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Genus revisions and new combination of some North European polypores

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E. 2005: Genus revi-sions and new combinations of some North European polypores. – Karstenia 45: 75–80. ISSN 0453-3402. Two new genera of polypores (Basidiomycota) are described, Erastia Niemelä & Kin-nunen, and Rhodonia Niemelä & K.H. Larsson. The following new combinations are presented: Antrodiella canadensis (Overh.) Niemelä, Erastia salmonicolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Niemelä & Kinnunen, Oligoporus balsaminus (Niemelä & Y.C. Dai) Niemelä, Oligoporus immitis (Peck) Niemelä, Oligoporus persicinus (Niemelä & Y.C. Dai) Niemelä, Porodaedalea laricis (Jacz. ex Pilát) Niemelä, and Rhodonia placenta (Fr.) Niemelä, K.H. Larsson & Schigel. Porodaedalea niemelaei M. Fischer is consid-ered to be synonymous with P. laricis, and Sarcoporia polyspora P. Karst. was found to be an older name for the species commonly known as Parmastomyces transmutans (Overh.) Ryvarden & Gilb. or P. mollissimus (Maire) Pouzar.
Karstenia 45: 75–80, 2005
Genus revisions and new combinations of some
North European polypores
Niemelä, T., Kinnunen, J., Larsson, K.H., Schigel, D.S. & Larsson, E. 2005: Genus revi-
sions and new combinations of some North European polypores. – Karstenia 45: 75–80.
ISSN 0453-3402.
Two new genera of polypores (Basidiomycota) are described, Erastia Niemelä & Kin-
nunen, and Rhodonia Niemelä & K.H. Larsson. The following new combinations are
presented: Antrodiella canadensis (Overh.) Niemelä, Erastia salmonicolor (Berk.
& M.A. Curtis) Niemelä & Kinnunen, Oligoporus balsaminus (Niemelä & Y.C. Dai)
Niemelä, Oligoporus immitis (Peck) Niemelä, Oligoporus persicinus (Niemelä & Y.C.
Dai) Niemelä, Porodaedalea laricis (Jacz. ex Pilát) Niemelä, and Rhodonia placenta
(Fr.) Niemelä, K.H. Larsson & Schigel. Porodaedalea niemelaei M. Fischer is consid-
ered to be synonymous with P. laricis, and Sarcoporia polyspora P. Karst. was found
to be an older name for the species commonly known as Parmastomyces transmutans
(Overh.) Ryvarden & Gilb. or P. mollissimus (Maire) Pouzar.
Key words: Basidiomycota, Antrodiella, Erastia, Parmastomyces, Phellinus, Porodae-
dalea, Rhodonia, Sarcoporia, polypore, taxonomy
Tuomo Niemelä, Juha Kinnunen and Dmitry S. Schigel, Botanical Museum, Finnish Mu-
seum of Natural History, P.O. Box 7, FI–00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Karl-Henrik Larsson and Ellen Larsson, Botanical Institute, Göteborg University, P.O.
Box 461, SE–40530 Göteborg, Sweden
In this paper two genera are described and new
combinations are made in order to make these
names available for a forthcoming book on Finn-
ish polypores (Niemelä 2005).
Materials and methods
The authors’ names of this paper are abbreviated as TN,
JK, KHL, DSS and EL, respectively.
Some of the results derive from our literature and her-
barium studies, but a considerable part has accumulated
during the preparation of a phylogenetic analysis of the
generic complex Postia/Oligoporus. In that study KHL
and EL sequenced and analyzed a large set of species and
specimens mostly provided by TN, JK and DSS. That ex-
tensive phylogenetic revision will be fully presented and
discussed in another, forthcoming paper.
Antrodiella canadensis (Overh.) Niemelä,
comb. nova
[Polyporus canadensis Overh., Mycologia 33:97,
1941, nomen inval.]
Basionym: Polyporus canadensis Overh.
in Lowe, Mycotaxon 2:45, 1975. – Holotype:
Polyporus canadensis sp. nov., Ottawa, Dow’s
Swamp, on spruce stump, 16.IX.1933 J.W.
Groves 16860’ (PAC, studied).
