps. Después realizaron el pre-test, y a continuación, la rutina de estiramientos dinámicos, y al finalizar el post-test. El pre-test y el post-test consistieron en 3 Squat Jumps y 3 Countermovement Jump, seleccionándose el mejor salto. El segundo día realizaron el mismo calentamiento, el pre-test, la rutina de estiramientos, en este caso, activos en tensión activa y el post-test. El tercer día siguieron la misma rutina, cambiando solo los estiramientos por un descanso de 10 minutos. Criterios de exclusión 1) Presentar cualquier lesión músculo-esquelética que provoque una limitación funcional para realizar el salto de altura y/o correr. 2) Haber realizado actividad física intensa durante las dos horas previas al estudio. 3) Presentar dolor muscular de aparición tardía (agujetas) en cualquier grupo muscular de los miembros inferiores. 4) Presentar una limitación funcional bilateral en la articulación del hombro. 1. Chaouachi A et al. Effect of Warm-ups Involving Los resultados de este estudio piloto coinciden con otros estudios presentes en la literatura científica 1,2 , aunque la mayoría afirma que el estiramiento dinámico produce un aumento en el rendimiento deportivo 3,4. Dada la heterogeneidad de los resultados de otros estudios, sumada al resultado de este trabajo, no podemos recomendar, ni contraindicar, la realización de estiramientos dinámicos, ni estiramientos estáticos activos en tensión activa previos a la actividad deportiva. Es necesaria una mayor investigación en este sentido, aumentando, por ejemplo, el tamaño de la muestra de sujetos. El test no paramétrico de suma de rangos de Friedman mostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los tres grupos experimentales, ni en el Squat Jump (p=0.214) ni en el Countermovement Jump (p=0.378), probablemente por el bajo tamaño de la muestra, dado que si detectamos tendencias (ver tabla).
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of introducing passive static and ballistic stretching in a standard soccer match warm-up. The variables addressed were the Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump and the 40 m linear sprint. The sample was composed of 33 male subjects, divided in two age groups. U16 and adult players formed the groups, in order to cross check if there were differences between them. Each group was further subdivided into two groups regarding the type of stretching carried out during the stretching phase. Prior to the warm-up, the tests previously described were assessed. In the experimental phase, standard stretching was carried out consisting of: an initial phase in which players had to execute continuous running; a general phase in which players had to make articulate moves; a technical phase, in which players had to execute exercises with the ball; a 5 vs. 5 small sided game was carried out during the tactical phase; and, in the final phase, activation exercises and sprints were carried out by the players. Eventually, the same variables were assessed again once the warm-up was finished. There were no statistically significant differences between the two types of stretching included in the pre-match warm-up. It can be concluded that ballistic and passive static stretching (<10s) did not cause, under these circumstances, any effect in the assessed variables related to soccer performance (linear sprint, CMJ and Abalakov). This has to be considered by coaches when devising soccer related warm-ups.
Conference Paper
Historial do artigo: O presente artigo expressa uma opinião fundamentada em evidência e lógica. Foi elaborado e registado em 2013 e lançado a público no âmbito de ações de formação em várias certificações em exercício organizadas pelo autor, fazendo parte da documentação de apoio entregue aos alunos. As duas seguintes revisões (2016 e 2017) tiveram como revisor o Professor José Vilaça-Alves, onde se acrescentaram algumas secções de texto e a pesquisa científica atualizada. A versão de 2017 foi apresentada a público no 1o Congresso Internacional Exercise Summit (Oeiras, Portugal, Maio de 2017). A presente versão (2018), já tendo como revisor o Professor José Afonso Neves, é a última versão revista pelo autor, com a expansão das últimas secções, que se referem às verdadeiras causas da falta de flexibilidade e aos métodos mais vantajosos para a sua melhoria. Problema: A capacidade motora designada de flexibilidade é uma componente importante do movimento humano e, consequentemente, do fitness físico. Contudo, a forma de desenvolvimento desta capacidade não tem sido consensual, principalmente no que respeita às causas da sua pouca expressividade. Habitualmente, esta tem sido atribuída à falta de extensibilidade muscular antagonista e não às possíveis debilidades na capacidade de coordenação entre a musculatura agonista, antagonista e sinergista do movimento, que confere o arco articular analisado. Desta forma, a utilidade do alongamento do tipo passivo estático, aplicado à musculatura antagonista, com o propósito do aumento da amplitude do movimento articular (entre outros objetivos), embora seja a intervenção mais utilizada, tem sido colocada em causa. Assim, o objetivo do presente artigo foi efetuar uma reflexão crítica sobre esta problemática, tendo como base o raciocínio lógico e a revisão da literatura científica. Será dado enfâse aos efeitos do treino da flexibilidade em diversos domínios: nos níveis de força, na prevenção de lesões, no desempenho desportivo e na estrutura e função muscular. Será, igualmente, efetuada