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... In this context, I-VR's effectiveness in learning should be discovered (Albus et al., 2021). To this end, the rapid increase in technological development, diversity, and diffusion in virtual environments such as I-VR make it necessary to increase the number of researches on the effectiveness of these technologies in educational settings and to make frequent, systematic synthesis (Howard & Gutworth, 2020;Merchant et al., 2014). Besides, it is emphasized that studies in the literature mainly focus on qualitative variables and variables such as I-VR. ...
... As a result of the literature review on the effect of VR on learning outcomes, some meta-analysis studies were accessed (Avcı et al., 2019;Guedes et al., 2019;Haque & Srinivasan, 2006;Howard & Gutworth, 2020;Jin et al., 2020;Kaplan et al., 2020;Kyaw et al., 2019;Merchant et al., 2014;Portelli et al., 2020;Woon et al., 2021;Wu et al., 2020;Zhao, Xu, et al., 2020). The results of the meta-analysis studies are summarized in Table 1 in the context of some variables. ...
... However, they did not include CAVE and MR technologies in the meta-analysis process. In some meta-analysis studies, studies using only desktop VR (Merchant et al., 2014) or studies using desktop VR with other VR types were included in the meta-analysis process (Avcı et al., 2019;Howard & Gutworth, 2020;Jin et al., 2020;Kaplan et al., 2020;Portelli et al., 2020;Woon et al., 2021;Zhao, Lin, et al., 2020). Nevertheless, desktop VR and I-VR are different types of VR in terms of immersion, which is an important feature to determine the fundamental differences between VR technologies (Meyer et al., 2019;Sherman & Craig, 2019). ...
Article
HIGHLIGHTS: •The overall effect size on the learning outcomes of I-VR was small (g = 0.38). •I-VR has a significantly larger effect size in K-12 than in higher education. •I-VR yields similar results in both immediate and delayed measuring moments. •The effect of I-VR is more significant than computer-assisted compared to traditional environments. •The effect of I-VR was small for HMD and CAVE but negative and very small for MR. ABSTRACT: Research on the impact of immersive virtual reality (I-VR) technology on learning has become necessary with the decreasing cost of virtual reality technologies and the development of high-quality head-mounted displays. This meta-analysis investigates the overall effect size by combining the results of primary experimental studies that reveal the effect of I-VR on learning outcomes. Besides, effect sizes were calculated based on measuring moment, types of measurement, education level, the field of education, control group educational resources, and immersion type subgroups. One hundred five independent results were calculated from 48 primary studies published between 2016 and September 2020, including 39 randomized controlled trials and nine quasi-experimental studies. The sample size of primary studies includes 3179 students, 847 from K12, and 2332 from higher education. Random effects model was used in the calculation of effect size. As a result of the meta-analysis, it was determined that the overall effect size on the learning outcomes of I-VR was small (g = 0.38). Additionally, according to the subgroup analysis results, it was revealed that I-VR significantly differentiated effect size based on educational level, the field of education, and computer-based/traditional sources. There was no significant difference in terms of the other subgroups.
... The graphical design of the CBVLE allows for a realistic representation, since a high degree of realism can cognitively engage students and motivate them to learn (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Shute et al., 2009). Given that the students' learning tasks correspond to those that will be performed in future in the workplace, these tasks can serve as encouragement for learning (Merchant et al., 2014), and are therefore essential for instructional design via technology. Designing instruction for VR involves developing and adapting instructional strategies to new technology. ...
... The learning tasks are meaningful, authentic, and representative for the tasks that a professional might encounter in the real world" (Van Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2007, p. 7). Learning tasks encourage students to learn; when the motive for learning arises from the activity itself, the activity of learning helps students to successfully complete learning tasks (Merchant et al., 2014;Pajares & Schunk, 2001). Practising many different activities, such as domain-specific types of problems, permits students to grasp learning procedures and make connections (Dunlosky et al., 2013;Rohrer et al., 2015). ...
... Since the CBVLE is a structured system in which activities, exercises, and support form an integral part of the virtual educational learning environment, it can increase nursing students' intrinsic motivation and enhance their self-efficacy (Merchant et al., 2014;Pekrun, 2006). ...
... Während die motivationalen und kognitiven Effekte beim Lernen mit VR schon länger untersucht werden (z. B. Merchant et al. 2014) ergeben sich durch die wachsende Verfügbarkeit und die technologische Entwicklung hin zu autonomen HMDs neue Möglichkeiten für den Einsatz dieser Technologie in der beruflichen Bildung. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt vor diesem Hintergrund die Entwicklung und eine erste Evaluationsstudie einer VR Lernumgebung zum Thema Training der Fehlerdiagnosekompetenz am Beispiel einer Offshore-Windkraftanlage vor. ...
... Virtual Reality Anwendungen bieten vielfältige Potenziale für unterschiedlichste Bildungskontexte (Jensen und Konradsen 2018;Merchant et al. 2014). Thematisch reichen die Anwendungsfelder der letzten 20 Jahre dabei von der Vermittlung von mathematischen Fähigkeiten (Kaufmann et al. 2000) über das Trainieren chirurgischer Eingriffe (Alaraj et al. 2011) hin zu Beispielen aus dem Bereich Engineering (Rahimian et al. 2014). ...
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Zusammenfassung Virtual Reality Lernumgebungen bieten besonderes Potenzial für die Vermittlung komplexer Inhalte und Fähigkeiten im beruflichen Kontext. In solchen Lernumgebungen lassen sich authentische Arbeitsaufgaben umsetzen anhand derer anwendungsnah Kompetenzen erlernt werden können. In der VR Lernumgebung MARLA wird die Fehlerdiagnose in den Bereichen Elektro- und Metalltechnik in Form eines achtstufigen Prozesses anhand eines konkreten Beispiels auf einer Offshore-Windenergieanlage trainiert. Auszubildende bekommen dafür in Anlehnung an den Cognitive Apprenticeship Ansatz zunächst von einem Non-Player Character innerhalb der Anwendung die einzelnen Schritte erklärt und vorgemacht, bevor sie anschließend schrittweise selbständig den Prozess durchlaufen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Anwendung und ihre Entwicklung vor und berichtet Ergebnisse der formativen Evaluation, welche wichtige Erkenntnisse für die Ausgestaltung der Umgebung geliefert hat. Praktische Relevanz Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird zum einen auf theoretische Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich des Potentials von Virtual Reality Anwendungen für die berufliche Bildung eingegangen. Zum anderen werden Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der konzeptionellen Entwicklung der VR Anwendung und der empirischen Evaluation der Anwendung präsentiert. Beide Punkte haben zum Ziel einen Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung der Weiterbildung im Arbeitskontext zu leisten.
... It is therefore understandable that researchers, organizations, and educators are seriously considering this technology and looking for ways to include it in the classroom to improve the teaching and learning processes. The increasing academic attention to VR technologies has led to comprehensive reviews of VR applications for education [9,15]. For example, Merchant et al. [15] focus on desktop VR in education, while Jensen and Konradsen emphasize the application of HMD (more immersive and interactive) technologies. ...
... The increasing academic attention to VR technologies has led to comprehensive reviews of VR applications for education [9,15]. For example, Merchant et al. [15] focus on desktop VR in education, while Jensen and Konradsen emphasize the application of HMD (more immersive and interactive) technologies. ...
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Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) has proven to be an important tool for the exploration and communication of architectural projects prior to their real construction; however, there have been few scientific advances of its use in the understanding, exploration, and definition of architectural space by architecture students in their initial design processes. The purpose of this research is to determine how the use of IVR incorporated in the initial phases of the architectural design process improves, among students, the achievement of three specifics design competencies, and to know the evaluation that professors make of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of this tool in the design process. A mixed methodology was applied, considering participatory observations and surveys of students and teachers concerning the initial architecture workshop on architectural careers. It was found that the three analyzed competencies are better achieved with the use of IVR due to its high utility in the perception of space on a real scale and in its interior experimentation, both referred to as important advantages by students and teachers. It is concluded that the application of the interactive and immersive VR is a pedagogical tool that allows students to get feedback from their own spatial experience to correct and improve their designs, while teachers find the tool useful in the initial phases of architectural design.