There has been some controversy on the va-
lidity of the description of this species. Ryvarden
and Gilbertson (1984) considered that in the ar-
ticle in Mycotaxon 2:44–45 Lowe described the
species twice in different genera (Polyporus, Ty-
romyces), which would be against the Code, and
76 KARSTENIA 45 (2005)
hence a nomen novum Antrodiella overholtsii
Ryvarden & Gilb. was created. Niemelä (1985)
accepted the publication of Polyporus canaden-
sis as valid and legitimate, because Overholts
was explicitly given as its author and Overholts’
description was separated into a footnote apart
from Lowe’s running text.
After reconsidering the case TN came to the
conclusion that the validating description in Lowe
(1975) is an authentic, posthumously printed text
by Overholts with original wording, and should
be accepted as such. This accords with the inter-
pretation in Index of Fungi 5(9): 360, 1985 (“L.
O. Overholts apud Lowe”). A discussion on this
matter with Dr. Teuvo Ahti (Helsinki) is grate-
fully acknowledged.
Niemelä (1985) kept this species in the het-
erogeneous genus Tyromyces. Johannesson et
al. (2000) compared it and several Antrodiella
species with ribosomal DNA sequences, and
showed that they make a natural, monophyletic
clade, thus supporting the idea of Ryvarden and
Gilbertson (1984) that this is a member of Antro-
diella. Hence the new combination is made here;
TN thanks P. Renvall (Kuopio, Finland), the sec-
ond author of the Johannesson et al. (2000) pa-
per, for discussions concerning Antrodiella and
this species.
Erastia Niemelä & Kinnunen, genus novum
Carpophorus annuus, effusus, poroideus, succu-
lentus, salmonicolor. Systema hypharum mono-
miticum, hyphae tenuitunicatae, bulatae. Spo-
rae ellipsoideae.
Type: Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. & M.A.
Etymology: Dedicated to Prof. Erast Parmasto
(Tartu, Estonia), the eminent researcher of fungal
taxonomy and cladistics.
Basidiocarp annual, effused, poroid, soft juicy,
pale salmon coloured, when dry discoloured but
not turning dark purple-red in bruised parts or
elsewhere. KOH reaction almost nil at pore sur-
face, or light cherry red in ochraceous-coloured
mycelium of basidiocarp margins and subiculum.
Hyphal system monomitic, hyphae thin-walled,
with clamp connections, weakly amyloid in tube
trama, acyanophilous. Brown oily matter abun-
dant in between the hyphae. Spores thin-walled,
ellipsoid, negative in both Melzer’s reagent and
Cotton Blue, ca. 4–5.7 × 2.5–2.9 µm in type spe-
cies, with one prominent oil-guttule.
Erastia salmonicolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis)
Niemelä & Kinnunen, comb. nova
Basionym: Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. &
M.A. Curtis, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc.
1:104, 1849. Type: ‘Pol. salmonicolor Berk. &
Curt. 1527, [U.S.A., South Carolina, Berkely
Co.,] Santee River, H.W. Ravenel’ (K, studied by
Ryvarden 1977).
This species was illustrated in colour in Bern-
icchia (2005:665, at least the upper photograph),
and it and Hapalopilus aurantiacus will be il-
lustrated by Niemelä (2005). These two species,
and H. ochraceolateritius Bondartsev, have been
misunderstood in most modern papers. Pouzar
(1967) analysed the protologues of aurantiacus
and salmonicolor and concluded that they cannot
mean the same species. Donk (1967) discussed
the identities and typi cations of these names,
without giving any clear answer.
In our opinion Hapalopilus aurantiacus, H.
ochraceolateritius and Erastia salmonicolor are
three well-de ned species. The best differentiat-
ing characters are listed in Table 1. At least in
North Europe the rst one is the commonest, the
others extremely rare. They all grow on conifer-
ous trees.
Ko et al. (2001) studied phylogenetic re-
lationships among the Hapalopilus complex.
They found that ‘Hapalopilus’ salmonicolor is in
fact alien to the genus, while H. rutilans and H.
croceus are closely related. They proposed sal-
monicolor to be included in the genus Sarcopo-
ria, as was already done by Teixeira (1986). Be-
low we will show that this is unacceptable, and
hence the new genus Erastia was described.
