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Stress From Daily Hassles in Couples: Its Effects on Intradyadic Stress, Relationship Satisfaction, and Physical and Psychological Well-Being


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According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners’ individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners’ processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed.
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Mariana K. Falconier
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Fridtjof Nussbeck
University of Bielefeld
Guy Bodenmann
University of Zurich
Hulka Schneider and Thomas Bradbury
University of California
According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European
Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can
have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple’s
relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that
includes both partners’ individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also
includes actor and partner eects as well as the interdependence between partners’ pro-
cesses. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in
Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indi-
cate that for actor eects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psy-
chological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to
lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship prob-
lems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic
stress and intradyadic stress had partner eects on the male intradyadic stress and the male
relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implica-
tions for marriage and family therapists are discussed.
Several decades of research have consistently shown that stress poses risk not only for individ-
ual functioning but also for couples’ relationships. At the individual level, stress has been associ-
ated with a wide range of physical problems such as cardiovascular issues, diabetes, and immune
dysregulation (for a review see Robles & Kiecolt-Glaser, 2003) and negative psychological out-
comes including mood disorders, sexual problems, and substance abuse (Howe, Levy, & Caplan,
2004; Koob & Kreek, 2007; Proulx, Helms, & Buehler, 2007). At the couple level, various sources
of stress have been associated with psychological and physical aggression, communication prob-
lems, and relationship dissatisfaction and dissolution (for a review see Allen, Rhoades, Stanley, &
Markman, 2010; Buck & Ne, 2012; Langer, Lawrence, & Barry, 2008; Story & Bradbury, 2004).
Understanding the mechanisms through which stress aects partners individually and in their
Mariana K. Falconier, PhD, Department of Human Development, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University; Fridtjof Nussbeck, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Bielefeld; Guy Bodenmann, PhD,
Department of Psychology, University of Zurich; Hulka Schneider, PhD and Thomas Bradbury, PhD, Department
of Psychology, University of California.
Address correspondence to Mariana K. Falconier, Marriage and Family Therapy Program, Department of
Human Development, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 7054 Haycock Road, Suite 202C, Falls
Church, Virginia 22043; E-mail:
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
doi: 10.1111/jmft.12073
relationship is essential for prevention and intervention eorts. This article reports the results of a
study that examined the ways in which stress from daily hassles aects partners’ individual
psychological and physical well-being and their couples’ relationship. The study was guided by
author’s systemic-transactional model (STM; Bodenmann, 1997), which oers a systems-oriented
approach to understand stress processes in the context of couple’s relationships. Findings from this
study may raise couple therapists’ awareness about the potential negative eects of daily hassles
stress on individuals and their couples’ relationship and the need to help partners develop eective
coping strategies.
For several decades, stress processes and coping were examined from models focusing on the
individual and that were developed outside the marriage and family therapy (MFT) field. Lazarus
and Folkman’s (1984) transactional approach, which was the most influential stress theory guiding
that research, proposed that individuals experience stress when the perceived demands of a situa-
tion exceed the perceived resources to meet those demands. In the 1980s, McCubbin and Patterson
(1983) developed the double ABC-X model (A =stressor; B =resources; C =perception of stres-
sor; X =crisis) based on Rueben Hill’s (1949) initial ABC-X model to understand families’
responses to major stressful events (e.g., war, crimes, accidents, death). It was not until the
1990s that researchers began to focus specifically on stress processes in the context of couple’s
Research on couples’ stress and coping processes has been conducted largely by clinical and
social psychologists. Nonetheless, the models developed in this area of research as well as the
empirical findings are relevant for the practice of MFT. The most recent review of the literature on
stress processes in couples (Randall & Bodenmann, 2009) identified two models as guiding most
studies: the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model (Karney & Bradbury, 1995) and the STM
(Bodenmann, 1997). Karney and Bradbury (1995) developed the vulnerability-stress-adaptation
model to explain the eects of external stressors on couples. According to this model, the extent to
which stressors external to the couple’s relationship aect that relationship depends not only on
the nature of the stressful event but also on partners’ enduring vulnerabilities (e.g., problematic
personality traits) and adaptive processes (e.g., ability to provide support). The STM (Bodenmann,
1997) applied a systemic perspective to Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) transactional stress theory
and emphasizes both partners’ interdependence and reciprocal influence in the stress and coping
processes. In other words, STM considers that one partner’s stress appraisal, experience, and cop-
ing depend on the other partner’s, and therefore, one partner’s stress and coping experience cannot
be understood without considering the other partner’s experience. It is this systemic focus and
emphasis on partners’ interdependence processes that make STM a useful conceptual model in the
MFT field as it is consistent with MFT models’ systemic orientation (Nichols & Schwartz, 2006).
In addition, and unlike the ABC-X model and the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model,
STM views the couple’s relationship not only as being aected by external stressors but also as a
source of stress itself (intradyadic stress; Bodenmann, Ledermann, & Bradbury, 2007). Couples
experience external or extradyadic stress from situations that originate outside the couple such as
challenges related to the workplace, finances, children, extended family members, neighbors,
friends, community, etc. By contrast, internal or intradyadic stress, also called relationship stress,
refers to the stress experienced from situations that arise within the couple’s relationship such as
incompatibility, conflict, and disagreement between the partners regarding values, goals, attitudes,
and habits on various dierent domains (e.g., childrearing, intimacy, financial management, per-
sonal boundaries, recreational time, etc.). According to STM, extradyadic stress increases the part-
ners’ likelihood of experiencing individual physical and psychological distress as well as
intradyadic stress (spill-over of external stress into the dyad). This means that the couple’s dynam-
ics are likely to be aected negatively by the subjective stress that each partner experiences from
external stressors, creating in turn an additional source of stress for both partners.
Systemic-transactional model has also proposed that dyadic coping, which refers to the strate-
gies that partners use to cope with stress, either by providing support to each other or relying on
conjoint eorts to deal with common stressors, protects couples from the negative eects of stress.
This aspect of the STM model has received support in studies conducted not only in the U.S.
(Papp & Witt, 2010) but also in France (Untas, Quintard, Koleck, Borteyrou, & Azencot, 2009),
Germany (Herzberg, 2012), and Italy (Iafrate, Bertoni, Margola, Cigoli, & Acitelli, 2012) among
other countries.
Even though the STM model has been applied to the study of couples coping with major exter-
nal stressors such as breast cancer (Badr, Carmack, Kashy, Cristofanilli, & Revenson, 2010) or
life-threatening cancer not responding to first-line therapies (Fife Betsy, Weaver Michael, Cook
William, & Stump Timothy, 2013), STM considers chronic minor external stressors or daily hassles
to be a source of significant extradyadic stress for couples (Revenson & Lepore, 2012). Daily has-
sles may range from losing a cellular phone to dealing with a dicult coworker or handling com-
peting work and home demands. Unlike some major and/or acute stressors such as unemployment
or a terminal illness that may either lead a couple to separate or provide an opportunity for mutual
support and growth (Williams, 1995), the pile-up of daily hassles has been found to be associated
consistently with poor relationship quality and divorce (Totenhagen, Butler, & Ridley, 2012).
