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Patterns of Racial and Educational Assortative Mating in Brazil

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Abstract

Exchange of racial for educational status has been documented for black/white marriages in the United States. Exchange may be an idiosyncratic feature of U.S. society, resulting from unusually strong racial boundaries historically developed there. We examine status exchange across racial lines in Brazil. In contrast to the United States, Brazil features greater fluidity of racial boundaries and a middle tier of "brown" individuals. If exchange is contingent on strong racial boundaries, it should be weak or non-existent in Brazilian society. Contrary to this expectation, we find strong evidence of status exchange. However, this pattern results from a generalized penalty for darkness, which induces a negative association between higher education and marrying darker spouses ("market exchange") rather than from a direct trading of resources by partners ("dyadic exchange"). The substantive and methodological distinction between market and dyadic exchange helps clarify and integrate prior findings in the status exchange literature.

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... Analysing the individual characteristics of natives that are associated with marrying immigrants as well as assortative mating patterns in these unions is thus more important than the mere frequency of intermarriage for drawing conclusions about natives' openness towards immigrants as marriage partners. Other than a sign of openness, intermarriages can also be a result of competition for high-status individuals (Gullickson and Torche 2014;Kalmijn 1994). If there is competition in the marriage market for highstatus partners, high-status individuals will end up choosing one another and leave low-status individuals to marry each other. ...
... The findings show that-broadly speaking-native Swedish men and women with lower status in economic and demographic characteristics are more prone to intermarry, which is similar to the findings of Östh (2011) and Haandrikman (2014). While these patterns support the idea that individuals of lower status in the marriage market suffer from a competitive disadvantage and are hence more likely to marry immigrants (Fu 2001;Gullickson and Torche 2014), the patterns found among native men also support the idea that the highly educated are more likely to be open towards immigrants (Hello et al. 2002;Wagner and Zick 1995). ...
... Since the focus of this study is on the characteristics of immigrant-native unions, openness here refers only to assortative mating patterns.6 Gullickson and Torche (2014) describe the notion of an individual's desirability in the marriage market as market exchange.Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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This paper studies how immigrant–native intermarriages in Sweden are associated with individual characteristics of native men and women and patterns of assortative mating. Patterns of educational- and age-assortative mating that are similar to those found in native–native marriages may reflect openness to immigrant groups, whereas assortative mating patterns that indicate status considerations suggest that country of birth continues to serve as a boundary in the native marriage market. The study uses Swedish register data that cover the entire Swedish population for the period of 1991–2009. The results from binomial and multinomial logistic regressions show that low status of natives in terms of economic and demographic characteristics is associated with intermarriage and that intermarriages are characterized by educational and age heterogamy more than are native–native marriages. The findings indicate that immigrant women as well as immigrant men become more attractive marriage partners if they are considerably younger than their native spouses. This is particularly true for intermarriages with immigrants from certain regions of origin, such as wives from Asia and Africa and husbands from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Gender differences in the intermarriage patterns of native men and women are surprisingly small.
... This approach to understanding spouse selection developed in the context of Black-White intermarriage in the United States to suggest that ethnic/racial 'prestige' might be exchanged for other desirable traits, such as education (Kalmijn, 1998). Studies on marriage between other 'racial' groups and in other countries have found little evidence of exchange (Kalmijn, 2010, but see Gullickson and Torche, 2014), but in this study we apply exchange theory to a different type of union: transnational marriage between descendants of migrants to Europe and partners from their parents' or grandparents' country of origin (hereafter referred to as the 'ancestral country'). With family involvement common in such marriage choices, a more explicit evaluation of the relative attractions of potential partners might be envisioned than in contexts where marriages are expected to be based on love and physical attraction between individuals. ...
... Exchange theory is a variant of the competition hypothesis; it assumes that there is a preference for a partner with the most desirable traits. According to the dyadic version of exchange theory, people are willing to trade down on one desirable trait in exchange for another (Kalmijn, 1998;Schwartz, 2013;Gullickson and Torche, 2014). The market version of exchange theory postulates that certain traits can act as penalties or advantages in the marriage market. ...
... The market version of exchange theory postulates that certain traits can act as penalties or advantages in the marriage market. In this case exchange does not occur at the couple level but is an outcome of sorting in the marriage market by preference and traits (Gullickson and Torche, 2014). ...
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This study applies exchange theory to transnational marriages between descendants of migrants to Europe, and partners from their (grand)parents’ country of origin. Such marriages could offer socio-economic benefits for the European partner/family, if the opportunity of migration attracts a more highly educated spouse. The translation of educational capital into socio-economic benefits, however, is mediated by the labour market position of migrant spouses. In this study we explore the relationships between transnational marriage, education, and employment, by comparing the characteristics of spouses in transnational couples with those in intranational couples. Analyses are based on UK Labour Force Survey data (2004–2014) for two groups in which transnational marriage is common—Pakistani Muslims and Indian Sikhs. We find that educational homogamy is the dominant pattern in both intranational and transnational couples, and that migrant spouses have a disadvantaged labour market position compared to non-migrant spouses with the same level of education—with variation across gender and ethnic groups. Our findings do not support a view of transnational marriage as socio-economic exchange but do suggest education plays a role in spousal choice in these marriages.
... Second, we extend prior research on assortative mating by educational attainment and hukou locality (Qian & Qian, 2017) to examine whether spouses engage in status exchange between hukou locality and education and how these two cities differ in status exchange. This comparison provides critical insight into the degree to how local hukou carries differential hierarchical advantages in varying social contexts (Gullickson & Torche, 2014;Qian & Qian, 2017). ...
... We use log-linear models to compare patterns of intermarriage by hukou locality and hukou locality-education exchange between Shanghai and Shenzhen (Gullickson & Torche, 2014;. Log-linear models allow us to examine the associations between husbands' and wives' educations and hukou locality statuses while controlling for the marginal distributions of these two characteristics. ...
... We follow Gullickson (2006) and Gullickson and Torche (2014) to examine whether an exchange occurs between education and hukou locality. First, we measure dyadic exchange by examining how the odds of hukou locality intermarriage change with the education pairing of both spouses (Gullickson & Torche, 2014). ...
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China's household registration system (hukou) has created an institutional boundary for the social integration of migrants, but few studies have explored if hukou barriers vary by city. We investigate the value of hukou locality in Shanghai and Shenzhen by comparing their patterns of intermarriage between locals and migrants. We hypothesize that levels of intermarriage reflect the rigidity of the hukou barrier—the likelihood of intermarriage is lower and tradeoffs for local hukou are higher if one city has more stringent hukou policies than the other. Using data from the 2005 mini-census, we find support for our hypothesis. Shanghai, in which internal migrants in China find it most difficult to secure local hukou, exhibits lower levels of intermarriage and lower levels of hukou locality–education exchange between locals and migrants compared to Shenzhen. The findings suggest that the decentralization of China's hukou system and subsequent varying hukou policies have made hukou locality an increasingly salient factor in shaping migrants’ integration and social inequaltiy.
... By investigating intermarriage patterns between locals and migrants, this study deepens our understanding of hukou-based stratification, migrant integration, and the reproduction of social inequality in urban China. In addition, while most previous studies tested status exchange for interracial marriage in the United States (e.g., Kalmijn 1993;Qian 1997;Fu 2001;Rosenfeld 2005;Gullickson 2006; Gullickson and Fu 2010), scholars have called for an extension of research on status exchange elsewhere (Kalmijn 2010;Gullickson and Torche 2014). This study contributes to this body of research by extending the question of status exchange to hukou intermarriage in urban China. ...
... However, as Gullickson (2006) puts it, Merton's test is not a satisfactory test of the status exchange theory because most interracial couples, similar to their intraracial counterparts, tend to be homogamous in terms of socioeconomic status. A more appropriate test of the status exchange theory is to compare interracial and intraracial couples (Gullickson 2006;Gullickson and Torche 2014). Specifically, white spouses, in particular white women, who marry blacks should be more likely to marry up and less likely to marry down in terms of socioeconomic status, compared to their counterparts who marry whites. ...
... This test captures the process that blacks trade their socioeconomic status for the racial status of their white spouses and vice versa. Thus, this process reflects a direct trading of resources between spouses, which is referred to as "dyadic exchange" by Gullickson and Torche (2014). ...