Hapalopilus ochraceolateritius was rst de-
scribed by Karsten (1887) as Physisporus auran-
tiacus var. saloisensis P. Karst. That name was
never validly transferred to species rank, and
Bondartsev (1940) eventually described it as a
species. Domański (1965) was one of the few
who adopted Bondartsev’s idea and clearly knew
the species.
Sarcoporia polyspora P. Karst.
Another misinterpretation was found while
studying Karsten’s type materials addressed to
the Hapalopilus / Erastia complex. Lowe (1956)
considered the type of Sarcoporia polyspora P.
Karst. to be conspeci c with Physisporus au-
rantiacus var. saloisensis P. Karst., i.e. what is
here called Hapalopilus ochraceolateritius. That
view has been followed ever since. The holotype
of Sarcoporia polyspora is deposited in Herb. H
(Helsinki); although small and blackened, the
specimen is good for microscopy. Hyphal struc-
ture is monomitic, with clamps and plenty of
oily droplets in between the hyphae. The speci-
men is abundantly fertile (polyspora!), spores
being slightly thick-walled, ellipsoid with obtuse
ends, dextrinoid and very strongly cyanophilous,
(4.5–)4.6–6.1(–6.5) × (2.6–)2.7–3.3(–3.4) µm,
L=5.34 µm, W=2.99 µm, Q=1.79 (n=30/1). It is
certainly the same species as what is nowadays
known as Parmastomyces transmutans (Overh.)
Ryvarden & Gilb. (holotype Overholts 22971,
PAC, studied) or P. mollissimus (Maire) Pouzar,
and much older than these two names. As this is
the type of both the genus and the species, the
widely used epithets under Parmastomyces must
be abandoned. The genus name Sarcoporia ts
very well for the species, because the basidio-
carp attains esh-reddish tints in the course of its
growth and if bruised. The specimens are always
very rich in spores.
Oligoporus balsaminus (Niemelä & Y.C. Dai)
Niemelä, comb. nova
Basionym: Postia balsamina Niemelä & Y.C.
Dai, Karstenia 44:68, 2004. Holotype: Finland,
Kittilän Lappi, Kolari, Picea abies, 31.VIII.1999
Niemelä 6601 & Dai (H).
Phylogenetic analysis carried out by KHL
and EL from Finnish materials of the Postia/
Oligoporus complex and related genera revealed
the heterogeneous nature of this group. Prelimi-
nary results show that thick-spored species make
up a clade around Oligoporus rennyi (Berk. &
Broome) Donk, type of Oligoporus. Most of the
narrow-spored species are closely related to Pos-
Table 1. Comparison of Erastia salmonicolor, Hapalopilus aurantiacus and H. ochraceolateritius.
Character E. salmonicolor H. aurantiacus H. ochraceolateritius
Pores per mm 1–2 (1–)2–3 (3–)4–6
Fresh colour salmon or pinkish orange-yellow or brick or terracotta
Dry colour dirty pale brownish dark ochraceous, or dark brick, or black with
purple reddish blood-red tint
Bruised parts (dry) almost unchanged reddish black reddish black
KOH almost unchanged, or dark blood red dark blood red
light cherry red in
subiculum and margin
Spore shape ellipsoid thick cylindric narrow cylindric
Spore size (average) 4–4.7 × 2.5–2.9 µm 4.9–6 × 2.2–2.6 µm 4.3–5.2 × 1.8–2.1 µm
L=4.3 µm, W=2.7 µm, L=5.4 µm, W=2.4 µm, L=4.7 µm, W=2.0 µm,
Q=1.6 Q=2.2 Q=2.4
Host in N Europe pine pine or spruce pine or spruce
78 KARSTENIA 45 (2005)
tia lactea (Fr.) P. Karst., type of the genus Postia.
For this reason this combination was made, as
well as the two below.
Oligoporus balsaminus is a northerly species,
growing on spruce in old-growth forests. In the
microscope it resembles O. balsameus (Peck)
Gilb. & Ryvarden, but spores of O. balsaminus
are slightly larger, basidiocarps are predomi-
nantly effused, with larger pores and gelatinous
subiculum. During drying the specimens of O.
balsaminus shrink and become brittle, while O.
balsameus becomes hard or chalky and keeps its
shape fairly well.
