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Effects of heavy episodic drinking on physical performance in club level rugby union players

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This study investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption, in a natural setting, on exercise performance in the 2 days after the drinking episode. Additionally, alcohol related behaviours of this group of rugby players were identified. Prospective cohort study. Nineteen male club rugby players volunteered for this study. Measures of counter movement jump, maximal lower body strength, repeated sprint ability and hydration were made 2 days before and in the 2 days following heavy episodic alcohol consumption. Participants completed a questionnaire at each time point so that alcohol consumption and sleep hours from the previous 24h period could be quantified. Additionally, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT) prior to completing baseline measures of performance. Reported alcohol consumption ranged from 6 to >20 standard drinks (mean category scale score=11-19 standard drinks). A significant decrease in sleep hours (p=0.01) was reported after the drinking episode with participants reporting 1-3h for the night. A significant reduction (-1.8±1.5cm) in counter movement jump (p<0.01) the morning after the drinking episode was observed; no other measures were altered at any time point compared to baseline (p>0.05). AUDIT scores for this group (18.2±4.3) indicate regular alcohol consumption at a hazardous level. Heavy episodic alcohol use, and associated reduced sleep hours, results in a reduction in lower body power output but not other measures of anaerobic performance the morning after a drinking session. Full recovery from this behaviour is achieved by 2 days post drinking episode.
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Journal
of
Science
and
Medicine
in
Sport
17 (2014) 244–
248
Contents
lists
available
at
ScienceDirect
Journal
of
Science
and
Medicine
in
Sport
jou
rn
al
h
omepa
ge:
www.elsevier.com/locate/jsams
Original
research
The
effects
of
binge
drinking
behaviour
on
recovery
and
performance
after
a
rugby
match
Christopher
Prentice,
Stephen
R.
Stannard,
Matthew
J.
Barnes
School
of
Sport
&
Exercise,
Massey
University,
New
Zealand
a
r
t
i
c
l
e
i
n
f
o
Article
history:
Received
1
February
2013
Received
in
revised
form
15
March
2013
Accepted
25
April
2013
Available online 16 May 2013
Keywords:
Alcohol
abuse
Team
sports
Muscle
strength
Sleep
Dehydration
Muscle
damage
a
b
s
t
r
a
c
t
Objectives:
This
study
compared
the
effects
of
“normal”
post-game
behaviour
with
recommended
behaviour
on
physical
performance
in
the
days
after
a
rugby
union
game.
Additionally,
the
habitual
drinking
habits
of
rugby
players
were
identified.
Design:
Prospective
cohort
study.
Methods:
After
a
rugby
game,
26
players
were
split
by
team
into
a
customary
behaviour
group
(CB),
who
carried
out
their
usual
post-game
behaviour,
or
recommended
behaviour
group
(RB),
whose
diet
and
activity
was
controlled
in
the
hours
after
the
game.
Counter
movement
jump,
lower-body
strength,
repeated
sprint
ability,
CK
and
hydration
status
were
measured
prior
to
and
in
the
days
after
the
game.
Twenty-four
hour
behaviour
recall
questionnaires
where
completed
throughout
the
trial
period.
The
Alcohol
Use
Disorders
Identification
Test
(AUDIT)
was
also
administered
to
participants.
Results:
Compared
to
baseline
values,
large
volumes
of
alcohol
(p
<
0.01)
and
a
loss
in
sleep
(p
<
0.001)
was
reported
by
the
CB
group
in
the
hours
after
the
game.
Measures
of
performance
and
hydration
status
were
unchanged
over
time
and
no
difference
was
evident
between
groups
(all
p
<
0.05).
Total
AUDIT
scores
for
all
participants
were
17.7
±
5.
CK
was
elevated
in
the
days
following
the
game
(p
<
0.001).
Conclusions:
Physical
performance
was
not
affected
by
participation
in
a
game
of
senior
club
rugby,
irrespective
of
post-game
behaviour
and
possible
muscle
damage.
AUDIT
scores
indicate
that
club
rugby
players
may
be
at
risk
of
serious
alcohol
related
harm,
with
post-game
binge
drinking
likely
to
be
a
major
contributor.
© 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1.
Introduction
Alcohol
is
regularly
consumed
at
hazardous
levels
by
players
of
contact
sport,
particularly
in
the
hours
after
a
game.1–3 Despite
this
customary
behaviour
there
is
a
surprising
lack
of
research
into
the
effects
such
potentially
detrimental
conduct
has
on
recovery
from
a
game.
Recently,
a
dose
of
1
g
of
alcohol
per
kg
bodyweight,
when
consumed
after
simulated4or
competitive5contact
team
sport,
was
shown
to
have
adverse
effects
on
lower
body
muscular
power
in
the
days
following
the
game.
This
dose
has
also
been
shown
to
detri-
mentally
impact
the
magnitude
of
force
loss
when
consumed
after
eccentric-exercise.6,7 While
together
these
studies
suggest
alcohol
negatively
impacts
recovery
and
subsequent
performance
in
the
days
after
strenuous
exercise,
the
doses
of
alcohol
used
to
date
are
significantly
less
than
those
reported
to
be
consumed
by
athletes
involved
with
several
football
codes.3,8
While
laboratory
based
studies
allow
for
precise
measurement
of
alcohol
consumption,
ethical
limitations
associated
with
the
Corresponding
author.
E-mail
address:
M.barnes@massey.ac.nz
(M.J.
Barnes).
administration
of
high
doses
of
alcohol
and
the
fact
normal
alcohol-
related
behaviour
may
be
altered
in
the
laboratory
setting
makes
investigating
realistic
doses
of
alcohol
consumption,
and
subse-
quent
behaviour,
difficult.
For
example,
after
a
game
large
quantities
of
alcohol
may
be
con-
sumed
at
a
self-administered
rate
and
quantity
over
many
hours
resulting
in
disturbances
in
several
normal
behaviours
includ-
ing
diet9and
sleeping
patterns.10 It
is
difficult
to
replicate
such
behaviour
in
a
laboratory
and
therefore
the
use
of
a
“naturalistic”
method,
where
the
participant
can
dictate
amount
and
rate
of
alco-
hol
ingestion,
is
used
when
investigating
alcohol
consumption
and
its
subsequent
effects.11 This
method
is
limited
to
self-reporting
alcohol
consumption
which,
in
itself,
can
be
problematic.12
Utilising
a
naturalistic
methodology,
the
aims
of
the
present
study
were
to
(1)
quantify
habitual
and
post-game
alcohol
consumption
amongst
a
group
of
senior
rugby
union
players,
inves-
tigate
(2)
whether
the
stress
of
a
game
of
rugby
is
detrimental
to
subsequent
physical
performance
and
(3)
whether
normal
post-
game
behaviour
impacts
recovery
and
subsequent
performance
in
the
days
after
a
rugby
game,
when
compared
to
a
group
undertaking
optimal
recovery
strategies.
It
was
hypothesised
that
rugby
players
would
consume
large
amounts
of
alcohol
in
the
hours
after
a
game
1440-2440/$
see
front
matter ©
2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.04.011
Author's personal copy
C.