... VR technology allows immersing the user in an environment that simulates virtually all aspects of reality [93]. Thanks to this, it is possible to generate a previously unavailable experience by interacting directly with simulated content that reproduces existing physical phenomena of all sorts. ...
... This technology (VR, possibly associated with serious games) has already become widespread in various training fields such as nursing education [144], evacuation training [39], learning foreign languages [1] [74], professional training courses [8], etc. Current research concludes that most users prefer to use non-traditional teaching methods, and results show the effectiveness of such approaches [93]. In the context of science education, VR technologies make it possible to envisage a radical evolution in learning methods by placing the learner at the heart of an innovative practise, which merges theoretical and practical learning into a unified (possibly collaborative) practice. ...
Thesis
From a very early age, the construction of our understanding of physical reality is based in a decisive way on direct and interactive experimentation, a link between perception and cognition. And since experimentation plays a fundamental role in the progressive acquisition of knowledge on scientific topics, including physics, the objective of this doctoral project is to leverage the innovative technologies of Virtual Reality (VR), numerical simulations, and the new interactive techniques associated with them to design, develop, and evaluate new methods, tools, and experiments dedicated to acquiring knowledge in the field of physics. The approach adopted combines serious games, i.e., using game mechanics for a purpose other than the game itself, with the possibilities offered by VR to experience new physical situations in the first person. By combining a didactic framework with a serious game-based approach, the aim is to design, implement and evaluate the use of interactive real-time simulation tools in VR, comparing them with traditional educational approaches. In this dissertation, beyond bibliographic research, we started by designing and implementing a sandbox as a bootstrap for several possible physical games to test whether interactions and general game organisation would prove intuitive and motivating. Then, based on ideas obtained from brainstorming sessions and individual interviews with students, we created a list of possible game features. We also investigated 2 possible visualisation tools within a very frequent task in gaming: aiming and shooting at a long-distance target. Our focus of research then shifted to more practical teaching tasks such as the question of mass perception in VR. This specific work focuses on the pseudo-haptic rendering of objects with weight within a didactic framework of learning physics, particularly when dealing with the property of mass. We sought to verify the hypothesis that pseudo-haptic techniques allow users to discriminate objects of identical aspects but different masses. We compared several conditions by modifying the so called Control-Display ratio in translation, rotation, while keeping an explicit visual metaphor, the Roberval balance, as a baseline. We then investigated how to improve student knowledge acquisition of the concept of density. One of the reasons why the topic is difficult to understand is that most students share deeply rooted delusions and misconceptions about the behaviour of physical objects. We compared the effectiveness of a serious immersive game in teaching the density concept in 2 conditions: a 2D version in an embedded web browser and a 3D immersive game in VR. We also developed a specific questionnaire to assess students' knowledge improvement. Finally, we considered the potential usefulness of using a companion for educational purposes, this time teaching the concept of gravity. We compared three different companion settings - a real teacher, a (live) video of a teacher, and a VR avatar of a teacher. The concept of gravity and free fall were introduced in three exercises: I - dropping objects in different gravity fields; II - experiment with parabolic trajectories; III - experimenting with gravitation "sandwiches". Results showed that immersive and interactive digital simulations in VR offer incomparable advantages over traditional didactic approaches, by deepening and facilitating the learning of new knowledge. Recent advances in immersive interaction technologies, coupled with realistic real-time physical simulation engines, make it possible to create a credible virtual experimental space where the learner can get involved by manipulating actual objects to observe or predict their behaviour.
... VR technology has become popular in recent years, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated in various educational settings [3][4][5][6]. In vocational training, VR has been widely adopted in various domains, including weld training, surgery, construction management, and military training, as a way to engage and motivate learners, decrease time to achieve skill mastery, cut down on material usage, and improve final performance outcomes. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology with a variety of potential benefits for vocational training. Therefore, this paper presents a VR training based on the highly validated 4C/ID model to train vocational competencies in the field of vehicle painting. The following 4C/ID components were designed using the associated 10 step approach: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The paper describes the instructional design process including an elaborated blueprint for a VR training application for aspiring vehicle painters. We explain the model’s principles and features and their suitability for designing a VR vocational training that fosters integrated competence acquisition. Following the methodology of design-based research, several research methods (e.g., a target group analysis) and the ongoing development of prototypes enabled agile process structures. Results indicate that the 4C/ID model and the 10 step approach promote the instructional design process using VR in vocational training. Implementation and methodological issues that arose during the design process (e.g., limited time within VR) are adequately discussed in the article
... The virtual worlds generated and displayed by VR technologies certainly have the capacity to teach. Some companies have stated that VR is the future of learning-even though the empirical evidence to support these claims is conflicting (Makransky et al., 2017;Merchant et al., 2014). There is little doubt that VR technologies can make a learning experience more enjoyable (Cheng et al., 2017), engaging (Franceschi et al., 2008), or creative (Thornhill-Miller & Dupont, 2016). ...
... Page 2 of 17 Buchner and Hofmann Int J Educ Technol High Educ (2022) 19:24 or simulations viewed on desktop computers when using the term VR (like in Merchant et al., 2014). However, other authors also use the term iVR in their studies when using HMDs (e.g. ...
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International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 19:24, 2022 The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a learning design based entirely on the micro level strategies of the Synthesis of Qualitative Data (SQD) model is better suited to promote teachers augmented and virtual reality-related Will, Skill, and Tool (WST) compared to a learning design based less on the SQD model. To this end, we first developed two learning designs that were randomly distributed across two teacher professional development courses. In one course (n = 23), teachers learned according to our developed and fully SQD-based Tell–Show–Enact–Do (TSED) learning design; in the other course, teachers (n = 22) followed a Tell–Show–Enact (TSE) learning design that was less SQD-based. The results of the quasi-experimental field study show that the developed fully SQD-based TSED learning design is better able to promote the elements WST in teachers regarding the integration of augmented and virtual reality in the classroom. The results of the study have implications for theory and practice. For example, the developed TSED learning design can serve as a blueprint for other teacher educators, and the empirical findings support the micro level strategies recommended in the SQD model. Additional findings are discussed.
... Previous studies have reviewed VR designs for higher education [74,85], indicating that there is interest in the use of immersive VR technologies in many different fields. A systematic review of immersive VR applications for higher education [47] noted that engineering, computer science and astronomy were the most popular application areas. ...
... The reason for this can be shown as an environment in which students can make interactive and feel included. When the literature is examined, the results of similar studies also support the results we have obtained (Makransky et al., 2019;Merchant et al., 2014;Tepe et al., 2016;Tham et al., 2018). Head-worn glasses used in virtual reality, realistic three-dimensional models used in these environments, and the student's interaction with these models are thought to allow the feeling of being in space and thus increase the level of feeling themselves in the environment. ...
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In this study, we created an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) instructional application for geography education. The sample consisted of 9th grade students as 20 students in the control group and 20 students in the experimental group. Expository Instruction Methods, one of the traditional teaching methods, were applied to the control group, and the teacher on the slide explained the "Shape and Movements of the Earth" as the subject. The students in the experimental group used the VR-based interactive teaching environment we designed for the same subject under the supervision of a teacher. We explored the relationship between students' level of presence and their academic achievement and received students' opinions. The students' academic scores in the experimental group were higher with a statistically significant difference than the control group, and we found that the motivation was higher in the experimental group. The research aims to show the effect of using VR interactive teaching materials in geography education, specifically for "Shape and Movements of the Earth".
... The immersive nature of VR promotes students' deep learning, long-term retention (Rizzo et al., 2006), and enjoyment (Lee, 2019). A meta-analysis by Merchant et al. (2014) confirms positive educational outcomes of VR. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) can be beneficial for learning and for increasing learners’ engagement and motivation. However, aggregations of studies on language learning in high-immersion VR are scarce. This paper offers a systematic review of existing research on VR-based language learning, encompassing 32 peer-reviewed studies published between 2015 and 2020. The study yielded three main language-related findings: (1) multiple exposures to VR are necessary for effective learning; (2) VR is beneficial for contextual vocabulary learning; and (3) perceptions of language learning in VR are positive, but its effectiveness is inconclusive. We also describe VR technology trends, VR content used in language learning, and learners’ perceptions of learning languages in VR. This systematic review is useful for language educators, researchers, and VR app developers.
