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Educational partnership becomes a common practice in higher education. This study clarifies the practices of educational partnership in higher education institutions. A model of educational partnership has been built to identify its successful factors. The five determinants to the partnership's success are the following: commitment to partnerships, curriculum and learning, quality and risk management, geographic and economic settings, and change management. This study can be guidance for those higher education institutions seeking and building successful partnership such as study abroad programme.
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84 Int. J. Information Systems and Change Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012
Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Building a successful partnership in higher education
David C. Chou
Eastern Michigan University,
Ypsilanti, Michigan, 48197, USA
Abstract: Educational partnership becomes a common practice in higher
education. This study clarifies the practices of educational partnership in higher
education institutions. A model of educational partnership has been built
to identify its successful factors. The five determinants to the partnership’s
success are the following: commitment to partnerships, curriculum and
learning, quality and risk management, geographic and economic settings, and
change management. This study can be guidance for those higher education
institutions seeking and building successful partnership such as study abroad
Keywords: educational innovation; educational partnership; globalisation;
study abroad programme; success model, educational outsourcing, change
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Chou, D.C. (2012)
‘Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions’, Int. J.
Information Systems and Change Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp.84–97.
Biographical notes: David C. Chou is a Professor of Computer Information
Systems at Eastern Michigan University. He received his BC from Feng-Chia
University, MS from National Taiwan University and MS and PhD from
Georgia State University. He has published numerous papers in the field of
information systems. He was the President of the Southwest Decision Sciences
Institute (2007–2008). He is Editor for the Computer Standards and Interfaces,
Associate Editor for the Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education,
and Editor-in-Chief for the IJISCM. Currently, he serves as an editorial board
member for five academic journals.
1 Introduction
Educational partnership becomes a common practice in higher education. Higher
education institutions established academic collaboration and partnership with other
institutions for reasons of resource sharing, curriculum innovation, and reputation
enhancement. The ultimate goals of educational partnership are to cut down college’s
operating cost and to gain competitive advantage in higher education’s marketplace.
Colleges in the world have provided various types of study abroad programmes on
campuses for enhancing student’s global knowledge and experiences. Furthermore,
colleges have established global partnerships for various purposes. This trend is
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 85
continuous and we could expect more inventive partnerships to be established among
higher education institutions in the world.
Benefits of educational partnership can be successfully achieved through valuable
contributors. This paper intends to identify needed determinants that contribute to the
success of educational partnership’s practice. A clear understanding of partnership’s
success allows colleges to make suitable decision on resources allocations for achieving
robust relationship and sustainable partnership with partners. Nowadays, global
relationship and partnership are important to institution’s growth and development. Most
top-ranked colleges utilise their study abroad programmes as a major selling point to
attract potential freshmen. Identifying determinants of successful educational partnership
can provide a practical guidance to higher education institutions. We believe this research
work does contribute to the field of innovative education.
This paper first provides research background of educational partnership. The
practices of educational partnership are discussed in the next section. The next section
builds up a success model of educational partnership; five constructs have been generated
to illustrate the dynamics of a sustainable partnership. Later, a case study of Yale-NUS
partnership programme is provided to illustrate the significance of innovative partnership.
The conclusion is included in the last section.
2 Research background
2.1 Educational outsourcing
Educational institutions have recently recognised the need of outsourcing practice.
Bartem and Manning (2001, p.44) suggested that “outsourcing should be seriously
considered as an institutional strategy for any product, service, facility, or function that
campus engages in, so long as it helps fulfill the institution’s mission”. As implied in the
concept of core-competency strategy, outsourcing allows educational institutions to focus
on its key mission (such as teaching and learning) rather than on supplementary services
[such as information technology (IT) service and food service]. For example, many
campuses have successfully outsourced their food service, bookstore operation, and
building management to external vendors (Bartem and Manning, 2001). As indicated
by Kirp (2011, p.59), a 2001 survey showed that “more than 40 percent of college
bookstores are operated by companies such as Barns and Noble or Follett, and more than
60 percent of dining halls are run by firms such as Marriott”.
Another major area of service outsourcing in higher education is IT outsourcing. In a
survey conducted by EDICAUSE Center for Applied Research (ECAR), colleges
indicated that the primary reasons of IT outsourcing are operating efficiencies, lack of
in-house IT skills, cost savings, and access to innovative services (Kancheva, 2002).