Oligoporus immitis (Peck) Niemelä,
comb. nova
Basionym: Polyporus immitis Peck, New York
State Mus. Nat. Hist. 35:135, 1884.
While studying O. stipticus (Pers. : Fr.) Gilb.
& Ryvarden and O. guttulatus (Peck) Gilb. &
Ryvarden, still another species was detected in
this group of fungi. The main differences are
shown in Table 2. According to the proposal of
W. Spirin (St.Petersburg, Russia), this name was
accepted for the taxon; usually it is listed as one
of the many synonyms of O. stipticus. Another
possible name would be Tyromyces tiliophilus
Murrill (Murrill 1907, cf. Ryvarden 1985:196),
and further studies are needed to solve the tax-
onomy and nomenclature of this taxon.
Oligoporus persicinus (Niemelä & Y.C. Dai)
Niemelä, comb. nova
Basionym: Postia persicina Niemelä & Y.C. Dai,
Karstenia 44:74, 2004. Holotype: Finland, Kit-
tilän Lappi, Kolari, Picea abies, 17.VIII.1999
Niemelä 6453 & Dai (H).
Porodaedalea laricis (Jacz. ex Pilát) Niemelä,
comb. nova
[Xanthochrous pini (Brot.) Pat. subsp. abietis
(P. Karst.) Bourdot & Galzin var. laricis Jacz.
ex Pilát, Bull. Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France
48:28, 1933 (‘1932’), nomen nudum.]
Table 2. Comparison of Oligoporus stipticus, O. guttulatus and O. immitis.
Character O. stipticus O. guttulatus O. immitis
Pores per mm 4–5(–6) 5–6(–7) 4–5
Upper surface fresh/dry white/citric yellow cream + tan zones/ white/white with tan
ochraceous yellow ecks
Pore surface fresh/dry white/citric yellow greenish white/yellowish or white/dark brownish
greyish cream cream
Dry context & tubes hard soft chalky soft chalky
Taste bitter, peppery sour sour
Context hyphae both the straight straight ‘conductive’ hyphae straight ‘conductive’ hyphae
‘conductive’, and thick-walled, interwoven and thick-walled, interwoven
interwoven narrow narrow hyphae thin-walled and narrow hyphae thin-
hyphae thick-walled walled
Spores (average) 4–5.1 × 1.9–2.4 µm, 3.5–4.9 × 2.2–2.6 µm, 3.9–4.5 × 1.9–2.1 µm,
L=4.5 µm, W=2.1 µm, L=4.1 µm, W=2.4 µm, L=4.1 µm, W=2.0 µm,
Q=2.0–2.2 Q=1.7–1.8 Q=2.1
Host in N Europe coniferous trees coniferous trees deciduous trees (Betula,
(mostly Picea) (mostly Picea) Quercus, Juglans etc.)
Basionym: Xanthochrous pini (Brot.) Pat.
f. laricis Jacz. ex Pilát, Bull. Trimestriel Soc.
Mycol. France 49:272, 1934 (‘1933’). Holotype
(the only specimen listed): “Ad truncos Laricis
sibiricae in Sibiria, districtus Tara, 1.IX.1928,
leg. Murashkinsky” (not studied).
Phellinus laricis (Jacz. ex Pilát) Pilát, Bull.
Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France 88:346, 1972.
Pilát described f. laricis from material for-
warded to him by A.A. Jaczewski, but the latter
clearly was not a coauthor (“Jaczewski pro spec.
in litt.”). So it is appropriate to address the taxon
to Jacz. ex Pilát, or just Pilát. The description is
valid, even though the name is not listed in re-
cent indexes of fungal names. Dai (2005) seems
to be the only modern author who interpreted it
While making the new combination Phellinus
laricis, Pilát (1972) addressed the description of
f. laricis to page 273, while the correct page is
272. This is a technical error and does not make
the combination invalid; in fact the description of
the new form (Pilát 1934) still continues on that
page. Donk (1974:329) did not present any res-
ervations on its validity. In the same paper Pilát
(1972) indicates a more recent collection from
Mongolia (PRM 712454) as ‘neotypus’, without
explaining the reason. The wording implies that
the original material was lost, but that was not
checked for this paper.