... Der Artikel gibt zuerst einen Überblick über Ansätze von VRLEs in Bezug auf die Begriffe ‹Immersion› und ‹Präsenz›, präsentiert die wichtigsten Erkenntnisse, die von der theoretischen Konzeption bis hin zur technischen Umsetzung gemacht wurden. (Merchant et al. 2014;Chen 2016;Lloyd, Rogerson, and Stead 2018). This paper presents the experience of developing VR sequences in language teaching in the ‹Around the world in 5 days› project. ...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR), which is based on three fundamental principles, namely immersion, interaction and user involvement, is seen as having great a potential in language learning (Merchant et al. 2014; Chen 2016; Lloyd, Rogerson, and Stead 2018). This paper presents the experience of developing VR sequences in language teaching in the ‹Around the world in 5 days› project. The analysis presented here draws on the sociological perspective of ‹Science and Technology Studies› (STS) to take a critical look at human-machine interaction. Each phase of the project, from the development of lesson planning and VR sequences to user testing and classroom use, was documented and scientifically monitored. The article first gives an overview of approaches to VRLEs in terms of ‹immersion› and ‹presence›, presents the main findings made from theoretical conception to technical implementation.
... Bu yazılımlar sayesinde eğitim ortamında gösterilmesi zor ya da imkânsız olan olay veya durumlar canlandırılarak öğrenciye gereken bilgi ve beceri kazandırılabilmektedir (Akkoyunlu, 2005;Demirel, Seferoğlu & Yağcı, 2004;Öztürk, 2005;Yalin, 2004). Tanımsal olarak, simülasyonlar, gerçek hayattaki bir süreci veya durumu taklit eden etkileşimli dijital öğrenme ortamları olarak ifade edilir (Merchant, Goetz, Cifuentes, Keeney-Kennicutt & Davis, 2014). Dolayısı ile simülasyon türü öğretim yazılımlarında, öğrenciler girdi değişkenlerine müdahale edebilir ve bu etkilerin sonuçlarını test edebilirler (De Jong, 1991;Fletcher & Tobias, 2011). ...
... The content created allows individuals to interact with objects, the environment, and also other people with the help of equipment (Yıldırım & Selvi, 2017). Restructuring of information allows individuals to recreate information and interact more (Merchant et al., 2014). Virtual reality is based on the restructuring and reshaping of the real world in virtual environment with the help of technological devices and software (Aslan, 2017). ...
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The aim of this study was to research the effects of virtual reality and animation supported science teaching software prepared for 6th-grade systems in our body unit circulatory system subject on students’ cognitive load levels, academic success and cognitive levels. Cognitive Level Scale (CLES) and Cognitive Load Scale (CLOS) were used as data collection instrument. When the results of the study were examined, a significant difference was found between cognitive levels of students in favour of the experimental group which received virtual reality software supported teaching. At the same time, since cognitive level scale is an achievement test, a comparison was made between the groups in terms of academic achievement. Academic achievements of the students in the virtual reality software supported experimental group were significantly different and higher when compared with students in the other group. In addition, when cognitive levels of the students were examined, it was found that virtual reality supported experimental group had higher cognitive levels when compared with other groups. When the scores of cognitive load scale were examined, it was found that virtual reality supported experimental group had lower cognitive load. As a conclusion, virtual reality supported science education contributes to students’ academic achievement, their states of having higher cognitive levels and lower cognitive load.
... Unlike simulations such as scientific computer models that represent real-world phenomena, games are defined by essential features such as play (Clark et al., 2009;Homer et al., 2020;Ke, 2016), goals (Malone, 1981), rules (Garris et al., 2002), interactivity (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004;Vogel et al., 2006), challenges (Shute & Ke, 2012), and feedback Prensky, 2001), as displayed in Figure 1. The application of immersive learning technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), or mixed reality (MR) in GBL strengthens this expectation (Checa & Bustillo, 2019;Cummings & Bailenson, 2016;Di Natale et al., 2020;Garz on & Acevedo, 2019;Laffey et al., 2019;Merchant et al., 2014;Moreno & Mayer, 2002, 2004Parong & Mayer, 2018Pellas et al., 2018). However, what supports learning, when, and for whom? ...
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Game‐based learning (GBL) may address the unique characteristics of a single subject such as chemistry. Previous systematic reviews on the effects of GBL have yielded contradictory results concerning cognitive and motivational outcomes. This meta‐analysis aims to: (a) estimate the overall effect size of GBL in chemistry education on cognitive, motivational, and emotional outcomes compared with non‐GBL (i.e., media comparison); (b) examine possible moderators of the effects; and (c) identify the more effective game design and instructional design features (i.e., value‐added comparison). We screened 842 articles and included 34 studies. This study is the first GBL meta‐analysis that employed a three‐level random‐effects model for the overall effects. Moderator analysis used a mixed‐effects meta‐regression model. Results from the media comparison suggest chemistry GBL was more effective for cognition (g = 0.70, k = 30, N = 4155), retention (g = 0.59, k = 20, N = 2860), and motivation (g = 0.35, k = 7, N = 974) than non‐GBL and the substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 86%) for cognitive outcomes. No study reported emotional outcomes, and studies considering value‐added comparisons of GBL with versus without specific design features (k = 3) were too few to perform a meta‐analysis. Moderator analyses implied that except for publication source and sample size, no other moderator was related to effect sizes. There may be the small‐study effects, particularly publication bias. Although we conclude that GBL enhances chemistry learning more than non‐GBL, the results also make clear that additional high‐quality value‐added research is needed to identify design guidelines that may further improve chemistry GBL. More GBL meta‐analyses on subjects other than chemistry are also needed. As the first GBL meta‐analysis that emphasizes emotion, we call for more research on emotion and on relationships between cognition, motivation, and emotion in GBL.
... The meta-analysis found that when learning tasks were declarative, elaborate explanation type of feedback is more effective. This may be due to students needing detailed instruction or information to complete a task, which is based on factual knowledge [10]. The lecture material requires factual knowledge and is declarative so that is why detailed information will be provided to the students, followed by discussion, and then additional information is based on the discussion points to help students to complete the quiz questions. ...
Conference Paper
The COVID-19 pandemic has radically changed the way students learn and engage with their peers and instructors. Likewise , instructors had to quickly transform their course materials to suit the online classroom format. Results from a survey of students at an educational institution revealed that perceived levels of learning and collaboration were lessened with the transition to online learning. In this research, we developed a VR classroom through user-centered research and assessed feedback from the students. The goal of the VR classroom was to minimize the pain points of traditional online classrooms as denoted by the survey results while enabling better experiences. Participants rated the VR classroom to be more engaging, fun, immersive, and collaborative than the video conference classroom. Our research indicated VR classrooms improve learning and immersion outcomes and discovered that the greatest detractor from the VR classroom is the inability to take notes, which is an important feature for future research. In this paper, we also report on the future direction of the study focusing on the security component of the VR classrooms.
... Burdea [33] proposed the concept of the 3I VR pyramid, and maintained that VR should have three elements: immersion, imagination, and interaction. Currently, VR can be classified into six categories according to design technology and user interfaces: (1) desktop VR; (2) immersion VR; (3) projection VR; (4) simulator VR; (5) telepresence VR; and (6) network VR; therefore, in recent years, many experts and scholars assumed that the VR technology can improve participants' attitude toward and interest in learning, and that the interactions in learning tasks can be strengthened in an immersive environment to improve learning effects [9,34]. ...
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The recent years have witnessed striking global demographic shifts. Retired elderly people often stay home, seldom communicate with their grandchildren, and fail to acquire new knowledge or pass on their experiences. In this study, digital technologies based on virtual reality (VR) with tangible user interfaces (TUIs) were introduced into the design of a novel interactive system for intergenerational learning, aimed at promoting the elderly people’s interactions with younger generations. Initially, the literature was reviewed and experts were interviewed to derive the relevant design principles. The system was constructed accordingly using gesture detection, sound sensing, and VR techniques, and was used to play animation games that simulated traditional puppetry. The system was evaluated statistically by SPSS and AMOS according to the scales of global perceptions of intergenerational communication and the elderly’s attitude via questionnaire surveys, as well as interviews with participants who had experienced the system. Based on the evaluation results and some discussions on the participants’ comments, the following conclusions about the system effectiveness were drawn: (1) intergenerational learning activities based on digital technology can attract younger generations; (2) selecting game topics familiar to the elderly in the learning process encourages them to experience technology; and (3) both generations are more likely to understand each other as a result of joint learning.