Prentice
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Science
and
Medicine
in
Sport
17 (2014) 244–
248 245
and
that
this
behaviour
would
prove
detrimental
to
performance
in
the
days
following
the
game.
2.
Methods
Thirty
male
club
rugby
players
(mean
±
SD,
age
21.2
±
2.1
years,
body
mass
87.6
±
6.0
kg,
height
181.7
±
6.2
cm)
from
two
senior
grade
rugby
teams
volunteered
to
participate
in
this
study.
The
study
took
place
the
week
after
the
final
game
of
the
competi-
tive
rugby
season.
The
teams
participating
in
the
study
finished
sixth
and
seventh
in
the
local
senior
rugby
competition
and
the
final
score
of
the
game
played
for
the
purposes
of
this
study
was
9–6.
All
testing
sessions
were
started
at
0900
while
the
game
was
played
between
1830
and
2000.
Due
to
injury
4
players
withdrew
from
the
study
after
the
game.
Before
the
study,
all
procedures
were
explained
and
written
informed
consent
was
obtained
from
each
participant.
Participants
then
underwent
familiarisation
of
all
procedures
used
in
the
study.
The
study
was
approved
by
the
University
Human
Ethics
Committee.
Following
the
completion
of
the
game
participants
were
split
by
team
into
either
the
customary
behaviour
(CB;
n
=
13,
20.9
±
2.1,
body
mass
87.1
±
7.6
kg,
height
181
±
5.99
cm)
or
recommended
behaviour
(RB;
n
=
13,
21.5
±
2.2,
body
mass
88.2
±
4.2
kg,
height
182.2
±
6.89
cm)
group.
Such
an
allocation
allowed
all
participants
to
compete
in
the
one
game,
removing
potential
match
related
differences
such
as
game
intensity,
weather
and
ground
conditions.
Having
abstained
from
strenuous
exercise
for
24
h,
participants
reported
to
the
laboratory
66
h
prior
to
the
game
to
establish
baseline
measures.
Participants
completed
a
24
h
behaviour
recall
questionnaire
and
an
Alcohol
Use
Disorders
Identification
Test
(AUDIT)
after
which
body
mass,
height,
urine
and
blood
samples
and
baseline
performance
measures
were
made.
Urine
and
blood
samples,
performance
measures
and
24
h
behaviour
recall
diaries
were
repeated
at
13
and
37
h
post-game.
Immediately
following
the
rugby
match,
participants
returned
to
the
laboratory,
urine
and
blood
samples
were
taken
and
partici-
pants
then
split
into
their
respective
groups.
The
CB
group
left
the
laboratory
to
undertake
whatever
behaviour
was
typical
for
them
after
a
game.
The
investigators
had
no
contact
with
this
group,
or
influence
on
their
behaviour,
until
they
returned
to
the
laboratory
13
h
post-game.
The
RB
group
remained
in
the
laboratory
where
they
were
provided
with
a
controlled
meal
and
beverage
contain-
ing
1
g
CHO
per
kg
body
mass
and
20
g
protein.13 The
RB
group
then
remained
in
the
laboratory
and
were
supplied
with
non-alcoholic
beverages,
which
could
be
consumed
ad
libitum,
and
entertainment
before
being
returned
home
to
bed
by
2300.
Creatine
kinase
(CK)
activity
was
analysed
as
a
marker
of
mus-
cle
damage.
Venous
blood
was
collected
from
the
antecubital
vein
into
4
ml
K3EDTA
vacutainer
tubes
(Beckton
Dickinson,
UK)
which
was
then
centrifuged
at
4C
for
10
min
at
1650
g.
Plasma
was
sepa-
rated
and
frozen
at
80C
for
later
analysis.
A
Vitalab
Flexor
clinical
chemistry
analyser
(Vitel
Scientific
NV,
Netherlands)
and
Roche
CK-NAC
liquid
assay
kit
(Roche
Diagnostics
GmbH,
Mannheim,
Germany)
were
then
used
to
determine
CK
activity.
To
analyse
hydration
status,
a
midstream
urine
sample
was
collected
and
ana-
lysed
for
urine
specific
gravity
(Usg)
using
a
refractometer
(Atago,
Japan),
calibrated
with
deionized
water.
Usg was
compared
to
the
indices
of
hydration
status.14
A
behaviour
recall
questionnaire
was
completed
by
participants
to
provide
information
regarding
hours
of
sleep
and
alcohol
con-
sumption
for
the
previous
24
h
period.
Behaviour
was
categorised
according
to
Table
1,
and
assigned
an
arbitrary
ranking
from
1
to
6
for
statistical
analysis.
During
baseline
testing
participants
com-
pleted
the
AUDIT
questionnaire,15 allowing
for
analysis
of
habitual
alcohol
use.
This
test
provides
subscales
to
identify;
hazardous
alco-
hol
use,
dependence
symptoms
and
harmful
alcohol
use.
Table
1
Categorisation
of
24
h
recall
behaviour
of
alcohol
(as
standard
drinks)
and
sleep
hours.
Category
Alcohol
(StD)
Sleep
(h)
1
0
0
2
1–3
1–4
3
3–5
4–6
4
6–10
6–8
5
10–20
8–10
6
20
or
more
10
or
more
StD:
standard
drinks.
After
completing
the
behaviour
recall
questionnaire
and
the
collection
of
blood
and
urine
samples,
participants
performed
a
5
min
warm
up
at
100
W
on
a
cycle
ergometer
(Monark,
Stockholm,
Sweden),
followed
by
stretching.
Participants
then
completed
3
counter
movement
jumps
(CMJ)16 on
an
electronic
jump
mat
(Smart
Jump,
Fusion
Sport,
Australia).
Each
jump
was
separated
by
30
s
and
maximum
jump
height
was
recorded.
Maximal
isometric
lower
body
(deadlift)
force
(LBF)
was
then
measured
using
a
custom
made
dynamometer
consisting
a
modified
barbell
and
chain
con-
nected
to
a
calibrated,
tension
s-beam
load
cell
(Muller,
Germany)
and
platform.
The
load
cell,
in
turn,
was
connected
to
a
custom
made
amplifier
and
PowerLab
data
acquisition
system
(ADInstru-
ments,
Australia).
Each
participant
was
instructed
on
the
proper
technique
of
lifting
during
familiarisation.
Participants
performed
3
maximal
efforts
separated
by
1
min
of
rest
with
the
maximum
value
recorded.
Finally,
participants
completed
6
m
×
40
m
sprints
departing
every
30
s,
as
described
by
Fitzsimons
et
al.17 The
pro-
tocol
was
electronically
controlled
and
sprint
times
recorded
by
a
photoelectric
timing
system
(SmartSpeed,
Fusion
Sport,
Australia).
Each
repetition
time
as
well
as
total
time
spent
running
was
recorded.
Five
min
passive
recovery
was
given
between
each
per-
formance
test.
Data
analysis
was
carried
out
using
SPSS
18.0
(SPSS
Inc.,
Chicago,
IL).
Changes
in
performance,
CK,
Usg and
behaviour
recall
were
ana-
lysed
using
a
two-way
(group
×
time)
repeated
measures
ANOVA.
