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Recreational Activities for Senior Citizens

Authors:
  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow

Abstract

Recreation plays a key role in the well-being of older adults and in enhancing their quality of life. For seniors, as for people of all ages, involvement in recreation activities can satisfy a variety of needs. Among the important benefits of recreation for the senior population is increased health and fitness, as well as opportunities for socializing, for using skills and talents developed throughout their lifetime, and for learning new skills. The aim of this article is to dwell upon various recreational activities for the elderly. These activities are very useful to them as they can spend their leisure time and enjoy by doing interesting tasks. The senior population is quite varied, with a diversity of interests, strengths, and abilities. Some seniors have enjoyed a positive use of leisure throughout their life, and are able to find appropriate activities to suit their changing physical abilities and interests. Other seniors, however, may not be aware of the potential positive values of recreation.
IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)
Volume 19, Issue 4, Ver. VII (Apr. 2014), PP 24-30
e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.
www.iosrjournals.org
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Recreational Activities for Senior Citizens
*Bhawana Singh, **U. V. Kiran
*Research Scholar **Assistant Professor
Department of Human Development & Family Studies, School for Home Sciences,
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University Lucknow, India- 225026
Abstract: Recreation plays a key role in the well-being of older adults and in enhancing their quality of life.
For seniors, as for people of all ages, involvement in recreation activities can satisfy a variety of needs. Among
the important benefits of recreation for the senior population is increased health and fitness, as well as
opportunities for socializing, for using skills and talents developed throughout their lifetime, and for learning
new skills. The aim of this article is to dwell upon various recreational activities for the elderly. These activities
are very useful to them as they can spend their leisure time and enjoy by doing interesting tasks. The senior
population is quite varied, with a diversity of interests, strengths, and abilities. Some seniors have enjoyed a
positive use of leisure throughout their life, and are able to find appropriate activities to suit their changing
physical abilities and interests. Other seniors, however, may not be aware of the potential positive values of
recreation.
Keywords: Elderly, physical activity, recreational activity,
I. Introduction
The ageing of population is an obvious consequence of the process of demographic transition. While
the countries of the West have already experienced and have planned for their elderly population, it is only in
the last one and half decades that countries in Asia too are facing a steady growth of the elderly, as a result of
the decline in fertility and mortality, better medical and health care and improvements in the overall quality of
life of people. Within Asia, as India and China are the two largest countries in the region, it is expected that they
would have a significant proportion of the World‘s elderly because of their large population base. In fact, the
situation in India presents two different scenarios with certain states grappling with curbing their high fertility
rates while others, which have controlled high fertility rates, are already experiencing or are poised to
experience an increase in their elderly population.
There has been a progressive increase in both the number and proportion of the aged in India over time,
particularly after 1951. Between 1901 and 1951, the proportion of population over age 60 increased marginally
from 5 percent to 5.4 percent, while by 2001 this had increased to 7.0 percent. When changes in the decadal
growth rate in the general population are compared with those for the elderly population, it is noted that the
latter grew at a relatively much faster rate than the general population, since 1951. Furthermore, the decadal
percent increase in the elderly population for the period 2001-2011 is likely to be more than double the rate of
increase of the general population. The size of the elderly rose in absolute terms during the last century from 12
million in 1901 to approximately 71 million in 2001 and is likely to reach 113 million in 2016. Yet another
feature of ageing in India is the fact that the proportion of elderly is much higher in the rural areas than in the
urban areas.
In recent years, there has been an increase of aging in the society. The aging of the population can lead
to an increase in the number of individuals at risk for chronic diseases. In an article from the Center for Disease
Control and Prevention‘s Healthy Aging Network, physical activity (PA) was considered one key element for
determining health status. In fact, evidence suggests that PA is associated with more years of life, self-perceived
healthy life, years without impairment in daily life activities, lower rates of functional decline, lower risk of
mortality, increased longevity, reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, and better quality of life.
Being active throughout the majority of one's lifetime has an important influence on overall health and
well-being. The widely known definition of physical activity (PA) as "any bodily movement produced by the
contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level". PA has been found to
check many long lasting health problems as well as to promote mental health and well-being. Lower mortality
rates occur among those who become physically active late in life as compared to those who were active in early
life and stopped exercising.
Outdoor recreational PA, defined as "to be outside in natural or cultural landscapes for well-being and
encounters with nature without demands for competition" has been shown to be particularly good for promoting
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well-being. PA performed outdoors in original settings has been found to have restorative effects on people's
health and reduce mental fatigue.
II. Relationship between Mental Health and Organized Recreational Activity
A review of current literature indicates that people who participate in sports clubs and organized
recreational activity enjoy better mental health, are more alert, and more pliable against the stresses of modern
living. Engaged in recreational groups and socially supported physical activity is shown to overcome stress,
anxiety and depression, and mitigate the symptoms of Alzheimer‘s disease. Violent crime also reduces
significantly when participation in community activities increases.