... The control treatment analysis allows us to determine whether digital game-based instruction is more conducive to promoting learning than other non-digital game-based methods. Previous studies considered "control treatment" as a moderator variable to compare the experimental treatments with the different control treatments (Garzón & Acevedo, 2019;Merchant et al., 2014;Sitzmann, 2011;Wouters et al., 2013). The two coding categories for control treatment in our meta-analysis were "traditional" and "multimedia". ...
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Many researchers have explored the impact of digital games on learning effects in different STEM subjects. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the effect of digital game-based STEM education on the learning achievement of K-12 or higher education students. The analysis results of effect sizes from 33 studies (N = 3894) published from 2010 to 2020 showed that digital games contributed to a moderate overall effect size (ES = 0.667, 95% CI [0.520–0.814], p < 0.001) when compared with other instructional methods. Furthermore, the study explored multiple moderator variables and their potential impacts on learning outcomes such as control treatment, subject discipline, educational level, game type, gaming platform, and intervention duration. The findings suggest that digital games are a promising pedagogical method in STEM education that effectively improves learning gains. Additionally, the study concludes with three recommendations for future research and practices on digital games in STEM education.
... Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) refers to an interactive 360° three-dimensional simulation accessed through a head-mounted display that provides head and position tracking (Klingenberg et al., 2020). IVR is being continuously applied and practiced in education (Lee & Wong, 2014;Luo et al., 2021;Merchant et al., 2014), especially in experimental education of elementary and junior schools in China. IVR can be used to present the phenomena that can hardly be observed or controlled in real world due to limitations of time and space, the processes that change too fast or too slow, and the experiments that are destructive to the environment. ...
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Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) aims to bring simulated learning experience but could bring about higher cognitive load and be less accommodating to different cognitive styles. Meanwhile, Peer Instruction (PI), when integrated into IVR-based course, has the potential to address the needs of different cognitive styles and reduce cognitive load. This study, adopting a quasi-experimental research method, intends to explore the effects of PI in IVR-based course on learners, especially with two cognitive styles, namely Field-Independent (FI) and Field-Dependent (FD). A total of 65 junior high school students from two classes were randomly assigned to either experimental group or control group based on intact class. The research results indicate the positive effect of PI on learning by reducing cognitive load (d = 0.87), increasing motivation (d = 0.75), retention (d = 0.60) and transfer (d = 0.57) in IVR-based course. More specially, FD learners could benefit academically more from the PI than FI learners (d = 1.17). Therefore, we recommend peer interaction to be stressed in IVR-based course, with an attention to individual cognitive styles, to facilitate and enhance IVR resources designs and promote virtual experimental learning.
... Mikropoulos and Natsis first emphasized this unique learning experience through three aspects -the enabling technology, pedagogical foundations, and learning outcomes [16]. Merchant et al. systematically reviewed articles reporting empirical studies that used VR for K-12 and higher education [17]. The meta-analysis result showed the potential of using VR for education and presented its numerous advantages, but also called for future studies to "test more design variables and interesting interaction effects of design features" (p. ...
... First of all, long-term use of immersive VR devices may cause users to experience symptoms such as dizziness, nausea and vomiting dizziness. Secondly, the high equipment and maintenance costs of immersive VR prevent it from being widely used in practice learning (Chuah et al., 2010;Lee & Wong, 2014;Merchant et al., 2014). Dalgarno et al. (2002) suggest that "immersion in virtual environment is caused by user's control over environment, interaction with the environment, not just the nature of the environment itself". ...
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With advantages such as ease of use and low cost, desktop virtual reality (VR) technologies are increasingly being used in practical learning. This study aims to clarify the relationship among students' self-efficacy, goal orientation, technology acceptance [e.g., perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU)] and learning behavior, and the changes of these variables as well as gender difference in the early and late stages of course study when desktop VR technology is applied to business simulation learning. A pretest–posttest group design with two repeated measures is employed for this study. During a 10-week period, students' self-efficacy, goal orientation, technology acceptance and learning behavior are measured among junior and senior students majoring in Business Administration from a four-year undergraduate university who used desktop VR technology for practical learning. Course scores for these students are also collected and used to measure whether desktop VR is helping to improve their learning outcomes. Findings indicate that there is a significant correlation between self-efficacy, PEOU, PU and goal orientation, which further affects learners' learning behavior and learning outcomes when desktop VR is used for practical learning. After learning with desktop VR, self-efficacy, perceived ease of use and usefulness, and surface learning behaviors increased, while mastery goal orientation decreased. Furthermore, self-efficacy, PEOU and PU are found to be significantly higher in males than in females.
... In der Literatur sind verschiedene Verwendungen des Begriffs VR zu finden, wobei der Begriff recht breit verstanden werden kann. So können generell alle computergenerierten Umgebungen als VR bezeichnet werden, die den Eindruck realer Umgebungen vermitteln wollen (Merchant et al. 2014). Dies schließt damit ebenfalls Computersimulationen ein, die zwar einen realistischen Eindruck von ausgewählten Aspekten der Realität ermöglichen, diese jedoch nicht als wirkliche Umgebung darstellen. ...
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Naturerfahrungen haben positive Wirkungen auf die seelische Entwicklung, Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden und können geradezu als ein Element eines „guten Lebens“ interpretiert werden. In diesem Buch wird dieser Zusammenhang auf Lern- und Bildungskontexte bezogen. Bei Bildungsprozessen geht es nicht nur um die Übernahme von relevanten Inhalten, sondern um eine Berührung, Konfrontation und Transformation des Subjekts. Die zentralen Annahmen dieses Buches sind erstens, dass eben dies durch Naturerfahrungen eröffnet werden kann, und zweitens, dass dies auch (fachliche) Lernprozesse positiv beeinflussen kann.
... Among the main advantages offered by virtual reality, we have the presence and telepresence [13], which refers to the feeling of being in an environment. Virtual reality is a technology that has been widely applied to different disciplines such as, entertainment [14], education [15], and health [16]. ...
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In video games, the evaluation of the user experience (UX) mainly refers to two main groups of aspects, those that refer to the player that is mainly oriented to make the player feel good while playing and those that refer to the video game that is oriented to make the video game easy to understand and play. The aspects considered that are related to the player are engagement, enjoyment, and flow; the aspects related to video game, usability, and dependability. Virtual reality environments today have changed the paradigm in various fields of application, such as health, education, entertainment, among others. Therefore, it is important to observe the effects of handedness with hand movements in virtual reality environments. This work proposes a model to evaluate and improve the user experience considering player and video game aspects, taking into account handedness with hand movements in virtual reality environments. Player and video game aspects can be added to evaluations of the effect of handedness, especially in virtual reality environments, in order to know the user’s behavior in terms of skill, performance, and accuracy, among other features by using a particular hand to perform specific tasks. Next, a case study is presented with two groups of users using a virtual reality environment to perform several user tasks considering the dominant and non-dominant hand. By evaluating the user tasks it is possible to know the levels of engagement, enjoyment, motivation, and usability in a virtual reality environment. Finally, an analysis of results is presented in which several improvements of UX are presented.
... All these have brought opportunities for the innovation of China's education and teaching mode and the improvement of the teaching quality of undergraduate education. At present, it is not uncommon to apply VR technology to education, and Merchant et al. have found that VR technology generally promotes learning results through meta-analysis of 69 experimental studies in the VR literature [1].In recent years, in the courses of anatomy and physiology in various colleges and universities in China, PBL teaching methods have been widely used and achieved good teaching results. Based on this, this study organically integrates VR technology with PBL pedagogy to observe the teaching effect of this teaching mode applied to motor anatomy. ...