Based on institutions’ needs, they can outsource IT function for either supporting
educational mission or enhancing operational efficiency. Kancheva (2002) indicated that
most common types of IT outsourcing in higher education are e-learning/distance
learning, application services, IT infrastructure, application management, business
process, processing services, and distributed services.
In addition to auxiliary services, educational institutions also outsourced their
classroom teaching to part-time faculty, especially in their extension programmes and
online courses offering. Many colleges offer a variety of study abroad programmes that
86 D.C. Chou
are new forms of educational outsourcing since their students receiving either short term
or long term education from foreign institutions. We will discuss detailed implication
about these programmes in a later section.
Although each institution may face diverse situations and causes that concerning
outsourcing tasks, the economic downturn and budget constraint in recent years may put
more pressure onto institutions for considering outsourcing. The advantages of
educational outsourcing are to allowing colleges to redistribute their resources into more
challengeable and innovative mission and objectives. New ideas such as global
collaboration and partnership programmes could be established for their students’
learning purpose. Sri Lanka experienced its public sector reform and conducted
outsourcing at universities. Through careful monitoring and partnership with outsourcing
companies, it was found that colleges can reach to improved levels of service and cost
saving from outsourcing practice (Herath et al., 2010).
Barnett et al. (2010) proposed that outsourcing-based vendor model should be a type
of educational partnership. Vendor model deals with a contracting-based partnership in
which the client receives needed services from the vendor to achieve a specific purpose;
the vendor receives payment for completing such contracting work. This model encloses
“a quid pro quo between the partner organizations which is clear, relatively narrow in
scope, agreed upon up-front, and typically for a short period of time” [Barnett et al.,
(2010), p.24]. After the contract is complete, the client may evaluate the relationship for
either terminating or renewing the contract. The next section discusses the implications of
educational partnership.
2.2 Educational partnership
Educational partnership is a form of educational outsourcing that has become a
mainstream in higher education. Educational institutions, while they cannot accomplish
certain ambition alone, may seek partners to fulfil shared goals altogether. The intention
of “forming an alliance of resources and expertise between organizations aimed to
achieving a mutually desired outcome, one that is not likely to be realized without the
involvement of both parties” results in partnerships [Barnett et al., (2010), p.14].
Forming a partnership between two institutions may gain a variety of benefits. In
addition to those benefits of performing educational outsourcing such as cost deduction,
resource reallocation and innovation, partnership practice allows institutions to reducing
service duplication, improving efficiency and accountability, expanding relations,
promoting institution’s reputation, and increasing student enrolment. Partnership can
engender innovation in its process (Hall and Hord, 1987; Grobe, 1990). Grobe (1990)
stated that members of the partnership can learn from each other and the structure and
content of the partnership can change over time. Therefore, a new and innovative form of
partnership can be developed in the future.
The development of partnership takes time and it can be classified into the following
eight stages (Trubowitz, 1986):
1 hostility and scepticism
2 lack of trust
3 period of truce
4 mixed approval
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 87
5 acceptance
6 regression
7 renewal
8 continuing progress.
The above eight stages indicate that partners start from knowing each other, either
positive or negative experience to the final approval and continuous commitment may
take a lengthy process. A variety of conflict, confusion, and misunderstanding may be
encountered and resolved until mutual benefits can be generated and continued.
A successful partnership is based on the spirit of mutual trust and support among
participants. It is not easy to establish a perpetually last partnership in real world.
However, a successful partnership should embed the following characteristics [Grobe,
1990; Barnett et al., (2010), p.16]:
involve top-level leadership in decisions
develop programmes that are grounded in the needs of the community
create an effective public relations campaign
establish clear roles and responsibilities of each partner
employ strategic planning and develop long-term goals
utilise effective management and staffing structure
ensure that shared decision making and local ownership occur
provide shared recognition and credit for all personnel involved
commit resources that are appropriate and well-timed
provide intensive technical assistance
create formal written agreements
are patient with the change process and gradually expand the involvement of others.
On the other hand, partnership could be vulnerable if any ignorance or distraction from
the agreements or contract occurred by one or two partners. The two frequent causes of
partnership failure are the lack of commitment by organisational leader and insufficient
financial funding to continue the project (Lugg, 1994). Other barricades to partnership
development are the cultural, regulatory, and personal barriers from partners (Barnett,
Barnett et al. (2010) classified educational partnerships into the following four types:
vendor model, collaborative model, symbiotic partnership model, and spin-off model.