Article
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Hukou locality (local vs. nonlocal) is an important source of social inequality in urban China. Residents with Shanghai hukou, for example, have better access to social benefits, jobs, schools, and other opportunities in Shanghai. In this paper, using data from the 2013 Fudan Yangtze River Delta Social Transformation Survey, we evaluate how hukou locality intersects with educational attainment to shape assortative marriage patterns among individuals born in the 1980s and living in Shanghai. We find that highly-educated hukou residents and non-hukou migrants are more likely than their less-educated counterparts to marry hukou residents. In addition, hukou intermarriage seldom occurs when hukou residents marry non-hukou migrants with less education than themselves. The results suggest that Shanghai hukou is a valuable attribute in the Shanghai marriage market and shapes marriage market conditions and individual marital choices.
... Research on status-exchange marriage in the United States has often examined the exchange of socioeconomic status (SES) for racial status (e.g., Schoen and Wooldredge 1989;Kalmijn 1993;Qian 1997;Fu 2001;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Torche and Rich 2016). As part of a recent debate concerning whether or not race-SES exchange exists in the United States, Kalmijn (2010Kalmijn ( :1262 proposed that research on exchange be expanded to other contexts: specifically, to different ethnic groups or countries. ...
... In light of the debate on the appropriateness of log-linear analyses in the literature on status exchange (see Rosenfeld 2005;Gullickson and Fu 2010;Kalmijn 2010), we also review and synthesize the methods that have been used to evaluate the exchange hypothesis. Our methodological discussion focuses on methods of separating exchange from other social forces that influence mate selection (such as a tendency for men or women to choose partners similar to themselves) and is part of continuing efforts to clarify the important methodological and substantive implications of this debate (Gullickson and Torche 2014). We apply a "step-by-step" approach to the study of exchange, adding controls one by one to identify the most important confounders. ...
... As he observed, early studies relying on cross-tabulations to assess whether interracial marriages tended to be formed by whites with low education marrying highly educated blacks generally rejected the exchange hypothesis (Bernard 1966;Heer 1974;Monahan 1976). By contrast, recent studies using "complex" log-linear models have often supported the hypothesis (Schoen and Wooldredge 1989;Kalmijn 1993;Qian 1997;Fu 2001;Gullickson 2006;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Torche and Rich 2016). Rosenfeld's own inclination was to use simple methods because the results of complex models depend on model assumptions, whereas "[s]imple tabular analyses at least have the advantage of transparency" (2005:1287). ...
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Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968–2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange—that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.
... If racial status and educational status are at least partially fungible, then individuals with higher education will have better access to white partners, and white individuals will have better access to more educated partners (Fu 2001). As a consequence, both whites and blacks will be more likely to marry whites as their education increases, resulting in racespecific effects of education on interracial marriage: education will increase the likelihood of interracial marriage among blacks but will decrease the likelihood of interracial marriage among whites, a component referred to as "educational boundaries" by Gullickson (2006b) and "market exchange" by Gullickson and Torche (2014). ...
... White partners in interracial marriages are expected to be more educationally hypergamous and less educationally hypogamous than white partners in intraracial marriages, and black partners in interracial marriages should be more educationally hypogamous and less educationally hypergamous than black partners who marry blacks. This educational asymmetry in interracial marriages was called "dyadic exchange" by Gullickson and Torche (2014) because it refers to a direct trading of resources between partners. ...
... It is important to stress that both "educational boundaries" and "dyadic exchange" emerge from the same premise, namely, that racial stratification shapes spousal selection and that whiteness is treated as a source of status advantage in contemporary American society. However, educational boundaries do not require nor expect a direct trading between partners (Gullickson and Torche 2014). They assume only that each person in the marriage market seeks the "best" potential partner in terms of both educational and racial status and that these attributes are to some extent exchangeable, such that a white person will be more likely to marry a black person with high rather than low level of educational attainment if he or she decides to cross the racial boundary in intermarriage. ...
Article
The status exchange hypothesis suggests that partners in black/white marriages in the United States trade racial for educational status, indicating strong hierarchical barriers between racial groups. The authors examine trends in status exchange in black/white marriages and cohabitations between 1980 and 2010, a period during which these unions increased from 0.3 percent to 1.5 percent of all young couples. The authors find that status exchange between black men and white women did not decline among either marriages or cohabitations, even as interracial unions became more prevalent. The authors also distinguish two factors driving exchange: (1) the growing probability of marrying a white person as educational attainment increases for both blacks and whites (educational boundaries) and (2) a direct trade of race-by-education between partners (dyadic exchange). Although the theoretical interpretation of exchange has focused on the latter factor, the authors show that status exchange largely emerges from the former.
... It notes that individuals compensate for the lack of one trait by offering other desirable traits to potential mates . This theory has been used widely in the study of interracial marriages, in which partners trade racial status for socioeconomic status (e.g., education) (Gullickson and Torche 2014;Hou and Myles 2013). Following the reversal of the gender gap in education in many developed countries, some recent studies have started documenting status exchange among women who marry below their educational status. ...
... Thus, our use of educational attainment at the time of survey is a good proxy for education at the time of marriage. This measure has also been widely used in studying educational assortative mating in other non-Western countries (Gullickson and Torche 2014;Qian and Qian 2014). To examine trends in educational assortative mating, evermarried women in this sample are categorized into the following three marriage cohorts 1 The National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the Indian equivalent of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), also provides information on the educational attainments of couples and the year of marriage. ...
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With rising education among women across the world, educational hypergamy (women marrying men with higher education) has decreased over the last few decades in both developed and developing countries. Although a decrease in hypergamy is often accompanied by increasing homogamy (women marrying men with equal levels of education), our analyses for India based on a nationally representative survey of India (the India Human Development Survey), document a considerable rise in hypogamy (women marrying partners with lower education) during the past four decades. Log-linear analyses further reveal that declining hypergamy is largely generated by the rise in education levels, whereas hypogamous marriages continue to increase even after marginal distributions are taken into account. Further multivariate analyses show that highly educated women tend to marry men with lower education but from more privileged families. Moreover, consanguineous marriages, which exemplify strong cultural constraints on spousal selection in certain parts of India, are more likely to be hypogamous than marriages not related by blood. We argue that the rise in hypogamous marriage by education paradoxically reflects deep-rooted gender scripts in India given that other salient social boundaries are much more difficult to cross.
... We examine Brazil and Cuba, where the populations of enslaved Africans were more than 10 and two times larger, respectively, than those brought to the United States (Eltis et al. 1999;Eltis 2017;de la Fuente and Andrews 2018) and where patterns and levels of intermarriage may be quite distinct (Telles 2004;Fernandez 2010;Osuji 2013). We know very little about racial intermarriage in those countries, except for descriptive comparisons showing greater racial intermarriage for Brazil (Telles 2004;Costa Ribeiro and do Valle Silva 2009;Gullickson and Torche 2014) and suggesting higher rates for Cuba than in the United States (Catasus 1989;Rodriguez Ruiz 2004;Fernandez 2010). There are no systematic intercountry comparisons, and we know nothing about educational gradients. ...
... Second, we use log-linear models to decompose such patterns into main effects and interactions between racial groups after controls. Log-linear models are widely used in inter-marriage research (e.g., Qian 1997;Fu, 2001;Schwartz and Mare 2012;Gullickson and Torche 2014). Table 1 provides information on the distribution of women in unions aged 25 to 34 by race, educational attainment, and country. ...
Article
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We compare intermarriage in Brazil, Cuba, and the United States among the black, white, and mixed-race population using log-linear models with data from newly available anonymized and harmonized individual census microdata for the 2000 round of censuses. We find that black–white intermarriage is 105 times as likely in Brazil and 28 times as likely in Cuba compared to the United States; that Brazilian mulatos are four times as likely to marry whites than blacks, but Cuban mulatos are equally likely to marry whites and blacks; and negative educational gradients for black–white intermarriage for Cuba and Brazil but nonexistent or positive gradients in the United States. We propose a theory of intergenerational mixture and intermarriage and discuss implications for the role of preferences versus structure, universalism and education, and mulato escape-hatch theory.