Links between mental health and group activities
Participation in sports and recreation activities can decrease stress, depression and anxiety. Engaged in
the group recreation provides a sense of attachment, belongingness and positive values. According to Bandura‘s
social cognitive theory, behaviour is shaped by the interaction between individual and environmental factors.
This theory emphasizes the influence of social interaction in relation to behaviour. There are both direct and
indirect links between participation in group activity and mental health.
Recreation activities for seniors
Gone are the days when retirees used to sit at home and feel old. It is important for older adults to stay
active after retirement and be participative in the community. The choices for outdoor recreation are
unavoidable. There are many centers that offer various classes and courses in exercise programs, crafts and arts,
and other outings.
PA is a wide-ranging term that includes a variety of activities. Recreation activities for seniors provide long
term advantages. Higher fitness levels, improved health and social interactions are few of the benefits of
indulging in fun activities. It is therapeutic refreshment for both the mind and body.
Walking
Walking is one of the most common exercises. It is enjoyable and a social activity that can also be
carried on with friends and family members. There is nothing like avail some fresh air in lush green
surroundings. It helps to reduce depression and lower down the stress, thus maintaining emotional well being
whether you have a company or not. It is perhaps the best form of physical exercise for all age groups. The
chance to inhale fresh air and see the greenery helps in reducing depression and helps maintain emotional well
being. It also gives a chance to meet other people. The older adults must wear comfortable walking shoes, which
will give support to their feet and they will not make them feel tired. For those who feel the requirement for
intermediate support or a need to hold on to something, carrying a stick is a good idea. For those who can go for
longer walks easily, or choose to go and sit in the park, or garden, carrying a bottle of water would help them to
take care of thirst. However, if one is on a wheelchair, going to parks and gardens may not be very feasible
owing to the physical barriers. There is however another boon the malls, which can be accessed even in
wheelchairs, with a helper. For the wheelchair borne, these walks may not be possible everyday but can be
clubbed with window shopping, if one is interested and perhaps a coffee, with a friend, acquaintance, or a
family member.
Bird Watching
A great activity for people who love nature but cannot go for nature walks, in the fields or forests
because of physical problems or deformities, lack of transport, companions or any other practical problem, then
there is no need to go to the forests for this. A park is the good idea to start this activity.
Photography
Another activity is photography. For which a camera is to be needed. A practical way is getting hold of
a digital camera, and clicking whatever interesting, and capturing it in the camera. It could be a theme like
nature, or vehicles, or humans, anything that holds attention. This can then be even consolidated into a
scrapbook kind of file in a computer.
Gardening
Gardening is a nice leisure activity for older adults. It helps people to connect with the nature. Just need
a small patch of land or a plot that will keep the elderly occupied, or a few pots that can keep in the balcony or
just outside the house, and some bright coloured equipment. One can grow vegetables and create a beautiful
garden. This activity should be followed only during the morning and evening hours avoiding peak hours. A
purposeful activity that connects to the nature. A few websites and books are enough to help the elderly, create a
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garden and may be even grow some vegetables. It is advised, not to step out for doing gardening when it is very
warm outside, do it in the mornings and evenings. It is also obvious that, do not lift out anything heavy like pots,
which might cause strain to the back. If already have a back problem then it would help to put the pots in an
elevated place so that the elderly people do not have to bend too much.
Sports
If physical health and doctor permits, sports is a very good physical exercise and recreational activity
be it swimming, badminton, tennis, golf or any other which may interesting to the older adults. It is also an
excellent way to meet other people socially.
Exercise
This is one activity suggested by all doctors and health practitioners for all age groups, the senior
citizens are not different. Different forms of exercise are now being practiced which are a great form of
relaxation apart from helping physical and mental fitness.
Yoga Yoga is aimed at achieving the union with supreme consciousness. However, it helps to achieve
physical as well as mental fitness. A TV series by a professional Yoga Guru gives an idea about the benefits of
Yoga and how to practice. It is however essential to learn appropriate and right postures from a good teacher of
Yoga.
Tai-Chi Chinese martial art that is getting a lot of recognition, especially for older adults because of its 'soft
skills' and health and longevity benefits. It has long movements, which flow in a slow and graceful manner.
Each posture flows into the next without any pause. Just as Yoga, Tai-chi is very beneficial for various diseases
like osteoporosis, diabetes, arthritis etc.
Art of living
The Art of Living initiatives strive to uphold the dignity of every human being on the earth, offering
each individual a stress-free life, a healthy body and the opportunity to maximize their potential for personal and
spiritual growth. Sri Ravi Shankar has designed many self-development techniques which can easily be
integrated into daily life to calm the mind and in still confidence and enthusiasm.
Mental Exercise
Senior citizens should be encouraged to take part in mind games. They should solve puzzles like
crosswords, brain teasers and sudoku focus on doing mathematical calculations. These are very brneficial for
exercising the mind. It also prevents from the serious old age ailments like Alzheimer‘s disease.