Vendor model is a contracting-based collaborative activity that is a part of outsourcing
practice we discussed in the last section. Collaborative model deals with more versatile
goals and relationship than that of vendor model. The partnering institutions in this
practice should embed strong mutual trust and interdependence, the final goal of this
partnership must generate agreeable benefits to each side. Symbiotic partnership model is
a more complex partnership that “moves beyond the mutual gain” to “where there is a
compounding of benefits through the joint effort” [Barnett et al., (2010), p.26]. This
88 D.C. Chou
partnership will create a join system and hire staff members for implementing shared goal
and project. While partnership continues to be developed that makes partners feel that
they need to create a new organisation, this becomes a new partnership type called
spin-off model. Creating a new organisation allows a much stronger partnership to be
positioned between partnering parties. In the mean time, a variety of risk may exit that
need to be cautiously monitored (Barnett et al., 2010).
3 Educational partnership practices
Educational partnership practices have been recently established in higher education
institutions. We now discuss various partnership practices in higher education
3.1 Study abroad programmes
Higher education institutions establish a variety of academic collaboration and
partnership with foreign peer institutions. The most popular academic collaboration and
partnership programme is ‘study abroad’ programme. Study abroad programmes can be
varied based on their location, community partners, curriculum, facilities, term length,
and staff support availability. The main purposes of offering study abroad programmes
are to explode their students’ global view and cultural experience. The US colleges and
foreign peers establish collaborative programmes that allow one college to send (or
exchanges) students to the other college to study for a certain period of time. The detailed
agreements in such programmes needs to be mutually accepted, including tuition and fee,
curriculum, language adoption, facilities provision, staff support, etc. Study abroad
programmes need to go through several stages of collaborative practices before reaching
to a sustainable partnership.
Most US campuses encourage their students to participate in study abroad
programmes. For example, President Lariviere at University of Oregon (UO) suggested
that “the university’s aspirational goal should be that 100% of our students study or intern
abroad” (University of Oregon, 2010). The administration at UO enjoyed the continuous
enrolment increase in their study abroad programmes in recent years. The projects at UO
study abroad programmes are “strategically targeted to increase UO study abroad
participation while maintaining and enhancing the quality of our programs, effectively
managing the associated risks, and contributing to the University’s mission as an
international center of higher learning and scholarship” (University of Oregon, 2010).
Harvard University offers study abroad programmes for students to learn in
classroom, laboratory and field-based engagement programmes globally. Harvard
University feels that students should participate in a wide range of other activities abroad.
The university provides generous funding to students who like to attend study abroad
programs. About 60% of Harvard’s undergraduate students participated in any of its
study abroad programmes (Harvard University, 2011).
Princeton University’s (2011) fully-integrated programmes encourage students to be
part of a foreign university through cultural and linguistic exposure. This approach makes
students to experience a completely foreign learning environment with great international
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 89
University of Minnesota at Twin City intended to send 50% of its students overseas
as a strategic goal for global participation; however, only about 15% of them studied
abroad (Fischer, 2010). The main reason caused this low participation rate was that many
students and faculty members thought that “going abroad wouldn’t work in a give course
of study, for reasons of quality and timing” (Fischer, 2010).
In recent years, business schools in the US intensify their international components in
curriculum, especially toward MBA programmes. For example, the Farmer School of
Business at Miami University (in Ohio, USA) requires MBA students to complete a
six-week global consultancy course at the end of the programme (Dalton, 2011). Another
example is Goizueta Business School at Emory University, where more than half of their
full-time MBA students complete an international internship, study abroad or take an
international mid-semester travel module to gain global skills (Dalton, 2011).
Higher education institutions may build up relationship with each other through
previous project related cooperation, collaboration, or leadership network. These
partnerships may take a considerable time to be developed. Another way of establishing
partnership is through consulting service from specialised organisations or agencies. We
discuss this perception in the next section.
3.2 Network and agencies for partnership
Higher education institutions recognise the vital importance of global partnerships
for their future development. Building global partnerships allow colleges to augment
academic collaboration and curricular innovation. However, seeking global partnerships
requires adequate relationship and network building, which may not be the strength in
hand to most colleges. An alternate way of pursuing global partnerships is through the
networking with certain consulting agencies. Several prominent consulting agencies are
exemplified below.