Daily Hassles and Relationship Functioning: Pathways of Influence
In explaining the eect of daily hassles on couple’s functioning, STM argues that partners’
extradyadic stress from daily hassles may not only reduce relationship satisfaction in a direct way
but also indirectly through two main mediating mechanisms: increase in intradyadic stress (rela-
tionship stress) and deterioration of individual psychological and physical well-being (Figure 1).
Partners stressed from daily hassles may tend to spend less time together as a couple, reducing their
sense of togetherness and intimacy. Problematic personal characteristics such as hostility, intoler-
ance, or rigidity may be exacerbated and manifest more prominently, which may contribute to
negative interactions. In addition, due to their seemingly triviality, daily hassles may not be accom-
panied by a partner’s support or empathic understanding as major life stressors often are. This
emotional distance and conflict that daily hassles may bring to the relationship can create addi-
tional sources of stress for each partner, which in turn may contribute to feeling less satisfied with
the couple’s relationship. Two studies have already provided empirical support for the mediating
role of intradyadic stress in the association between extradyadic stress from daily hassles and
reduced relationship satisfaction (Bodenmann, Ledermann, & Bradbury, 2007; Ledermann,
Bodenmann, Rudaz, & Bradbury, 2010).
Regarding the second mediating mechanism, STM argues that the ongoing presence of minor
stress creates psychological distress (e.g., increase in depressive and anxiety symptoms) and reduces
physical well-being (e.g., headaches or back pain), which in turn aects partners’ levels of satisfac-
tion with their couple’s relationship (Randall & Bodenmann, 2009). Despite its rational appeal, no
study has examined the mediating role of deterioration of physical and psychological health in the
link between daily hassles stress and reduced relationship satisfaction. Most studies have either
focused on the impact of stress on individual well-being (Serido, Almeida, & Wethington, 2004) or
on couple’s functioning (Ne& Karney, 2009) separately but not on both simultaneously. None-
theless, findings linking poor physical health, anxiety, and/or depression with stress on the one
hand and lower relationship satisfaction on the other suggest that deterioration of physical and
psychological well-being might be playing such a mediating role. Stressful life events (for a review
see Liu & Alloy, 2010), general chronic stress (Mckintosh, Gillanders, & Rodgers, 2010; Stefanek,
Dagmar, Hildegunn, & Spiel, 2012), and work stress (Rusli, Edimansyah, & Naing, 2008) have all
been found to be associated with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Various studies have
also reported that an individual’s level of depression and/or anxiety can aect their satisfaction
with their couple’s relationship (Atkins, Bortnik, Hahlweg, & Klann, 2011; Lemmens, Buysee, He-
ene, Eisler, & Demyttenaere, 2007; Whisman & Uebelacker, 2009). Poor physical health has also
been associated with increased stress (for a review see Robles & Kiecolt-Glaser, 2003) and relation-
ship diculties (Hawkins & Booth, 2005; Umberson, Williams, Powers, Liu, & Needham, 2006).
The main goal of this study is to test STM proposed mechanisms of influence by including not
only both partners’ experiences of extra- and intradyadic stress and relationship satisfaction but
also their individual physical well-being as well as their depression and anxiety symptoms. Examin-
ing both individual and relational outcomes within the same model allows for a more complete
understanding of the individual and relational eects of stress in couples as each eect is controlled
for the other postulated eects. In addition, by examining both partners’ variables within the same
stress model, this study allows for the examination and control of both actor and partner eects,
which is consistent with the actorpartner interdependence model (APIM; Kenny, Kashy, & Cook,
2006) approach to treat partners’ interdependence.
Even though STM is a not a treatment model like most MFT models are, it may be useful to
couples’ therapists as it oers a conceptual model that can guide the assessment of couples’ interac-
tions and areas of intervention by explaining how daily hassles stress can create relationship
tensions as well as deteriorate each partner’s individual physical and psychological well-being.
The main goal of the present study is to test the propositions advanced by STM using an
APIM approach with data collected from both partners. Below is a list of the hypotheses that are
part of the conceptual model depicted in Figure 1.
1. Each partner’s extradyadic stress from daily hassles will have a direct negative association
with their own relationship satisfaction.
2. Each partner’s extradyadic stress from daily hassles will also have an indirect negative
association with their own relationship satisfaction through the mediating mechanisms
listed below and with their partner’s relationship satisfaction through mediating
mechanism a.
a. Increases in the each partner’s intradyadic stress (stress from problems internal to the
couple’s relationship).
b. Increases in their own symptoms of depression and anxiety.
c. Decreases in their own physical well-being.
Female Extra-
Dyadic Daily
Hassles Stress
Male Extra-
Dyadic Daily
Hassles Stress
Female Intra-
Dyadic Stress
Male Intra-Dyadic
Female Anxiety
Female Physical
Female Relationship
Male Relationship
Male Anxiety
Male Depression
Male Physical
Figure 1. Conceptual Model.
Note. The model also includes covariances between partners’ physical well-being, anxiety and
depression (not depicted for clarity of presentation). Covariances are between error terms. Length
of relationship was controlled for by adding it as an exogenous variable aecting all variables.
Positive statistical associations are depicted with “+”, negative associations with “!”.
Given that marital negative interactions have been found to be associated with symptoms of
depression (Whisman & Uebelacker, 2009) and anxiety (Addis & Bernard, 2002; Chambless,
Bryan, Aiken, Steketee, & Hooley, 2001) and poor health outcomes (Hawkins & Booth, 2005;
Umberson et al., 2006), it is expected that partner’s intradyadic stress may also aect their own
physical health and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, a third hypothesis is included.
3. Each partner’s intradyadic stress will have not only a direct but also an indirect associa-
tion with their own relationship satisfaction through the following mechanisms:
(a). Increases in their own symptoms of depression and anxiety.
(b). Decreases in their own physical well-being.
To control for partners’ interdependence and in line with the assumptions of APIM, the model
includes associations between all (residual) variables at the same stage of the presumed path model,
that is, the external variables of external stress are correlated; both variables depicting the internal
stress are correlated (residual correlation); female and male well-being, anxiety, and depression are
intercorrelated (residual correlations) as are the two relationship satisfaction variables (residual
correlations). These residual correlations need to be included since both partners’ scores may be
associated to a higher degree than expected by the predictors (above and beyond their eects;
Kenny et al., 2006). The model also includes associations between the error terms of physical
well-being and symptoms of anxiety and depression for each partner as past research has provided
evidence of such associations (Ormel, Rijsdijk, Sullivan, van Sonderen, & Kempen, 2002).
Controlling for these relationships prevents finding spurious relationships.