The list of outdoor activities is not limited to this. Older adults can use their own imagination and do whatever
they enjoy, to occupy their time and give them a sense of fulfilment. They perhaps would be benefited more if
they set aside a time for the activity/activities that they want to do, for example, go for a walk. If they set a time
everyday as their walk time', they would be mentally prepared and physically groomed, their brain would be
disciplined and they would look forward to it.
Indoor Activities
Though outdoor activities should be preferred but when conditions are not in older adult‘s favour then
there are several activities like listening to music, scrap-booking and collage making. It is fun and creative to
gather all the photographs and momentos together. Spending time with family members or friends and playing
board games with other elderly friends is also a stress buster.
Seniors should be involved in other activities like sewing, dancing, bird watching, art classes, card playing,
parties etc. There are many centres that are free where elders can volunteer and explore their creativity.
Dancing to your favourite beats is rejuvenating and stress buster.
Field trips and visiting the outskirts of the city or going for a picnic are enjoyable and fun. Many
organizations also have cultural activities and competition.
Elderly can enjoy the club culture in the retirement community and indulge in activities like cards, swimming
pool, health clubs and sports like table tennis, billiards, lawn tennis, snooker and even visit the library.
It is the best time to explore creative side for senior citizens. If older adults have an inclination towards
a particular activity or hobby like photography or dancing then they should be given a boost and motivation to
nurture their talent. Keep them engaged in various activities for emotional, physical and spiritual well being.
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Elderly men and women often need recreational activities to stay better in mental and physical health. There are
various recreational activities available to elderly women and men to suit almost any interest. Before starting
any physical recreation, elderly women and men should consult a doctor to determine how much activity is
appropriate.
Volunteer Recreations
Older persons who are in good physical and mental health can volunteer at any organizations hospitals
or animal shelters. These types of volunteer activities not only make a difference in the other‘s lives, but give an
elderly people a sense of purpose.
Old Favourites
Elderly can work on their favourite recreations to stay active and healthy. Old favourites might include
interests such as fishing or gardening or it might include games like cards, bingo or puzzles, crossword. Singing,
cooking and Reading might even fall in the category of old favourites. For elderly women and men who have
physical challenges preventing the old favourites, bringing it into their space can help as well.
Community Centre Recreations
Community centres offer recreational activities for all age group, including the elderly. Recreations for
senior citizens might include swimming recreations or sports geared to healthy older adults. Usually, community
centre recreations are sports and fitness, but games like cards, bingo as well as chess might be available.
Outdoor Recreation
The child of an elderly parent might take his parent out for a day for fishing, an outdoor sport such as
hunting, hiking or even golf, depending on the outdoor activities. Every healthy elderly person is able to enjoy
outdoor recreations with children. For those who are physical disabled, recreations like fishing are ideal, as it
allows them to enjoy the outdoors while sitting still.
Recreational Activities for the Older Adults
Old age is often referred to as the 'second childhood'. During this stage most of the elderly people tend
to behave like a small child, not listening to what others say and become stubborn. This might be due to the
reason that majority of the people incur the problem of brain shrinkage, as they grow older. Therefore, we need
to give the senior citizens special care and attention and treat them just like our little ones. Keeping them busy in
recreational activities is the best idea, to fill the gap that comes along with retirement and old age.
Recreational Activity Ideas for Older Adults
Enroll the elderly person in a club that organizes activities involving the active participation of volunteers.
If the club organizes health camps and rehab, competitions or hobby classes, it will be the best option for
the older adults, who wants to pass their leisure time in a productive way.
A fun way to keep a senior citizen busy for the maximum time is to arrange arts and crafts competitions. If
elderly‘s residential association organizes cultural activities and day trips, be sure that the elderly person
must take part in them. It will definitely rejuvenate their spirit.
Dedicated volunteering in schools, colleges and local community centres can help the senior citizens attain
self-satisfaction that they have rendered service during the post-retirement period, without sitting idle.
To kill the boredom, arrange easy and fun games for the elderly person, when we are spending time with
the elderly. This could be as simple as the good old 'passing the parcel' game. Ask the little ones in our
family, to play with their grandpa/grandma for some time.
If an elderly person has inclination towards any type of activity, be sure to address it. For instance, if an
elderly is interested in taking photographs, provide them a camera. Take them to the places where they can
click nice pictures.
Reading is something that the majority of older adults like to do, in a free time. Gift some books for them.
We may present a library membership to them as well, so that they get the supply of their favourite books
all through the year.
Give food to their brain - organize mental exercises, like puzzles, for the senior citizens. We can also get
some printed brain teasers, like crossword puzzles and Sudoku.
Physical activity for older adults
Regular exercise is a best way to live a long and healthy life.