3.2.1 The Institute of International Education
The Institute of International Education (IIE) is an agency for international students and
scholars’ exchange. IIE’s Center for International Partnerships in Higher Education is an
office that assists colleges to develop and sustain institutional partnerships with other
colleges in the world (Institute of International Education, 2011). Based on IIE’s mission,
they provide the following initiatives to college faculty and administration, and
policymakers (Institute of International Education, 2011):
linking US higher education institutions to countries where they are seeking
organising tours for foreigner institutions to visit US colleges and then establishing
potential partnerships
providing advice and liaison services through IIE’s network and international offices
providing research data and papers on critical issues and policies.
90 D.C. Chou
3.2.2 The Institute for the International Education of Students
The Institute for the International Education of Students (IES) is a non-profit organisation
that includes memberships from 175 US colleges and universities. IES enrolled more
than 5,000 students in semester-, year-, and short-term study abroad programmes
and internship abroad programmes (Gillespie, 2009; The Institute for the International
Education of Students, 2011). Since 1950, IES has provided US colleges with various
academic study abroad programmes that focus on intercultural development.
3.2.3 Ed-Collaborate – the global education network
Ed-Collaborate (2011) is a licensed association that provides assistance to establishing
partnerships between prospective partners of global educational institutions, colleges, and
universities. Ed-Collaborate also provides online consulting services to other consultancy
providers and institutions to building up relationship and partnerships.
3.2.4 Office of University Partnerships
Office of University Partnerships (OUP) was established by US Department of Housing
and Urban Development (HUD) in 1994 to encourage and expand the number of
partnerships among colleges and their communities (Office of University Partnerships,
2011). OUP is a governmental agency to support collaborative work through grants,
interactive conferences, and research to reach the following three goals (Office of
University Partnerships, 2011):
“Provide funding opportunities to colleges and universities to implement community
activities, revitalize neighborhoods, address economic development and housing
issues, and encourage partnerships.
Create a dialogue between colleges and universities and communities to gain
knowledge and support of partnership activities and opportunities as well as connect
them to other potential partners and resources.
Assist in producing the next generation of urban scholars and professionals who are
focused on housing and community development issues.”
4 Model of successful educational partnerships
Educational partnerships demand for a variety of contributors that make them work.
This paper identifies several determinants that contribute to successful educational
partnerships. These determinants can be categorised into five major components; they are
commitment to partnership, curriculum and learning, quality and risk management,
geographic and economic settings, and change management. The five constructs of this
model are shown in Figure 1. The implications of individual construct are described
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 91
Figure 1 Model of successful educational partnerships
Geographic and econo mic
Cultural and political setting
Location and economic
Quality and ris k management
Educational quality and
Risk management
Curriculum and learning
Curricular Innovation
Student’s needs and interests
Commitment to partners hips
Relationship management
Resource sharing and allocation
Change management
People, culture, learning, and IT
Service delivery changes
Educational partnership success
Perceived benefits
4.1 Commitment to partnership
Higher education institutions are aware of the substance of global partnerships, therefore,
they intend to advance study abroad programmes and to sustain international
collaboration and partnerships. The process may not be easy or simple at the beginning;
however, institutions could seek external agencies for building up such relationship. Once
institutions established the relationship and partnership, they need to maintain and
strengthen their commitment for further development. Many successful partnerships have
gone through such corridor. The commitment to partnership construct consists of the
following two components:
Relationship management: relationship management refers to the continuous efforts
to be placed into such collaboration and partnerships. Relationship management
relies on smooth communications and networking among vendors, schools’
administrators, and staff members. Regular contacts on collaborative projects,
programme design, implementation, and project assessment are needed in order to
maintain a healthy relationship between project partners.
92 D.C. Chou
Resource sharing and allocation: maintaining and committing a long lasting
educational partnership needs to consume a tremendous amount of resources.
Other than financial contribution, partners need to allocate facilities, staffs, and
other resources for completing collaborative work. The adoption of partnership
requests the shift of resources from original objective to the new purpose at
individual partnering location. Another important factor to be considered is the
distribution and allocation of needed resources to be applied to the on-going projects.
The partners must agree upon the ways of resource sharing and allocation to achieve
the objectives of the partnership.
4.2 Curriculum and learning
Most educational partnerships are to offer academic programmes and internships for their
partnering schools. One major attraction in partnership programmes is to build novel and
innovative curriculum for incoming students. While students select schools for studying
abroad, curricular innovation is always a major concern for them since it generates the
value of learning experience. Creating innovative learning experience for students can
deliver a successful partnership. The curriculum and learning construct consists of the
following two components:
Curricular innovation: College students spend extra time and money for attending
study abroad programmes. Their purpose is to learn lessons that cannot be received
from their home college. For this reason, partnering schools must discuss the need of
offering new and innovative classes for students. This way can maintain the quality
of the programmes and also continuously increase the rate of student’s participation.