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Purposes To explore the teaching effect and value of virtual reality technology combined with PBL teaching method applied to sports anatomy.Procedures 119 undergraduate students majoring in physical education of Xianyang Normal University were selected as research objects.Randomly divided into experimental group (N=59) and control group (N=60).Methods The experimental group used virtual reality technology combined with PBL teaching method, and the control group used traditional teaching method to teach. At the end of the course, the test scores of the two groups and the evaluation results of self-learning effect were statistically analyzed. Results the test scores of the students in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05); Most of the items in which the experimental students self-evaluated the learning effectiveness were also superior to the control group (P< 0.05), and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusions VR technology combined with PBL teaching method can improve academic performance, enhance students’ learning interest and independent learning ability, and cultivate students’ ability to find and solve problems. It is a teaching method worth promoting.
... According to Merchant et al. [41], immersive displays (stimuli) contribute to users' reactions to immersive experiences by mediating users' cognitive and affective responses. This finding is similar to a study by Suh and Prophet [27] who suggested that a user's cognitive and affective responses to immersive displays (stimuli) influence the results of immersive technology responses. ...
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One of the fastest-growing trends in the exhibition industry is the utilization of immersive technology displays which provide exhibition attendees with enhanced interactive and dynamic experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between immersive technology displays and exhibition attendees’ satisfaction. This study aimed to examine the relationship between exhibitors’ immersive displays and exhibition attendees’ satisfaction in relation to the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework. Additionally, the study categorized immersive displays and compared them with exhibition attendees’ socio-demographics. An online questionnaire survey was used for data collection, and a series of statistical analyses were carried out. The results revealed that 75% of respondents reported positive experiences with immersive displays, and some attendees were more satisfied with some of the immersive displays. Implications of the study are discussed.
... One suggestion for the difference between these two analyses on procedural and declarative knowledge might be related to the potential to provide feedback to the participant. Merchant et al. (2014) discovered that acquisition of declarative knowledge is more effective with feedback. In this sense, ITS environments with an interactive agent provide the opportunity for the participant to receive feedback; whereas, animated videos are similar to lectures with no ability to receive feedback. ...
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Over the past decade, meta-analyses have been conducted to evaluate the impact of embodied pedagogical agents on learning outcomes. Most review studies have evaluated learning outcomes from the perspective of testing labels such as transfer, retention , recognition, free recall, and various other classifications. This is problematic, because studies can be excluded due to the labeling of the assessment, even though the testing format and test taking strategy are the same. This meta-analysis assesses how embodied pedagogical agents impact learning when measured from the testing format and test taking strategy perspective. The new approach, along with new moderating variables to evaluate agent design and content information, supports previous findings that embodied pedagogical agents significantly increase learning; but there are limitations depending on the agent's design and the type of information being learned. This meta-analysis advances the field by exploring new ways to think about design elements associated with embodied pedagogical agents.
... Several other scholars have pointed out that VRbased education can promote higher-level cognitive activities such as analysis and comprehension, and thus has a significant impact on learning transfer (Falloon, 2020;. As learning transfer gains importance in the research on learning achievement factors, deeper research is being conducted on its relationship with VR-based education (Jensen & Konradsen, 2018;Merchant et al., 2014;Samadbeik et al., 2018). This increase in research illustrates the need to explore the role of mediating factors in the transfer of learning from VR to reality. ...
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Background This study aims to establish the mechanism by which virtual reality (VR) media characteristics affect learning transfer in a VR‐based job‐training environment. The two main determinants of learning transfer are the technology and the learner, but not many studies have considered both factors simultaneously. Objectives This study aims to ascertain the mechanism by which VR media characteristics affect learning transfer with flow as a mediator, and to explore whether presence moderates the effect of VR media characteristics on flow. Methods A survey of semiconductor facilities engineers who received VR‐based job training was conducted. A total of 106 responses were used in the statistical analysis. A path analysis was conducted to determine the promotional mechanism that connects VR media characteristics, flow, and learning transfer. Results and Conclusions The results were as follows. First, VR media characteristics had a positive impact on learning transfer. Second, flow acted as a mediator in the relationship between VR media characteristics and learning transfer. Third, presence played a moderating role in the relationship between VR media characteristics and flow. Key takeaways This study is significant as it identifies elements to consider in relation to both the technological and learner aspects of VR while designing a VR‐based job‐training programme. A corporation should consider VR media characteristics from a technological perspective, and flow and presence from a learner's perspective.
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The Virtual Reality (VR) budget at an Omani technical college was utilized for the design, construction, and launch of a VR lab. The decision remained, however, as to what sorts of immersive activities/games would most benefit the English language students of the General Foundation Program (GFP). Over the course of 2 years, as approvals were given and equipment ordered, received, and tested, GFP staff members identified dozens of freely-available 360-degree VR videos and matched them to the general topics of each unit of every textbook in the program. They next created mini-quizzes in the form of “pop-up” multiple choice questions within the VR videos themselves, with score results being auto-emailed to teachers. During the roll out of the lab in academic year 2018/2019, inter-departmental meetings were held, and notes taken, on the perceived successes and failures of the new laboratory. Several clear areas for improvement were identified in the lab and video set up that could stunt the VR lab’s growth if not properly dealt with. This chapter reports on the VR team’s efforts to employ Extended Reality tools (e.g. VR, AR, MR) to “create new learning experiences, test new hypotheses, and inspire new models” (Bengfort J, Virtual reality advances bring new possibilities to higher education. EdTech. Retrieved from https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2020/02/virtual-reality-advances-bring-new-possibilities-higher-education, 2020, para. 4) in the English foundation program. The impact of VR on learners’ cognitive and emotional learning is also presented, along with a discussion of pathways to enhance English learning through VR.
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Abstract Virtual reality has been used in psychotherapy efficiently to treat several psychological disorders, especially fobias in recent years. Therapists help their clients confront their fears systematically in a controlled environment created by computer. It is important for health professionals to define it in depth since it is considered to be a part of the future of clinical psychology. In this study virtual reality technologies and their uses are described, current virtual reality applications available for psychotherapy are reviewed, and lastly limitations and future of these applications are discussed. Öz Sanal Gerçeklik Terapileri psikoterapide özellikle fobiler olmak üzere pek çok rahatsızlığın tedavisi için son yıllarda etkili bir yöntem olarak kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu yöntemle danışanların duyarsızlaşması gerçekleşene kadar bilgisayar tarafından oluşturulan kontrollü bir ortamda korkuları ile terapist eşliğinde sistematik bir şekilde yüzleştirilmeleri sağlanır. Klinik psikolojinin geleceğinin bir parçası olarak görüldüğü için sağlık profesyonelleri tarafından geniş bir şekilde tanımlanması önem arz etmektedir. Bu araştırmada sanal gerçeklik teknolojileri ve kullanım alanları tanımlandıktan sonra psikoterapi kapsamındaki mevcut sanal gerçeklik uygulamaları gözden geçirilmiş, son olarak sanal gerçeklik uygulamalarının sınırlılıkları ve geleceği tartışılmıştır
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We discuss the design of a technology-based vaccine education intervention for Somali refugees in the US. Originally conceived of as a culturally and linguistically appropriate project to be co-designed by refugees, funder demands for a "social enterprise" led to future iterations being developed for a "generic" audience. We explore epistemological negotiations and shifting priorities that shaped intervention design, highlighting how nonprofits engage neoliberal ideologies such as "social enterprise" and "design thinking" while attempting to meet community needs. We argue that social enterprises and design thinking can suffuse neoliberal ideologies into nonprofits to the detriment of community-engaged solutions.
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In this study, we designed and implemented a virtual reality-based pedagogical framework. The framework can be altered to be used for any laboratory-based class such as biology, chemistry, and physics. The framework has four main modules: Interface, Companion, Virtual Reality Scene, and Online Dashboard. The “Interface” module allows for the human computer interaction. The “Companion” module is based on voice recognition and replaces a laboratory assistant. The Online Dashboard acts as a user interface for teachers to create virtual laboratory scenes and upload them to the Virtual Reality Scene. We carried out a usability study and asked five faculty members with different backgrounds to carry out five tasks. The results showed that all the subjects had a positive experience with the virtual reality based pedagogical framework. The subjects mentioned that they expect virtual reality to be part of education in the near feature, especially for laboratory classes and that the pandemic has proved that VR is the future.