Phellinus laricis is clearly a member of the
Phellinus pini complex’. Molecular studies
(Fischer 1996, Wagner & Fischer 2001, 2002)
have shown that the old genus Phellinus is too
heterogeneous to be kept undivided, and Poro-
daedalea is the name for the more natural genus.
This species was recently described as Porodae-
dalea niemelaei M. Fischer from material collect-
ed on Larix sibirica in Finland (Fischer 2000).
Larch is not indigenous to the country, and it is
clear that the strictly host-speci c fungus origi-
nates from the range of Larix sibirica, i.e. north-
eastern parts of European Russia and Siberia. In
fact P. laricis is common from the Veps forest
(eastern Leningrad Region; the westernmost nat-
ural site of Larix sibirica) up to China (Y.C. Dai,
H. Kotiranta and others, pers. comm.).
Rhodonia Niemelä & K.H. Larsson, genus
Carpophorus annuus, effusus, poroideus, mol-
lis, roseicolor vel niveus. Systema hypharum
monomiticum, hyphae bulatae, primo tenuitu-
nicatae, in statu maturo crassitunicatae. Sporae
Type: Polyporus placenta Fr.
Etymology: Rhodonia (fem.), from rhodon,
Greek name of rose, referring to the pale pink
colour reminiscent of that in wild roses.
Basidiocarp annual, effused, poroid, fairly
thick, juicy and soft, pale rose-coloured or white.
Hyphal system monomitic, hyphae with clamp
connections, at rst thin-walled but in mature ba-
sidiocarp thick-walled. Spores cylindric. Caus-
ing a brown rot on coniferous trees.
Rhodonia placenta (Fr.) Niemelä, K.H. Larsson
& Schigel, comb. nova
Basionym: Polyporus placenta Fr., Öfvers.
Kungl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh.: 30, 1861.
The strongest evidence for separating R. pla-
centa from Oligoporus and Postia comes from
molecular analysis, where this becomes invaria-
bly nested far off from those genera, in a separate
clade near Antrodia (our results). This will be il-
lustrated and discussed thoroughly in a forthcom-
ing paper. Young basidiocarps have consistently
thin-walled hyphae, but when they grow older,
some hyphae become thick-walled, and then the
structure looks like dimitic. Most hyphae of fully
grown basidiocarps are thick-walled to subsolid.
This species has been well described in many
papers, e.g. Ryvarden and Gilbertson (1994) and
Bernicchia (2005). The gradual thickening of hy-
phal walls has been mostly neglected, however.
A good hint for identi cation is seen in Cotton
Blue / lactic acid mounts: small greasy droplets
are dispersed in the mountant, and in 1–2 min-
utes they become fragmented and ‘explode’ into
snow ake-like groups. Such fenomenon is not
seen in Antrodia in rma or other similar-looking
It is not yet known which other species are
related. Both externally and in the microscope
Antrodia in rma Renvall & Niemelä is very
similar, but this relationship needs to be studied
more closely. A possible candidate would also
be Oligoporus mappa (Overh. & J. Lowe) Gilb.
80 KARSTENIA 45 (2005)
& Ryvarden. – The species names placenta and
mappa are nouns, and stay unin ected irrespec-
tive of the gender of the genus.
Acknowledgements: Reima Saarenoksa (Helsinki)
and Wjacheslav Spirin (St. Petersburg) are thanked for
notes and collections of Oligoporus immitis. Pertti Ren-
vall (Kuopio) shed light in the phylogeny of Antrodiella
canadensis. The identities and distributions of O. bal-
saminus and O. persicinus were discussed with Heikki
Kotiranta (Helsinki). Teuvo Ahti (Helsinki) helped in
nding names for the new genera; he also revised the
Latin descriptions and helped TN in deciding the valid-
ity of the name Polyporus canadensis. The Ministry of
Environment is thanked for a generous research grant
(YM175/5512/2004), which enabled TN and DSS to
carry out studies in mycology.