Student’s needs and interests: Other than curricular innovation, a sustainable
partnership needs to accommodate student’s needs and interests of global learning.
For example, Study Abroad Office in a college needs to prepare sufficient
information and brochures for individual study abroad programmes. Information
such as language requirement, travel information, lodging and room arrangement,
budget preparation, time and term of study, advice, etc., are necessary materials for
prospective students. Students can choose the kind of programme they like to
participate based on the information they received.
4.3 Quality and risk management
Educational quality is an important success factor for educational partnership. A
sustainable collaborative project should fulfil the needs and requirements of the contract.
In the meantime, schools should maintain their academic quality and reputation for
attracting prospective partnership. Quality management describes the processes that risks
have been identified and monitored in educational partnership. The quality and risk
management construct consists of the following two components:
Educational quality and reputation: educational quality and reputation are essential
for maintaining a long term partnership. Colleges and universities in the US are
working tirelessly to improve their academic ranking in various surveys. A high
educational quality may earn a better reputation, it also implies that a better
opportunity to gain a successful partnership.
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 93
Risk management: maintaining a partnership may not be easy. Various uncertainties
and risks may hinder the progression of the existing collaborative projects. For this
reason, a carefully planned risk management process should be taken for monitoring
the quality of partnership’s implementation.
4.4 Geographic and economic settings
While higher education institutions select global partners the geography and economic
realities are among the list to be judged. Study abroad programme, for example, is the
most common international programme on campus. Students pick geographic location
and nation they like for global study. Therefore, understanding the cultural, political, and
geographic and economic settings allows institutions to establish suitable programmes for
their students. The geographic and economic settings construct consists of the following
two components:
Cultural and political setting: higher education institutions intend to promote global
awareness to their campuses. Cultural differences include languages, cultural
interests, religions, customs, social attitudes, and political philosophies exist among
the nations offering study abroad programmes. In order to offer safe and beneficial
programmes for their students, colleges must evaluate and select suitable cultural and
political settings in targeted nations for establishing desired partnership.
Location and economic environment: students select interested location for study
abroad. Most often they pick big and known cities to stay. The main reason of
choosing known cities for study is to enjoy the quality of life and travel convenience
in there. Any region holds high economic development may attract more students to
come. For these reasons, higher education institutions must consider the factor of
location and economic environment as a successful determinant of partnership.
4.5 Change management
Pursuing educational partnership may result in organisational changes that affecting areas
such as organisational structure, task and jobs implementation, people, culture, learning,
IT and infrastructure setting, and service delivery methods. Accommodating to these
changes, colleges should control possible organisational turbulences and chaos through
the creation of a well prepared change management strategy. A well designed change
management practice and monitoring method could assure the success of educational
partnership. Specifically, the change management construct consists of the following two
People, culture, learning, and IT changes: educational partnership involves a variety
of domestic and international programmes that established within participating
higher educational institutions. Personnel participating in the partnership
programmes, such as faculty and staff, must understand their partner-institutions’
culture, environment, IT infrastructure, so they can continuously increase learning
effectiveness. The more complicated global partnership would face severe challenge
such as language, cultural, and religious differences, which may force institutions to
change themselves firmly. A well prepared change management programme should
accommodate institutions for adjusting these changes steadily and smoothly.
94 D.C. Chou
Service delivery changes: educational partnership creates new and complicated
services that may be deviating from regular services offered by colleges. The
study abroad programme involves extraordinary services to facilitate their
partner-institutions’ students, such as room and board, travel assistance, and
healthcare service. Colleges must rebuild their website to make it user-friendly.
Many partnership programmes involve distance learning education. Therefore,
building a modern IT infrastructure for online learning and social networking
purposes would be a new service delivery model to higher education institutions.
Providing innovative and satisfactory services to their partner-institutions would
enhance their students’ interest and the partnership.
4.6 Educational partnership success
Educational partnership’s success is a crucial goal to be achieved in every higher
education institution. Chou (2007) adopted items of satisfaction and perceived benefits to
measure the outsourcing success. This paper also incorporates these two components into
the educational partnership success construct.
Satisfaction: satisfaction represents the degree of a partner’s satisfaction over
the other. Satisfaction has been widely used as a relationship success in
inter-organisational relationship (IOR) research (Anderson and Narus, 1990;
Mohr and Spekman, 1994).