Participants were 110 heterosexual couples from a community sample residing in the Ger-
man speaking part of Switzerland. To participate in the study, both partners had to be at least
18 years old and in their current committed relationship for at least 1 year. On average, men
were 44.4 years old (SD =15.93) and women were 41.22 years old (SD =15.56). In terms of
educational level, 47.2% of men and 72.7% of women held a high school degree, whereas
51.8% of men and 26.4% of women held at least an undergraduate degree. Most men (88.1%)
were either working or studying, whereas for women 45.5% were employed, 28.2% were home-
makers, and 21.8% were students. Individual income ranged from 20,000 to 80,000 USD,
which at the time of data collection meant that couples were middle-class in Switzerland (Fed-
eral Statistical Oce, 2013). The majority of men (58.2%) and women (50.9%) were Protestant,
17.3% of men and 25.5% of women were Catholic, 15.5% of men and 13.6% of women had
other religious aliation, and 9.1% of men and 10% of women reported no religious aliation
at all. Even though all couples had been together in a committed relationship for a least a year,
only 75.5% of them were living together and 54.5% had children. The average length of the
relationship was 18.21 years (SD =13.78). Results from ANOVAs did not indicate any signifi-
cant dierence between cohabitating couples and those that were not on any of the variables of
interest in this study.
Community couples were recruited through newspaper ads and flyers posted in medical oces
in order to get a broader range in physical health, as studies based on community samples usually
fail to have enough variance in this variable due to a relatively good physical health in Switzerland
(Swiss Health Observatory, 2008). Every couple interested in participating was either handed or
mailed two sets of questionnaires, one for each partner. Each set included a consent letter, instruc-
tions and questionnaires that should be completed independently without consulting the partner
and returned within 2 weeks. Questionnaires did not include any identifying information except
for an impersonal code linking the two partners’ questionnaires. Participants were not reimbursed.
Out of the 650 questionnaires that were distributed, 265 were returned but 45 were excluded from
statistical analyses as only one partner had fully completed the questionnaires.
All measures were completed in German. On the demographic form, participants provided
information on age, gender, country of origin, educational and income level, employment status,
relationship status, relationship duration, number of children, and religious aliation.
Extradyadic Stress from daily hassles. The 8-item chronic extradyadic stress subscale from the
30-item Multidimensional Stress Questionnaire for Couples [MSQ-C; Bodenmann, 2006) that was
used in past studies (Bodenmann, Ledermann, & Bradbury, 2007) to assess extradyadic stress from
daily hassles was also used in the present study. The MSQ-C is an adaptation of the original Hassles
Scale (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981) that included minor stressors, both internal and
external to the relationship (for a description of this adaptation, Bodenmann, 2006). Respondents
rate how stressful daily situations outside their couple’s relationship (e.g., work load, financial
problems, conflict with colleagues or friends, etc.) have been over the past 12 months on a 4-point
Likert-type scale ranging from 1 =not at all to 4 =highly stressful. As the measure covers dierent
life domains, it cannot be considered a psychometric scale, yet the mean score of all eight items
reflects the individual stress level.
Intradyadic Stress. Similar to previous studies (Bodenmann, Ledermann, & Bradbury, 2007),
the 10-item chronic intradyadic stress subscale from the MSQ-C was used to assess chronic stress
internal to the couple’s relationship. Respondents rate on a 4-point Likert-type scale (ranging from
1=not at all to 4 =highly stressful) how stressful situations originating within the couple’s rela-
tionship (e.g., arguments, dierences in attitudes, disturbing habits of the partner, feeling neglected
by the partner) have been over the past 12 months. The validity and reliability of the MSQ-C have
been established in previous studies in German (Bodenmann, 2006). In the present study, the inter-
nal consistency of this scale was a=.82 for men and a=.84 for women.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety. Each type of symptoms was assessed with the 7-item
anxiety subscale and the 7-item depression subscale from the German version of the Depression
Anxiety and Stress Scales21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), available from the DASS
website ( Each of these subscales asks respondents to
rate the frequency with which they have experienced symptoms of either depression (e.g., lack of
enthusiasm, low self-worth, sadness, etc.) or anxiety (e.g., physiological agitation, breathing di-
culties, etc.) within the past week on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 =never to
3=everyday. Even though the German version of the DASS has not been validated, the English
version of the DASS has been validated in various previous studies (Crawford & Henry, 2003;
Henry & Crawford, 2005). The internal consistency was a=.77 for men and a=.87 for women
(depression subscale) and a=.64 for men and a=.62 for women (anxiety subscale).
Physical Well-being. The Physical Well-being Questionnaire (PWBQ; Mohr, 1986) assesses
18 dierent physical symptoms (e.g., back pain, headaches) in the last 2 weeks on a 5-point Likert-
type scale ranging from 0 =never to 4 =every day. The reliability and validity of the PWBQ have
been established for the PWBQ in German (Mohr, 1986).In the present study, the internal consis-
tency was a=.89 for men and a=.90 for women.
Relationship satisfaction. The German validated version by Sander and B
ocker (1993) of the
7-item Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988) was used to assess relationship satis-
faction. The RAS measures global relationship satisfaction on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging
from 1 =low to 5 =high. The validity and reliability of the RAS are well established (Hendrick,
Dicke, & Hendrick, 1998). In this study, the internal consistency was a=.88 for men and a=.92
for women.
Analytic Strategy
Given that the data were not normally distributed at the multivariate level (Yuan, Lambert,
and Fouladi’s (2004) normalized coecient =9.163), Spearman’s correlations were used to exam-
ine the intercorrelational matrix among variables and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired
samples was used to analyze gender dierences in variables. Path model analysis using EQS 6.1.
and the maximum likelihood estimation method were used to test the conceptual model. Model fit
was assessed through the robust YuanBentler scaled chi-square (v2
YB), an adjusted chi-square sta-
tistic used with non-normal data (Yuan & Bentler, 2000). Model fit was also evaluated with the
three fit indices recommended by Hu and Bentler (1999): robust Bentler’s Comparative Fit Index
(CFI >.96), the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR <.08), and the robust root mean
square residual of approximation (RMSEA <.06). As an additional indicator of model fit, the
langrage multiplier (LM) coecients were inspected to search for possible model misspecifications.
Due to the sample size of 110 couples, only length of relationship was controlled by adding it as an
exogenous variable aecting all variables. This demographic variable tends to correlate highly with
other demographic variables such as presence of children and age, which was also true in this study
(presence of children r=.75; men’s age r=.90; women’s age r=.93). To test the significance
of mediation eects for non-normal distributions, EQS provides a corrected statistic for the Sobel
test of indirect eects.
Results from the Wilcoxon signed rank test (Table 1) indicated that women experienced sig-
nificantly more extradyadic stress from daily hassles (women M=1.74, SD =0.43; men
M=1.61, SD =0.33),intradyadic stress (women M=1.66, SD =0.46; men M=1.58,
SD =0.41), symptoms of depression (women M=5.62, SD =6.43; men M=4.02, SD =4.32),
and symptoms of anxiety (women M=2.99, SD =3.72; men M=2.04, SD =6.43), as well as
significantly lower levels of physical well-being (women M=3.83, SD =0.56; men M=4.13,
SD =0.55) than men. No significant dierences were found between partners’ relationship
satisfaction (women M=4.33, SD =0.63; men M=4.42, SD =0.54).