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Extended reality technology are raising high hopes among researchers for its use to overcome the difficulties associated with spatial separation in collaborative learning. In this work, a systematic review of the research literature was conducted on the use of extended reality (XR) technology to support distance collaborative learning. We searched Web of Science to collect relevant articles. The articles were manually screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria which refer to PRISMA [23]. By examining the relevant articles closely, we show the advantages of using XR technology in collaborative learning, such as increasing engagement, increasing students’ interest, and facilitating student interactions. We then analyse the challenges in the application of XR, such as skill requirements for teachers and students, lack of accessibility, and technical issues. Finally, we put forward suggestions for the future development of XR-supported distance collaborative learning environments.
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The subjective experiences and satisfaction of using technology to collaborate remotely may differ due to the individual differences of personal characteristics. The present study aims to investigate the influence of empathy tendency on user experience. Twelve groups of three participants completed a decision-making task in the virtual environment. The results revealed a significant correlation between personal traits (i.e., empathy and the big five personalities), user experience (i.e., social presence), and satisfaction. The level of cognitive empathy has a positive effect on the feeling of social presence, social immersion, and outcome satisfaction in the virtual environment, while is not associated with media satisfaction. The findings of this study suggest that the cognitive ability of empathy, namely the ability to identify with and understand the views of others may increase one’s experience and satisfaction in remote collaboration. This study provides an empirical exploration of team interactions in virtual environments and advances user research by identifying the relationship between user’s traits (empathy), user experience, and satisfaction.
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«Immersive Medien bzw. Lernumgebungen» (vgl. «virtual reality») bezeichnen technologiegestützte Anwendungen, die es Lernenden ermöglichen, einen virtuell erzeugten Raum realitätsnah zu erleben. Innerhalb der Lehr-Lern-Forschung wird immersiven Medien das Potenzial zugesprochen, Lernprozesse zu fördern. Jedoch konnten Studien bislang dieses Potenzial nicht hinreichend belegen. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags argumentieren wir, dass die heterogene Befundlage bisheriger Untersuchungen u. a. durch die Schwierigkeit erklärbar ist, das Lernen mit immersiven Medien theoretisch zu fassen. Wir adressieren diese Schwierigkeit im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags damit, die räumlich-situative Repräsentation episodischer Inhalte als Alleinstellungsmerkmal immersiver Medien herauszuarbeiten. Die Diskussion dieses Alleinstellungsmerkmals hinsichtlich potenzieller Effekte auf das Lernen macht deutlich, dass das Verhältnis zwischen exklusiven Merkmalen immersiver Medien und damit verbundenen Informationsverarbeitungsprozessen bisher nicht hinreichend durch theoretische Modelle erfasst wird. Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist es, durch die Diskussion eines Alleinstellungsmerkmals immersiver Medien theoretische Beziehungen genauer abzubilden, sodass diese in künftigen Forschungsarbeiten besser zielgerichtet adressiert werden können.
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Thesis
Digital realities, such as virtual (VR) or augmented reality (AR), can complement traditional methods of learningarchitectural design. The possibilities of mixing the real and the virtual environment, made possible by AR, wouldpromote the appropriation of the relationships between architecture and its surroundings. VR would make itpossible to confront the architectural student with different situations. The thesis aims to contribute possible usesof interactive virtual environments on which new educational methods of teaching architecture can emerge. Thetransformations in teaching methods related to Digital Technologies completely escape the teaching ofarchitecture, which remains firmly rooted in tradition. The research method that we developed consisted ofcarrying out surveys among architectural students. Furthermore, we have developed digital applications and testedthem in design studios. Finally, we have synthesized these experiences to identify the possibilities and limits ofdigital realities and virtual immersive environments used in the teaching of architecture.
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Wprowadzenie Zarówno sztuczna inteligencja (AI), jak również wirtualna i rozszerzona rzeczywi-stość (VR/AR) posiadają potężny potencjał do wprowadzania wielu zmian w życiu ludzi. W to wierzą powszechnie nie tylko informatycy, wierzy w to również coraz większa liczba ludzi, którzy, wsłuchując się w narrację informatyków, wspierają się wiedzą zaczerpniętą z książek lub obejrzanych filmów science fiction w poszuki-waniu wsparcia informacyjno-decyzyjnego. Są to pożądane działania, gdyż ci lu-dzie, stając przed problemem decyzyjnym, sami sobie nie radzą w zadawalającym stopniu z podejmowaniem decyzji, albo mogą sobie poradzić, ale pod warunkiem włożenia sporego nakładu pracy, co często jest zadaniem nieatrakcyjnym. Do ta-kich zadań należy edukacja, która, mimo chwalebnych osiągnięć, ciągle obarcza ludzi obowiązkami, nudnymi procedurami zapamiętywania niepotrzebnych (jak się to często wydaje) informacji, które trudno uczącemu się powiązać w logicz-ne ciągi. Zarówno AI, jak też VR/AR, są przez nas w tych rozważaniach nazywane "zjawiskami" 35. Mimo że wymienione zjawiska mają zasięg ponadlokalny, to jednak natężenie ich funkcjonowania 36 jest zintensyfikowane w obszarach miejskich. Być może mają one charakter przejściowy, związany z wyłanianiem się zarówno AI jak i VR/AR w kontekście ich implementacji i wykorzystania, niemniej wydaje się, że miasta z różnych powodów stwarzają warunki dla akceleracji rozwoju tych zjawisk. Autorzy wyznaczyli przestrzeń-tworzoną przez nakładające się na siebie sub-przestrzenie miasta-sztucznej inteligencji i VR/AR. Może ona aktywnie stymulo-wać procesy edukacji. Nadto autorzy postanowili rozpoznać zakres oddziaływania tej przestrzeni na edukację. Aby jednak był sens zagłębiania się w takie rozważania, należy: (1) zdefiniować wy-mienione pojęcia, (2) rozpoznać sensowność ich wyodrębnienia poprzez sformu-łowanie założeń bądź tez, (3) udowodnić (zgodnie z istotą tez) ich prawdziwość, (4) rozpoznać wzajemnie związki między tymi pojęciami i (5) rozpoznać hipotetyczne 35 Użycie przez autorów pojęcia "zjawisko" jest figurą retoryczną, zaś jego uzasadnieniem jest próba objęcia tym sa-mym pojęciem (oznaczającym to, co dane jest w poznaniu zmysłowym) większego zakresu zidentyfikowanych różno-rodnych pojęć w sytuacji, gdy ta różnorodność dla narracji nie ma istotnego znaczenia z punktu widzenia oddziaływa-nia na inne zjawiska (na edukację). 36 Mówiąc o "natężeniu" zjawiska, autorzy mają na myśli charakterystyki ilościowe zjawiska, możliwe do przedstawie-nia w formie punktowej, powierzchniowej czy obszarowej.
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The advancement of digital hologram technology has conceded exciting possibilities in the educational sector pushing the temporal and spatial boundaries with enhanced virtual presence and interactions. The application and adaptation of the technology have started off in the classrooms mainly in medical education, science, and engineering education in the higher education sites. With this, the studies on the use of holograms and their educational effects have been also on an increase. This scoping review examines the literature in the past decade and provides a comprehensive overview of the research on using holography in educational sites. The results show that although the number of studies on the use of holography is on the rise in recent five years, studies on educational effects are limited to small age groups, subjects, and the effectiveness constructs that measure learning outcomes are still scattered. This review contributes to the bibliometric and thematic mapping of literature and the identification of gaps for future research.
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Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been producing consistent learning gains for decades. The authors describe here a conceptual framework that provides a guide to how adding game-based features and components may improve the effectiveness of ITS learning environments by improving students’ motivation to engage with the system. A problem consistently faced by ITS researchers is the gap between liking and learning. ITSs effectively produce learning gains, but students often dislike interacting with the system. A potential solution to this problem lies in games. ITS researchers have begun to incorporate game-based elements within learning systems. This chapter aims to describe some of those elements, categorize them within functional groups, and provide insight into how elements within each category may affect various types of motivation.