There are many health and lifestyle benefits of physical activity for senior citizens. People, whose lifestyle is
active, feel healthy and have an improved sense of wellbeing. Besides feeling better, a regular exercise reduces
the risk of diabetes, heart disease, colon cancer and stroke.
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Elderly should be active
Researches shows that elderly‘s with active lifestyles are often as healthy as less active people aged 15
years younger.
One of the best ways of living a long and healthy life is through physical exercise. However, physical
exercise comes in many ways and forms, including walking, housework and gardening to the shops to buy the
milk or newspaper.
Regular physical activity helps reduce the effects of aging such as muscle strength, balance, limited
mobility and flexibility. It also reduces the risk of osteoporosis and heart problems, as well as keeping older
adults in a happy and healthy frame of mind.
One way older adults are beating the stereotyped "old" image is through remaining socially and
physically active. From dancing, golf, bushwalking, swimming, tennis or simply gardening or walking the dog,
all these activities play a important role in ensuring their look and feel younger, healthier, and have a better
quality of life.
It's never too late to start exercising
Forget thinking that we (elderly) are too old to do physical exercise - once they become more active
they will find that they have more energy, sleep better, and will feel more self confident.
There are no rules or age limits to physical exercise. Irrespective of how old they are or how often they have
exercised in the past, there is no time like the present to begin doing regular physical exercise. They will begin
to feel healthier and have more energy almost immediately.
The secret is to start off slowly with activities they enjoy, and gradually build on these. It would not seem like a
chore if you choose activities they like.
The important thing about taking regular exercise is to start today. Just 30 minutes every day can keep
you feeling younger, healthier and more energetic. You can break that 30 minutes down into 10 minute blocks,
making the daily amount of physical activity recommended much easier to achieve.
Get started
Focus on getting started, maintaining a routine and enjoying the benefits of physical activity.
Getting started can be as simple as taking the stairs instead of the escalator, walking to the shops, or getting off
the bus one stop earlier. Once they have started these simple things, it is then time to build on this exercise with
some other pleasurable physical activities.
Choose activities that they enjoy you will be surprised at how quickly time goes by. If elderly people
enjoy gardening, then make a point of doing it for a little longer. Or take the dog for a longer walk.
Try a few different activities until they find one that suits them. You will find it is then easier to maintain a
routine, and they could also make new friends.
It is also important to exercise at times that suit them; otherwise it will feel like a chore. The aim
should be to fit physical activity into their everyday schedule.
As people grow older their participation in leisure and recreation activities changes because of life
cycle transitions such as retirement from paid work and the ―empty nest‖ experienced by parents as children
grow up and leave home. In later years such participation can also be expected to change further because of
declining physical and mental capacity. Leisure time has been defined ―as a time when people can do what they
want to do, away from work and other commitments‖ (Ministry of Social Development, 2008: 86). Recreation
can often involve a physical activity or sport. Leisure and recreation as the Ministry of Social Development
describe them in their Social Reports are a means to:
provide people with a sense of identity and personal autonomy
add meaning to individual and community life, and
encourage personal growth and self-expression
The elder people have sufficient time to do what they want to do and can access an adequate range of
opportunities for leisure and recreation‖. The Ministry of Social Development stated that the higher the measure
of participation in either physical or cultural and arts activities, the greater the level of wellbeing.
Over the past few decades the relationship between leisure activities and wellbeing in later life has
been studied extensively (Havighurst, 1961). Early gerontology researchers maintained activity was positively
related to the wellbeing of older people (Havighurst, Neugarten & Tobin, 1964), and one of the founding
theories of ageing was built on this idea. Entitled ―activity theory‖, successful ageing was seen as benefiting
from continued or enhanced physical and mental activity in older years. The theory was developed as an
opposing view to the ―disengagement theory‖ previously developed by Cumming and Henry (1961), and which
suggested that growing older was associated with varying stages of disengagement from society, both in the
interests of the individual and of society in general.
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The impact of the cultural and social context on the level of participation of older people in leisure and
recreation is an increasing theme in the research. The leisure and recreation pursuits undertaken in one‘s earlier
years are more likely to be continued in one‘s older years ―older people tend to continue participating in
activities with which they are familiar for security as well as reassurance‖ (Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007). Leisure
and recreational pursuits have often been taken to include activities which are largely physical.
The evidence is compelling. Recreation, physical activity, sports and leisure are not only essential resources for
promoting optimal mental health and well-being, but they are critical components of efforts to recover from and
stay well when living with a mental illness or addiction.
Free time context: Term used primarily in the leisure sciences literature to refer to unobligated time, outside
of work, school, or self-care activities. Typically we think of this as ―free time‖, such as after school or work,
in the evenings and weekends.
Discretionary time: Term used in the developmental psychology literature to refer to free time. Like the term
―free time,‖ this includes the afterschool context as well as evenings and weekends. The term ―extracurricular
activities‖ is often used in conjunction with studies of adolescents‘ discretionary time.