Table 2 reports the coecients for the Spearman’s bivariate correlations among path model
variables. Except for the coecient between the female extradyadic stress from daily hassles and
her intradyadic stress (r=.68), significant correlation coecients ranged from r=0.23 to
r=0.52. Significant correlations between scores of partners on the same variable confirmed the
need to control for partners’ interdependence in the main model using APIM.
Results from path model analysis showed an acceptable fit to the data (v2
p=.09; robust CFI =.973; SRMR =.054; RMSEA =.055 (.000, .099). A conceptual examina-
tion of the LM test results did not suggest any misspecification of the model. Standardized results
with both statistically (p<.05) and nonstatistically significant paths are presented in Figure 2.
Contrary to Hypothesis 1, no direct association was found between each partner’s extradyadic
stress from daily hassles and their own relationship satisfaction (men b=.12; women b=.00).
Nonetheless, in support of Hypothesis 2, an indirect, negative association between each partner’s
daily hassles stress and their own relationship satisfaction (men: b
=!.19; women:
=!.40) was found. Sobel tests indicated those indirect eects were significant for men
(t=!2.13, p<.05) and for women (t=!3.78, p<.05). Regarding the hypothesized mediating
Table 1
Descriptive Statistics and Probability for the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Paired
Men Women
Wilcoxon Signed
Rank Test ProbabilityM SD M SD
Extradyadic daily hassles stress 1.61 0.33 1.74 0.43 !2.31 .02
Intradyadic stress 1.58 0.41 1.66 0.46 !2.10 .04
Depressive symptoms 4.02 4.32 5.62 6.43 !2.28 .02
Anxiety symptoms 2.04 6.43 2.99 3.72 !2.39 .02
Physical well-being 4.13 0.55 3.83 0.56 !4.21 .00
Relationship satisfaction 4.42 0.54 4.33 0.63 !1.42 .16
Note. N = 110 men and 110 women.
mechanisms, intradyadic stress seemed to play a mediating role. Each partner’s extradyadic stress
from daily hassles was positively associated with their own intradyadic stress from relationship
problems (men b=.31; women b=.49), which in turn was negatively associated with their own
relationship satisfaction directly (men b=!.44; women b=!.63) and indirectly through their
own symptoms of depression. Sobel tests indicated that each partners’ intradyadic stress had an
indirect, negative eect (men: b
=!.12; women: b
=!.12) on their own relationship
Table 2
Intercorrelations Among Path Model Variable for Women (Above Diagonal) and Men
(Below Diagonal) and Dyads (Bolded Diagonal)
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Extradyadic daily hassles stress .16 .44** .17 .27** !.39** !.33**
2. Intradyadic Stress .32** .47** .37** .06 !.27** !.68**
3. Symptoms of depression .34* .35** .20* .29** !.31** !.37**
4. Symptoms of anxiety .42** .34** .51** .07 !.52** !.09
5. Physical well-being !.42** !.23* !.42** !.51** .16 .29**
6. Relationship satisfaction !.01 !.55** !.30** !.16 .11 .50**
Note. N =110 men and 110 women. Correlations between the dyad members are presented
in bold along the diagonal. *p<.05; **p<.01 (one-tailed).
Female Extra-
Dyadic Daily
Hassles Stress
Male Extra-
Dyadic Daily
Hassles Stress
Female Intra-
Dyadic Stress
Male Intra-Dyadic
Female Anxiety
Female Physical
Female Relationship
Male Relationship
Male Anxiety
Male Depression
Male Physical
.01 .07
.17 .12
Figure 2. Standardized results with statistically significant paths. (v2
ABð26Þ=36.23, p=.09;
robust CFI =.973; SRMR =.054; RMSEA =.055 (.000, .099). Only significant paths at the .05
level have been included).
Note. Full lines depict significant paths (p< .05) and broken lines depict nonsignificant paths.
The model also includes covariances between partners’ physical well-being, anxiety, and depres-
sion. Covariances are between error terms. Length of relationship was controlled for by adding it
as an exogenous variable aecting all variables.
satisfaction (men: t=!2.06, p<.05; women: t=!2.02, p<.05). Each partner’s intradyadic
stress was positively related to their own symptoms of depression (men b=.22; women b=56),
which were in turn negatively associated with their own relationship satisfaction (men b=!.22;
women b=!.19).
Contrary to expectations, neither symptoms of anxiety nor physical well-being mediated the
negative association between extradyadic stress from daily hassles and relationship satisfaction.
Even though each partner’s stress from daily hassles was statistically significantly associated with
both symptoms of anxiety (men b=.37; women b=.35) and physical well-being (men b=!.44;
women b=!.43), relationship satisfaction was not for either symptoms of anxiety (men b=.17;
women b=.01) or physical well-being (men b=.12; women b=.07). There was also a trend of an
association of the male symptoms of anxiety and physical well-being with his relationship satisfac-
tion. Unlike physical well-being and symptoms of anxiety, symptoms of depression mediated the
link between extradyadic stress from daily hassles and relationship satisfaction but only for men.
Male stress from daily hassles was positively related to his own symptoms of depression (b=.22),
which were in turn associated negatively with the male relationship satisfaction (b=!.22). By
contrast, the female daily hassles stress was not associated with her own symptoms of depression
There was also a partner eect of the female extradyadic stress from daily hassles as it was
indirectly associated with the male relationship satisfaction (b
=!.24) through both part-
ners’ intradyadic stress. The Sobel test indicated that this negative indirect eect was statistically
significant (t=!4.02; p<.05). The female stress from daily hassles had not only a significant,
positive actor eect (b=.49) but also a significant positive, partner eect (b=.20). In turn, the
male intradyadic stress was negatively associated with his own relationship satisfaction (b=!.44)
and the female intradyadic stress had a partner eect on relationship satisfaction (b=!.30).
Except for the partner eects of the female intra- and extradyadic stress, no other partner eects
were statistically significant in the model.
The path model analysis also indicated significant positive residual correlations between both
partners’ level of intradyadic stress (ϴ=.43) and physical well-being (ϴ=.17). Both partners’ intra-
dyadic stress was associated above and beyond the association that can be explained by both part-
ners’ extradyadic stress from daily hassles. No significant residual correlations were found between
both partners’ daily hassles stress (ϴ=.19), symptoms of depression (ϴ=.11) and anxiety (ϴ=.10),
and relationship satisfaction (ϴ=.17). Residuals for anxiety and depression symptoms were posi-
tively correlated for both men (ϴ=.55) and women (ϴ=.40) and so was physical well-being with
symptoms of anxiety (men ϴ=!.42; women ϴ=!.44). Symptoms of anxiety correlated positively
with physical well-being (men ϴ=!.38; women ϴ=!.19). The full model accounted for 67% and
51% of the variation in female and male relationship satisfaction, respectively.
