Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, red wine, chocolate, and certain berries and roots, is considered to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects in humans and is related to longevity in some lower organisms.Objective
To determine whether resveratrol levels achieved with diet are associated with inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in humans.Design
Prospective cohort study, the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) Study (“Aging in the Chianti Region”), 1998 to 2009 conducted in 2 villages in the Chianti area in a population-based sample of 783 community-dwelling men and women 65 years or older.Exposures
Twenty-four–hour urinary resveratrol metabolites.Main Outcomes and Measures
Primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were markers of inflammation (serum C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]) and prevalent and incident cancer and cardiovascular disease.Results
Mean (95% CI) log total urinary resveratrol metabolite concentrations were 7.08 (6.69-7.48) nmol/g of creatinine. During 9 years of follow-up, 268 (34.3%) of the participants died. From the lowest to the highest quartile of baseline total urinary resveratrol metabolites, the proportion of participants who died from all causes was 34.4%, 31.6%, 33.5%, and 37.4%, respectively (P = .67). Participants in the lowest quartile had a hazards ratio for mortality of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.54-1.17) compared with those in the highest quartile of total urinary resveratrol in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for potential confounders. Resveratrol levels were not significantly associated with serum CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF, prevalent or incident cardiovascular disease, or cancer.Conclusions and Relevance
In older community-dwelling adults, total urinary resveratrol metabolite concentration was not associated with inflammatory markers, cardiovascular disease, or cancer or predictive of all-cause mortality. Resveratrol levels achieved with a Western diet did not have a substantial influence on health status and mortality risk of the population in this study.
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"heart disease , while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats ) , amount up to 30 million US $ in the United States alone . However , a recently published and much talked about , large , long‐term epidemiological study showed that resveratrol in red wine , chocolate , and grapes was not associated with improved health in elderly Italians ( Semba et al . 2014 ) . Latif ( 2013 ) also mentions that most products used in studies contain more polyphenols than commercially available products . Furthermore , milk and white chocolate contain more sugar and ( far ) less beneficial compounds ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Resveratrol exhibits beneficial effects against numerous degenerative diseases at different stages of pathogenesis. This study investigated potential mechanisms and resveratrol effects on high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress (30 mM d-glucose, 30 min) and cell proliferation (30 mM d-glucose, 24 h) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was detected by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. VSMC proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assays and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis. Expression of NAD(P)H oxidase, proliferation proteins, and cell signalling were assessed by immunoblot analysis.
Co-treatment of primary cultures of VSMCs with 1–100 μM resveratrol decreased HG-induced ROS overproduction (P<0.05). Resveratrol also abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of oxidase subunit p47 phox and reduced HG-induced cyclin D1, cyclin E, and PCNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, resveratrol (10 μM) attenuated HG-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK 1/2, and JNK1/2 without affecting total levels. HG stimulation enhanced downstream IκB-α phosphorylation and NF-κB activity, and resveratrol repressed these effects.
Resveratrol inhibits HG-induced oxidative stress and VSMC proliferation by suppressing ROS generation, NADPH oxidase, Akt phosphorylation, p38 MAPK/JNK/ERK phosphorylation, and IκB-α and NF-κB activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension affects over 25% of the global population and is associated with grave and often fatal complications that affect many organ systems. Although great advancements have been made in the clinical assessment and treatment of hypertension, the cause of hypertension in over 90% of these patients are unknown, which hampers the development of targeted and more effective treatment. The etiology of hypertension involves multiple pathological processes and organ systems, however one unifying feature of all of these contributing factors is oxidative stress. Once the body’s natural anti-oxidant defense mechanisms are overwhelmed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) begin to accumulate in the tissues. ROS play important roles in normal regulation of many physiological processes, however in excess they are detrimental and cause widespread cell and tissue damage as well as derangements in many physiological processes. Thus, control of oxidative stress has become an attractive target for pharmacotherapy to prevent and manage hypertension. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol which has anti-oxidant effects in vivo. Many studies have shown anti-hypertensive effects of resveratrol in different pre-clinical models of hypertension, via a multitude of mechanisms that include its function as an anti-oxidant. However, results have been mixed and may be due to the heavy emphasis on peripheral vasodilator effects of resveratrol with virtually no investigation of its potential renal effects. This is troubling in the arena of hypertension, where it is accepted that the kidney plays an essential role in the long term regulation of arterial pressure and a vital role in the development and maintenance of chronic hypertension. Thus the focus of this review is to discuss the potential of resveratrol as an anti-hypertensive treatment via amelioration of oxidative stress within the framework of physiological principles of blood pressure control.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Physiology