uma reflexão sobre o efeito das diferentes técnicas de treino da flexibilidade, tais como a facilitação neuromuscular propriocetiva (PNF) e o alongamento dinâmico. Serão abordados os efeitos do treino com resistências na flexibilidade e na capacidade de produzir força. Recursos bibliográficos: Para o efeito, foram utilizados manuais de referência em fisiologia humana (p.e. Joint Structure and Function; Principles of Neural Science), bem como da área da prescrição de exercício, e revistos cerca de 100 artigos científicos (dos quais 34 são revisões), que relacionam alongamento e/ou treino com resistências com as capacidades motoras flexibilidade e força, no desempenho desportivo, na prevenção ou incidência de lesão, na estrutura e na função neural muscular. Os estudos usados apresentam probabilidade de erro inferior a 5%, mas nem todos reportam as magnitudes dos efeitos observados (i.e., effect sizes). Conclusões: Tendo como base a revisão da literatura científica consultada e a reflexão lógica efetuada sobre a mesma, concluímos que, à luz dos conhecimentos presentes, o alongamento do tipo passivo estático pode não ser útil na obtenção de flexibilidade ativa (funcional) e, mesmo que o seja, comportará uma diminuição dos níveis de força muscular – à custa de alterações estruturais e neurais negativas. O aumento da extensibilidade muscular – e o consequente incremento de amplitude articular –, que é verificado com o treino de alongamento, é maioritariamente causado por inibição neural aferente e eferente. São verificadas alterações nas propriedades estruturais musculares, tais como a viscoelasticidade ou o comprimento, que, apesar de contribuírem também para o acréscimo de amplitude articular, são de menor relevância que os efeitos neurais. Efeitos estes que detêm um potencial negativo nos níveis de força. O alongamento pode ter um efeito negativo no desempenho desportivo, não previne lesões e os aumentos de flexibilidade que gera, passivos apenas, não se transferem necessariamente para a amplitude funcional. O treino com resistências pode melhorar a flexibilidade ativa, mesmo com o uso de contrações musculares isométricas, além de gerar ganhos superiores nos níveis de força quando comparado com o treino de alongamento. A combinação de ambos os tipos de treino – com resistências e alongamento na mesma sessão – não é relevante o suficiente para que se considere um método superior a sessões apenas com treino com resistências. As diretrizes do ACSM, no que concerne ao treino da flexibilidade, são incoerentes e não deverão ser seguidas. Além de não cumprirem com os pressupostos que propõem, representam um investimento temporal que melhor poderia ser aplicado com outras atividades. Aplicações práticas: Por definição e bom uso da língua portuguesa, o termo flexibilidade deverá ser substituído por melhor termo, um que expresse realmente a qualidade física que se manifesta em amplitude de movimento articular. O termo mais correto será mobilidade. É sugerida uma origem alternativa para a sua diminuída expressão, nomeadamente a falta de controlo da musculatura agonista. O autor defende o treino com resistências como método superior ao alongamento, no treino da mobilidade ativa, ganhos de força e prevenção de lesões. O cumprimento das diretrizes tradicionais de prescrição do treino com resistências, tal como apresentadas pelo ACSM, apresenta-se como suficiente para tal efeito. Contudo, recomendações mais concisas e menos generalistas são aqui descritas, ainda que sejam necessárias mais pesquisas para clarificar os parâmetros ideais (se é que existem) de construção dos exercícios para o objetivo pretendido.
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Yoshimura, A, Inami, T, Schleip, R, Mineta, S, Shudo, K, and Hirose, N. Effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on range of motion and morphological changes in muscle: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Self-myofascial release using a foam roller (FR) is effective in improving range of motion (ROM) in at least some conditions. However, its mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated potential acute muscle morphological changes after the FR intervention and aimed to clarify the mechanism of increases in ROM by the FR intervention. We hypothesized that the FR intervention may increase ROM because of changes in fascicle length (FL) and aponeurosis displacement. This crossover study, involving 22 male university students (21.5 ± 1.3 years, 170.6 ± 4.0 cm, and 64.1 ± 8.9 kg; mean ± SD), compared the FR intervention targeting the gastrocnemius muscle with the control trial. The outcome measures were maximum passive ankle ROM, morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle (FL and aponeurosis displacement) during passive ankle plantar flexor movement, degree of pain during the FR intervention, and sensation of the triceps surae muscle. Although ROM of both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion increased significantly after the FR intervention (p < 0.01), no significant differences were found in FL and aponeurosis displacement before and after the FR intervention. The mean perception of pain during the FR intervention was rated as "slightly uncomfortable," corresponding to a 2.3 ± 2.4-cm on a 9.5-cm visual analog scale. We found that the FR intervention did not influence the morphology of muscle. It is necessary to investigate other factors related to ROM as the next step of this study.