... This is especially relevant in countries like Mexico and others in Latin America, where the project of mestizaje aimed to blurry out ethnoracial boundaries in their population (Loveman, 2014) without eliminating ethnoracial inequality and discrimination. Following international studies of educational and ethnoracial assortative mating in Brazil and the US (Fu & Heaton, 2008;Gullickson & Torche, 2014;Qian, 1997), future studies in Mexico should address the patterns of intermarriage between ethnoracial categories in every dimension and its interrelations with educational attainment. ...
Article
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A key phenomenon to gauge the degree of ethnoracial integration is the pattern of assortative mating based on ethnoracial characteristics. However, possibly because of the assumption that class and not race is the relevant factor in the Mexican stratification regime, assortative mating based on ethnoracial characteristics has been an understudied phenomenon in the country. Based on a multidimensional perspective and using a novel national representative survey, we analyze ethnoracial homogamy patterns in Mexico using four dimensions: skin tone, ethnoracial identification, indigenous language, and Mayan surname. For comparative purposes, we also calculate and control for educational homogamy in our analysis. Results indicate that ethnoracial homogamy is significantly different to educational homogamy and that it differs among dimensions: the highest likelihood of ethnoracial homogamy is found in the linguistic dimension and the lowest in the skin tone dimension. Comparatively, ethnoracial identification and Mayan surname have intermediate levels of homogamy.
... Concerning the literature on determinants of racial identification, our findings suggest that some attention should be paid to how socioeconomic status affects the racial composition of individuals' social networks, rather than focusing solely on their racial classification. In general, the Brazilian case has focused on "money whitens" or "whitening," when higher socioeconomic status increases the chances of identification as White (16,17,26,27). More recently, some studies have shown a change in racial perception among Brazilians, with an increase in the share of individuals self-classifying as Black or Brown (28). ...
Article
Studies in the United States have shown that minority students might face a trade-off between better academic performance and peer acceptance, which has been termed “acting White.” This paper investigates racial differences in the relationship between grades and popularity in five Brazilian schools. Popularity is measured using friendship ties among students, assigning a higher value to students more central in the network. The racial composition of friendship ties is generally diverse, although they tend to favor racial peers, especially among Black students. We find a positive correlation between grades and popularity of non-White students that is driven by their friendships with their White classmates. This contrasts with patterns associated with acting White, where a negative correlation between minorities’ grades and their popularity among racial peers is not compensated by their status among White students. We also investigate how academic performance is associated with racial identity choice conditional on skin color, finding a weak negative relationship between higher grades and the odds of classification as mixed race.
... A smaller value of BIC indicates a better-fitting model (Raftery 1986). We mainly focus on the BIC statistic due to our large sample size (Gullickson and Torche 2014). ...
... Traditional assortative mating scholarship has focused on analyzing the patterns of educational sorting and identifying the processes that generate such patterns. These lines of inquiry have documented an increase in the propensity of partners to resemble each other in educational attainment in high-income societies (Blossfeld & Timm, 2003;Greenwood, Guner, Kocharkov, & Santos, 2014;Qian & Preston, 1993) and, more recently, in low-and middle-income societies (Esteve, McCaa, & López, 2013;Gullickson & Torche, 2014;Smits & Park, 2009;Esteve, García-Román, & Permanyer, 2012;Hu & Qian, 2015;. ...
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This study expands existing scholarship on the relationship between parental educational similarity and infant health using rich administrative data from Chile covering births that occurred between 1990 and 2015. We test the relationship between parental educational similarity (homogamy) or dissimilarity (heterogamy) and two measures of infant health, namely low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB). We show that parental educational homogamy is associated with a reduced probability of low birth weight and preterm birth – particularly at the high end of the educational distribution – and the observed association is only partly driven by selection into homogamous couples, as demonstrated by complementary quasi-experimental analyses conducted on a subsample of matched step-siblings from same mothers but different fathers. We further show that couples where women outrank men in educational attainment (hypogamy) exhibit worse birth outcomes relative to their homogamous and hypergamous counterparts. Municipality-level analyses merging external information on female labor force participation (FLFP) prior to childbirth reveal that the association between hypogamy and children’s outcomes is increasingly negative as FLFP increases, highlighting a strong work-life balance tension for highly-educated women who are actively engaged in the labor force. Insights from this study contribute to a better understanding of the inequality debate surrounding the intergenerational transmission of advantage and disadvantage – a topical issue in a country that has recently joined the rank of the world’s wealthiest nations yet maintains extreme levels of socioeconomic inequality.
... Evidence in fa vor of trends to ward more ed u ca tional ho mog amy has been found for highly de vel oped Western so ci e ties, mostly the United States and some Eu ro pean countries (Blossfeld and Timm 2003;Kalmijn 1991;Qian and Preston 1993;Schwartz and Mare 2005). Gradually, re search ex am in ing trends and var i ation in ed u ca tional assortative mat ing has ex panded to other so ci e ties across Latin America (Esteve and McCaa 2007;Esteve et al. 2013;Ganguli et al. 2014;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Torche 2010), East Asia (Hu and Qian 2015;Park and Smits 2005;Smits and Park 2009), and South Asia (Borkotoky and Gupta 2016;Prakash and Singh 2014), adopting a more large-scale com par a tive ap proach (Esteve et al. 2012(Esteve et al. , 2016Pesando 2021;Raymo and Xie 2000;Smits 2003;Smits et al. 1998Smits et al. , 2000. ...
Article
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is undergoing rapid transformations in the realm of union formation in tandem with significant educational expansion and rising labor force participation rates. Concurrently, the region remains the least developed and most unequal along multiple dimensions of human and social development. In spite of this unique scenario, never has the social stratification literature examined patterns and implications of educational assortative mating for inequality in SSA. Using 126 Demographic and Health Surveys from 39 SSA countries between 1986 and 2016, this study is the first to document changing patterns of educational assortative mating by marriage cohort, subregion, and household location of residence and relate them to prevailing sociological theories on mating and development. Results show that net of shifts in educational distributions, mating has increased over marriage cohorts in all subregions except for Southern Africa, with increases driven mostly by rural areas. Trends in rural areas align with the status attainment hypothesis, whereas trends in urban areas are consistent with the inverted U-curve framework and the increasing applicability of the general openness hypothesis. The inequality analysis conducted through a combination of variance decomposition and counterfactual approaches reveals that mating accounts for a nonnegligible share (3% to 12%) of the cohort-specific inequality in household wealth, yet changes in mating over time hardly move time trends in wealth inequality, which is in line with findings from high-income societies.
... Over the past half-century, social scientists have produced an array of studies on the determinants and patterns of partners' educational similarity or-using sociological terminology-educational assortative mating, defined as the non-random matching of partners with respect to education (Hauw et al. 2017;Schwartz and Mare 2005). While studies were mostly focused on high-income societies, more recent research has shifted gears towards low-and middle-income (LMICs) countries (Esteve et al. 2012;Ganguli et al. 2014;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Lopus and Frye 2020;Pesando 2021;Smits and Park 2009). This long-standing interest in educational assortative mating is rooted in the idea that patterns of "who marries whom" matter for the reproduction of social inequalities both within and across generations (Mare 2016;Rosenfeld 2008). ...
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This study explores the relationship between parental educational similarity—educational concordance (homogamy) or discordance (heterogamy)—and children’s health outcomes. Its contribution is threefold. First and foremost, I use longitudinal data on children’s health outcomes tracking children from age 1 to 15, thus being able to assess whether the relationship changes at key life-course and developmental stages of children. This is an important addition to the relevant literature, where the focus is solely on outcomes at birth. Second, I look at different health outcomes, namely height-for-age (HFA) and BMI-for-age (BFA) z-scores, alongside their dichotomized counterparts, stunting and thinness. Third, I conduct the same set of analyses in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam, thus providing multi-context evidence from countries at different levels of development and with different socio-economic characteristics and gender dynamics. Results reveal important heterogeneity across contexts. In Ethiopia and India, parental educational homogamy is associated with worse health outcomes in infancy and childhood, while associations are positive in Peru and, foremost, Vietnam. Complementary estimates from matching techniques show that these associations tend to fade after age 1, except in Vietnam, where the positive relationship persists through adolescence, thus supporting the homogamy-benefit hypothesis not only at birth, but also across the early life course. Insights from this study contribute to the inequality debate on the intergenerational transmission of advantage and disadvantage and shed additional light on the relationship between early-life conditions and later-life outcomes in critical periods of children’s lives.