Leisure: Refers to enjoyable and personally meaningful activity in the free time context. Leisure is often
associated with a sense of freedom and intrinsic motivation (doing something because they want to, not
because they have to). Categories of leisure typically include: social (e.g., spending time with friends),
creative or expressive (e.g., artistic pursuits), cognitive (e.g., reading), spiritual (e.g., meditation) or physical
(e.g., walking, gardening).
Structured Leisure Activities: Refers to leisure or recreation activities that occur in the free time context that
are typically deeply engaging (e.g., require an investment of attention and effort) and support personal
expression. Examples include volunteering, sports or club activities. This is sometimes also referred to as
―active leisure.‖
Unstructured Leisure Activities: Unstructured leisure typically refers to ―doing nothing‖ or passive forms of
activity that require low levels of engagement and often occur outside of organized recreation or leisure
contexts (e.g., going to the movies, hanging out, going to the mall, watching television, listening to music in
room). This term is most often used in relation to adolescent or adult leisure.
Physical Activity: Is often associated with various forms of exercise, but can include vigorous leisure or
recreation activities. Examples include: bicycling, gardening, walking, golf, swimming, tennis, etc.
Recreation: Typically associated with structured or organized group activities which are intentionally
designed to benefit communities, groups or individuals. Camaraderie, skill development, fitness and
enjoyment tend to be primary motivations for recreation participation. Depending on the degree of
specialization, participation with sports, creative arts, or service groups are considered forms of structured
recreation participation.
Sport: Typically defined as an organized, competitive activity, requiring adherence to rules and/or customs
and specific skills to play; the objective is often associated with winning or losing. We typically think of
sports as being athletic competitions, but competitive games requiring intellectual skills and challenges (e.g.,
chess) are also considered ―sport.‖
Play: Although there are many different definitions and theories of playand adults also playhere we view
play as spontaneous, unstructured, child-directed activity which is fun, freely chosen, actively engaging, and
intrinsically motivated (e.g., done for its own sake as opposed to having to or for some external reward or
achievement motive); it typically involves children interacting with others and/or their environment and may
involve the suspension of reality and/or ―rules‖ of play.
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... Being active and participative in activities increases the person's age and has important significance on the health and wellbeing of the person. Outdoor activities outside among the landscapes for wellbeing have promoted an individual's health (Kiran, 2014 ...
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In today's time, health is the topmost priority of every individual. A person can take care of himself/herself till a particular point in life, but at a certain age, one's dependency on someone arises. The harsh living environment is constantly degrading the living standards and deteriorating every individual's health. So, there is a need for a place where a person can be taken care of at any point in time arises. Senior housing is one such place that provides all the comforts to elderly people. It is a homly place where people can enjoy the remnant part of their lives. Senior housing provides all kinds of facilities at the doorstep, providing the utmost comfort to the users. A large part of the population lives on their own, and there comes a time when the need for dependency increases so the senior living housing can fulfil all their needs at any point in time. The in-house services, which includes medical services, recreational areas, emergency services, and many others, serve as one of the best means of comfort to the users, and they can live peacefully and with the thought of being taken care of at any time. Introduction:
... Furthermore, these networks built important social capital reserves and fostered links among members, in particular women, for increased empowerment and knowledge for community gain in the areas of health and wellness (Gilchrist, 2016;Ledwith, 2015;Putnam, 2000). The participants in this study also deemed these trips as having a noted importance in proactively advancing positive community ageing (Davis et al., 2011;Singh and Kiran, 2014 ) ...
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Abstract This study sought to determine the factors that impact on the health and well-being of residents aged fifty five years and older, living in an inner-city community in Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. Data was extracted from ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews, which were coded using the Quirkos coding programme. All participants lived in The Liberties community and were aged fifty five years and older,, representing 16% of the population, compared to a national average of 24%. The gentrification and ‘studentification’ of available land and accommodation, following a legacy within the area of urbanised industrialisation, was found to have had a disruptive impact on the study’s cohort. While poor health emerged as a significant and detrimental factor, ease of access to good healthcare was identified as an advantage of city centre living. Other positive aspects that came to the fore were the strong sense of community spirit nurtured by both formal and informal networks and the willingness of participants to engage with educational resources and social activities. Financial instability, poor standards of accommodation, a concern for physical public security and a dearth of both green spaces and recreational facilities were highlighted as issues requiring input from health, housing and planning authorities. The unwillingness of the participants to reach out beyond their family networks to state-funded services to access care packages for their own requirements or the needs of elderly relatives, combined with a reluctance to plan toward their own future health and welfare needs, also suggested a need for the relevant authorities to devise new strategies, which utilise existing collectivised networks, for community gain.
... In this age group, the males and females mostly involve themselves in passive recreation like walking, looking after kids, relaxing, gossiping, and so on. (Kiran, 2014) Some of them are jogging, running, exercise, etc. Some of them not able to walk, talk, and hear properly (Takano, 2002). ...