If
significant
main
effects
were
found,
Bonferroni
post
hoc
analy-
sis
was
performed
to
locate
the
differences.
AUDIT
questionnaire
results
were
analysed
using
a
one
way
ANOVA
to
establish
whether
any
significant
differences
existed
between
each
of
the
three
sub-
scales
(hazardous
alcohol
use,
dependence
symptoms
and
harmful
alcohol
use).
Students
paired
T-tests
were
used
to
identify
between
group
differences
in
total
AUDIT
score.
Data
are
reported
as
mean
±
SD,
with
statistical
significance
set
at
p
<
0.05.
3.
Results
As
hypothesised,
the
CB
group
reported
consuming
a
large
vol-
ume
of
alcohol
after
the
game,
compared
to
their
baseline
(p
<
0.01)
and
37
h
(p
<
0.01)
values.
The
mean
ranking
of
5.6
±
0.5
out
of
6
is
equivalent
to
a
mean
of
just
below
20
standard
drinks.
Eight
of
the
13
participants
reported
a
ranking
of
6
out
of
6
for
alcohol
con-
sumption
post-game
with
the
remaining
participants
reporting
a
ranking
of
5.
Similarly,
the
number
of
hours
slept
over
that
same
period
(2.3
±
0.6,
equivalent
to
1–4
h
sleep)
was
significantly
lower
than
baseline
(p
<
0.001)
and
37
h
(p
<
0.001)
values.
No
difference
in
alcohol
consumption
or
hours
slept
were
reported
for
the
RB
group
(both
p
>
0.05).
The
competitive
game
of
rugby
had
no
effect
on
any
of
the
measures
of
physical
performance
(Table
2)
made
in
the
current
study.
CMJ
height
was
unchanged
over
time
(p
=
0.497)
and
no
difference
was
observed
between
groups
(p
=
0.855).
Similarly,
no
significant
changes
in
LBF
were
evident
over
time
(p
=
0.129)
or
between
groups
(p
=
0.427).
No
group
×
time
interaction
effect
was
observed
for
either
CMJ
(p
=
0.764)
or
LBF
(p
=
0.168).
Author's personal copy
246 C.
Prentice
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Science
and
Medicine
in
Sport
17 (2014) 244–
248
Table
2
Measures
of
hydration
status,
creatine
kinase
and
performance
variables
prior
to
and
after
a
rugby
match.
Baseline
Post-game
13
h
37
h
Usg CB
1.021
±
0.007
1.016
±
0.006*1.022
±
.004
1.020
±
0.009
RB
1.019
±
0.007 1.021
±
0.0024*1.018
±
0.007
1.016
±
0.006
CK
(U/L) CB
230.8
±
54.2
248.0
±
80.9
534.0
±
245.8
410.9
±
149
RB
264.9
±
51.6448.9
±
77.1*897.3
±
234.3*686.1
±
142.5*,
CMJ
(cm) CB
34.8
±
7.4
34.9
±
7.5
35.5
±
6.7
RB
34.6
±
7.2
35.7
±
6.9
36.7
±
6.2
LBF
(N) CB
1701
±
310
1725
±
251
1693
±
250
RB
1732
±
364
1843
±
304
1865
±
356
RSA
mean
sprint
time
(s) CB
6.13
±
0.38 –
6.39
±
0.34 6.58
±
0.52
RB
6.26
±
0.46
5.67
±
0.31
5.92
±
0.40
RSA
%
decrement CB
5.3
±
2.1
5.04
±
2.08
5.91
±
4.33
RB
6.04
±
3.48
6.42
±
1.35
4.19
±
1.69
CB:
customary
behaviour
group,
RB:
recommended
behaviour
group,
Usg:
urine
specific
gravity,
CK:
creatine
kinase,
CMJ:
counter
movement
jump,
LBF:
lower
body
force,
RSA:
repeated
sprint
ability.
*Significantly
different
to
baseline
values
(p
<
0.05).
Significantly
different
to
CB
group
(p
<
0.05).
Mean
sprint
time,
the
average
time
across
all
6
sprints,
and
the
percentage
decrement
between
the
first
and
last
sprint
were
calculated
for
RSA.
Mean
sprint
time
did
not
change
over
time
and
no
difference
was
seen
between
groups
(both
p
>
0.1).
The
group
×
time
interaction
displays
a
trend
that
is
approaching
sig-
nificance
(p
=
0.058)
with
a
slower
mean
sprint
time
seen
for
the
CB
group
at
both
13
and
37
h
compared
to
the
RB
group.
No
significant
difference
in
percentage
decrement
was
seen
over
time
or
between
groups
(p
=
0.706
and
0.15,
respectively).
A
main
effect
of
time
(p
<
0.001)
was
observed
for
CK
however
no
group
effect
(p
=
0.22)
or
group
×
time
interaction
(p
=
0.376)
was
evident
(Table
2).
No
difference
over
time
or
between
groups
(both
p
>
0.05)
was
found
for
Usg,
all
participants
were
in
a
state
of
mild
to
signif-
icant
dehydration
throughout
the
research
period
(Table
2‘).
A
group
x
time
interaction
(p
=
0.038)
was
evident;
post
hoc
analy-
sis
revealed
that
this
was
due
to
the
RB
group
(Usg,
1.021
±
0.004)
being
more
dehydrated
immediately
after
the
game
than
the
CB
group
(1.016
±
0.006,
p
=
0.045).
Six
participants
failed
to
complete
the
AUDIT
questionnaire
and
therefore
analysis
was
performed
for
24
participants
(CB
n
=
11,
RB
n
=
13).
Analysis
revealed
no
significant
difference
in
the
total
AUDIT
score
(CB
19.7
±
6.1;
RB
15.8
±
2.5,
p
=
0.067)
or
hazardous
(CB
9.2
±
1.2;
RB
8.7
±
1.3,
p
=
0.359)
and
harmful
(CB
6.4
±
4.2;
RB
5.1
±
1.9,
p
=
0.372)
subscale
scores
between
the
groups.
A
signif-
icant
(p
=
0.012)
difference
in
the
dependence
subscale
score
was
found
between
groups
with
those
in
the
CB
group
reporting
a
higher
level
of
dependence
(CB
4.2
±
1.2;
RB
2.1
±
1.2).
Ambient
temperature
(19.4
±
0.4C)
and
relative
humidity
(81.8
±
2.0%)
were
not
different
between
testing
sessions
(both
p
>
0.05).
4.
Discussion
This
study
utilised
a
naturalistic
approach11 to
compare
the
effects
of
“normal”
post-game
behaviour
(CB)
and
controlled,
rec-
ommended
post-exercise
behaviour
(RB)
on
physical
performance
in
the
days
following
a
game
of
rugby.
As
hypothesised,
partici-
pants
in
the
CB
group
consumed
hazardous
volumes
of
alcohol
in
the
hours
after
the
game.