The main goal of the present study was to test and provide support for the propositions
advanced by the STM that emphasizes that partners’ stress processes are interdependent and
explains the mechanisms through which extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have individual
and relational eects in couples. STM argues that it is not just major stressful events external to
the couple that can have negative eects on individuals and relationships but that it is also the
extradyadic stress from daily hassles, whose potential harmful eects are often underestimated,
that can also contribute directly and indirectly to deteriorate each partner’s individual physical
and psychological health and the couple’s relationship. Unlike previous studies, the model tested
in this study included both individual and relational outcomes as well as indicators of both,
psychological and physical functioning. Results from the test of this model are consistent with
many of STM predictions and can inform assessment and treatment in couples’ therapy.
Findings have to be considered in light of the fact that women in this study reported to experi-
ence more stress and poorer psychological and physical well-being than their partners, which is in
line with gender dierences found in past studies (Bouchard & Shih, 2013; Kiecolt-Glasser &
Newton, 2001; Ne& Karney, 2005; Zwicker & DeLongis, 2010). Compared to their male part-
ners, women reported higher levels of extradyadic stress from daily hassles and intradyadic stress
from relationship problems as well more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Nonetheless,
women still reported to be as equally satisfied with their couple’s relationship as their partners did.
According to STM, the external stress from daily hassles decrease partners’ satisfaction with
their relationship not only directly but also indirectly by having negative eects on the individual
psychological and physical health as well as by increasing the intradyadic stress from relation-
ship problems. When all factors involving individual and relational outcomes were considered,
there was no evidence of a direct association between daily hassles stress and relationship satis-
faction. The absence of such a direct link diers from Ledermann, Bodenmann, Rudaz, and
Bradbury (2010) finding in their study, which may be suggesting that any seemingly direct asso-
ciation between stress from daily hassles and relationship satisfaction may not be significant
once more mediating mechanisms such as changes in psychological well-being (which was not
part of Ledermann, Bodenmann, Rudaz, & Bradbury model) are included.
Nonetheless, our results did support STM’s proposition of an indirect association between
extradyadic stress from daily hassles and relationship satisfaction for both partners with intrady-
adic stress mediating the association. In other words, for both partners, the stress that each of them
experienced from daily hassles was related to experiencing more intradyadic stress, which in turn
was associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Additionally, each partner’s intradyadic stress
had not only direct but also indirect eects on their own relationship satisfaction through increases
in their symptoms of depression. For men, increased symptoms of depression also mediated the
daily hassles stressrelationship satisfaction negative association. In addition to these actor
eects, partner eects were found for both extra- and intradyadic stress for women. Their daily
hassles stress was related directly with increases in the male intradyadic stress and indirectly with
decreases in the male relationship satisfaction (through both partners’ intradyadic stress), whereas
the female intradyadic stress was positively related to the male relationship satisfaction.
This set of findings suggests that stress from daily hassles does have an eect on intradyadic
stress and on relationship satisfaction. Nonetheless, the gender dierences found in partner eects
may be suggesting that women’s stress from both sources, external and internal to the relationship
pose more risks for the couple’s sense of satisfaction with their relationship. One possible explana-
tion for this gender dierence is that women tend to communicate about their stress to their part-
ners more openly and explicitly than men do (Ne& Karney, 2005), and therefore, their stress
levels may increase the stress stemming from the couple’s problems not only for them but also for
their male partners (Taylor, 2011; Taylor et al., 2000). Similarly, women may communicate their
stress from relationship problems more frequently and openly than men do, which may contribute
to more relationship dissatisfaction in men as well. Another possibility is that men may respond
more negatively and less supportively to their partner’s stress than women do, which may contrib-
ute to conflict in the relationship. A study by Neand Karney (2005) using observational and
diary data from 169 couples revealed that on more stressful days women tended to provide more
support, whereas men, even though they provided support, also increased the negative behaviors
toward their partners such as criticizing, blaming the partner or providing inconsiderate advice.
Men’s negative behaviors in response to their partner’s stress may increase conflict and lead to
intradyadic stress and relationship dissatisfaction.
Interestingly, for both men and women, their external stress from daily hassles was related
directly to increased anxiety and deterioration of physical well-being but neither of these two
changes at the individual level related to changes in either intradyadic stress or relationship satis-
faction. When all results are considered together, it seems that, in terms of direct eects, for both
partners extradyadic stress is associated with anxiety and physical well-being, whereas intradyadic
stress with depression and relationship satisfaction. These results might be suggesting dierent
individual and relational eects of stress depending on whether the stress originates within or
outside the dyad. Even though further studies should examine this possibility, in the meantime our
results indicate that it might be important to discriminate between intra- and extradyadic stress
and between depressive and anxiety symptoms when studying stress processes in couples.
In sum, results in the present study replicated the finding from two previous studies that extra-
dyadic stress from daily hassles has an indirect actor eect on relationship satisfaction through
increased intradyadic stress. Unlike previous studies, it was found that (a) the female extra- and in-
tradyadic stress has a negative partner eect on relationship satisfaction, (b) the mediating role of
intradyadic stress was present above and beyond the negative eects of daily hassles stress on
psychological and physical well-being and (c) symptoms of depression mediated the negative
association between daily hassles stress and relationship satisfaction for men as well as the associa-
tion between intradyadic stress and relationship satisfaction for both partners.
Despite the direction of relationships proposed by STM, the cross-sectional nature of the data
used in this study prevents us from drawing any definite conclusions about causal direction. Our
results can only be viewed as consistent and therefore, supportive, of the STM propositions but
they cannot rule out the possibility that other models may also fit the data acceptably.
This study has also relied on self-report instruments, which may have introduced a social
desirability bias in the data. Besides, reliance on self-report measures may have inflated relations
among stress, individual physical and psychological well-being, and relationship satisfaction. It is
also important to caution about the generalizability of the present findings as they may be related
to the use of a convenience sample and the relatively high level of individual psychological and
physical health and relationship satisfaction of the couples that participated in this study.
Implications for the STM Model
There are some important implications for STM that can be derived from the present study’s
findings. First, STM is not specific regarding potential gender dierences and similar eects of
stress on couple’s functioning are assumed. Our findings suggest that a more gender-specific for-
mulation is necessary in a revision of STM. Second, STM proposes that eects of extradyadic
stress on relationship satisfaction are mediated by deterioration in psychological functioning with-
out formulating any specific manifestation of psychological problems (e.g., depression or anxiety
symptoms). Nonetheless, our findings suggest that the model could be advanced by incorporating
more specific formulations about the facets of psychological well-being that may be involved in the
ways that stress aects individuals and their romantic relationships. Third, even though physical
well-being was not found to mediate the daily hassles stress-relationship satisfaction link in this
study, its potential mediating role should be reexamined in future studies. It is possible that more
severe physical symptoms related to serious medical conditions or physical problems might play
such a role. Unlike the minor physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, backaches) measured in this
study, more critical physical conditions can aect sensitive domains of the couple such as sexuality,
mobility, etc., and therefore, they may aect partners’ relationship satisfaction (Bouras, Vanger, &
Bridges, 1986).
