Equilibrium And Dynamic Design Principles For Binding Molecules Engineered For Reagentless Biosensors
Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States Analytical Biochemistry
(Impact Factor: 2.22).
09/2014; 460. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2014.04.036
Reagentless biosensors rely on the interaction of a binding partner and its target to generate a change in fluorescent signal using an environment sensitive fluorophore or Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. Binding affinity can exert a significant influence on both the equilibrium and the dynamic response characteristics of such a biosensor. We here develop a kinetic model for the dynamic performance of a reagentless biosensor. Using a sinusoidal signal for ligand concentration, our findings suggest that it is optimal to use a binding moiety whose equilibrium dissociation constant matches that of the average predicted input signal, while maximizing both the association rate constant and the dissociation rate constant at the necessary ratio to create the desired equilibrium constant. Although practical limitations constrain the attainment of these objectives, the derivation of these design principles provides guidance for improved reagentless biosensor performance and metrics for quality standards in the development of biosensors. These concepts are broadly relevant to reagentless biosensor modalities.
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ABSTRACT: Fluorescence-based immunosensors serve a vital role in biotechnology and diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Our group recently developed a unique fluoroimmunosensor named Quenchbody (Q-body) that operates based on the principle of quenching and the antigen-dependent release of fluorophore, which is incorporated to a recombinant antibody fragment, either the single-chain Fv (scFv) or the Fab fragment of an antibody, using a cell-free transcription-translation system. With the objective of extending the functionality and diversity of the Q-body, here we attempted to make Q-bodies by labeling the recombinant scFv, which was prepared from E. coli using several commercially available dye-maleimides. As a result, we reproducibly obtained larger amounts of antiosteocalcin Q-bodies, with an improved yield and cost-efficiency compared with those obtained from a conventional cell-free system. The fluorescence intensity of each Q-body, including that labeled with newly tested rhodamine red, was significantly increased in the presence of an antigen with a low detection limit, although some differences in response were observed for the dye with different spacer lengths between dye and maleimide. The results indicate the Q-body’s applicability as a powerful multicolored sensor, with a potential to simultaneously monitor multiple targets in a sample.
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