During
this
period,
participants
in
the
CB
group
consumed
20
standard
drinks
(a
standard
drink
contains
10
g
of
alcohol),
a
much
higher
dose
than
used
in
pre-
vious
investigations
into
alcohols
effect
on
physical
performance
and
post-exercise
recovery.4,7,18 These
values
are
also
significantly
higher
than
those
reported
by
O’Brien19 who
investigated
the
effects
of
normal,
night-before
game
alcohol
consumption
on
aer-
obic
and
anaerobic
performance.
Habitual
alcohol
use
by
all
participants
of
this
study,
as
quan-
tified
by
the
AUDIT,
resulted
in
a
mean
score
(17.7
±
5)
that
is
indicative
of
alcohol
use
disorders
and
associated
harm.20 An
AUDIT
score
of
8
or
more
indicates
potentially
harmful
drink-
ing
behaviours.15 This
score
is
higher
than
previously
described
for
New
Zealand
rugby
players3and
other
sportspeople21,22 but
similar
to
AUDIT
scores
from
amateur
sportsmen
in
Ireland.23
A
score
of
8.9
±
1.3
in
the
hazardous
alcohol
use
subscale
is
of
particular
concern
indicating
considerable,
regular
binge
drink-
ing
behaviour.
It
is
unclear
whether
this
behaviour
is
unique
to
this
population
of
rugby
players
or
if
these
results
are
represen-
tative
of
the
current
drinking
behaviours
of
club
rugby
players
throughout
New
Zealand
and
other
countries.
Associated
with
this
behaviour
was
a
significant
loss
in
sleep
hours.
Whether
this
was
due
to
time
spent
in
the
evening
consuming
alcohol
and
socialis-
ing
or
as
a
result
of
alcohols
disruptive
influence
on
sleep10 is
not
known.
The
World
Health
Organisation24 classifies
heavy
episodic
or
binge
drinking
as
the
consumption
of
more
than
60
g
of
alcohol
in
a
single
drinking
episode.
Regular
consumption
of
alcohol
at
or
above
this
level
is
associated
with
acute
and
chronic
physical,
psycholog-
ical
and
social
harm.24 Particularly
relevant
to
the
male
population
(sporting
and
general)
are
the
direct
and
indirect
negative
long
term
effects
alcohol
has
on
skeletal
muscle,25 androgen/estrogen
balance,
and
associated
detrimental
changes
in
body
composition
and
sexual
function.26
Unlike
the
similar
contact
football
codes,27,28 currently
there
is
a
dearth
of
information
pertaining
to
rugby
union’s
effects
on
per-
formance
in
the
days
after
the
game.
The
present
findings
suggest
that
13
and
37
h
after
a
game
a
player’s
ability
to
perform
short
duration,
anaerobic
based
exercise
involving
maximal
strength
or
repeated
sprints
is
not
significantly
different
than
prior
to
the
game.
Whether
the
same
is
true
of
long
duration,
aerobic
based
exercise
or
exercise
involving
varying
intensities,
such
as
another
game
or
team
training
requires
further
investigation.
Contrary
to
our
hypothesis,
the
consumption
of
large
volumes
of
alcohol,
coupled
with
a
significant
loss
of
sleep,
did
not
significantly
impact
any
measure
of
physical
performance,
when
compared
to
a
group
following
recommended
post-exercise
guidelines.13 This
finding
differs
to
recent
laboratory
based
findings
showing
that
alcohol
consumption,
at
a
dose
of
1
g
alcohol
per
kg
bodyweight,
negatively
impacts
lower
body
power
output
following
simulated4
and
competitive
contact
team
sport5and
magnifies
force
loss
caused
by
eccentric
exercise.6,7 One
explanation
for
these
disparate
Author's personal copy
C.
Prentice
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Science
and
Medicine
in
Sport
17 (2014) 244–
248 247
results
may
be
that,
in
the
case
of
Barnes
et
al.6,7 the
level
of
muscle
damage
elicited
through
controlled
eccentric
work
of
an
isolated
muscle
group
is
likely
to
be
significantly
greater
than
a
less
localised
damage
such
as
may
occur
in
contact
team
sport.
While
elevations
in
circulating
CK
in
the
present
study
suggest
some
level
of
muscle
damage
has
occurred,
changes
in
CK
do
not
provide
a
means
to
accu-
rately
quantify
muscle
damage 29 making
it
difficult
to
compare
studies.
Another,
potential,
reason
for
a
difference
between
studies
may
be
the
level
of
habitual
alcohol
use
by
each
cohort
studied;
neither
Barnes4,6 nor
Murphy5accurately
reported
habitual
alcohol
use
in
their
respective
cohorts.
We
may
speculate
that,
given
their
expe-
rience
with
such
high
doses,
the
population
under
investigation
in
the
current
study
may
be
less
susceptible,
due
to
an
increased
alco-
hol
tolerance,30 to
such
a
dose
than
individuals
who
have
lower
habitual
alcohol
use.
The
relationship
between
level
of
alcohol
use,
tolerance
and
effects
warrants
investigation.
Previous
research
has
found
that
single,
maximal
sprint4and
anaerobic19 performance
is
not
affected
the
day
after
alcohol
con-
sumption.
However,
the
near
significant
(p
=
0.057)
decrease
in
mean
sprint
time
observed
in
the
CB
group
during
the
recovery
period
suggests
that
there
was
a
tendency
for
these
participants
to
complete
both
post-game
RSA
tests
at
a
slower
rate
than
at
base-line.
This
was
not
accompanied
by
a
corresponding
change
in
percentage
decrement.
It
can
be
speculated
that
the
participants
in
the
‘hangover’
state
held
back
initially
in
order
to
complete
the
testing,
thus
resulting
in
a
greater
mean
sprint
time
at
12
and
36
h,
but
with
no
drop
off
from
first
to
last
sprint.
The
diuretic
effects
of
alcohol
have
been
suggested
as
having
a
negative
influence
on
rehydration
after
strenuous
exercise.18
Throughout
the
study,
the
hydration
status
of
participants
was
consistently
less
than
recommended
levels.14 The
only
difference
observed
between
groups
was
immediately
post-game
when
the
CB
group
exhibited
a
higher
level
of
hydration
than
the
RB
group.
This
may
have
been
the
result
of
better
pre
and
within
game
hydration
strategies,
however
this
was
not
investigated.
Within
13
h
the
hydration
status
of
both
teams
had
returned
to
baseline
values,
irrespective
of
post-game
behaviour.
The
lack
of
change
in
hydration
status
after
the
consumption
of
very
high
volumes
of
alcohol
may
be
due
to
the
large
volume
of
fluid
ingested
along
with
alcohol,
this
would
be
particularly
true
if
beer
was
the
main
beverage
consumed
as
it
has
a
relatively
low
volume
of
alco-
hol
compared
to
stronger
spirits,
however
the
types
of
beverages
consumed
was
not
investigated.
Whether
such
alcohol
consump-
tion
would
elicit
a
different
response
in
players
in
a
euhydrated
state,
such
as
players
at
a
higher
level
of
competition,
or
play-
ers
in
a
greater
state
of
dehydration
post
game
requires
further
investigation.
5.