Implications for Marriage and Family Therapists
Findings from the present study also advance our understanding about stress processes in the
context of couples’ relationships by providing more information about the way in which stress
from daily hassles may aect partners individually and in their relationships. If stress from daily
hassles is likely to directly increase anxiety, deteriorate physical health and, raise intradyadic stress
(e.g., arguments) but indirectly decrease partners’ relationship satisfaction; then, couples’ thera-
pists should routinely assess not only for the presence of major external stressors but also for part-
ners’ stress levels associated with daily hassles, their eect on individual and relationship
functioning, and partners’ individual and dyadic coping skills to handle such stress. Even though
couple therapists in general will gather information about the couple’s context and will ask about
coping strategies in the presence of major external stressors (e.g., death, moving, medical diagno-
sis), very rarely do they assess the impact of daily hassles on partners’ individual emotional and
physical health and their relationship. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that assessing for the
presence of daily hassles and their individual and relational eects is necessary and that those
eects should never be underestimated. Furthermore, the STM model and the findings from the
present study are reminders for clinicians of the interdependence between partners’ stress pro-
cesses. The present study also suggests that special attention should be given to partner eects
when it is the woman that reports experiencing either stress from daily hassles or intradyadic stress
as it has eects not only on her relationship satisfaction but also on her partner’s.
The assessment for the presence and eects of extradyadic stress from daily hassles and
intradyadic stress can be conducted by asking partners directly about their level of stress
and its eects on themselves, their partners, and their couple’s relationship or by having
partners complete self-report instruments such as the one used in this study. Given that our
findings suggest that anxiety symptoms are not associated with intradyadic stress but with
stress from daily hassles and depression symptoms are, the presence of anxiety and/or
depression symptoms in either partner might guide the clinician’s assessment. This assessment
can easily be incorporated at the beginning of any MFT treatment model and will enhance
the clinician’s understanding of the couple’s context of interaction and of contributing factors
to symptoms of anxiety and lower physical well-being. Moreover, reducing daily hassles or
coping with them eectively so that they do not spill into the couple’s relationship or deteri-
orate partners’ individual well-being may become the goal of therapy.
In cases where reducing daily hassles and/or improving individual and dyadic coping skills to
deal with such hassles become the goals of treatment, interventions to reach those goals will be
shaped largely by the MFT model used by the couple therapist. Addressing the way in which each
of the available MFT models may conceptualize and address stress and coping processes is beyond
the scope of this article. Nonetheless, as an illustration, in cognitive behavioral couples’ therapy
(CBCT; Epstein & Baucom, 2002), communication skills training can be used to improve partners’
ability to communicate about their daily hassles stress to each other and enhance understanding of
each other’s stress experience. In CBCT, the therapist may discuss with each partner eective and
ineective ways of handling stress from daily hassles individually and the impact of those strategies
on the other partner and their relationship. In addition, CBCT can help partners improve their
dyadic coping skills by focusing on the ways that each partner provides practical (e.g., suggesting
solutions) and/or emotional (e.g., empathic understanding) support to help the other partner cope
and the conjoint coping strategies (e.g., relaxing together, discussing solutions for reducing daily
hassles) that the couple relies on to face stress from daily hassles together.
Considering the associations of daily hassles stress with individual and relational functioning,
couple therapy interventions aimed at improving coping with daily hassles stress may have a bene-
ficial eect not only on partners’ relationship but also on their individual psychological health. In
fact, a recent review of research on the treatment of couple distress published in the Journal of
Marital and Family Therapy (Lebow, Chambers, Christensen, & Johnson, 2012) included a recent
randomized clinical trial (Bodenmann et al., 2008) that had found that coping-oriented couple
therapy, a CBCT-based approach with special emphasis on coping skills, was as eective as inter-
personal psychotherapy and individual cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing symptoms of
depression and increasing relationship satisfaction and had the lowest relapse rates of depression
compared to the other two treatments.
In addition to informing therapy, our findings may contribute to the development of preven-
tive and intervention eorts at a programmatic level. Programs should be directed at sensitizing
couples to the harmful eects of extradyadic stress from daily hassles on the individual and the
couple’s relationship. A thorough description of preventive and intervention eorts to improve
individual and dyadic coping strategies is beyond the scope of the present article, but examples of
such interventions can be found in the couples coping enhancement training (CCET; Bodenmann
& Shantinath, 2004) designed to help couples cope with stress.
Implications for Research
Future studies should test the full STM model with longitudinal data to provide support for
the direction of causal relationships proposed by STM. These studies should continue collecting
data from both partners and apply an APIM approach so that actor and partner eects can be
analyzed and controlled for and gender dierences can be examined. Future studies should also
dierentiate between extra- and intradyadic stress as they may have dierent eects on the individ-
ual and the couple’s relationship. To strengthen the external validity of the results from the present
study and of the STM, future studies should be conducted not only with community but also clini-
cal samples and should include other ethnic populations. Ideally, future studies should seek to
assess individual and relational outcomes through brief self-report questionnaires and through
physiological, observational, and diary measures.
Findings from the present study contribute to our understanding about stress processes in the
context of couples’ relationships by identifying some of the mediating mechanisms through which
stress may aect partners individually and in their relationship. Our findings lend further support
to the STM model and highlight the importance of examining the eects of daily hassles stress not
only on each partner’s individual psychological and physical well-being but also on their relation-
ship as this source of extradyadic stress has the potential of increasing intradyadic stress and even-
tually relationship dissatisfaction. Our results can guide future research and clinical work.
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... The stressor directly or indirectly affects both members of the partners (Bodenmann et al., , 2017. The stress coping processes in couples affect marriage quality (Bodenmann et al., 2006;Fife et al., 2013), psychological well-being of couples (Falconier et al., 2015b), relationship satisfaction (Brown et al., 2020;Canzi et al., 2019;Rauch-Anderegg et al., 2020), dyadic adjustment (Staff et al., 2017), quality of life (Alves et al., 2020), and co-parenting conflict (Alves et al., 2019). Given the potential negative effects of stress, it is helpful to understand dyadic coping processes among couples for early intervention. ...
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The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) is used widely in research with couples as a measure of stress coping between dyads. While several studies examined the factor structure of the DCI, as well as invariance with individual samples, no studies have examined the dyadic measurement invariance. Thus, we conducted a dyadic measurement invariance analysis with a community sample of 1,368 opposite-gendered couples. The DCI displayed a factor structure of five factors for dyadic coping by self or partner and two factors for common dyadic coping. Full configural, metric, scalar, and residual variance invariance were identified for the DCI across dyad members. The latent means comparison showed differences in dyadic coping behavior across dyad members.