Perceived benefits: Perceived benefits are a partner’s perception of benefits gained
from a specific partnership practice. Possible perceived benefits are student’s
benefits, college or university’s benefits, and community’s benefits.
The success model of educational partnerships clearly presents the mechanism of
educational collaboration, interaction, and partnership. Therefore, we can reach to the
following proposition:
Proposition Commitment to partnerships, curriculum and learning, quality and risk
management, geographic and economic settings, and change management
are possible determinants of successful educational outsourcing and
5 CASE study: an innovative Yale-NUS partnership
An innovative higher education’s partnership between Yale University and National
University of Singapore (NUS) has been announced by both universities’ administrators
in September, 2010. The whole plan is to build a new liberal arts college in Singapore.
An innovative thought is to have jointly governed college that using both universities’
names – ‘Yale-NUS College’. Singapore government intends to develop its country to be
a hub of education and innovation. Its prestigious name is the reason that Yale is gaining
the partnership. Singapore would pay the entire cost of building the college and related
operating costs (Branch, 2010). The idea of this new college is to have an autonomous
institution that administered by a board with equal seats from Yale and Singaporean
officials (Branch, 2010).
Building a successful partnership in higher education institutions 95
Yale University has a long history of offering international programmes to their
students. Other than that, Yale University has extensive partnerships with foreign
universities. For example, it has a joint centre for biomedical research at Fudan
University in Shanghai, China, and another joint programme at Peking University for
both schools’ undergraduate students (Yale University, 2011).
The Yale-NUS project is making an immense move to Yale’s global connection,
especially to Asia area. Although it is in essence an innovative move in higher education,
this project raised diverse reactions from Yale’s stakeholders. Yale’s administration feels
that “it is an opportunity to establish a beachhead in Asia as the region grows in
economic strength and creates an enormous market for higher education – a market that
has already drawn many leading Western universities” [Branch, (2010), p.33]. Yale’s
faculty members who are involving in the project feel that “it’s an irresistible chance to
create a liberal arts college from scratch, without the strictures of existing departments
and norms” [Branch, (2010), p.33]. However, there are public critics expressed that “it’s
an ill-advised collaboration with a government whose restrictions on civil liberties are
incompatible with the very nature of liberal education” [Branch, (2010), p.33].
The creation of a new liberal arts curriculum in Singapore campus has attracted Yale
faculty. Branch (2010, p.34) pointed out two reasons of that: “first, if Yale hopes to
popularize liberal education in Asia, such a curriculum will be necessary to make the
liberal arts relevant there. Second, globalization is making a broader knowledge of
non-Western culture increasingly important for graduates of schools like Yale itself.
Curricular innovations from Yale-NUS might very well find their way back to New
The negative feeling and debate come from the Singapore government and its
People’s Action Party. Human rights activists in the world criticise Singapore
government’s use of capital punishment to drug possession cases and other criminals.
The worse situations are the use of criminal libel laws to still its critics and against public
protest. These cultural and legal systems in Singapore are highly contrary to USA’s
(Branch, 2010). Therefore, campus debates regarding this partnership are still on the rise.
This Yale-NUS case indicates the importance of global networking and partnership in
higher education. The deal can benefit not only their students but also universities’
reputation and financial advantages. Many determinants cause the success of educational
outsourcing and partnerships, briefly speaking, such as relationship management,
resources sharing and allocation, curricular innovation, students’ needs and interests,
educational quality and reputation, risks management, cultural and political setting, and
geo-economic environment.
6 Conclusions
The practices of educational outsourcing are related to educational partnership. Their
purposes are to cut down operating cost and to gain competitive advantage in the market.
Higher education institutions outsourced their administrative services to external vendors
for saving cost and increasing competency. On the other hand, institutions established
academic collaboration and partnership with other institutions for similar reasons, such as
resource sharing and reputation enhancing.
Various study abroad programmes have been offered in the US colleges and
universities for promoting international awareness and partnership. Yale-NUS
96 D.C. Chou
partnership is an innovative practice in global partnership. We can expect more inventive
partnerships to be established among higher education institutions in the near future.
Educational partnership can be successfully achieved through valuable contributors.
This paper identified four determinants to partnership success, including commitment to
partnership, curriculum and learning, quality and risk management, geographic and
economic settings, and change management. These five determinants can be mingled
together to achieve educational partnership’s success. The future study to this research
would be developing matrices for testing such success model. Although some
measurements are hard to be developed, we believe such tasks can be done in the next
level of this research.