... Different researchers have discussed intermarriage in terms of social closure and racial boundaries in Brazil (Berquó 1987;Silva 1987;Petruccelli 2001;Telles 2004;Ribeiro and Silva 2009;Longo 2011;Gullickson and Torche 2014). It is agreed that there is an important hierarchy based on skin color that influences partner's choice. ...
... The finding that having a partner with a university degree is positively associated with intermarriage confirms previous studies on the positive association between immigrants' education and intermarriage with natives (see, for instance, Kalmijn and van Tubergen 2006;Lichter, Qian, and Tumin 2015;on Sweden, see Dribe and Lundh 2008). This finding also seems to be in line with previous research, which has found patterns of educational heterogamy in exogamous couples where members of minority groups often have higher education than their majority group partner (Guetto and Azzolini 2015;Gullickson 2006;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Kalmijn and van Tubergen 2006). ...
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This paper analyses the marriage patterns of multi-ethnic people – who have one native-born and one foreign-born parent – born in Sweden (multi-ethnic Swedes). Based on Swedish register data from the period 1997–2016 and multinomial regression analysis, this paper looks into the generational transmission of inter- and intra-marriage for multi-ethnic Swedes versus mono-ethnic individuals who have two native-born parents (mono-ethnic Swedes). It also analyses specific partner choices for multi-ethnic and mono-ethnic Swedes as well as the contribution of other factors to their marriage patterns. We find that the odds of multi-ethnic Swedes marrying individuals with a foreign background are higher than those of mono-ethnic Swedes. Living in one of the three major cities was found to be the strongest predictor among other factors affecting marital patterns. Our results also show that highly educated multi-ethnic and mono-ethnic Swedes are slightly less likely to marry individuals with a foreign background than they are to marry mono-ethnic Swedes.
... A smaller value of BIC indicates a better-fitting model (Raftery 1986). We mainly focus on the BIC statistic due to our large sample size (Gullickson and Torche 2014). ...
Article
The influx of immigrants from Asia to the United States (U.S.) has expanded the pool of co-ethnic marriageable partners, strengthened racial identity, and contributed to the decline in interracial marriage with whites among Asian Americans. Yet, retreat from interracial marriage with whites may well vary by immigrant generation, an important factor in marital assimilation. Using data from the March Current Population Survey (1994–2015), we examine generational differences in intergenerational marriage and interracial marriage with whites among Asian Americans. The results reveal that over time third-plus-generation Asians show no significant change in interracial marriage with whites but declines in intergenerational marriage with first- or second-generation Asians. Second-generation Asians, on the other hand, have become more likely to marry first-generation Asians and less likely to marry whites. In addition, education provides different opportunities for intermarriage, with highly-educated Asian Americans more likely than their less-educated counterparts to marry whites and less likely to marry other Asians. Notably, highly-educated second-generation Asians tend to marry third-plus-generation Asians and whites while their less-educated counterparts marry first-generation Asians. These findings highlight the importance of generation and education in integration of Asian Americans.
... Indeed, most seminal studies on interracial marriage (e.g., Gullickson 2005;Qian 1997), assortative mating (e.g., Mare 1991;Schwartz and Mare 2005), intergenerational mobility (e.g., Duncan 1979;Hout 1984;Mare 1991), and migration flows (e.g., Little and Raymer 2013;Raymer and Rogers 2007;Willekens 1983) have used log-linear models for contingency tables as their main analytic strategy. These models are still the standard tool in the analysis of assortative mating (Schwartz 2013) as shown by recent publications in the discipline's leading journals (e.g., Gullickson and Torche 2014;Schwartz 2010;Schwartz and Mare 2012;Schwartz, Zeng, and Xie 2016;Torche 2010). ...
Article
Log-linear models for contingency tables are a key tool for the study of categorical inequalities in sociology. However, the conventional approach to model selection and specification suffers from at least two limitations: reliance on oftentimes equivocal diagnostics yielded by fit statistics, and the inability to identify patterns of association not covered by model candidates. In this article, we propose an application of Lasso regularization that addresses the aforementioned limitations. We evaluate our method through a Monte Carlo experiment and an empirical study of educational assortative mating in Chile, 1990–2015. Results demonstrate that our approach has the virtue, relative to ad hoc specification searches, of offering a principled statistical criterion to inductively select a model. Importantly, we show that in situations where conventional fit statistics provide conflicting diagnostics, our Lasso-based approach is consistent in its model choice, yielding solutions that are both predictive and parsimonious.
... The paper builds on the premise that never has the assortative mating literature focused exclusively on patterns of mating within SSA, while research is more extensive in other low-and middle-income contexts such as Latin America (Esteve and McCaa 2007;Esteve, McCaa, and López 2013;Ganguli, Hausmann, and Viarengo 2014;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Torche 2010) and South-East Asia (Borkotoky and Gupta 2016;Hu and Qian 2015;Park and Smits 2005;Smits and Park 2009) -not to mention high-income societies such as Europe and the US. Also, existing studies on declining hypergamy throughout the world (Esteve, Garcia, and Permanyer 2012; might not suffice to assess whether we observe increasing educational resemblance of spouses net of shifts in xv marginal distributions, and how trends vary by sub-region and location of residence within SSA -a vastly heterogeneous region that has followed different urbanization trajectories and retains contextspecific socio-cultural repertoires. ...
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Over the past half century, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have undergone profound transformations in the realm of the family, accompanied by shifts in gender norms and practices, and dramatic increases in schooling. Rising educational attainment has in turn been a by-product of micro-level behavioral changes on the part of families, alongside macro-level socio-structural factors such as industrialization, urbanization, and targeted educational policies. This dissertation advances the field of social demography by exploring the interrelations between family, gender, and educational dynamics across LMICs. Although the three essays represent self-contained articles, they all trace linkages between these three dimensions with a focus on LMICs, thus contributing new empirical knowledge on policy-relevant population processes in contexts that have to date received less scholarly attention. The first chapter provides a macro-level overview on the changing nature of families across multiple domains with advances in socio-economic development. Its focus is on family change, yet gender features in the type of indicators considered, some of which are computed separately for men and women – showing vastly divergent patterns – while others capture men and women’s bargaining power within the couple. Educational expansion features throughout the discussion as one key driver of family change and one component of the Human Development Index (HDI) proxying for socio-economic development. The second chapter provides an overview on trends, variation, and implications of educational assortative mating for inequality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Mating patterns are vital to understanding the demographic makeup of households, such as family formation, composition, and breakdown. The focus on education and gender is inherent in the type of question raised (educational homogamy/heterogamy) and perspective adopted (couple). The third chapter explores the effect of a cash-transfer intervention given to parents on children’s schooling and unpaid work in rural Morocco. As such, the family focus is tied to a parental investment perspective, while the educational focus comes from the policy considered – a cash transfer promoted by the government – and the outcomes analyzed – school dropout and grade progression. Lastly, gender features throughout the discussion as analyses consider heterogeneity by gender, and unpaid care dynamics show striking gender differences.
... Recent studies have focused on intermarriage between partners with and without local hukou, as a kind of social exchange in marriage (Lui 2017). Other countries, especially racially-diverse ones such as Brazil, have emphasized the color (i.e., shades of black and brown) of racial and ethnic minority populations (Gullickson and Torche 2014). Other studies have compiled census records across many countries for comparative cross-national analyses (Blossfeld 2009;Esteve et al. 2016). ...
... Recent studies have focused on intermarriage between partners with and without local hukou, as a kind of social exchange in marriage (Lui 2017). Other countries, especially racially-diverse ones such as Brazil, have emphasized the color (i.e., shades of black and brown) of racial and ethnic minority populations (Gullickson and Torche 2014). Other studies have compiled census records across many countries for comparative cross-national analyses (Blossfeld 2009;Esteve et al. 2016). ...