... Another significant result of our study is that the quality of the couple's relationship, denoted by unhappiness and dissatisfaction, was directly associated with psychological maladjustment in women. This result is in line with previous studies (see Falconier et al., 2015), which showed that extra-dyadic stress is directly and indirectly related to lower psychological well-being through increased intra-dyadic stress from relationship problems. In particular, the female extra-dyadic and intra-dyadic stress negatively affected relationship satisfaction and posed more risks for marital quality. ...
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Introduction The empirical study about the negative impact of economic difficulties due to Covid- 19 on the psychological well-being of Italian women by considering perceived stress and marital satisfaction is an area worthy of investigation. The study explored these variables by hypothesizing that marital satisfaction (DAS) could moderate or mediate the links between economic difficulties, perceived stress (PSS), and psychological maladjustment (PGWBI). Methods A total of 320 Italian women completed an online survey about the study’s variables during the lockdown period. Women’s perceptions of economic difficulties due to COVID- 19 restrictions were detected through an ad-hoc specific question. Perceived stress, marital satisfaction and psychological maladjustment were assessed by standardized questionnaires (Perceived Stress Scale 10, Dyadic Satisfaction Scale and Psychological General Well-being Inventory). Results 39.7% of women who answered the online survey said that the Covid-19 significantly impacted their family income. Results indicated that marital satisfaction did not moderate the associations investigated. Conversely, data showed how economic difficulties (X) predicted lower psychological maladjustment through the mediation of perceived Stress (M1), which, in turn, was associated with higher levels of marital dissatisfaction (M2). Conclusion The results of the present study confirm the significant role of marital dissatisfaction in explaining the indirect effects of economic difficulties on psychological maladjustment in women. In particular, they indicated a significant spillover effect which transmitted strains experienced in one domain (economic difficulties) to another (the dissatisfaction of the couple), which in turn affected the psychological maladjustment.
... As Overall et al. (2022) observed, it is possible that confinement creates a context in which the distancing strategies applied by avoidantly attached individuals are those that undermine cohesion. Stress could produce greater disconnection and avoidance of their partners (Bodenmann et al., 2007;Repetti et al., 2009), which would predict a decrease in relationship satisfaction (Falconier et al., 2015). Certainly, our results point in this direction, with the conflict withdrawal strategy being what would produce a greater decrease in partner satisfaction in the confined individuals than in the comparison group. ...
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Increased time spent together and the lockdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic may have created new scenarios for marital conflict. We analyzed how home confinement affects avoidantly attached individuals': (a) resolution strategies to cope with couple conflict, (b) perception of partner's resolution strategies, and (c) overall relationship satisfaction. The sample comprised 549 individuals, divided into two subsamples: (a) the confined group, individuals confined with their partners (n = 275); and (b) the comparison group, coupled individuals from a dataset collected before the pandemic (n = 274). Results indicate that the proposed model works in different contexts (non-confinement and confinement situations), but there are some significant differences in the magnitude of some of the relationships between the variables, being stronger in the confinement group than in the comparison group. In the confined group, in individuals with avoidant attachment, withdrawal was associated with lower relationship satisfaction and a higher demand partner perceived to a higher extent than in the comparison group. This might explain the lower satisfaction with the relationship of the confined group. The different conflict resolution strategies of the couple mediated between avoidant attachment and relationship satisfaction in both groups (confined and comparison). It is concluded that individuals' attachment orientation is a key factor in how individuals experienced their close relationships during the confinement.
... Also, both the dyadic coping of patients with haematological cancer and that of their life partners affect the subsequent mental and physical quality of life of partners. Considering the association of the constructs included in the model both with psychological variables at the individual and couple level, considering that the model proved applicable for different types of couples (young, middle-aged, elderly, heterosexual or not; Bodenmann et al., 2017) and dyadic coping repeatedly predicted the well-being of the partner (Falconier et al., 2015), the authors chose the Systemic Transactional Model as a theoretical foundation for the present study. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study based on the Systemic Transactional Model was to examine the relationship between dyadic coping and (1) disease perception and (2) quality of life of a sample of cancer patients and their life partners. Method: This cross-sectional study included 138 oncological dyads. The following questionnaires were used: Stress Appraisal Measure, Dyadic Coping Inventory, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30. Data collected was analysed by applying the actor-partner interdependence model. Results: The perception of the disease as a threat as well as its centrality significantly negatively influences the positive forms of dyadic coping whilst the perception of the disease as a challenge has a significant positive influence on them. Dyadic coping does not influence symptoms but has significant influences on global health/quality of life. Conclusion: This study has highlighted new information regarding how couples cope with cancer. The results encourage the inclusion of the perception of the disease and dyadic coping in interventions that aim to improve the quality of life of cancer patients and their life partners.
... Occupational stress has been drawing the attention of academics, researchers, and industry practitioners over the last few decades (Uddin, 2020). Occupational stress has been considered as a vital issue due to the fact that it can detrimentally affect the individual and organisational outcomes (Falconier et al., 2015). Furthermore, it is assumed that occupational stress is linked with reduced productivity, increased absenteeism, high turnover rate, work-family conflicts, and scratched organisational performance (Armstrong et al., 2015;Uddin, 2020). ...
... That is, previous research has found a positive association between healthy financial behaviors and relationship satisfaction (Curran et al., 2018;Dew & Xiao, 2013;Totenhagen et al., 2019). In other words, finances may be a topic of struggle for many couples (Dew & Xiao, 2013;Falconier et al. 2015), but if individuals in couple relationships enact positive financial behaviors, their relationship satisfaction may benefit (Britt et al., 2008;Curran et al., 2018). ...
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This study examined whether financial behaviors mediate the association between financial selfefficacy and romantic relationship flourishing. Previous research and Family Financial Socialization Theory suggest that financial behaviors may benefit romantic relationship outcomes in emerging adulthood. Previous research also suggests that financial self-efficacy may benefit romantic relationship quality in emerging adulthood. Research has yet to document, however, whether financial self-efficacy may indirectly benefit romantic relationship outcomes through financial behaviors in emerging adulthood. Using data from the Measuring Family Financial Socialization Project (N = 1,950 emerging adults), we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine whether financial behaviors mediate the association between financial self-efficacy and romantic relationship flourishing. We found that financial self-efficacy was positively and indirectly associated with romantic relationship flourishing, with financial behaviors fully mediating the relationship. In addition to helping emerging adult couples with their financial behaviors, relational educators and clinicians may consider intervening in emerging adult couples’ financial self-efficacy as an indirect relational treatment. Financial educators and parents might help children, adolescents, and emerging adults build financial self-efficacy to benefit not only their future financial wellbeing but also their future relational wellbeing.