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... Internationalization of education is believed to widen students' perspectives and expose them to academic and cultural diversity. International collaborations enable increased access, diversity in programme offerings, development of intercultural skills, cooperative research, curriculum and pedagogy innovation, capacity building and enhanced reputation (Knight and Liu, 2019;Jianxin, 2009;Chou, 2012). Transnational education also opens up avenues for faculty enrichment training programmes (Lytovchenko, 2016). ...
... Wiener (2009), in his study on organizational readiness, defines readiness as a shared psychological state in which organizational members are committed to implementing a change and also have confidence in their collective abilities to do so (Ripatti, 2016;Choi and Ruona, 2011). The effectiveness of an educational relationship could be ensured by a well-designed and well-prepared change management programme (Chou, 2012). Innovative practices adopted by the management can prove to be instrumental in driving the institution's willingness to change. ...
... Mutual commitment is the mutual desire of the partners to participate in a two-way collaborative process that meets the objectives of partners on both sides of the spectrum (Akili, 2005; Lauv as and Steinmo, 2019; Thune and Gulbrandsen, 2014;Holland et al., 2003;Curwood et al., 2011;Melese et al., 2009;Cederholm, 2015;Kawday, 2019). Collaborations may start well, but over a period of time, HESWBL differences in opinion, power differentials, conflicts, delay in releasing funds and role ambiguity may result in loss of interest and commitment (Anyon and Fern andez, 2007;Hanssmann and Grignon, 2007;Chou, 2012;Kaur, 2017;Kruss, 2006a;Awasthy et al., 2020). According to Garousi et al. (2017), partners feel committed when they share a common goal, work in teams and are supported by the management throughout the project life (Sandy and Holland, 2006). ...
Purpose The study has a two-fold purpose: first, to identify the enablers of partnering agility in higher education, and, second, to analyze the interplay between the enablers. Design/methodology/approach Total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) was used to construct a theoretical model of partnering agility enablers, and cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis was used to rank and segregate the enablers into independent, autonomous, dependent and linkage zones on the basis of their driving and dependence power. Findings The study helped in identifying eight enablers that can be instrumental in driving partnering agility in higher education. According to the TISM model, clarity on roles and responsibilities of partners was found to be the most crucial and vital enabler followed by resource sharing. Practical implications The conceptual model provides a new direction on how to develop and strengthen higher education partnerships. The model has prioritized all the crucial enablers that the management can work around in order to drive partnering agility in higher education institutions. Originality/value Studies in the past have majorly focused on academia–industry partnerships. This research has tried to provide a comprehensive view of the enablers and the multidirectional interplay between the enablers that can facilitate partnerships between academia and industry, Indian and international universities, and academia and community.
... This assertion touched on the key to sustainability of partnerships themselves but implied a pessimistic view on assistance relationships. It makes sense if the ultimate goals of a partnership are to cut down operating costs and to gain competitive advantage in the higher education's marketplace [30], though Woldegiorgis recognized the terms of partnership in higher education are more comprehensive and diversified than in business. Inspired by these insights, although EPA can be seen as a partnership that emphasizes social responsibility with the goal of a balanced development of the higher education sector as a whole, rather than a win-win benefit-based exchange relationship, while analyzing the role of EPA in promoting the sustainability of higher education, we should not neglect the sustainability of EPA itself. ...
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The Education Partnership Assistance (EPA) is an institutional arrangement that has played an important role in the balanced and sustainable development of higher education in China, in which universities of East China provide the paired universities in West China with various assistance. EPA is part of the political commitment made by the Chinese government to fulfil sustainable and balanced development. By applying a policy process framework and qualitative text analysis to the government and universities’ official documents, we find EPA is primarily based on the Communist Party of China (CPC)’s ideological cornerstones of “common prosperity”. Over the past two decades, by conducting leadership secondment, faculty and student training, and ICT and library development, EPA has improved the development of universities in West China, and the central government’s current emphasis remains on the continuation of EPA. However, this paper argues that EPA cannot be going on indefinitely and that true sustainability is contingent on the capacity building of the recipient universities, rather than on the endless assistance from supporting universities. EPA is a localized action to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in China. It sheds light on the connections between domestic aid and the SDGs from a supplementary perspective.
... It may be a situation of one institution filling the gap for another institution considering that they would all or both in the end serve the benefit of each other or they are both contributing or would contribute to a segment of the society's needs and for development and advancement. According to Chou (2012), institutional partnership usually results in the sharing of resources, curriculum innovation and for the enhancement of their reputation. This conveys that institutions do not just form partnership for its sake but in order to achieve set objectives or targets. ...