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Assortative mating provides an indicator of integration and fragmentation in modern societies, and of shifting social boundaries between groups. Assortative mating is expressed in both marital homogamy (likes marrying likes) and heterogamy, variously labeled exogamy, out-marriage, or intermarriage. The goal of this chapter is to demonstrate the great progress—both conceptually and methodologically—in studies of assortative mating over the past 25 years. It provides a forward-looking view of key research questions on assortative mating in rapidly globalizing societies and emerging data analytical problems that increasingly require new data, measurement frameworks, and statistical or empirical approaches. The rise of cross-cutting social circles in an increasingly globalized environment, in an age of the internet of growing interpersonal connectivity (i.e., social media), and on-going reductions in the constraints of space suggest new research questions that will create new opportunities for innovation and build on a rich theoretical and research tradition in family demography.
... However, due to expansion of education, particularly a gender-gap reversal in education, several studies have noted a decline in hypergamy and an increase in hypogamy, as well as projected increases in nonmarriage (Esteve et al. 2012;Ganguli et al. 2014;Kashyap, Esteve, and García-Román 2015;Piotrowski et al. 2016;Borkotoky and Gupta 2016). Heterogamy with respect to education is also observed as a means of exchanging educational status for racial status (Gullickson and Torche 2014). ...
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This chapter reviews the economics literature on marriage in developing countries. Marriage in these countries differ from marriage in high-income countries in several crucial ways, including the prevalence of marriage and cohabitation; the process of mate selection; customs concerning the transfer of resources between families at the time of marriage; the laws governing marital dissolution; and cultural norms about gender roles in spousal interactions. This chapter describes how marital matching occurs, the trends in age at marriage, assortative mating patterns, marriage payments, and spousal decision making after a marriage has occurred. Lastly, it discusses trends and rationales for consanguineous and polygamous marriages—practices that are largely unique to the developing world.
... International literature suggests that individuals tend to choose partners with levels of educational attainment similar to their own [199,200]. In our model, we specify a relative probability of selecting an individual as a sexual partner if their educational attainment is different from the individual's educational attainment (expressed as a fraction of the probability that would apply if the two individuals had the same educational attainment). ...
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Background: Although many mathematical models have been developed to simulate the likely effect of biomedical HIV interventions, there have been relatively few mathematical models that describe the social and structural drivers of HIV and the factors that account for heterogeneity in HIV risk within populations. This report provides a technical description of MicroCOSM, a model developed to address these issues in the South African context. Methods: MicroCOSM is an agent-based model, which assigns to each simulated individual a number of demographic characteristics (age, sex and race) and socio-economic characteristics (educational attainment, current schooling, urban-rural location, migrancy and incarceration history). These in turn influence individual access to and uptake of healthcare (condom preference, HIV testing, hormonal contraceptive use, male circumcision, antiretroviral treatment) and sexual behaviour (sexual preference, propensity for concurrent partners and commercial sex, marital status, number of partners). All of these factors affect health outcomes (fertility, mortality, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections), which in turn dynamically influence socio-economic status, healthcare access and sexual behaviour. Individuals are linked to partners in dynamic sexual networks. The model simulates the South African population over the period from 1985 to the present. Results: The model matches the observed levels of HIV prevalence in South Africa by age and sex, as well as the observed changes in HIV prevalence over time. The model also matches observed patterns of HIV prevalence by educational attainment, by urban-rural location and by history of recent migration. Estimates of HIV prevalence in key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men and prisoners) are roughly consistent with surveys. The model has also been calibrated to match total numbers of HIV tests and male circumcision operations performed in South Africa, as well as estimates of HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment coverage from other models. Conclusions: MicroCOSM is a fully-integrated model of the social, biomedical and behavioural factors that drive HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in South Africa. This work lays the foundation for a more quantitative approach to understanding which sub-populations are currently at the greatest HIV risk, and to assessing what interventions are needed to reduce socioeconomic and racial inequality in health outcomes.
... Scholars nevertheless agree that homogamy in terms of SES is high among black-white interracial couples. However, when the SES differs between partners, the evidence for status exchange (e.g., black husbands have higher SES than white wives) is strong (Choi and Tienda 2017b;Gullickson 2006;Gullickson and Torche 2014). ...
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Drawing on data from the American Community Survey, we compare patterns of assortative mating in first marriages, remarriages, and mixed-order marriages. We identify a number of ascribed and achieved characteristics that are viewed as resources available for exchange, both as complements and substitutes. We apply conditional logit models to show how patterns of assortative mating among never-married and previously married persons are subject to local marriage market opportunities and constraints. The results reveal that previously married individuals “cast a wider net”: spousal pairings are more heterogamous among remarriages than among first marriages. Marital heterogamy, however, is reflected in systematic evidence of trade-offs showing that marriage order (i.e., status of being never-married) is a valued trait for exchange. Never-married persons are better positioned than previously married persons to marry more attractive marital partners, variously measured (e.g., highly educated partners). Previously married persons—especially women—are disadvantaged in the marriage market, facing demographic shortages of potential partners to marry. Marriage market constraints take demographic expression in low remarriage rates and in heterogamous patterns of mate selection in which previously married partners often substitute other valued characteristics in marriage with never-married persons.
... Conversely, majority partners who accept minority mates are thought to be selected for characteristics inferior to their counterparts who partner within their group. These predictions have been supported by studies of marriage between black men and white women in the United States (Schoen and Wooldredge 1989;Kalmijn 1993;Bankston and Henry 1999;Qian and Lichter 2001) and interracial marriages in Brazil (Gullickson and Torche 2014). However, limited or no support for these predictions was found in studies of mixed marriages between whites and Asians (Schoen and Thomas 1989;Fu 2006Fu , 2008Liang and Ito 2008). ...
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BACKGROUND Ethnically mixed partnerships are often regarded as the ultimate evidence of the integration of migrants and their descendants into their host society. A common finding in the literature is an increase in the occurrence of mixed partnerships across migrant generations. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the formation of minority–majority partnerships in Estonia, with special attention to the variation associated with the migrants’ generation and their exposure to the majority population. METHODS The study uses pooled data from the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (FFS) and the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), and estimates proportional hazards models. RESULTS The experience of second-generation migrants indicates a stalling trend in the incidence of mixed partnerships between the majority population and migrant groups, which is rooted in contextual features. Apart from residential proximity, the study shows the salience of early acquisition of the host society language. Our results for the majority population highlight the role of international migration, which exposes host populations to mixed partnership formation. CONCLUSIONS The results lend support to the view that the integration of migrant populations through mixed partnering is a lengthy process that stretches across several generations. A linguistically divided school system and residential segregation contribute to the pillarization of society. CONTRIBUTION By focussing on an Eastern European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of mixed unions in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. Estonia provides an interesting case as its migrant-origin minorities span several generations. The study underscores the importance of contextual factors for both the minority and majority populations.
... Despite certain rebuttals (Hou and Myles 2013;Kalmijn and Van Tubergen 2006;Rosenfeld 2005), and polemics regarding the most appropriate method to capture empirical proof of these theoretical claims (Gullickson and Fu 2010;Kalmijn 2010;Rosenfeld 2010), multiple studies confirm status exchanges in marital unions in the U.S., specifically between Hispanics and whites (Fu 2001;Qian 1997), and between blacks and whites, particularly black men and white women (Fu 2001;Gullickson 2006;Kalmijn 1993;Qian 1997;Schoen and Cheng 2006;Schoen and Wooldredge 1989). There is also evidence for status exchange theory for black/ white intermarriage in Brazil (Gullickson and Torche 2014), immigrant men married to native women in the U.S. and partially in Australia (Choi et al. 2012), as well as immigrants married to natives in Italy (Guetto and Azzolini 2015;Maffioli et al. 2014) or Spain (Trilla et al. 2008). Based on both theoretical arguments and empirical proofs, we would expect that in Switzerland, similar to other national contexts, immigrants would be more likely to have a native rather than a same-origin spouse if they marry down on education (i. ...
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According to status-caste exchange theory, intermarriages involve transactions in which higher educated immigrants trade status for the ethnic advantage of the less-educated native partners. Looking at 2 836 currently married Swiss immigrants, we find that the highly skilled “exchange” their status only when pairing with a medium-educated native. Results also show that younger cohorts of immigrants are more likely to choose hypogamy when marrying a same-origin immigrant than when partnering a native.