... In this age group, the males and females mostly involve themselves in passive recreation like walking, looking after kids, relaxing, gossiping, and so on. (Kiran, 2014) Some of them are jogging, running, exercise, etc. Some of them not able to walk, talk, and hear properly (Takano, 2002). ...
Chapter
Valuing public perceptions of biophilia impact on human well-being: 2 sustainable building case studies from India and Greece| This study focusses on valuing the ‘green technologies’ of designing and building with nature to encourage a wider dimension to the current ratings and evaluations of effectiveness of ‘green buildings’, by including the perceived impact on human well-being. We believe that for buildings to offer a ‘sustainable’ way of living, they must also include the technologies and intelligence to provide what all of life needs to thrive beyond just surviving. This paper aims to give a wider understanding of ‘green buildings’ beyond reporting on energy, water and waste, to show a more sophisticated, wider evaluation of sustainable buildings by including the value of subjective perception of individuals’ experience. And, to contribute to changing existing paradigms about how ‘green buildings’ are valued. Other studies conclude that leading bodies for ‘green building’ certification have failed to provide a holistic measure of sustainable buildings. Current environmental measures of ‘green buildings’ conflict with the values of human health and there are conflicting ‘logics’ and technologies with little consensus on what makes a sustainable building. The perceived ‘value’ of the health and well-being benefits of a ‘green building’ appears to be disregarded as a measure of effectiveness. This paper challenges that view. Findings from questionnaires, testimonials and in-depth interviews from the public using 2 green buildings in different countries suggest that people do believe that they experience physical and emotional health benefits from spending time in in green buildings. This suggests that valuing the ’unmeasurable’ perceived benefits of sustainable buildings on health and well-being, equally alongside quantitative audits and environmental measures, could bring combined societal and environmental benefits. More study and evaluation with larger samples in different countries is necessary. Further study could make an important contribution to greater understanding about the positive impacts of biophilia design for healthcare institutions, community spaces, workplaces and homes.
... In this age group, the males and females mostly involve themselves in passive recreation like walking, looking after kids, relaxing, gossiping, and so on. (Kiran, 2014) Some of them are jogging, running, exercise, etc. Some of them not able to walk, talk, and hear properly (Takano, 2002). ...
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Recent studies have defined the ‘healthy neighborhood’ as the social or socio-economic unit within a healthy district or spatial unit within a human-oriented transportation system. However, those views have failed to notice both standard elements of organic and city transportation policy and other dimensions of organic transportation, excluding spatial one. In this study, the social-ecological system (SES) and human-oriented transportation system (HOTS) frameworks will be compared to each other in terms of structure, application and dynamics to draw a conclusion about the suitability of HOTS in framework to describe the complex socio-technological system such as ‘healthy neighborhood’. Additionally, the structure and the multidisciplinary process that occur within the ‘healthy neighborhood’ will be analyzed in terms of HOTS framework. Finally, the indicators of pattern and size of ‘healthy neighborhood’ in terms of HOTS framework will be suggested. Thus, a healthy interdisciplinary neighborhood will be captured. This research will be the first attempt to shift from the traditional ‘unit’ perspective to the network models capable of unfolding the internal socio-economic and technical processes, uncovering the internal organization and functions of healthy neighborhoods.
... Nonetheless, there is a broad spectrum of leisure and recreational activities for mental health wellbeing in which older adults can engage, inclusive of social (e.g., spending time with friends), creative or expressive (e.g., artistic pursuits), cognitive (e.g., reading), emotional (e.g., contemplation), spiritual (e.g., meditation), and physical (e.g., walking and gardening) (Singh & Kiran, 2014). Previous studies (Heo et al., 2013;Kuykendall et al., 2015;Paggi et al., 2016) have demonstrated that older adults who engaged in leisure and recreation activities had superior mental health, as well as longevity (Arem et al., 2015;Paggi et al., 2016;Sirgy et al., 2017). ...
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Older adults are at high risk for mental health distress due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. This scoping review aimed to map emerging evidence on the types of leisure and recreation activities (LRA) adults, 60 years and older, are engaged in for their mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified 10 studies on LRA for mental health by older adults with COVID-19 mitigation from a search of the following databases: Medline/PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, JBI Evidence Synthesis, and Epistemonicos. A narrative synthesis of the data revealed age cohorts of young-old (60–69 years) and middle-old (70–79 years) engaging mainly in online LRA for mental health compared to the older-old adults (80 years and older). The middle-old (70–79 years) and older-old adults (80–89 years) engaged in more physical LRA for mental health compared to the younger-old adults. Across age cohorts, the older adults engaged in social connectedness LRA for mental health wellbeing. COVID-19–safe LRA mental health support interventions for older adults should be tailored to their age cohort predispositions for optimal benefit.