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... Phylogenetically, specimens of Austroporia formed a well-supported clade that is related to Adustoporia, Amyloporia, Lentoporia, Resinoporia and Rhodonia (Figs. 1, 2). Morphologically, Adustoporia differs by having annual and thin basidiocarps with pale brown pore surface when fresh, larger pores and mainly grows on gymnosperm trees (Chiu 2007;Yu et al. 2010;Rajchenberg et al. 2011); Amyloporia differs by having amyloid skeletal hyphae (Singer 1944;Rajchenberg et al. 2011); Lentoporia differs by having amyloid skeletal hyphae and ellipsoid to oblong basidiospores (Vampola and Pouzar 1993;Ryvarden and Melo 2014); Resinoporia differs by its skeletal hyphae dissolving in KOH, abundant resinous matter in the subiculum and tubes, cylindrical to oblong-ellipsoid basidiospores and mainly grows on the gymnosperm trees (Trass et al. 1999;Niemelä 2005;Dai 2012;Cui and Dai 2013;Spirin et al. 2015a;Audet 2017g); Rhodonia differs by its white to redbrown subiculum and a monomitic hyphal system (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1994;Bernicchia 2005;Niemelä et al. 2005;Shen et al. 2019). ...
... Notes. Rhodonia was established by Niemelä et al. (2005) based on previous phylogenetic studies (Boidin et al. 1998;Binder et al. 2005), in which R. placenta was distinct from Postia. Recent studies also support the establishment of the genus (Ortiz-Santana et al. 2013;Pildain and Rajchenberg 2013;Shen et al. 2019). ...
... Oligoporus was usually treated as a synonym of Postia. Some mycologists supported the use of Oligoporus (Gilbertson and Ryvarden 1987;Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1994;Núñez and Ryvarden 2001;Bernicchia 2005), while other mycologists preferred to use Postia (Renvall 1992;Niemelä et al. 2005;Pildain and Rajchenberg 2013). Shen et al. (2019) proposed the use of Postia s.s. for taxa with thin-walled basidiospores and Oligoporus s.s. for taxa having thick-walled and cyanophilous basidiospores. ...
The brown-rot fungi play an important role in forest ecosystems; they can degrade celluloses and hemicelluloses of wood and maintain nutrient cycling. Some of the brown-rot fungi also have important economic value as medicinal or edible mushrooms. Recent studies showed that the ability to produce brown rot has evolved independently at least five times. Nevertheless, the Polyporales contains the vast majority of the species of the brown-rot fungi. In this study, the classification system of the brown-rot fungi within the Polyporales is revised. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships of brown-rot fungi within the Polyporales are analysed based on DNA sequences of multiple loci including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The study showed that the brown-rot fungi within the Polyporales formed fourteen lineages, which are assigned at family level, including four new families: Auriporiaceae, Piptoporellaceae, Postiaceae, Taiwanofungaceae, and ten existing families: Adustoporiaceae, Dacryobolaceae, Fibroporiaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Laetiporaceae, Laricifomitaceae, Phaeolaceae, Pycnoporellaceae, Sarcoporiaceae, and Sparassidaceae. Meanwhile, eleven new genera, viz., Austroporia, Aurantipostia, Austropostia, Daedalella, Nothofagiporus, Pseudoantrodia, Pseudofomitopsis, Rhodoantrodia, Tenuipostia, Wolfiporiella and Wolfiporiopsis are proposed; eighteen new species, viz., Amyloporia nivea, Antrodia subheteromorpha, Aurantipostia macrospora, Austropostia hirsuta, A. plumbea, A. subpunctata, Cystidiopostia subhibernica, Daedalella micropora, Fuscopostia subfragilis, Lentoporia subcarbonica, Melanoporia tropica, Neolentiporus tropicus, Phaeolus fragilis, Postia crassicontexta, Pseudoantrodia monomitica, Pseudofomitopsis microcarpa, Resinoporia luteola and Rhodonia subrancida are described; and twelve new combinations, viz., Austroporia stratosa, Austropostia brunnea, A. pelliculosa, A. punctata, Nothofagiporus venatus, Rhodoantrodia tropica, R. yunnanensis, Tenuipostia dissecta, Wolfiporiella cartilaginea, W. curvispora, W. dilatohypha and Wolfiporiopsis castanopsidis, are proposed. Illustrated descriptions of the new species are provided. Notes on the genera of brown-rot fungi within the Polyporales are provided.