Conclusion
These
findings
show
that
a
serious,
hazardous
culture
of
binge
drinking
exists
amongst
senior
club
rugby
players
that
may,
in
part,
be
due
to
after
game
alcohol
abuse.
Although
this
behaviour
is
associated
with
a
loss
of
sleep,
it
does
not
significantly
impact
measures
of
anaerobic
performance
in
the
days
after
the
game.
It
is
unclear
how
such
behaviour
affects
adaptation
to
exercise
in
the
long-term.
These
findings
must
be
treated
with
caution,
however,
as
although
the
short
term
effects
of
such
alcohol
consumption
may
not
impact
performance
the
harmful
physical
and
psycho-
logical
effects
of
such
alcohol
abuse
are
well
known.24 Therefore,
current
recommendations24 for
safe
alcohol
consumption
should
be
considered
an
appropriate
guideline
for
alcohol
use
by
ath-
letes,
unless
exceptional
circumstances,
such
as
muscle
injury,6,7
exist.
6.
Practical
implications
The
drinking
behaviour
of
rugby
players,
and
other
athletes,
should
be
monitored
by
coaches
and
trainers
to
identify
whether
harmful
drinking
habits
currently
exist
amongst
players.
To
avoid
long-term
physical
and
psychological
harm,
athletes
should
be
educated
on
the
harmful
effects
associated
with
binge
drinking.
The
World
Health
Organisations
guidelines
are
an
appropriate
starting
point
for
athletes.
A
game
of
club
rugby
does
not
impact
measures
of
anaerobic
performance
in
the
days
after
the
game.
Acknowledgement
This
study
was
funded
by
the
Massey
University
School
of
Sport
and
Exercise
post-graduate
research
fund.
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... Despite the above-mentioned detrimental effects of acute alcohol intake on exercise performance, there is conflicting evidence about changes in maximal muscle strength (7,25) and muscle activation (7,23). Notwithstanding, changes in excitationcontraction coupling (24), calcium channel inhibition (19), and a possible change in corticocortical connectivity, mainly a suppressive effect on the motor cortex, have been found in response to acute alcohol intake (18). ...
... Bonferroni post hoc analysis showed that quadriceps muscle activation was lower (220.8%) in ALC 1 SDP (1. 25 Figure 3). During the knee extensors endurance test, there was no moment-effect (F (1.25,11.26) 5 1.65; p 5 0.23; ƞ 2 5 0.15), condition-effect (F( 3,27 ) 5 3.21; p 5 0.08; ƞ 2 5 0.30), and condition-moment interaction (F (6,54) 5 1.00; p 5 0.43; ƞ 2 5 0.10) in SRMS normalized during the endurance test ( ½F4 Figure 4A). ...
... Another aspect that needs attention is the amount of alcohol intake in ours and in previous studies (0.5-1.5 g of alcohol per kg of body mass) when compared with "real-life events," when apparently higher doses of alcohol ingestion occur (4,23) compared with the doses used in laboratory tests. This higher social alcohol consumption in "real-life events" is observed in rugby players, which showed habitual alcohol use classified as regular hazardous drinking behaviors (mean score 18.2 6 4.3 by the AUDIT questionnaire) (25). Furthermore, a reduction in the vertical jump height was observed in the morning after high doses of alcohol intake (.11 standard drinks) (25). ...
Article
The aim of this work was to perform a cross-over study to compare isolated and combined effects of alcohol intake and sleep deprivation on neuromuscular responses. Ten young and physically active male subjects were allocated to 4 conditions: (a) placebo intake + normal sleep (PLA + SLE); (b) alcohol intake + normal sleep (ALC + SLE); (c) placebo intake + sleep deprivation (PLA + SDP); and (d) alcohol intake + sleep deprivation (ALC + SDP). In each condition, volunteers ingested 1 g of alcohol per kg of body mass of alcoholic beer or nonalcoholic beer (placebo), followed by one night of normal sleep or sleep deprivation. In the next morning, neuromuscular performance (knee extensor isometric and concentric peak torque and time to task failure during the endurance test) and muscle activation were assessed. No differences were observed in the neuromuscular performance. We observed a significant reduction in quadriceps activation during the knee extensor isometric test in ALC + SDP compared with PLA + SLE (−20.8%; p = 0.02; d = 0.56). Our results demonstrated that acute alcohol intake and one night of sleep deprivation reduced quadriceps muscle activation without impact on neuromuscular performance.
... Furthermore, this study assessed the effect of just one night of alcohol and sleep deprivation, yet further detrimental effects can probably be observed if these episodes occur repetitively. Moreover, some athletes and sportspeople drink alcohol after a competition to celebrate or cope with stress (39,59,60). More recent studies analyzed the effects of post-game alcohol consumption on wholebody performance, the days following simulated rugby matches. ...
... Furthermore, it is essential to remark that caution should be exercised when trying to understand and extrapolate some of the reviewed effects of PAC on the daily, regular sports practice. Limitations of the studies in humans reviewed here include the variability of physical demands and training status, the lack of contact components during simulated matches (59), the fact that the dose of administration in human studies can be considerably lower than the volume of alcohol actually consumed by athletes (60), and the possible lack of control of the actual amounts and number of events of alcohol ingestion by elite sportspeople when using categorized questionaries for self-report alcohol use (39,61). ...
Article
Background: Chronic alcohol misuse is associated with alcoholic myopathy, characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. Moreover, there is evidence that sports-related people seem to exhibit a greater prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption, especially binge drinking (BD), which might not cause alcoholic myopathy but can negatively impact muscle function and amateur and professional athletic performance. Objective: To review the literature concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on skeletal muscle function and structure that can affect muscle performance. Methodology: We examined the currently available literature (PubMed, Google Scholars) to develop a narrative review summarizing the knowledge about the effects of alcohol on skeletal muscle function and exercise performance, obtained from studies in human beings and animal models for problematic alcohol consumption. Results: Exercise- and sport-based studies indicate that alcohol consumption can negatively affect muscle recovery after vigorous exercise, especially in men, while women seem less affected. Clinical studies and pre-clinical laboratory research have led to the knowledge of some of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-related muscle dysfunction, including an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways, reduced regeneration, increased inflammation and fibrosis, and deficiencies in energetic balance and mitochondrial function. These pathological features can appear not only under chronic alcohol misuse but also in other alcohol consumption patterns. Conclusions: Most laboratory-based studies use chronic or acute alcohol exposure, while episodic BD, the most common drinking pattern in amateur and professional athletes, is underrepresented. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption negatively affects skeletal muscle health through different mechanisms, which collectively might contribute to reduced sports performance.
... In the present study, one standard drink contained 14 g of ethanol. In addition, in Prentice et al, 29 testing was conducted over a single weekend, with baseline testing conducted on Friday and morning-after testing on Saturday. Their protocol resulted in significantly less sleep Friday night. ...
... Our analyses revealed no difference in isometric force production in the mid-thigh pull test between conditions. This result is consistent with those of both Karvinen et al 23 and Prentice et al. 29 The similar results in those studies, and in ours, demonstrate that previous day alcohol ingestion does not affect morning-after maximal isometric strength. ...