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Long-distance running has become increasingly popular during the past decades. Many running patients pose questions to their orthopaedic surgeons regarding risks, benefits, and running techniques. This article identifies 11 running-related questions that patients may ask and provides information to help answer those questions. This review discusses data on the health benefits of running, common running injuries, the relationship between running and osteoarthritis, recommendations regarding running after orthopaedic surgery, running shoes, and other questions that may arise when treating the running athlete.
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Stretching exercises have been traditionally incorporated into warm-up routines before training sessions and sport events. However, the effects of stretching on maximal strength and strength endurance performance seem to depend on the type of stretching employed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching (SS), ballistic stretching (BS), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on maximal strength, number of repetitions at a submaximal load, and total volume (i.e., number of repetitions × external load) in a multiple-set resistance training bout. Twelve strength-trained men (20.4 ± 4.5 years, 67.9 ± 6.3 kg, 173.3 ± 8.5 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All of the subjects completed 8 experimental sessions. Four experimental sessions were designed to test maximal strength in the leg press (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) after each stretching condition (SS, BS, PNF, or no-stretching [NS]). During the other 4 sessions, the number of repetitions performed at 80% 1RM was assessed after each stretching condition. All of the stretching protocols significantly improved the range of motion in the sit-and-reach test when compared with NS. Further, PNF induced greater changes in the sit-and-reach test than BS did (4.7 ± 1.6, 2.9 ± 1.5, and 1.9 ± 1.4 cm for PNF, SS, and BS, respectively). Leg press 1RM values were decreased only after the PNF condition (5.5%, p < 0.001). All the stretching protocols significantly reduced the number of repetitions (SS: 20.8%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.8%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.7%, p < 0.001) and total volume (SS: 20.4%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.9%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.4%, p < 0.001) when compared with NS. The results from this study suggest that, to avoid a decrease in both the number of repetitions and total volume, stretching exercises should not be performed before a resistance training session. Additionally, strength-trained individuals may experience reduced maximal dynamic strength after PNF stretching.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effects of the static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching methods on local muscular endurance performance at intensities between 40 and 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the knee extension (KE) and bench press (BP) exercises. Fifteen male volunteers (23.9 ± 4.3 years; 174.5 ± 8.5 cm; and 77.8 ± 7.6 kg), who were nonathletes but had previous experience in resistance training, volunteered for this study. Participants were assigned to 9 randomly ordered experimental conditions, in which all subjects performed endurance tests at 40, 60, and 80% of 1RM, preceded by static stretching (SS), PNF, and no stretching (NS) in the KE and BP exercises. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (NS × SS × PNF) revealed an influence of stretching for all intensities only when the PNF treatment was used. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the KE exercise, with reductions in the number of repetitions when comparing PNF40 (23.7 ± 2.7) to NS40 (27.5 ± 3.6); PNF60 (12.6 ± 2.8) to SS60 (16.5 ± 4.1) and NS60 (17.3 ± 3.2); and PNF80 (6.3 ± 1.7) to SS80 (9.9 ± 2.5) and NS80 (9.8 ± 2.3) conditions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also found for the BP exercise with decreases in the number of repetitions when comparing PNF60 (13.7 ± 2.8) to NS60 (17.0 ± 3.0) and PNF80 (6.2 ± 2.2) to NS80 (8.7 ± 2.3) conditions. These findings suggest that for the intensities studied (40, 60, and 80% 1RM), only the PNF method decreased muscle endurance. Strength and conditioning professionals may want to consider avoiding PNF stretching before activities requiring local muscular endurance performance.
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effect of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic performance in elite youth soccer players. Twenty elite youth soccer players (mean age 17.2 +/- 1.2 years) performed 3 different warm-up protocols in a random order on nonconsecutive days. Each warm-up protocol consisted of a 5-minute low-intensity jog followed by 10 minutes of static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), or dynamic stretching followed by 8 front squats + 20% body mass (DSR). Subjects performed a countermovement jump followed by a 10- and 20-m sprint test immediately and at 3 and 6 minutes after each warm-up protocol. Vertical jump performance following DSR was better at 3 and 6 minutes than after DS, which in turn was better than after SS at 0, 3, and 6 minutes (p < 0.05). Jump performance was better at 3 minutes than immediately after, and this improvement was maintained at 6 minutes after DSR (p < 0.05). A better sprint performance was observed after DSR and DS compared with SS immediately and at 3 and 6 minutes following each warm-up protocol (p < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that a dynamic warm-up with the inclusion of resistance enhances jumping ability more than dynamic exercise alone. In addition, a dynamic warm-up produces a superior sprint and jump performance compared to a warm-up consisting of static stretching.