... However, by utilising molecular methods it was later shown that Hapalopilus is polyphyletic (Ko et al. 2001) and the genus Erastia Niemelä et Kinnunen was erected to accommodate the conifer-dwelling Hapalopilus salmonicolor (Berk. et M.A. Curtis) Pouzar (Niemelä et al. 2005). Later also the species Hapalopilus ochraceolateritius (Bondartsev) Bondartsev et Singer was combined into this genus by Zmitrovich (2018). ...
... due to abundant resinous material, so that several slides must be examined to obtain a set of measurements which is large enough. In addition, our specimen of E. ochraceolateritia from the Czech Republic was paler and more vividly orange than indicated by Niemelä et al. (2005) for that species ("brick or terracotta") or photos in Rivoire (2020), but close in colour shade to photos in Niemelä (2016) or Bernicchia et Gorjón (2020). Nevertheless, our revision of the material deposited in PRM provided two distinct groups -the first with paler ochre fruitbodies (in exsiccata) in unbruised parts, larger pores and wider spores, which we ascribe to E. aurantiaca and the second with darker brick fruitbodies in unbruised parts (in exsiccata), small pores and narrower spores (Tab. 1) similar to our records of E. ochraceolateritia. ...
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Two species of polypores from the genus Hapalopilus s.l. are discussed. Hapalopilus eupatorii is published for the first time outside of Europe (Canary Islands) and in the Czech Republic. This species is shown to be more plastic in both morphology and ecology than previously thought. Revision of a type specimen of Phaeolus rutilans f. resupinatus has demonstrated that this taxon is microscopically different from Hapalopilus eupatorii in its spore shape. Erastia ochraceolateritia is published for the first time from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The identities of these two species were confirmed both based on morphology and by sequencing of ITS DNA regions. Maps of their current and historic distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are provided. A new combination, Erastia aurantiaca, is formally proposed.
... Murrill and P. chrysoloma (Fr.) Fiasson & Niemelä are reported as widely distributed (Núnez & Ryvarden 2000, Niemelä et al. 2005, Tomšovský et al. 2010, Ryvarden & Melo 2014. A basic outline for Porodaedalea was established by Fiasson & Niemelä (1984) based on morphological and biochemical features. ...
... Karst.) Jahn (Niemelä et al. 2005;Tomšovský et al. 2010;Ryvarden and Melo 2014), and P. cedrina Pilát ex Tomšovský & Kout, recently described from the Mediterranean area and occurring on Cedrus atlantica (Tomšovský and Kout 2013). ...
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Porodaedalea is a polypore genus of the Hymenochaetales that encompasses pathogens of conifer trees. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive study of the phylogeny and diversity of Porodaedalea based on collections and isolates from Europe, North America, North Africa, and Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of a two-gene data set, nuc ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), shows that 20 terminal clades that correspond to phylogenetic species well supported within Porodaedalea. Based on morphological evidence, five new species, P. alpicola, P. indica, P. kesiyae, P. microsperma, and P. yunnanensis, are described and illustrated. In addition, four still unnamed lineages are detected in North America and East Asia
... Rhodonia was established by Niemelä et al. (2005) based on previous phylogenetic studies (Boidin et al. 1998, Kim et al. 2001, Binder et al. 2005, in which R. placenta was distinct from the bulk of species in Postia. The genus is characterized by annual, resupinate, fairly thick, soft and watery basidiocarps, white or pale rose-coloured pore surface, a monomitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae, and thin-walled, smooth, cylindrical basidiospores ). ...
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Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on the brown-rot fungi Postia and related genera, are carried out. Phylogenies of these fungi are reconstructed with multiple loci DNA sequences including the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), the large subunit (nLSU) and the small subunit (nSSU) of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene, the small subunit of mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). Ten distinct clades of Postia are recognized. Four new genera, Amaropostia, Calcipostia, Cystidiopostia and Fuscopostia, are established, and nine new species, Amaropostia hainanensis, Cyanosporus fusiformis, C. microporus, C. mongolicus, C. piceicola, C. subhirsutus, C. tricolor, C. ungulatus and Postia sublowei, are identified. Illustrated descriptions of the new genera and species are presented. Identification keys to Postia and related genera, as well as keys to the species of each genus, are provided.