... Although the sexual mixing parameter is defined to represent the extent of mixing between high-risk and low-risk groups, the model-fitting procedure may effectively be identifying mixing in relation to other dimensions of HIV risk (such as ethnicity and socioeconomic status). To the extent that individuals tend to be ethnically and socioeconomically homogamous, 46,47,48 one might expect to observe less sexual mixing in the provinces in which there is greater ethnic/ socioeconomic heterogeneity. This is important because mathematical models suggest that HIV epidemics develop differently depending on sexual mixing patterns: when there is little sexual mixing between high-risk and low-risk groups, HIV spreads more rapidly at first but levels off at a lower rate (Figure 4b), 49,50,51 and the greater degree of heterogeneity in HIV risk means that interventions have less of an impact on HIV incidence. ...
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Background HIV prevalence differs substantially between South Africa’s provinces, but the factors accounting for this difference are poorly understood. Objectives To estimate HIV prevalence and incidence trends by province, and to identify the epidemiological factors that account for most of the variation between provinces. Methods A mathematical model of the South African HIV epidemic was applied to each of the nine provinces, allowing for provincial differences in demography, sexual behaviour, male circumcision, interventions and epidemic timing. The model was calibrated to HIV prevalence data from antenatal and household surveys using a Bayesian approach. Parameters estimated for each province were substituted into the national model to assess sensitivity to provincial variations. Results HIV incidence in 15–49-year-olds peaked between 1997 and 2003 and has since declined steadily. By mid-2013, HIV prevalence in 15–49-year-olds varied between 9.4% (95% CI: 8.5%–10.2%) in Western Cape and 26.8% (95% CI: 25.8%–27.6%) in KwaZulu-Natal. When standardising parameters across provinces, this prevalence was sensitive to provincial differences in the prevalence of male circumcision (range 12.3%–21.4%) and the level of non-marital sexual activity (range 9.5%–24.1%), but not to provincial differences in condom use (range 17.7%–21.2%), sexual mixing (range 15.9%–19.2%), marriage (range 18.2%–19.4%) or assumed HIV prevalence in 1985 (range 17.0%–19.1%). Conclusion The provinces of South Africa differ in the timing and magnitude of their HIV epidemics. Most of the heterogeneity in HIV prevalence between South Africa’s provinces is attributable to differences in the prevalence of male circumcision and the frequency of non-marital sexual activity.
... Más allá del nivel de homogamia, también los regímenes matrimoniales pueden diferir según las características que predominan en la selección de parejas. En América Latina, los estudios sobre homogamia han analizado el emparejamiento en función de la educación (Pullum y Peri, 1999;Esteve, 2005;Esteve y McCaa, 2007;Solís, Pullum y Bratter, 2007;López Ruiz, Esteve y Cabré, 2009;Torche, 2007;, la pertenencia étnica o raza (López Ruiz, Esteve y Cabré, 2008;Costa Ribeiro, 2009;Gullickson y Torche, 2014), la religión (Peri y Pardo, 2011) y la ocupación (Gómez Rojas, 2008;Solís, 2010), entre otras características. Estos rasgos podrían dividirse en dos grupos. ...
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El objetivo de esta nota de investigación es discutir la importancia teórica y empírica del análisis del proceso de selección de la pareja desde una perspectiva de estratificación y desigualdad social, así como presentar la estrategia metodológica de una propuesta de investigación comparativa que busca analizar ese proceso en las ciudades de Buenos Aires y México, y que constituye mi proyecto de investigación doctoral. En relación con el objetivo propuesto la nota se organiza en tres apartados. En la siguiente sección discutimos el andamiaje teórico que sustenta nuestro estudio. Posteriormente, reseñamos algunos resultados de investigaciones previas realizadas en América Latina. Y por último, delineamos los principales componentes de nuestra agenda de investigación.
... Therefore, attention focuses on less common, high-profile news stories of aggressive, overtly race-based incidents. 2 Still, discrimination occurs even in the most intimate relationships: in choices of sexual partners and mates; in preferences shown to lighter-skinned over darker-skinned children (Goldstein 1999;Gullickson and Torche 2014;Hordge-Freeman 2013Osuji 2014). ...
Article
Observers have long noted Brazil's distinctive racial politics: the coexistence of relatively integrated race relations and a national ideology of “racial democracy” with deep social inequalities along color lines. Those defending a vision of a nonracist Brazil attribute such inequalities to mechanisms perpetuating class distinctions. This article examines how members of disadvantaged groups perceive their disadvantage and what determines self-reports of discriminatory experiences, using 2010 AmericasBarometer data. About a third of respondents reported experiencing discrimination. Consistent with Brazilian national myths, respondents were much more likely to report discrimination due to their class than to their race. Nonetheless, the respondent's skin color, as coded by the interviewer, was a strong determinant of reporting class as well as race and gender discrimination. Race is more strongly associated with perceived “class” discrimination than is household wealth, education, or region of residence; female gender intensifies the association between color and discrimination.
... In light of the rising female advantage in education, status exchange theory in the intermarriage literature provides a theoretical basis to understand how individuals avoid status reversal in marriage via assortative mating (e.g., Davis, 1941;Gullickson, 2006;Gullickson & Fu, 2010;Gullickson & Torche, 2014;Merton, 1941). Status exchange theory shares the assumption underlying the economic model of marriage (Becker, 1981) that individuals make rational marriage decisions and marry only if the utility of marriage exceeds the utility of remaining single. ...
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The reversal of the gender gap in education has reshaped the U.S. marriage market. Drawing on data from the 1980 U.S. Census and the 2008?2012 American Community Surveys, the author used log-linear models to examine gender asymmetry in educational and income assortative mating among newlyweds. Between 1980 and 2008?2012, educational assortative mating reversed from a tendency for women to marry up to a tendency for women to marry down in education, whereas the tendency for women to marry men with higher incomes than themselves persisted. Moreover, in both time periods, the tendency for women to marry up in income was generally greater among couples in which the wife's education level equaled or surpassed that of the husband than among couples in which the wife was less educated than the husband. The author discusses the implications of the rising female advantage in education for gender change in heterosexual marriages.
... Conversely, majority partners who accept minority mates are thought to be selected for characteristics inferior to their counterparts who partner within their group. These predictions have been supported by studies of marriage between black men and white women in the US (Schoen and Wooldredge 1989;Kalmijn 1993;Bankston and Henry 1999;Qian and Lichter 2001) and interracial marriages in Brazil (Gullickson and Torche 2014). However, limited or no support for these predictions was found in studies of mixed marriages between whites and Asians (Schoen and Thomas 1989;Fu 2006;Liang and Ito 2008). ...
... For example, people may exchange advantaged race in the marriage market for education in a way that more educated people CHINESE SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 37 in a disadvantaged racial group marry those less educated from an advantaged racial group. Empirical evidence also finds such exchange reflected as negative assortative mating in those interracial and international marriages (e.g., Alba and Golden 1986;Qian and Lichter 2001;Gullickson and Torche 2014). ...
Article
This article documents trends in educational assortative mating using samples of the 1981 to 2011 Hong Kong population censuses/by-censuses, with a particular focus on specific education groups and the Hong Kong-mainland China cross-border marriages. Results show an overall declining trend in educational assortative mating, which is driven mostly by the great increase of intermarriage between those with associate qualifications and those with lower secondary or less levels of education. Growing number of cross-border marriages is also accompanied by the substantive decline in educational homogamy for women from mainland China in recent years. It implies that immigrants from mainland China are more likely to exchange education for the Hong Kong permanent residency by marrying spouses with less education in Hong Kong in later periods. These findings suggest that a general declining trend in educational assortative mating does not necessarily indicate an increased openness of a society.
Article
What roles do racial social distance and individual identity play in determining intermarriage among Black and White individuals in the U.S. military? This research uses interracial marriage as a measure of social distance and hypothesizes that the military lessens the social distance between White and Black individuals. More specifically, this article examines the relative education levels of Black and White married individuals in the military to test theories of market and dyadic exchange using the 2015–2019 American Community Survey (ACS) data. Evidence of weaker racial group boundaries is found for Black male and White female pairings where at least one spouse is in the military. There is also evidence of stronger own race preferences among Black women in the military.