Article
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Purpose: Many athletes report consuming alcohol the day before their event, which might negatively affect their performance. However, the effects of previous-day alcohol ingestion on performance are equivocal, in part, due to no standardization of alcohol dose in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a standardized previous-day alcohol dose and its corresponding impact on morning-after muscular strength, muscular power, and muscular fatigue in a short-duration test and on performance of severe-intensity exercise. Methods: On 2 occasions, 12 recreationally active individuals reported to the Applied Physiology Laboratory in the evening and ingested a beverage containing either 1.09 g ethanol·kg-1 fat-free body mass (ALC condition) or water (PLA condition). The following morning, they completed a hangover symptom questionnaire, vertical jumps, isometric midthigh pulls, biceps curls, and a constant-power cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. The responses from ALC and PLA were compared using paired-means t tests. Results: Time to exhaustion in the cycle ergometer tests was less (P = .03) in the ALC condition (181 [39] s vs 203 [34] s; -11%, Cohen d = 0.61). There was no difference in performance in vertical jump test, isometric midthigh pulls, and biceps curls tests between the ALC and PLA conditions. Conclusions: Previous-day alcohol consumption significantly reduces morning-after performance of severe-intensity exercise. Practitioners should educate their athletes, especially those whose events rely on anaerobic capacity and/or a rapid response of the aerobic pathways, of the adverse effect of previous-day alcohol consumption on performance.
... Sleep in particular is an integral part of the natural regeneration process in athletes, which is well described in the literature. The short-term aftereffects of alcohol are also well known [24] and significantly depend on the amount of alcohol consumed and the time span between consumption and activity, in this case playing football [25][26][27][28]. Alcohol is one of the most common lifestyle drugs with also negative mid-term and long-term consequences [29]. ...
... Alcohol consumption is part of most parties, events and festivals worldwide, and amateur football tournaments take place, amongst others, in the setting of such festivals [30,31], which describes the practical relevance of this topic and the consequence to prevent injuries by avoiding alcohol consume before football. High Table 4 Alcohol consumption of male and female football players the evening before the tournament alcohol consumption leads to insufficient sleep after drinking, insufficient nutrition before the tournament and reduction of many neuromotor capacities, which are essential for playing football and, therefore, additional well-known negative effects of alcohol on sports performance [26][27][28] and first time also described by this study for football. For football players, injury prevention starts with the easiest factors that may be changed by the players themselves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Amateur small-field football tournaments are rather common worldwide. Adequate preparation is essential for injury prevention. The consequences of insufficient injury preparation at this level are still unclear. This study investigates the factors influencing injuries in this football population. Materials and methods In 2017, medical students participating in a national amateur football tournament were analysed in a prospective cohort study. Injury incidence, injury pattern and factors influencing injuries were investigated according to the statement on data collection and injury definition of Fuller et al. (Br J Sports Med 40:193–201, 2006). Preparation for the tournament was assessed for both sexes by means of hours of sleep, alcohol consumption, training level and warm-up performance. Level of evidence: II. Results Of 694 amateur football players (423 men and 271 women) with a mean age of 23 years (SD 2.5), 321 (21.1%) injuries happened during the tournament. 60% of injuries affected the lower extremity. The most common types of traumatic injury were skin abrasions (40.0%) and muscle strains (23.3%). The injury incidence of male players during match exposure was 469 per 1000 h football and significantly higher than in female players 313 (p = 0.025). One potential reason for the higher injury rate of male players as measure for inadequate preparation was significantly higher alcohol consumption the evening before the tournament (p < 0.001) and the after-effects on match day (p < 0.001). Additionally, male players reported less and inadequate sleep the night before the tournament (p < 0.007) and a lower warm-up rate before the matches compared to female players (p < 0.001). Conclusions Small-field tournaments in football have a high injury incidence. Male players have a higher injury incidence than female players and show additionally a lack of sleep and alcohol consumption the night before the tournament and poor warm-up performance on match day. Adequate preparation for a football tournament is the key factor for preventing injuries, also in recreational football.
... All changes might be related to deleterious effects on the brain [8,9], which may impact musculoskeletal performance, since the suppressive effect on the motor cortex [10] and functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex [11] has been found in response to alcohol intake and sleep deprivation, respectively. Thus, both conditions have been traditionally associated with losses in exercise performance [3,12], even with conflicting results on maximal muscle strength [13][14][15], muscle endurance [16,17] and aerobic performance [18][19][20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
To verify the combined and isolated effects of alcohol consumption and one night of sleep deprivation on maximal strength, muscle endurance and aerobic performance. Also, to verify the association between perceived fatigue and exercise performance. Ten male participants were randomized into four conditions: (1) placebo consumption + normal sleep (PLA + SLE); (2) alcohol consumption + normal sleep (ALC + SLE); (3) placebo consumption + sleep deprivation (PLA + SDP), and (4) alcohol consumption + sleep deprivation (ALC + SDP). In each condition, participants ingested 1 g of alcohol per kg of body mass of alcoholic beer or non-alcoholic beer (placebo, 0% of alcohol), followed by one night of normal sleep or sleep deprivation. In the next morning, hangover symptoms, maximal strength, and time to exhaustion during muscle endurance test for elbow flexors (TTEEF) were performed concurrently to biceps brachii activation. Finally, participants performed a time to exhaustion aerobic test (TTEAER) on a treadmill with heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) assessments. Fatigue and total symptoms of hangover were higher in ALC + SDP compared to PLA + SLE (p = 0.008). No differences were observed between conditions on maximal strength, TTEEF, TTEAER, muscle activation, HR and RPE during tests (p > 0.05). Higher perceived fatigue was significantly associated only with shorter TTEAER (r = − 0.36; p = 0.02). Alcohol consumption, combined or not with total sleep deprivation did not impair maximal strength, muscle endurance and aerobic performance. Higher perceived fatigue seems to impair long-duration activities.
... This elevated level of alcoholic consumption in almost half of the players is also higher than one would expect in a professional sports environment, especially due to the potential negative impact this can have on performance. According to a study conducted by Prentice et al. (2015) with club rugby union players, heavy episodic alcohol consumption, associated with reduced sleep, contributes to lower body power output the morning after a drinking session. Unfortunately, measures were not indicated on anaerobic performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the relationship between common mental disorders and mental toughness in professional South African rugby players. A cross-sectional survey design was used by administering a questionnaire and preliminary and bivariate analyses were conducted. The inclusion criteria were professional rugby players who are able to communicate in English. The results indicated that, in general, these players (N = 215) portray significant mental toughness (M = 5.69) on a 7-point scale. Anxiety/depression and distress measured the lowest (M = 1.65) of all the common mental disorders measured in this study. Furthermore, the results indicated a positive relationship between mental toughness and sound sleep (r = .262). Negative relationships were found between mental toughness and all other common mental disorders with the highest relationship being with anxiety/depression positive 2 (r =-.423). Other significant relationships were found with anxiety/ depression (r =-.401), distress (r =-.259), and common mental disorders problems in general (r =-.220). The results indicated that the management of teams and clinicians need to look at specific aspects, such as alcohol consumption among players, the implications of alcohol use on performance, but also mental wellbeing in general.