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It has been maintained that Virtual Reality (VR) may allow students to “get into” the representation simulated by the computer, so that they can mentally act on the relation they have with the representation of the world instead of acting on the relation they have with the world itself. This should help students to realise some critical issues involved in knowledge construction and to grasp important epistemological implications. This general assumption needs to be empirically tested, for instance by showing that mental operations elicited by VR environments differ from those occurring in traditional instructional settings. The present experiment aimed to provide evidence for this, by focusing on a particular cognitive process: making sense. Forty university students were randomly assigned either to a reflection condition or to a VR immersion condition. In the first condition participants looked at the two-dimensional reproduction of an unfamiliar painting; in the second condition they were taken into a guided virtual tour into the same painting. Four tasks (to propose a title for the painting, to identify its meaning, to list questions suggested by it, and to write a comment) were given. Analyses of protocols revealed that students in the VR condition were induced to assume spontaneously a meta-perspective, namely, to think not to “what” they face, but to “why” or “how” something is in front of them. VR experience also prompted students to conceptualise experience at an abstract level and stimulated a free and imaginative elaboration. The reflection condition, instead, encouraged emphasis to be placed on the cultural or inferential links. Findings suggested that the outstanding features of VR for instruction, refer to the possibility that VR allows users to become aware of some implicit assumptions concerning the relations between our mind and the world.
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The 4th edition of the Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology expands upon the previous 3 versions, providing a comprehensive update on research pertaining to new and emerging educational technologies. Chapters that are no longer pertinent have been eliminated in this edition, with most chapters being completely rewritten, expanded, and updated Additionally, new chapters pertaining to research methodologies in educational technology have been added due to expressed reader interest. Each chapter now contains an extensive literature review, documenting and explaining the most recent, outstanding research, including major findings and methodologies employed. The Handbook authors continue to be international leaders in their respective fields; the list is cross disciplinary by design and great effort was taken to invite authors outside of the traditional instructional design and technology community. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate value of combining Real Experimentation (RE) with Virtual Experimentation (VE) with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding of electric circuits. To achieve this, a pre–post comparison study design was used that involved 88 undergraduate students. The participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (45 students) and a control group (43 students). Each group attended a one semester course in physics for preservice elementary school teachers. Both groups used the same inquiry-based curriculum materials. Participants in the control group used RE to conduct the study's experiments, whereas, participants in the experimental group used RE in the first part of the curriculum and VE in another part. Conceptual tests were administered to assess students' understanding of electric circuits before, during and after the teaching intervention. Results indicated that the combination of RE and VE enhanced students' conceptual understanding more than the use of RE alone. A further analysis showed that differences between groups on that part of the curriculum in which the experimental group used VE and the control group RE, in favour of VE.
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The scientific community and the nation's schools have been experiencing a self-proclaimed ethical crisis over animal dissection in classrooms. While this issue involves intractable ethical and philosophical positions, one ethical implication of the debate is that if dissection is used in schools, it should be used for maximum educational benefit. One intriguing previous finding was that use of an interactive videodisc dissection learning from subsequent actual dissection. This study examined the prior use of simulation of frog dissection in improving students' learning of frog anatomy and morphology. There were four experimental conditions: (a) simulation before dissection (SBD), (b) dissection before simulation (DBS), (c) simulation-only (SO), or (d) dissection-only (DO). Results of the study indicated that students receiving SBD and SO learned significantly more anatomy than students receiving DBS, DO. The genders did not differ in achievement.
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Abstract In communicating information about geometric figures, one drawing may be worth many hundreds of words and, therefore, visualisation aids for complicated three-dimensional (3-D) solid objects are very helpful for both teacher and students. This paper describes the use of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) to visualise 3-D objects for middle school geometry classes in a networked environment and shows its usefulness for both teacher and students. In class, the teachers use VRML objects retrieved from their server and students are allowed to explore these objects accessing the teachers' server via the world-wide web. A comparison of the test results from VRML-based geometry classes and traditional classes, that solely depend on verbal explanation with paper and pencil, show that the application of VRML-based 3-D objects has a positive affect on students' learning of geometric topics.
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This study examines the effects of Interactive Multimedia instruction upon the variables of achievement and problem solving skills on non-science majors in an Environmental Science course at a mid-western university. The findings indicate that the Interactive Multimedia had a significant effect on both of the variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the impact on self-study when students are learning outside of the classroom in a distance learning environment.
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Background: Most policy doctrines promote the use of scientific inquiry in the K–12 classroom, but good inquiry is hard to implement, particularly for schools with fiscal and safety constraints and for teachers struggling with understanding how to do so. Purpose: In this paper, we present the design of a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) science curriculum project focusing on the creation of virtual experimentation methods and tools that concentrate on real-world inquiry. The study investigated whether students could engage with and learn as much from virtual inquiry as physical inquiry. Furthermore, the impact on teachers was explored. Programme description: These research questions were evaluated through an implementation of the MUVE, River City, a curriculum that is based on hypothesis formation and testing. Sample: We present findings from an implementation of River City with 500 seventh-grade students and their five teachers in a US mid-Atlantic suburban school district. Students were evenly split by gender and only a few were classified as low socio-economic status. Design and methods: Each teacher's classes were randomly assigned to physical or virtual experimentation interventions. Quantitative analysis using multi-level modelling was conducted on affective and content pre/post surveys, comparing results across treatments. Student and teacher comments were also investigated for their insight into the research questions. Results: Girls using virtual experimentation learn more than any other subgroup; however, boys in the physical experimentation group outperform their counterparts in the virtual group. All students were engaged by the virtual experimentation as indicated by survey and teacher reports. Teachers on average indicated a high level of satisfaction with their students' learning but indicated concern over the length of time needed. Conclusions: Initial evidence indicates that virtual experimentation can engage students and help them learn as well as or better than physical experimentation.
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Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.
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Contents: M. Riel, Foreword: Conceptual Order and Collaborative Tools--Creating Intellectual Identity. Preface. C.J. Bonk, K.S. King, Introduction to Electronic Collaborators. Part I:Theoretical and Technological Foundations. C.J. Bonk, K.S. King, Computer Conferencing and Collaborative Writing Tools: Starting a Dialogue About Student Dialogue. C.J. Bonk, D.J. Cunningham, Searching for Learner-Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools. T.M. Duffy, B. Dueber, C.L. Hawley, Critical Thinking in a Distributed Environment: A Pedagogical Base for the Design of Conferencing Systems. Part II:Stand-Alone System Collaboration. C. Angeli, D.J. Cunningham, Bubble Dialogue: Tools for Supporting Literacy and Mind. J.R. Savery, Fostering Ownership for Learning With Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing in an Undergraduate Business Communication Course. Part III:Asynchronous Electronic Conferencing. W.A. Sugar, C.J. Bonk, Student Role Play in the World Forum: Analyses of an Arctic Adventure Learning Apprenticeship. S-M. Chong, Models of Asynchronous Computer Conferencing for Collaborative Learning in Large College Classes. R. Althauser, J.M. Matuga, On the Pedagogy of Electronic Instruction. S.E. Kirkley, J.R. Savery, M.M. Grabner-Hagen, Electronic Teaching: Extending Classroom Dialogue and Assistance Through E-mail Communication. E. Zhu, Learning and Mentoring: Electronic Discussion in a Distance Learning Course. Part IV:Multiconferencing: Asynchronous and Synchronous Classrooms. D.H. Cooney, Sharing Aspects Within Aspects: Real-Time Collaboration in the High School English Classroom. C.J. Bonk, E.J. Hansen, M.M. Garbner-Hagen, S.A. Lazar, C. Mirabelli, Time to "Connect": Synchronous and Asynchronous Case-Based Dialogue Among Preservice Teachers. I. King, The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication: Electronic Collaboration and Interactivity. Part V:Looking Back and Glancing Ahead. M.A. Siegel, S.E. Kirkley, Adventure Learning as a Vision of the Digital Learning Environment. K.S. King, Designing 21st-Century Educational Networlds: Structuring Electronic Social Spaces.
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This paper reports the findings of a study designed to develop three-dimensional virtual reality technology (VRT) learning programs for middle school students, and to evaluate the programs' educational value. The topic covered by the simulation was ‘structure and function of the eye’. The study concludes that VRT simulations allow comfortable interaction with computers and increase the interest of students and their understanding of scientific concepts and phenomena.