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Existing research on assortative mating has examined marriage between people with different levels of education, yet heterogeneity in educational assortative mating outcomes of college graduates has been mostly ignored. Using data from the 2010 Chinese Family Panel Study and log-multiplicative models, this study examines the changing structure and association of husbands' and wives' educational attainment between 1980 and 2010, a period in which Chinese higher education experienced rapid expansion and stratification. Results show that the graduates of first-tier institutions are less likely than graduates of lower-ranked colleges to marry someone without a college degree. Moreover, from 1980 to 2010, female first-tier-college graduates were increasingly more likely to marry people who graduated from similarly prestigious colleges, although there is insufficient evidence to draw the same conclusion about their male counterparts. This study thus demonstrates the extent of heterogeneity in educational assortative mating patterns among college graduates and the tendency for elite college graduates to marry within the educational elite.
Article
The authors propose a new methodological framework for studying status exchange in marriage. As shown in recent debates on status-race or status-beauty exchange, the conventional log-linear modeling approach is prone to controversial specifications and alternative interpretations. This study develops a simple method—the exchange index (EI)—with cohort- and gender-specific relative status measures, statistical distribution balancing, and nonparametric matching. While allowing for multiple covariate controls, the EI measures the average difference in spouse’s status between intermarriages and matched in-group marriages. To demonstrate the new framework, two analytical examples of status-race and status-age exchange, based on the IPUMS 2000 U.S. Census 5% microdata sample, are used. To verify the new method, replication and simulation studies are also conducted. This approach reduces model dependency, improves flexibility to account for confounders, allows for examination of heterogeneous patterns, speaks to fundamental concepts in status exchange theory, and takes advantage of increasingly available large-scale microdata.
Thesis
Das Promotionsprojekt untersucht inwieweit sich der (regionale) Partnermarkt auf das Zustandekommen von homogamen oder heterogamen Paarbeziehungen auswirkt. Es soll dazu beitragen, den Einfluss der Gelegenheitsstruktur auf homogame Partnerwahl mithilfe von räumlich und inhaltlich angemessenen Indikatoren zu analysieren. Die Grundlage hierfür bilden Partnermarktindikatoren, die im Zuge des DFG-Projektes „Die makrostrukturellen Rahmenbedingungen des Partnermarkts im Längsschnitt“ entwickelt wurden und welche eine differenzierte Analyse der Partnermarktaspekte Konkurrenz, Verfügbarkeit, Transparenz und Effizienz auf der Ebene von Landkreisen und kreisfreien Städten in Deutschland ermöglichen.
Chapter
In this chapter we look at patterns and trends transnational marriage among British Pakistani Muslims and British Indian Sikhs, explore attitudes towards transnational marriage and look at how participants own marriages came about. Labour Force Survey data shows a clear downward trend in the popularity of transnational marriage. They also show transnational marriage is less common among those with higher education. We explore the possibility that the opportunity for migration might be ‘exchanged’ for educational capital so that transnational marriage could provide British South Asians access to more educated partners in India or Pakistan. The LFS figures show that educational homogamy (spouses having the same level of education) is the dominant pattern in both transnational and intranational marriages. We nevertheless find evidence of educational selectivity in transnational marriages, with migrant spouses’ educational profiles comparing very favourably to those in the origin countries. The qualitative data from the MMI study shows that educational similarity constitutes just one aspect of understandings of compatibility which make transnational marriage attractive for some, and undesirable for others. Family considerations, such as care for parents as they age, and for British Pakistanis the possibility of marriage between cousins, also appear in these accounts, alongside the opportunities to meet marriage partners presented by the transnational social field.
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Unique longitudinal measures from Nepal allow us to link both mothers' and fathers' reports of their marital relationships with a subsequent long-term record of their children's behaviors. We focus on children's educational attainment and marriage timing because these two dimensions of the transition to adulthood have wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences. We find that children whose parents report strong marital affection and less spousal conflict attain higher levels of education and marry later than children whose parents do not. Furthermore, these findings are independent of each other and of multiple factors known to influence children's educational attainment and marriage timing. These intriguing results support theories pointing toward the long-term intergenerational consequences of variations in multiple dimensions of parents' marriages.
Article
As more and more people move across borders, marriage is becoming an increasingly global affair. Yet cross-national marriage (CNM) migration has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. The present study examines the characteristics and marital stability of unions between U.S. nationals and their foreign-born (FB) spouses residing in the United States. Two data sources were used in the analysis—the American Community Survey (ACS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our results indicated that, after controlling for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background and marital history, marriages between U.S. nationals and their FB spouses who entered the United States as adults were less stable than unions between two native-born (NB) spouses. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Asian and Hispanic U.S. nationals were more prone to marry FB spouses. We also found that husband NB–wife FB marriages seemed to fare better than wife NB–husband FB types.
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In this research note, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to determine whether darker skin tone predicts hypertension among siblings using a family fixed-effects analytic strategy. We find that even after we account for common family background and home environment, body mass index, age, sex, and outdoor activity, darker skin color significantly predicts hypertension incidence among siblings. In a supplementary analysis using newly released genetic data from Add Health, we find no evidence that our results are biased by genetic pleiotropy, whereby differences in alleles among siblings relate to coloration and directly to cardiovascular health simultaneously. These results add to the extant evidence on color biases that are distinct from those based on race alone and that will likely only heighten in importance in an increasingly multiracial environment as categorization becomes more complex. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s13524-018-0756-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Article
In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely on an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men’s and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large.
Article
Most studies on intermarriage between groups rely on the prevalence of intermarriage to assess social boundaries. Yet the characteristics underlying the intermarriage pairings are seldom examined. In this study, I analyze intermarriage across hukou, China’s household registration status of designating people as “rural” or “urban” categories based on parents’ place of origin. Using Chinese General Social Surveys, I show that the intermarriage pairings do not follow the patterns of endogamous marriage across three marriage cohorts. Rather, intermarriages build on group inequalities based on hukou in which urban hukou holders are able to marry more educated rural spouses because of their urban status advantage even after controlling for the general likelihood of intermarriage, educational homogamy, and marginal differences in education between rural and urban hukou holders. However, such a status exchange relationship has weakened in the recent marriage cohort, implying a gradual blurring of hukou boundaries.
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Previous studies on ethnic intermarriage have been done mainly in the United States and in other classical immigration countries. This article examines ethnic intermarriage among Surinamese, Dutch Antilleans, Turks, and Moroccans in the Netherlands. From a theoretical and empirical perspective, it is important to examine whether patterns observed earlier in traditional immigrant countries equally apply to the Dutch context. To obtain a sufficiently large sample, this study pools five nationally representative surveys, conducted in the period 1988–2002. In line with findings documented before, it observes that ethnic exogamy occurs more frequently among the second generation, and among those who arrived at a younger age, and who are higher educated. Equally corresponding to previous work, the study reports that ethnic intermarriage is more frequent when the group-specific sex ratio is more uneven and when the ethnic group is predominantly second generation. Contrary to findings observed elsewhere, results show that the black Surinamese and Dutch Antilleans have high intermarriage rates and that there is little evidence for status exchange in mixed marriages.
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The status-caste exchange thesis has been a theoretical workhorse for the study of racial intermarriage in the United States since its introduction in the 1940s, and has enjoyed a revival in recent decades. Some recent studies, however, challenge this view. We test the thesis with multinomial logit regression using data on black-white marriages in the US and Canada. We find modest support for the theory in the US but not in Canada. In the US, white women married to African American men are somewhat more likely to marry up on education than white women in same-race marriages, but the same pattern is not observed when the intermarriage involves Caribbean blacks and whites. These statistically significant tendencies, however, reflect rather modest differences in the proportion of couples in interracial marriages with different educational levels compared to those found among same-race couples.
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Status exchange theory has long held a central position in the study of interracial marriage between blacks and whites. Originally proposed by both Merton (1941) and Davis (1941) indepen- dently, status exchange theory predicts that interracial unions between blacks and whites will often involve an exchange of racial status for some other status characteristic, generally operationalized in research as education. Because whites may see marrying across racial lines as marrying "down- ward", they must be compensated by marrying up on some other dimension. Therefore, status exchange theory predicts that whites in interracial marriages will be more upwardly mobile (hy- pergamous) and less downwardly mobile (hypogamous) in terms of education than if they were in a racially endogamous marriage. The opposite would be true for blacks in an interracial marriage.