... Previous research has shown a positive association between recreational activities of older adults and certain dimensions of well-being, such as increased physical and mental health (Adams et al., 2011, Morrow-Howell et al., 2014, lower levels of depression and loneliness (Morrow-Howell et al., 2014, Song et al., 2018, increased memory skills and brain functions (Kourkouta et al., 2015, Maldonado-Briegas et al., 2020, enjoyment (Reynolds, 2010, Singh andKiran, 2014) and socialization . However, this research is mostly quantitative and there is less understanding how older adults achieve well-being outcomes from recreational activities (Bianchi, 2019). ...
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Previous research on older customers’ well-being has not addressed how customer-to-customer interactions (CCIs) can improve the well-being for older adults in outdoor recreational services. The objective of this study is to examine this gap in the literature, drawing on a value co-creation approach. Data is collected by in-depth interviews with 26 older customers (+55 years), of two outdoor recreational services in Australia, social dancing and sailing, which involve abundant interaction among customers. The findings identify four general well-being outcomes for older customers of these recreational services that emerge from value co-creation activities held during CCIs: (1) personal growth and learning, (2) sense of mastery and self-confidence, (3) positive relationships with others, and (4) self-acceptance and improved mental health. The findings are useful for managers of recreational services for elderly, government boards, community centers, and public policy makers. Management Implications Sev­eral man­age­r­ial sug­ges­tions are pro­vided to man­agers of recre­ational ser­vices, pol­i­cy­mak­ers, and gov­ern­ment as­sis­tance pro­grams for older adults. The re­sults sug­gest that out­door recre­ational ser­vices 1.are not only use­ful to the older pop­u­la­tion for leisure pur­poses, but also for im­prov­ing dif­fer­ent di­men­sions of their well-be­ing. 2.should im­ple­ment train­ing pro­grams for their em­ploy­ees to in­crease their aware­ness of how CCIs can im­prove older cus­tomers’ well-be­ing and there­fore en­cour­age and em­power them to en­gage in in­ter­ac­tions with other cus­tomers. 3.should also re­design their ser­vice of­fer­ings for older customers and con­sider gen­er­at­ing in­stances for frequent so­cial in­ter­ac­tions and ac­tiv­i­ties among cus­tomers dur­ing or af­ter the ser­vice pro­vi­sion. 4.are encouraged to pro­mote out­door ac­tiv­i­ties that older adults can do to stay ac­tive while fol­low­ing so­cial dis­tanc­ing guide­lines to avoid pro­longed pe­ri­ods of iso­la­tion.
... Senior citizens are emotionally attached to the urban elements in cities with topography and heritage value (Fadda et al., 2010) as city municipalities engage and invest in their mobility within the city core (Pei et al., 2019). Housing amenities are critical as recreational activities and opportunities to learn new skills (Singh & Kiran, 2014) are extremely vital to quality of life for seniors. These cited literatures give key pointers to identifying some of the critical factors that are likely to impact decisions of senior citizens on buying exclusive living spaces in a secluded senior citizen housing project. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to a very high percentage of senior deaths in India. Senior citizens constitute about 10% of total population while 73% of deaths during COVID-19 pandemic in India have been of people with co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, heart and respiratory diseases. Amidst this pandemic, the senior housing market is poised for exponential growth despite a low market share as well as slow sales. To inquire as to which factors influence the seniors for not buying into exclusive senior housing communities and whether the decision varies among ages as well as genders; a questionnaire survey was conducted pre-COVID-19 using sales leads of 143 senior respondents from five cities; Delhi, Lavasa, Chennai, Pune and Ahmedabad. These data were tested using binary probit regression models for age and gender. The survey required the respondents to rate decision factors which included; amenities, location, social isolation, wealth, family, urban connect, new relationships, inheritance and moral values-on Likert scale of 1 to 9. The tested model for gender shows that males are dependent on factors of location of the project and fear isolation as compared to females. Males also rated new acquaintances as a discouraging factor as compared to females. The age model shows that older seniors (aged 66-75) do not wish to move to an exclusive senior citizen homes due to factors of distance, fear of social isolation and attachment to urban elements as compared to younger seniors (aged 55-65). An attempt is made to use the results arising from these models to predict the future of senior housing market post-COVID-19 pandemic in India. By integrating new factors such as social distancing, personal hygiene and recreational activities, the existing models can be used to forecast post-COVID-19 senior housing markets in India. Issue-Article Link: https://www.utm.my/intrest/volume-14-special-issue-2-november-2020/
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Birdwatching (birding) is a nature-based recreational activity, often including arising early in the morning. In the present study, we tested the effect of a negative social jetlag (SJL) in birders. Negative SJL implies that people have an even earlier sleep-wake rhythm on free days or weekends. As birds' activities start before or shortly after sunrise, especially during spring and early summer, birdwatchers follow this diurnal pattern. Further, birders are not homogeneous and vary greatly in recreational specialisation. The study was based on an online survey with 2,404 birdwatchers (55% male) who responded to questions about their sleep-wake times and about their birding activities. Birders show the same differences between weekdays and weekends/free days sleep like most other people. However, birdwatching days started earlier than weekdays (14 min) and lasted longer. Thus, birdwatching days are shifted towards an earlier sleep-wake rhythm in total. Birdwatchers experience a sleep curtailment during birding. Instead of sleeping ~30 min longer on weekends, they arise ~15 min earlier, summing up to a sleep reduction of about ~45 min compared to a regular weekend. The more psychologically committed birders are, the less they sleep, the earlier they arise, and the earlier is their midpoint of sleep on birdwatching days; meaning that highly specialised birders shift their sleep-wake rhythm to an earlier time compared to their regular weekend, and even their weekday sleep. Thus, birders may suffer more from the short- and long-term consequences of negative SJL. The results might stand representatively for other nature-related leisure activities.