... 63 Occasional intake of small amounts (no more than 2 units/day) of alcohol is not harmful, but alcohol use can interfere with recovery by impairing liver and glycogen resynthesis, 80 muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis 81 and rehydration. 82 Drinking large doses of alcohol can also impair next-day countermovement jump performance 83 and also directly suppress a wide range of immune responses 84 and players should therefore minimise or avoid intake during key periods of training and match play when recovery is a priority. ...
Article
Full-text available
Football is a global game which is constantly evolving, showing substantial increases in physical and technical demands. Nutrition plays a valuable integrated role in optimising performance of elite players during training and match-play, and maintaining their overall health throughout the season. An evidence-based approach to nutrition emphasising, a 'food first' philosophy (ie, food over supplements), is fundamental to ensure effective player support. This requires relevant scientific evidence to be applied according to the constraints of what is practical and feasible in the football setting. The science underpinning sports nutrition is evolving fast, and practitioners must be alert to new developments. In response to these developments, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) has gathered experts in applied sports nutrition research as well as practitioners working with elite football clubs and national associations/federations to issue an expert statement on a range of topics relevant to elite football nutrition: (1) match day nutrition, (2) training day nutrition, (3) body composition, (4) stressful environments and travel, (5) cultural diversity and dietary considerations, (6) dietary supplements, (7) rehabilitation, (8) referees and (9) junior high-level players. The expert group provide a narrative synthesis of the scientific background relating to these topics based on their knowledge and experience of the scientific research literature, as well as practical experience of applying knowledge within an elite sports setting. Our intention is to provide readers with content to help drive their own practical recommendations. In addition, to provide guidance to applied researchers where to focus future efforts.
... Similarly, a few other studies have examined the effect sleep has on lower-body power. Using a jump mat similar to the one in the present investigation, Prentice et al. [40] reported a significant decrease in lower-body power immediately following a night of curtailed sleep. As with aerobic performance, we believe our study is the first to demonstrate an increase in this measure after an intervention targeting sleep-related habits and behaviors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral modification (BM) is a strategy designed to sustain or restore well-being through effects such as enhanced relaxation, reduced stress, and improved sleep. Few studies have explored the role of BM delivered in the context of fitness programs for healthy adults. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine whether BM combined with aerobic and resistance training programs would improve health and fitness measures more than the exercise training alone. Thirty-two healthy fitness club members (19 men) were randomized to receive a BM program (n=15) or an equal-attention (EA) control (n=17). BM consisted of twelve, 10-min education sessions between a trained fitness professional and the participant, coupled with weekly, individualized relaxation, stress reduction, and sleep improvement assignments. All participants engaged in 1 h of coached resistance training and remotely guided aerobic exercise thrice weekly for 12 weeks. Fitness measures (aerobic performance, body composition, muscle strength and endurance, lower-body power), sleep characteristics, and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week program. BM resulted in greater improvements in aerobic performance (increased maximum oxygen uptake, metabolic (lactate) threshold, and percent of maximum oxygen uptake at which metabolic threshold occurred), peak and average lower-body power, and body composition (decreased body fat percentage and fat mass) compared to EA. BM also positively influenced parasympathetic tone through increased High-frequency HRV. BM resulted in greater improvements in fitness measures, body composition, and heart rate variability compared with EA. These findings have intriguing implications regarding the role of BM in augmenting health and physical performance.
Article
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Binge Drinking (BD) corresponds to episodes of ingestion of large amounts of ethanol in a short time, typically ≤2 h. BD occurs across all populations, but young and sports-related people are especially vulnerable. However, the short- and long-term effects of episodic BD on skeletal muscle function have been poorly explored. Young rats were randomized into two groups: control and episodic Binge-Like ethanol protocol (BEP) (ethanol 3 g/kg IP, 4 episodes of 2-days ON-2-days OFF paradigm). Muscle function was evaluated two weeks after the last BEP episode. We found that rats exposed to BEP presented decreased muscle strength and increased fatigability, compared with control animals. Furthermore, we observed that skeletal muscle from rats exposed to BEP presented muscle atrophy, evidenced by reduced fiber size and increased expression of atrophic genes. We also observed that BEP induced fibrotic and inflammation markers, accompanied by mislocalization of nNOSµ and high levels of protein nitration. Our findings suggest that episodic binge-like ethanol exposure alters contractile capacity and increases fatigue by mechanisms involving atrophy, fibrosis, and inflammation, which remain for at least two weeks after ethanol clearance. These pathological features are common to several neuromuscular diseases and might affect muscle performance and health in the long term.
Article
Although the link between sleep, health, and performance has been well documented, research on this link in collegiate student-athletes is still in its infancy. A large body of evidence indicates that collegiate student-athletes are not obtaining enough sleep, but less is known about their sleep quality, patterns, and the impact on health and performance. Consequently, short sleep negatively affects physical and mental health, as well as several domains of performance (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, sport-specific, cognitive). The majority of studies examining the links between short sleep, health, and performance have been conducted with healthy adults or noncollegiate athlete samples; however, collegiate student-athletes have demands unlike those of their nonathlete or noncollegiate athlete counterparts. Poor sleep health and sleep disorders are of increasing concern among the college athlete population and have recently been recognized by national and international sports governing bodies. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available literature on sleep and its impact on health and performance among athletes, specifically addressing gaps where no data are available on collegiate student-athletes. Consideration is also given to sleep interventions that have been used with athletes, as well as recommendations for future research and intervention development.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of partial sleep deprivation at the end of the night (PSDE) on anaerobic performances during the Wingate test (peak (PP) and mean (MP) power) and the hand grip (HG) test in judokas. In a randomized order, twenty-one judokas (age: 19.1 ± 1.2 yrs; height: 176.5 ± 4.2 cm; body mass: 77.3 ± 6.3 kg) performed two sessions after a normal sleep night (NSN) or a PSDE. During each session, they carried out the Wingate and the HG tests before (T0) and after (T1) a judo match. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were obtained at the end of the combat. PP and MP decreased significantly from T0 to T1 during the two experimental conditions (p p p Keywords: Wingate test; competitions; hand grip; judo; performance; sleep loss Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2012.756282 Affiliations: 1: Research Unit (EM2S), High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia 2: Research Laboratory Sport Performance Optimization, National Centre of Medicine and Sciences in Sport (CNMSS), Tunis, Tunisia Publication date: October 1, 2013 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: HajSalem, Mohamed ; Chtourou, Hamdi ; Aloui, Asma ; Hammouda, Omar ; Souissi, Nizar GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
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Objectives: To review the current research on alcohol-related violence and sports participation. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to identify relevant studies for inclusion. A search of six databases (EBSCOhost) was conducted. Results: A total of 6890 studies was were identified in the initial search. Of these, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were from the US (n=10) and focused on collegiate athletes (n=7), adolescents (n=3), professional/former professional athletes (n=1). Conclusion: The reviewed research indicates higher rates of alcohol use and violence in athlete populations when compared against non-athlete populations. Masculinity, violent social identity and antisocial norms connected to certain sports stand out as potential factors that may impact the association between sport and violence in athlete populations.