Why do people fall in love? Does passion fade with time? What makes for a happy, healthy relationship? This introduction to relationship science follows the lifecycle of a relationship – from attraction and initiation, to the hard work of relationship maintenance, to dissolution and ways to strengthen a relationship. Designed for advanced undergraduates studying psychology, communication or family studies, this textbook presents a fresh, diversity-infused approach to relationship science. It includes real-world examples and critical-thinking questions, callout boxes that challenge students to make connections, and researcher interviews that showcase the many career paths of relationship scientists. Article Spotlights reveal cutting-edge methods, while Diversity and Inclusion boxes celebrate the variety found in human love and connection. Throughout the book, students see the application of theory and come to recognize universal themes in relationships as well as the nuances of many findings. Instructors can access lecture slides, an instructor manual, and test banks.
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Mutfak ve turizm sektörü stresli bir meslek grubu olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bunun sebebi doğrudan müşterilerle ilgilenme ve hizmet sektörünün doğası gereği iş yükünün fazla olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Türkiye’de Gastronomi ve Mutfak Sanatları lisans programı bölümünde okuyup, staj yapmış öğrencilerin stres düzeylerinin boyutlarının ortaya koyulmasıdır. Böylelikle öğrencilerin yaşadığı stres etkenlerinin boyutlarını ve yeni mesleğe başlayan kişilerin bu süreci nasıl yönettikleri açığa çıkarılacaktır. Çalışma yöntemi olarak nitel araştırma deseninde içerik analizi yapılmıştır. Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formlarıyla gastronomi ve mutfak sanatları bölümünde okuyan 25 öğrenci ile görüşülmüştür. Sorulara yönelik cevaplar doğrultusunda temalar ve alt temalar oluşturularak literatürde tartışılmıştır. Çalışma sonuçları, öğrencilerin aşçılık/şeflik mesleğinin stresli bir süreç olduğunu ifade etmektedir. İş sorumluluğu olarak mutfak temizliği, mutfak kontrolü, depo sorumluluğu, yemek yapmak, hazırlık yapmak gibi ağır bir iş yükünün içerisine girmektedirler. Ek olarak stres etkeni olarak iş yoğunluğu ve üstleri tarafından beğenilmeme korkusu yanıtları baskıyla ilişkilenmektedir. Stres belirtileri olarak öğrenciler sinirli, dikkatsiz ve ne yapacağını bilememe gibi cevaplar vermişlerdir. Stres yönetimleri de genel olarak, kontrol etme ve yok sayma üzerine şekillenmektedir. Öğrenciler stres yönetimi sağlayabilmenin yollarını tam olarak bilemediklerini ifade ederek eğitim alınmasının doğru olduğunu ifade etmektedirler. Ayrıca şef ve yöneticilerin davranışlarının düzenlenmesi, ücret arttırımı ve çalışma saatlerinin düşürülmesi stres düzeyini azaltacağı düşünülmektedir.
This study examined the role of ethical responsiveness on relationship satisfaction from a partner's perspective after experiencing a distressing life event (DLE). We used data from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), which is a multidisciplinary, longitudinal study in Germany. Our study used anchor data, the original respondents who were randomly selected and gave permission to interview their partners. This study included two waves of anchor responses, which were 2016 and 2018, respectively. We utilized longitudinal structural equation modeling to evaluate whether the partner's ethical responsiveness buffers the negative impact of DLEs on relationship satisfaction per anchor's perspective. The results of our study indicated that partner's ethical responsiveness can buffer the negative impact of DLEs on anchor's perception of relationship satisfaction. Additionally, according to the perception of the anchors, we found that the partners who showed high levels of ethical responsiveness not only maintained their relationship satisfaction but even improved upon it 2 years beyond the DLE. Conversely, relationship satisfaction decreased over time for anchors who reported their partner with an average or lower level of ethical responsiveness. Clinical implications and limitations are also discussed.
Stress tends to be negatively associated with romantic relationship quality, but shared stress can bond romantic partners and may actually have a positive effect on relationships. Thus, are similar levels of pandemic‐related stress during the COVID‐19 pandemic—a time of high stress for many couples—associated with better or worse relationship quality? In this study, we investigated whether similarity in COVID‐19‐related stress was associated with romantic relationship outcomes in two dyadic samples ( N = 300 couples). Generally, we found little evidence that similarity in COVID‐19‐related stress was associated with relationship outcomes. We did find that similarity in general worry about the pandemic was associated with lower overall relationship quality; however, it was also associated with lower levels of viewing the pandemic as a source of conflict. Therefore, more research is needed to understand the nuances of when and how stress similarity is associated with romantic relationship quality.
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Researchers have consistently found that women are twice as likely to be depressed as men (as reviewed in Nolen-Hoeksema & Hilt, 2009). One possible mechanism for this relationship is that women experience more interpersonal stressful life events for which they played a part in their occurrence, a process called stress generation (Hammen, 2003). The present study investigated two interpersonal predictors of depression—neediness and co-rumination—as mediators of the relationship between gender and stress generation. It was hypothesized that women would report higher levels of neediness and co-rumination, which would in turn predict the greater occurrence of interpersonal stress generation. Baseline levels of neediness and co-rumination were assessed in a sample of college students (N = 364), and depressive symptoms and frequency of dependent interpersonal stressors were assessed weekly for 8 weeks. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze gender differences and mediation models predicting stress generation. Both neediness and co-rumination explained women's higher levels of stress generation. These findings provide additional evidence suggesting that the interpersonal domain is of particular importance when considering gender differences in stress processes and depression.
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Stress is a concept that has received increased attention in marital research during the last decade showing that it plays an important role in understanding the quality and stability of close relationships. Evidence suggests that stress is a threat to marital satisfaction and its longevity. Research has been based upon theoretical models of stress in close relationships, specifically family stress models (e.g. Hill, 1958; McCubbin & Patterson, 1983) and couple’s stress model’s proposed by Karney, Story, & Bradbury (2005) and Bodenmann (1995, 2005). In this review we: (1) examine the various theoretical models of stress, (2) analyze and summarize the typologies relating to stress models (internal versus external, major versus minor, acute versus chronic), and (3) summarize findings from stress research in couples that has practical significance and may inspire clinical work. Future directions in research and clincial significance are suggested.
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This article investigates the field of stress and coping in close relationships. In an effort to move beyond an individually oriented focus, our work proposes a systemic-transactional approach to stress and coping in close relationships. In this conceptualization, stress and coping are understood to be the reciprocal and dynamic interplay between the stress signals of one partner and the dyadic coping reactions of the other. The theoretical and empirical findings concerning the proposed stress-coping-model in dyads are reported and discussed regarding the validity of this construct.
Affiliation with others is a basic human coping response for managing a broad array of stressful circumstances. Affiliating with others is both psychologically and biologically comforting, and biologically may depend upon oxytocin and brain opioid pathways. The origins of affiliative responses to stress include early life experiences, genetic factors, and epigenetic processes that interact with the availability of supportive others during times of stress. The beneficial consequences of affiliation for mental and physical health are strong and robust. Future research will continue to clarify the underlying biopsychosocial pathways that explicate why this is the case.