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Many scholars advocate the adoption of a black-and-white lens for the analysis of racial inequality in Brazil. Drawing on a nationally representative dataset that includes race questions in multiple formats, we evaluate how removal of the ‘brown’ category from the census or other social surveys would likely affect: (1) the descriptive picture of Brazil's racial composition; and (2) estimates of income inequality between and within racial categories. We find that a forced binary question format results in a whiter and more racially unequal picture of Brazil through the movement of many higher income mixed-race respondents into the white category. We also find that regardless of question format, racial inequality in income accounts for relatively little of Brazil's overall income inequality. We discuss implications for public policy debates in Brazil, and for the broader scientific and political challenges of ethnic and racial data collection and analysis.
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This article compares marriage patterns by race, education and religion in the United States during the 20th century, using a variety of data sources. The comparative approach allows several general conclusions. First, racial endogamy has declined sharply over the 20th century, but race is still the most powerful division in the marriage market. Second, higher education has little effect on racial endogamy for blacks and whites. Third, the division between Jews and Christians is still strong, but the division between Catholics and Protestants in the marriage market has been relatively weak since the early 1900s. Fourth, educational endogamy has been relatively stable over time.
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This article compares the gap in socioeconomic well‐being between native‐born white persons and Black Caribbean immigrants in four nations: the USA, the UK, Canada and France. Theoretical considerations suggest that the gap will be smallest in France, followed by the USA. The data come from recent censuses and labour market surveys. Four labour market outcomes are considered: labour force participation, unemployment, occupational status and earnings. Each outcome is analysed using multi‐variate models which are estimated separately by gender and nation. A comparison of the size of the inter‐racial gap within genders and across nations reveals a pattern of cross‐national similarity, other things equal. The article's conclusion considers some reasons why the empirical analysis failed to support theoretical expectations. It appears that these reasons have as much to do with the shortcomings of cross‐national methodology as with the shortcomings of social science theory.
Although black/white intermarriage was a prominent indicator of race relations in the 1960s and early 1970s, the topic seems to have been low on the academic agenda during the 1980s. Many studies are currently being on done on black/white differences in income, employment, education, and residence, but there is insufficient recent information on intermarriage. To fill in this gap, I examine annual marriage license data for 33 states from 1968 to 1986 to assess how the role of the black/white color line in marriage choice has changed. The analyses generally show that black/white intermarriage has increased rapidly since the U.S. Supreme Court lifted the legal ban on intermarriage. I further show that this trend is especially pronounced among black males and that the status characteristics of these marriages have remained traditional in the sense that intermarriage still occurs primarily when the white woman marries up in socioeconomic status. In my conclusion, I offer several interpretations of why the link between status and interracial marriage persists, and discuss what this implies for the nature of racial differentiation in contemporary American society.
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Status-caste exchange theory predicts that in interracial marriages one partner's socioeconomic status is exchanged for the other's racial caste status. The author examines the contradictory literature on the theory specifically in relation to black-white intermarriage and offers three explanations for the divergent findings. First, black- white inequality has obscured the actual status homogamy typifying intermarriage. Second, gender differences among young couples have been mistaken for racially specific patterns of exchange. Third, the empirical findings that appear to support status-caste exchange are not robust. The author's conclusions favor the simplest tabular analyses, which cast doubt on status-caste exchange theory.
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In this article, US and UK census data are used to compare the propensity for matches between blacks and native born whites in England and the US. Blacks are disaggregated into three ethnic groups: Black Caribbeans, Residual Blacks and, in the US, African Americans. The first group receives the most theoretical attention. Both raw percentages and parameters that control for several covariates - such as age, education and city of residence - are examined. The results indicate that, with or without controls and irrespective of ethnicity, blacks in Britain are significantly more likely to have a native born white partner than their US counterparts. These findings accord with assimilation theory, but the article's conclusion suggests that, in both countries, the assimilation of people of African descent operates differently from the assimilation of whites.
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This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admission regimes place different emphases on skills. Using log-linear methods, we demonstrate that foreign-born spouses trade educational credentials via marriage with natives in both Australian and U.S. marriage markets and, moreover, that nativity is a more salient marriage barrier for men than for women. With some exceptions, immigrant spouses in mixed nativity couples are better educated than native spouses in same nativity couples, but status exchange is more prevalent among the less-educated spouses in both countries. Support for the status exchange hypothesis is somewhat weaker in Australia partly because of lower average levels of education compared with the United States and partly because of less sharply defined educational hierarchy at the postsecondary level.
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Quantitative analyses of racial disparities typically rely on a single categorical measure to operationalize race. We demonstrate the value of an approach that compares results obtained using various measures of race. Using a national probability sample of the Brazilian population that captured race in six formats, we first show how the racial composition of Brazil can shift from majority white to majority black depending on the classification scheme. In addition, using quantile regression, we find that racial disparities are most severe at the upper end of the income distribution; that racial disparities in earnings are larger when race is defined by interviewers rather than self-identified; and that those classified as "black" suffer a greater wage penalty than those classified as "brown." Our findings extend prior conclusions about racial inequality in Brazil. More generally, our analysis demonstrates that comparison of results across measures represents a neglected source of analytic leverage for advancing empirical knowledge and theoretical understanding of how race, as a multidimensional social construct, contributes to the production of social inequality.
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In this article I argue that the bi-racial order (white vs non-white) typical of the United States is undergoing a profound transformation. Because of drastic changes in the demography of the nation as well as changes in the racial structure of the world-system, the United States is developing a complex, Latin America-like racial order. Specifically, I suggest that the new order will have two central features: three loosely organized racial strata (white, honorary white, and the collective black) and a pigmentocratic logic. I examine some objective, subjective, and social interaction indicators to assess if the Latin Americanization thesis holds some water. Although more refined data are needed to conclusively make my case, the available indicators support my thesis. I conclude this article by outlining some of the potential implications of Latin Americanization for the future of race relations in the United States.
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The contemporary retreat from marriage in the United States has had a differential impact across socioeconomic and racial groups. Here, 1990 marriage rates and propensities for Virginia, North Carolina, and Wisconsin are analyzed regarding (a) the likelihood that persons in different groups ever marry and (b) patterns of partner choice with respect to race and educational level. Marriage remains strong in most race-education groups but is substantially lower among Blacks and among those with less than 12 years of education. Patterns of partner choice have shifted to show greater symmetry between the educational levels of brides and grooms. Changes have been modest with regard to the level and pattern of interracial (Black-White) marriage. Marriage is increasingly a union of equals, but a union chosen more by Whites than by Blacks and more by the well educated than by the poorly educated.
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The claim that marriage is a venue for status exchange of achieved traits, like education, and ascribed attributes, notably race and ethnic membership, has regained traction in the social stratification literature. Most studies that consider status exchanges ignore birthplace as a social boundary for status exchanges via couple formation. This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admission regimes place different emphases on skills. A log-linear analysis reveals evidence of status exchange in the United States among immigrants with lower levels of education and mixed nativity couples with foreign-born husbands. Partly because Australian educational boundaries are less sharply demarcated at the postsecondary level, we find is weaker evidence for the status exchange hypothesis. Australian status exchanges across nativity boundaries usually involve marriages between immigrant spouses with a postsecondary credential below a college degree and native-born high school graduates.
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In this article, we examine a large, interdisciplinary, and somewhat scattered literature, all of which falls under the umbrella term race mixture. We highlight important analytical distinctions that need to be taken into account when addressing the related, but separate, social phenomena of intermarriage, miscegenation, multiracial identity, multiracial social movements, and race-mixture ideologies. In doing so, we stress a social constructivist approach to race mixture with a focus on boundary crossing. Finally, we also demonstrate how ideologies and practices of race mixture play out quite differently in contexts outside of the United States, particularly in Latin America. Race-mixture ideologies and practices in Latin America have been used to maintain racial inequality in the region, thus challenging recent arguments by U.S. scholars that greater racial mixture leads to a decline in racism, discrimination, and inequality.