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This study investigated the effects of alcohol ingestion on lower body strength and power, and physiological and cognitive recovery following competitive Rugby League matches. Nine male Rugby players participated in two matches, followed by one of two randomized interventions; a control or alcohol ingestion session. Four hours post-match, participants consumed either beverages containing a total of 1g of ethanol per kg bodyweight (vodka and orange juice; ALC) or a caloric and taste matched non-alcoholic beverage (orange juice; CONT). Pre, post, 2 h post and 16 h post match measures of countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), damage and stress markers of creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol, and testosterone analysed from venous blood collection, and cognitive function (modified Stroop test) were determined. Alcohol resulted in large effects for decreased CMJ height (-2.35 ± 8.14 and -10.53 ± 8.36 % decrement for CONT and ALC respectively; P=0.15, d=1.40), without changes in MVC (P=0.52, d=0.70) or VA (P=0.15, d=0.69). Furthermore, alcohol resulted in a significant slowing of total time in a cognitive test (P=0.04, d=1.59), whilst exhibiting large effects for detriments in congruent reaction time (P=0.19, d=1.73). Despite large effects for increased cortisol following alcohol ingestion during recovery (P=0.28, d=1.44), post-match alcohol consumption did not unduly affect testosterone (P-0.96, d=0.10), CK (P=0.66, d=0.70) or CRP (P=0.75, d=0.60). It appears alcohol consumption during the evening following competitive rugby matches may have some detrimental effects on peak power and cognitive recovery the morning following a Rugby League match. Accordingly, practitioners should be aware of the potential associated detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on recovery and provide alcohol awareness to athletes at post-match functions.
Article
Many sports require short duration (~5-7 s) maximal or near-maximal sprints to be regularly repeated over an extended period of time (70-120 min). Performance tests of repeated sprint ability (RSA) are not well established despite their specificity for measuring the fitness of team sport players. Therefore, sprint cycling (6 x 6 s efforts, departing every 30 s) and running (6 x 40 m efforts, departing every 30 s) RSA tests were developed and initially trialled for reliability in amateur male team sport players. Test-retest correlations were significant (p < 0.01) for the absolute RSA test scores, (i.e., total work done (cycling, n = 16; r = 0.973) and total time taken (running, n = 15; r = 0.942) for six efforts), and also for the relative RSA test score, (i.e., the percentage decrement (% Dec.) recorded over six efforts (cycling, r = 0.875; running, r = 0.745)). Repeat scores for individual repetitions within tests were also highly correlated (r = 0.81-0.97) for each mode of exercise, and produced low technical error of measurement scores (cycling: 2.5-4.0%; running: 1.0-1.7%). Therefore, both the cycling and running RSA tests were found to have suitable test-retest reliability. The degree of association between the two modes of RSA test was then assessed in male field hockey players (n = 15). The best single cycling effort (kJ or J.kg1 work done in 6 s) was not significantly correlated with the best running effort (best 40 m time). The absolute RSA test scores (Total kJ or J.kg1 work done versus Total Time) were only correlated when the cycling score was expressed per kg of body mass (r = -0.684, p < 0.01). The relative test scores (% Dec. on each test) were moderately associated (r = 0.622, p < 0.02). Therefore, exercise mode appears to be a determining factor in best single effort and absolute RSA test scores, but less so in relative test performance. The degree of fatigue demonstrated within team sport players over repeated sprint efforts may be similar when either cycling or running efforts are performed. General comments about the testing and scoring of sprint RSA are made.
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Partial sleep loss comprises a common source of potential stress. The effects of a nightly ration of 2.5 hr sleep on a battery of psychomotor, physical working capacity and subjective state tests were investigated in a group of trained subjects (n=8) over 3 nights of sleep loss and a single night of subsequent recovery sleep. A 3-day period where normal sleep was permitted was used as a control, the order of control and experimental presentation being counterbalanced. A significant treatment effect was observed for anxiety, hand steadiness, choice reaction time (CRT) preexercise and anaerobic power while grip strength, lung function and endurance capacity were unaffected. Exercise was found to attenuate the effects of sleep loss on CRT. A significant trend over days was found for hand steadiness and reciprocal tapping. All measures except hand steadiness had returned to baseline levels after the recovery night's sleep. It was concluded that one night's sleep of only 2.5 hr has a detrimental effect on psychomotor function but that gross motor functions remain intact for up to 3 nights of partial sleep deprivation.
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Since its genesis in the unique all‐male environment of the nineteenth century British public schools, a cluster of characteristics has developed around the rugby union game. With these in mind, several studies have recently described the rugby fraternity as a deviant subculture. Extensive participant observation was conducted in a cross‐cultural study of rugby teams in the United Kingdom and North America. One emergent similarity was the highly circumscribed nature of members' behavior. What at first appeared to be spontaneous deviance on closer inspection revealed itself to be highly ritualized and internally policed. The formal and informal control mechanisms of the rugby subculture will be discussed, focusing on modes of behavior that lend themselves to group acceptance or ostracism.
Article
Objectives: This study compared the effects of "normal" post-game behaviour with recommended behaviour on physical performance in the days after a rugby union game. Additionally, the habitual drinking habits of rugby players were identified. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: After a rugby game, 26 players were split by team into a customary behaviour group (CB), who carried out their usual post-game behaviour, or recommended behaviour group (RB), whose diet and activity was controlled in the hours after the game. Counter movement jump, lower-body strength, repeated sprint ability, CK and hydration status were measured prior to and in the days after the game. Twenty-four hour behaviour recall questionnaires where completed throughout the trial period. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was also administered to participants. Results: Compared to baseline values, large volumes of alcohol (p<0.01) and a loss in sleep (p<0.001) was reported by the CB group in the hours after the game. Measures of performance and hydration status were unchanged over time and no difference was evident between groups (all p<0.05). Total AUDIT scores for all participants were 17.7 ± 5. CK was elevated in the days following the game (p<0.001). Conclusions: Physical performance was not affected by participation in a game of senior club rugby, irrespective of post-game behaviour and possible muscle damage. AUDIT scores indicate that club rugby players may be at risk of serious alcohol related harm, with post-game binge drinking likely to be a major contributor.
Article
Five healthy young men (mean age 25.6 years) consumed ethanol (0.8 g/kg producing breath ethanol concentration (BEC) of 0.06 per cent on average 30 min post-consumption) and placebo at 2200–2230 h after 4 and 8 h in bed (TIB) the previous night. Standard sleep recordings were collected from 2300 to 0700 h. The next-day latency to sleep onset was tested at 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 h and divided attention performance and hangover symptoms were assessed 30 min after each latency test. The 4 h TIB increased sleep efficiency, but did not interact with the effects of ethanol. Ethanol altered sleep staging. In analyses of ethanol effects by halves of the night, ethanol increased percentage stage 3/4 sleep in the first half and increased percentage stage 1 sleep in the second half. The following day, mean daily sleep latency (MSLT) was reduced and mean divided attention tracking errors were increased with ethanol. Ethanol effects (mild) on the hangover questionnaire were detected only on the 0800 h assessment.