Prostate cancer in young men: An important clinical entity

Nature Reviews Urology (Impact Factor: 4.84). 05/2014; 11(6). DOI: 10.1038/nrurol.2014.91
Source: PubMed


Prostate cancer is considered a disease of older men (aged >65 years), but today over 10% of new diagnoses in the USA occur in young men aged ≤55 years. Early-onset prostate cancer, that is prostate cancer diagnosed at age ≤55 years, differs from prostate cancer diagnosed at an older age in several ways. Firstly, among men with high-grade and advanced-stage prostate cancer, those diagnosed at a young age have a higher cause-specific mortality than men diagnosed at an older age, except those over age 80 years. This finding suggests that important biological differences exist between early-onset prostate cancer and late-onset disease. Secondly, early-onset prostate cancer has a strong genetic component, which indicates that young men with prostate cancer could benefit from evaluation of genetic risk. Furthermore, although the majority of men with early-onset prostate cancer are diagnosed with low-risk disease, the extended life expectancy of these patients exposes them to long-term effects of treatment-related morbidities and to long-term risk of disease progression leading to death from prostate cancer. For these reasons, patients with early-onset prostate cancer pose unique challenges, as well as opportunities, for both research and clinical communities. Current data suggest that early-onset prostate cancer is a distinct phenotype-from both an aetiological and clinical perspective-that deserves further attention.

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    • "increased by 5.7-fold between 1986 and 2008 (Salinas et al., 2014). These patients with early-onset prostate cancer were however more likely to have low-grade cancers than their older counterparts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individual-level data from the Florida Cancer Data System (1981–2007) were analyzed to explore temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage diagnosis, and how they vary based on race, income and age. Annual census-tract rates were computed for two races (white and black) and two age categories (40–65, >65) before being aggregated according to census tract median household incomes. Joinpoint regression and a new disparity statistic were applied to model temporal trends and detect potential racial and socio-economic differences. Multi-dimensional scaling was used as an innovative way to visualize similarities among temporal trends in a 2-D space. Analysis of time-series indicated that late-stage diagnosis was generally more prevalent among blacks, for age category 40–64 compared to older patients covered by Medicare, and among classes of lower socio-economic status. Joinpoint regression also showed that the rate of decline in late-stage diagnosis was similar among older patients. For younger patients, the decline occurred at a faster pace for blacks with rates becoming similar to whites in the late 1990s, in particular for higher incomes. Both races displayed distinct spatial patterns with higher rates of late-stage diagnosis in the Florida Panhandle for whites whereas high rates clustered in South-eastern Florida for blacks.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Spatial Statistics
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    • "So far, little is known about early detection or management of prostate cancer in young patients (aged <55 years), due to the severe lack of randomized controlled trials regarding this matter. Most authors believe these cancers represent a distinct phenotype in prostate cancer, etiologically, and clinically, and therefore clear guidelines are needed for appropriate management and consistency of care [15] [16]. These case reports present different confounding factors responsible for error or delay in diagnosing a prostate cancer with cervical lymphadenopathies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, often presenting with regional lymph node or bone metastasis and rarely with supradiaphragmatic lymph node involvement. Most metastatic cancers involving the cervical lymph nodes are from cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. In this report, we describe two cases with cervical lymph node enlargement due to metastatic prostate cancer as the initial clinical presentation: a 43-year-old male, initially misdiagnosed with a tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract and an 87-year-old male with right lobe pneumonia and cervical lymph node enlargement, initially attributed to be an acute inflammatory lymph node reaction. To the best of our knowledge, there are less than 50 cases reported in the literature of adenocarcinoma of prostate metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes and only one case presenting in men younger than 45 years. The authors intend to highlight the importance of digital rectal exam and PSA test in case of persistent left cervical lymph node enlargement, including men younger than 45 years of age.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015

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