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching during warm-up on repeated sprint performance and also to assess any influence of the order in which dynamic activities (i.e., run-throughs and drills) and static stretching are conducted. Thirteen male team sport players completed a repeated sprint ability test consisting of three sets of maximal 6 x 20-m sprints (going every 25 seconds) after performing one of three different warm-up protocols in a within-subjects counterbalanced design. Each warm-up protocol involved an initial 1000-m jog, followed by either dynamic activities only (D), static stretching followed by dynamic activities (S-D), or dynamic activities followed by static stretching (D-S). First (FST), best (BST) and total (TST) 20-m sprint times were determined for each individual set of the repeated sprint ability test and overall (3 sets combined). Although consistent significant differences were not observed between trials for TST, BST, and FST, the mean values for TST in all individual sets and overall were generally slowest in the D-S condition (D = 60.264 +/- 1.127 seconds; S-D = 60.347 +/- 1.774 seconds; D-S = 60.830 +/- 1.786 seconds). This trend was supported by moderate to large effect sizes and qualitative indications of "possible" or "likely" benefits for TST, BST, and FST for the D and S-D warm-ups compared to D-S. No significant differences or large effect sizes were noted between D and S-D, indicating similar repeated sprint ability performance. Overall, these results suggest that 20-m repeated sprint ability may be compromised when static stretching is conducted after dynamic activities and immediately prior to performance (D-S).
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While it has been well established that an acute stretching program can inhibit maximal muscle performance, the amount of stretching needed to produce the deleterious response is unknown. Therefore this study examined the dose-response relationship between acute stretching and strength inhibition. Eighteen college students performed a one repetition maximum (1-RM) test of knee-flexion following 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 30-s bouts of hamstring stretching held at the limit of toleration. All seven dose variations were done by each subject, with each variation done on a separate day. One week separated each test, and the order of the stretch variations was balanced across the seven testing days. Stretching significantly (p < .05) reduced 1-RM after one 30-s stretch (5.4%), and continued to decrease 1-RM up to and including six 30-s stretches (12.4%). A single 30-s stretch, if held at the limit of toleration, is sufficient to cause an inhibition in a person's 1-RM. Additional bouts of stretching will further decrease the 1-RM, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may be involved in stretch-induced strength inhibition.
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Evidence suggests that static stretching inhibits muscular power. However, research does not reflect practice whereby individuals follow up stretching with secondary activity. This study investigated muscular power following stretching, and after a second bout of activity. Participants (n = 13) completed 3 randomized testing sessions which included a 5 min warm-up, followed by a vertical jump (VJ) on a force platform; an intervention (static stretching, dynamic, or control), followed by a second VJ. Participants then completed a series of movements, followed by a VJ, up to 60 min post activity. Immediately following the intervention, there was a 10.7% difference in VJ between static and dynamic stretching. The second warm up bout increased VJ height following the dynamic intervention, whereas the static stretching condition did not show any differences. The novel finding from this study demonstrates a second exercise bout does not reverse the effects of static stretching and is still detrimental to VJ.
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Stretching before performance is a common practice among athletes in hopes of increasing performance and reducing the risk of injury. However, cumulative results indicate a negative impact of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on performance; thus, there is a need for evaluating other stretching strategies for effective warm-up. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between two sets of ballistic stretching and two sets of a dynamic stretching routine on vertical jump performance. Twenty healthy male and female college students between the ages of 22 and 34 (24.8 +/- 3 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects completed three individual testing sessions on three nonconsecutive days. On each day, the subjects completed one of three treatments (no stretch, ballistic stretch, and dynamic stretch). Intraclass reliability was determined using the data obtained from each subject. A paired samples t-test revealed no significant difference in jump height, force, or power when comparing no stretch with ballistic stretch. A significant difference was found on jump power when comparing no stretch with dynamic stretch, but no significant difference was found for jump height or force. Statistics showed a very high reliability when measuring jump height, force, and power using the Kistler Quattro Jump force plate. It seems that neither dynamic stretching nor ballistic stretching will result in an increase in vertical jump height or force. However, dynamic stretching elicited gains in jump power poststretch.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching on concentric, isokinetic leg extension peak torque (PT) at 60 and 240 degrees.s(-1) in the stretched and unstretched limbs. The PT of the dominant (stretched) and nondominant (unstretched) leg extensors were measured on a calibrated Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Following the prestretching PT assessments, the dominant leg extensors were stretched using 1 active and 3 passive stretching exercises. After the stretching, PT was reassessed. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that PT decreased following the static stretching in both limbs and at both velocities (60 and 240 degrees.s(-1)). The present findings suggested that the stretching-induced decreases in PT may be related to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle, such as an altered length-tension relationship, or a central nervous system inhibitory mechanism. Overall, these findings, in conjunction with previous studies, indicated that static stretching impairs maximal force production. Strength and conditioning professionals should consider this before incorporating static stretching in preperformance activities. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanisms that influence the time course of stretching-induced decreases in maximal force production for athletes and nonathletes across the age span.