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Little is known about how many years of life and disability-free years seniors can gain through exercise. Using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, the authors estimated the extra years of life and self-reported healthy life (over 11 years) and years without impairment in activities of daily living (over 6 years) associated with quintiles of physical activity (PA) in older adults from different age groups. They estimated PA from the Minnesota Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression adjusted for health-related covariates. The relative gains in survival and years of healthy life (YHL) generally were proportionate to the amount of PA, greater among those 75+, and higher in men. Compared with being sedentary, the most active men 75+ had 1.49 more YHL (95% CI: 0.79, 2.19), and the most active women 75+ had 1.06 more YHL (95% CI: 0.44, 1.68). Seniors over age 74 experience the largest relative gains in survival and healthy life from physical activity.
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We examined whether small amounts of low-intensity physical activity were associated with reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes in a national sample of people aged 50 years and over. The sample comprised 7,466 individuals (55.9% women) free from self-reported doctor-diagnosed diabetes and was prospectively followed for a mean of 45.3 months. Baseline self-reported physical activity was categorised as physical inactivity, low- and vigorous/moderate-intensity physical activity at least once a week. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model the association between baseline physical activity and incident type 2 diabetes. Vigorous/moderate-intensity physical activity at least once a week was associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.95, p = 0.026) but low-intensity physical activity at least once a week was not (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.58-1.30, p = 0.497) after adjustment for all covariates. However, age-stratified analysis showed that low-intensity physical activity at least once a week was associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes for those aged 70 years and over (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.02, p = 0.059), but not for those aged 50 to 59 years (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.52-2.29, p = 0.828) or those aged 60 to 69 years (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.55-2.41, p = 0.715) after adjustment for all covariates. Compared with physical inactivity, any type of physical activity was associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in adults aged 70 years and over, while in adults aged 50 to 69 years, physical activity needed to be vigorous/moderate in intensity to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
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This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.
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Physical activity recommendations for older adults with poor health needs to be understood. This study aims to examine the association between the frequency of physical activity and mortality among a sample of elderly subjects, most of whom were under treatment for pre-existing disease. Data on the frequency of leisure-time physical activity, walking for transportation, and non-exercise physical activity were obtained from a population-based cohort study in Shizuoka, Japan. Of the randomly selected 22,200 residents aged 65-84 years, 10,385 subjects were followed from 1999 to 2006 and analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were obtained for all-cause; cardiovascular disease (CVD); and cancer mortality, after adjusting for covariates such as pre-existing disease(s). A subgroup analysis that was restricted to subjects under treatment for pre-existing disease(s) at baseline was further conducted. Data were collected between 1999 and 2006, and all analyses were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Every physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, among not only the total sample but even those under treatment. The HRs for CVD mortality among participants with 5 or more days of non-exercise physical activity per week for the total sample and those with pre-existing disease(s) were 0.38 (95% CI=0.22, 0.55) and 0.35 (95% CI=0.24, 0.52), respectively, compared with no non-exercise physical activity. The association between physical activity and cancer mortality was not clear. This study suggests a protective effect of physical activity on all-cause and CVD mortality among Japanese elderly people with pre-existing disease.
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Few older adults in the United States achieve the minimum recommended amount of physical activity. Lack of physical activity contributes to many chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in older persons. Regular exercise and increased aerobic fitness are associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality and morbidity, and are proven to reduce disease and disability, and improve quality of life in older persons. In 2008, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released guidelines to provide information and guidance on the amount of physical activity recommended to maintain health and fitness. For substantial health benefits, the guidelines recommend that most older adults participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of each per week. Older adults should also engage in strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups at least two days a week. Those at risk of falling should add exercises that help maintain or improve balance. Generally healthy adults without chronic health conditions do not need to consult with a physician before starting an exercise regimen.
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If the pace of increase in life expectancy in developed countries over the past two centuries continues through the 21st century, most babies born since 2000 in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the USA, Canada, Japan, and other countries with long life expectancies will celebrate their 100th birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing populations.