The polyporoid fungi from the Patagonian Andes forests of Argentina and Chile were analyzed from a biogeographic point of view through the optics of phylogenetic studies. A total of 72 species are accepted, including 4 that are still unpublished. Species were distributed as either Cosmopolitan (14 spp.), Antitropical (7 spp.), Pantropical + Austral-antarctic (3 spp.), Neotropical (4 spp.), South-temperate (= endemic, 28 spp.), Austral-antarctic (14 spp.) or Circum-austral (2 spp.) in distribution. They were recorded in the Valdivian province (71 spp.), but also in the Magellanic province (22 spp.) and the Maule province (21 spp.). Three species were also distributed northward in Chile and other 8 species were also found in Juan Fernández province. Almost 35% of the species are brown wood-rotting taxa, representing a relatively high percentage in the polypore funga of Patagonia as compared with other world regions; they are mostly associated with Nothofagaceae, not conifers as in the North Hemisphere. Nothophellinus proved to be the single endemic genus, Neophellinus is shown to be a sub-Amazonian genus, and Arambarria an austral genus with representatives in southern South America (south of the Tropic of Capricorn) and the Cape floristic region. For each species, a detailed account of the phylogeny is presented according to the literature, along with insights into its geographical distribution and relationships with other taxa in the genus where it is accepted. Austral lineages are highlighted at genus level (Gloeoporellus, Macrohyporia, Neolentiporus, Ryvardenia; incl. 5 species) and species level (another 12 taxa). Ongoing and completed speciation processes are pointed out. The following new combinations are proposed: Cyanosporus venatus, Neophellinus livescens and Postia exigua.
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Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine because it contains materials with pharmacological activity. Here, we report its 39.0-Mb genome, encoding 13,157 predicted genes, obtained using next-generation sequencing along with RNA-seq mapping data. A phylogenetic analysis by comparison with 25 other fungal genomes revealed that S. crispa diverged from Postia placenta, a brown-rot fungus, 94 million years ago. Several features specific to the genome were found, including the A-mating type locus with the predicted genes for HD1 and HD2 heterodomain transcription factors, the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP), and the B-mating type locus with seven potential pheromone receptor genes and three potential pheromone precursor genes. To evaluate the benefits of the extract and chemicals from S. crispa, we adopted two approaches: (1) characterization of carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes and β-glucan synthase genes and the clusters of genes for the synthesis of second metabolites, such as terpenes, indoles and polyketides, and (2) identification of estrogenic activity in its mycelial extract. Two potential β-glucan synthase genes, ScrFKS1 and ScrFKS2, corresponding to types I and II, respectively, characteristic of Agaricomycetes mushrooms, were newly identified by the search for regions homologous to the reported features of β-glucan synthase genes; both contained the characteristic transmembrane regions and the regions homologous to the catalytic domain of the yeast β-glucan synthase gene FKS1. Rapid estrogenic cell-signaling and DNA microarray-based transcriptome analyses revealed the presence of a new category of chemicals with estrogenic activity, silent estrogens, in the extract. The elucidation of the S. crispa genome and its genes will expand the potential of this organism for medicinal and pharmacological purposes.
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Porodaedalea chinensis is described and illustrated as a new species occurring on Pinus yunnanensis from southwestern China based on morphological and molecular characters. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA gene and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) sequences show that the new species forms a distinct lineage separating it from other Porodaedalea species. P. chinensis is characterized by perennial, pileate basidiocarps, relatively small pores (2–3 per mm), a dimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing simple septa which are frequent in trama and skeletal hyphae dominant in context and trama, broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-to slightly thick-walled, smooth, moderately cyanophilous basidiospores measured as 4–6 × 3–4.8 μm, and having a distribution in southwestern China.
To elucidate the evolution of Hapalopilus and related genera, partial mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNAs of 13 species were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Both neighbor-joining and parsimony trees showed that species with polyporic acid have evolved several times and that Hapalopilus, Lopharia, Porostereum and Phanerochaete were all polyphyletic. The main Hapalopilus group consisted of four species of Hapalopilus and Porostereum friesii, while Hapalopilus salmonicolor (= Sarcoporia salmonicolor) came out close to the species of Irpex and Oxyporus and proved to be a distinct taxon.