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The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the short-term effects of different stretching exercises during the warm-up period on the lower limbs. A controlled, crossover clinical study involving 49 volunteers (14 women and 35 men; mean age: 20.4 years) enrolled in a "physical and sporting activities monitor" program. The explosive force was assessed using the Bosco test. The protocol was as follows: The test involved a (pre) jump test, general warm-up, intervention and (post) jump test. Each volunteer was subjected to each of the 5 interventions (no stretching [NS] and stretching: static passive stretching [P]; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF] techniques; static active stretching in passive tension [PT]; static active stretching in active tension [AT]) in a random order. The jump test was used to assess the squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), elasticity index (EI), and drop jump. An intragroup statistical analysis was performed before and after each intervention to compare the differences between the different stretching exercises. An intergroup analysis was also performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between all variables for the interventions "P," "PNF," and "TA" in the intragroup analysis, with each value being higher in the postjump test. Only the "P" intervention showed a significant difference (p = 0.046) for "EI," with the postvalue being lower. Likewise, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for the "CMJ" measurements during the intergroup analysis, especially between "NS" and the interventions "P," "PNF," "AT," and "PT," with each value, particularly that for "AT," being higher after stretching. The results of this study suggest that static active stretching in AT can be recommended during the warm-up for explosive force disciplines.
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Static stretching (SS) has shown decreases in many areas including strength, anaerobic power, and sprinting time. Dynamic stretching (DS) has shown increases in anaerobic power and decreases in sprinting time. Research on the effects of stretching on agility performance is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SS and DS on performance time of a sport agility test. Sixty male subjects consisting of collegiate (n = 18) and recreational (n = 42) basketball athletes volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: SS, DS, or no stretching (NS). All groups completed a 10-minute warm-up jog followed by a 3-minute rest. The SS and DS groups then completed an 8.5-minute stretching intervention. Next, all subjects completed 3 trials of the 505 agility test with 2-5 minutes of rest between trials. A 2-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (Stretch group, athlete category, group × athlete interaction) was used to determine statistical significance (p < 0.05). A Tukey post hoc test was performed to determine differences between groups. For all athletes, the DS group produced significantly faster times on the agility test (2.22 ± 0.12 seconds, mean ± SD) in comparison to both the SS group (2.33 ± 0.15 seconds, p = 0.013) and NS group (2.32 ± 0.12 seconds, p = 0.026). Differences between the SS and NS groups revealed no significance (p = 0.962). There was a significant difference in mean times for the type of athlete (p = 0.002); however, interaction between the type of athlete and stretching group was not significant (p = 0.520). These results indicate that in comparison to SS or NS, DS significantly improves performance on closed agility skills involving a 180° change of direction.
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The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of a warm-up with static vs. dynamic stretching on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, reaction time, and low-back and hamstring flexibility and to determine whether any observed performance deficits would persist throughout a series of CMJs. Twenty-one recreationally active men (24.4 ± 4.5 years) completed 3 data collection sessions. Each session included a 5-minute treadmill jog followed by 1 of the stretch treatments: no stretching (NS), static stretching (SS), or dynamic stretching (DS). After the jog and stretch treatment, the participant performed a sit-and-reach test. Next, the participant completed a series of 10 maximal-effort CMJs, during which he was asked to jump as quickly as possible after seeing a visual stimulus (light). The CMJ height and reaction time were determined from measured ground reaction forces. A treatment × jump repeated-measures analysis of variance for CMJ height revealed a significant main effect of treatment (p = 0.004). The CMJ height was greater for DS (43.0 cm) than for NS (41.4 cm) and SS (41.9 cm) and was not less for SS than