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The progress made in technology is occurring at a much faster rate than the rate of human acquisition of new knowledge and concepts. To address this extraordinary difference, it is crucial that technology such as immersive visualization (e.g., virtual environment) be utilized to accelerate and enhance the pedagogical practices of educational institutions. The main purpose of this project was to create an immersive environment and accompanying courseware based on the extensive use of immersive visualization. In first phase of the project, the authors investigated, designed, developed, implemented, and evaluated a pilot courseware module for computer science concepts. Forty students participated in a controlled experimental study. Twenty of the participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group while the other twenty were assigned to a control group. A standard pre- and post-test protocol was administered. Only the experimental group was exposed to the courseware module. The preliminary results show that at a 5% level of significance the use of selected computer science courseware based on tenets, foundations and basic elements of immersive visualization, tends to increase the understanding and mastery of the selected subject area as measured by performance-oriented examinations.
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Provides an overview of virtual reality from an education perspective. Defines the technology in terms of equipment and participatory experience, examines the potential applications of virtual reality in education and training, and considers the concerns and limitations of the technology. Overall, research indicates that virtual reality offers enormous educational possibilities. (Author/AEF)
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This article describes techniques for teaching Abnormal Psychology in a 104-student multimedia classroom that includes two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Presentation software allows flexibility of presentation of computer-generated text, as well as opportunities for heightening visual and auditory interest. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on desks, and they immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. This article compares educational outcomes in the multimedia classes with outcomes in traditional classes.
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This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based environment offers promise in accommodating individual differences in terms of learning style. In addition, the significant positive effect of the VR (guided exploration) mode--which provides additional navigational aids over the VR (non-guided exploration) mode--which does not provide additional navigational aids--also implies the importance of providing VR-based learning environments with proper instructional design to achieve the desired educational outcomes. (Contains 5 figures and 8 tables.)
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The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in conceptual understanding of Direct Current Electricity (DCE) in virtual (VLE) and real laboratory environment (RLE) among pre-service elementary school teachers. A pre- and post-test experimental design was used with two different groups. One of the groups was randomly assigned to VLE (n = 42) and the other to RLE (n = 38). Participants in the VLE group used computer simulations to perform the given tasks, whereas those in the RLE group used real laboratory apparatus. Before the treatment, all the students administered the Direct Electric Circuits Concepts Test (DIRECT). Pre-test analyses show that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of understanding DCE. After completing three week physics by inquiry based treatment, the DIRECT was re-administered as a post-test. Results showed that both groups showed the same effects on acquisition of scientific concepts. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
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The present study investigated whether computer assisted instruction was more effective than face-to-face instruction in increasing student success in physics. The study was conducted in the spring semester of 2006 at the Department of Science and Mathematics for Secondary Education at Hacettepe University. Seventy-eight freshman students from the Divisions of Biology Education and Chemistry Education participated in the quantitative study which included a pre-test/post-test control group design. The experimental group consisted of students from the Division of Biology Education while the control group consisted of students from the Division of Chemistry Education. Experiment and control groups were randomly selected. The subject of geometric optic covered in Physics II Course was provided through a simulation program called Pearls 3.0 to the experiment group, whereas the control group had the same instruction through face-to-face teaching methods. An achievement test addressing the contents of the geometric optic subject was prepared, which had an internal consistency coefficient of .73. Data obtained through the achievement test were analyzed through conducting t-tests with SPSS 11.0 for Windows. Findings revealed that the experimental group which had the instruction through the computer simulation was more successful than the control group who had face-to-face instruction. (Contains 6 figures and 4 tables.)
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Electricity and Magnetism is legendarily considered a subject incomprehensible to the students in the college introductory level. From a social constructivist perspective, learners are encouraged to assess the quantity and the quality of prior knowledge in a subject domain and to co-construct shared knowledge and understanding by implementing and building on each other's ideas. They become challenged by new data and perspectives thus stimulate a reconceptualization of knowledge and to be actively engaged in discovering new meanings based on experiences grounded in the real-world phenomena they are expected to learn. This process is categorized as a conceptual change learning environment and can facilitate learning of E & M. Computer simulations are an excellent tool to assist the teacher and leaner in achieving these goals and were used in this study. This study examined the effectiveness of computer simulations within a conceptual change learning environment and compared it to more lecture-centered, traditional ways of teaching E & M. An experimental and control group were compared and the following differences were observed. Statistic analyses were done with ANOVA (F-test). The results indicated that the treatment group significantly outperformed the control group on the achievement test, F(1,54) = 12.34, p <.05 and the treatment group had a higher rate of improvement than the control group on two subscales: Isolation of Variables and Abstract Transformation. The results from the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) showed that the treatment students became more field independent and were aware of more fundamental role played by physics concepts in complex problem solving. The protocol analysis of structured interviews revealed that students in the treatment group tended to visualize the problem from different aspects and articulated what they thought in a more scientific approach. Responses to the instructional evaluation questionnaire indicated overwhelming positive ratings of appropriateness and instructional effectiveness of computer simulation instruction. In conclusion, the CSI developed and evaluated in this study provided opportunities for students to refine their preconceptions and practice using new understandings. It suggests substantial promise for the computer simulation in a classroom environment.
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Science educators and school administrators are reexaming the educational value of animal dissection in the nation's schools and are focusing on simulation as an instructional alternative. One implication of the debate is that simulations can lead to equivalent learning to hands-on dissection. The second implication is whether dissection is immoral or unethical. Recent research findings revealed that students who use simulation to dissect a frog outperformed those who dissected a frog conventionally. This research compared the achievement, attitudes toward dissection, computer, science and school between simulation conditions versus conventional conditions. Results of the study indicated that on the achievement test, both the computer simulation and the conventional dissection classrooms experienced statistically significant improvement from pretest to posttest. When comparing results across classes, the simulation class and the conventional did not have significantly different pretest means. However, the simulated dissection group significantly outperformed the conventional dissection group on the posttest. The conventional class had a significant drop in the attitude scores on the post test. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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There are two popular statistical models for meta-analysis, the fixed-effect model and the random-effects model. The fact that these two models employ similar sets of formulas to compute statistics, and sometimes yield similar estimates for the various parameters, may lead people to believe that the models are interchangeable. In fact, though, the models represent fundamentally different assumptions about the data. The selection of the appropriate model is important to ensure that the various statistics are estimated correctly. Additionally, and more fundamentally, the model serves to place the analysis in context. It provides a framework for the goals of the analysis as well as for the interpretation of the statistics. In this paper we explain the key assumptions of each model, and then outline the differences between the models. We conclude with a discussion of factors to consider when choosing between the two models. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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An experimental study involving 30 undergraduates (mean age = 20.5 years) in mental rotation (MR) training was conducted in an interactive Desktop Mental Rotation Trainer (iDeMRT). Stratified random sampling assigned students into one experimental group and one control group. The former trained in iDeMRT and the latter trained in conventional condition. A multifactorial pretest posttest design procedure was used and data were analysed using two-way analysis of covariance. Overall, there was substantial improvement in MR accuracy. Main effects of training and gender were observed, indicating that iDeMRT group and boys outperformed the control group and girls respectively. In addition, an interaction between training method and gender was present, indicating that boys were more accurate when trained in iDeMRT and performed moderately in conventional method. Female participants achieved equivalent improvement gain in MR accuracy regardless of the training conditions used. For the speed measure of MR, no appreciable improvement was observed after training.
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Educators, administrators, and students are reevaluating the value of animal dissection in the classroom and are taking a careful look at instructional alternatives. This research is an attempt to examine the performance, achievement, and attitudinal effects of a dissection alternative, an interactive videodiscbased (IVD) simulation, in two ways: as a substitute for dissection and as a preparatory tool used prior to dissection. Sixty-one high school students enrolled in three general-ability high school biology classes participated in this research over a 4-day period. On the substitution issue, findings suggest that the IVD simulation was at least as effective as actual dissection in promoting student learning of frog anatomy and dissection procedures. On the preparation issue, it was found that students using the IVD simulation as a preparation performed a subsequent dissection more effectively than students receiving no preparation and more effectively than students viewing a videotape as preparation. Students using the IVD simulation as preparation also learned more about frog anatomy and dissection procedures than those who dissected without preparation. Students in all groups evidenced little change in attitudes toward dissection. All students reported a significant gain in dissection self-efficacy, but no between-group differences were found. Findings are discussed relative to their implications for educational practice and future research.