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The study examined the perceived roles of institutional partnership in the development of open and distance learning in higher education in Rivers State. To achieve the purpose of this study, the researcher formulated three (3) objectives, three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of 780 academic staff of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and 420 academic staff of National Open University, Rivers State with a total population of 1,200 persons. 480 respondents were drawn from the population of 1,200 using simple random sampling technique representing 40% and studied as the sample. The instrument used for the study is a questionnaire titled; Perceived Roles of Institutional Partnership in the Development of Open and Distance Learning Questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was achieve using test-re-test method and Pearson's Product Moment correlation statistic was used to obtain a reliability coefficient of 0.86. The data gathered from the research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested using z-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the data analyzed, the findings of the study revealed that institutional collaboration to a large extent will help in the development of open and distance learning in higher education in Rivers State. It was also found out that institutional networking and e-learning programmes will help in the development of open and distance learning in higher education It was therefore recommended that universities should introduce institutional collaboration that will allow other institutions to cooperate in one way or the other to enhance development of open and distance learning in Rivers State and that Government should invest more in university education to enable universities have the funds to float institutional networking and e-learning programmes that will promote open and distance learning, among others.
... Recognized in different forms and for different reasons, educational partnerships with local regional and international agencies have remained important today as they were before. Nowadays, global relationships and partnerships are essential to an institution's growth and development (Chou, 2012). A key tenet of partnering is that a benefit comes from creating a collaboration based on the ideal that the individual partners cannot accomplish their goals on their own: the partnership creates the ultimate win-win situation (Eddy, 2010). ...
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The paper investigates the question of sustainability of capacity building initiatives by reporting about the multiplication training in the frame of DIES NMT Programme on quality assurance in Uganda and how it could make use of the social capital within the existing quality assurance network to sustain and address challenges during its implementation. The purpose of the article is to explore the nature of networking (social and institutional) which was established by the Ugandan Universities Quality Assurance Forum (UUQAF) and share the strategies used in this training experience for future sustainable capacity building training initiatives in emerging economies. The paper employed a qualitative research method to describe and analyse the training framework based on primary and secondary documents.
Conference Paper
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at presenting a suggested proposal for a unit of a special nature at Al-Azhar University based on community partnership through reviewing and analysing the relevant literature and utilizing the descriptive research approach. The aim of this unit is to promote an effective and sustainable community partnership between its faculties, institutes, units, and scientific and research centres on the one hand, and the external community on the other hand, in order to achieve the university's role and social responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Reviewing the relevant literature revealed a number of contemporary international trends for higher education institutions that their success is based on strengthening its partnership with society, including: planning and restructuring, developing sources of self-funding and sustainable funding, orientation towards entrepreneurship, the internationalization of its programs and its human resources, etc. The study has resulted in a suggested proposal of a unit of a special nature at Al-Azhar University, working as a principal agent for all university units and centres entrusted with coordinating partnerships with different sectors of society (service, profitable, and charitable sectors) be it at a local, a national, or a global level. Keywords: a suggested unit, community partnership, Al-azhar University, global trends.
From the years 2015 and 2016, when tens of thousands sought refuge in Europe from war and persecution, the spontaneous engagement in civil society will be remembered above all. In the so-called Summer of Welcome, volunteers, civil society initiatives and organizations especially supported refugee children and young people in many ways. This chapter examines the role of partnerships between schools and local partners, especially civil society organizations, for the social integration of newly immigrated students into the school community. Do the partnerships work in times when newly immigrated children and youth are in particular need of support? Alternatively, do the potential risks of such partnerships become more visible at such times because functioning partnerships are full of prerequisites, as social capital approaches would indicate? The results of an analysis based on an online survey of German school principals of lower secondary schools show that schools are managing changes in existing partnerships carefully and tend to stay with established partnerships rather than to search for new partners. Nevertheless, local partners – especially civil society initiatives – make a substantial contribution to the social integration as well as to supporting the learning of the newly arrived students within the school.
In this chapter, the distinction between ‘cosmopolitan’ and ‘local’ established by Gouldner in the 1950s is used to examine universities in the context of global higher education systems. It is suggested here that cosmopolitan universities are research-oriented and enjoy international visibility, wealth, and prestige. Although being a cosmopolitan university has a positive connotation, it is argued that there are geopolitical considerations that do not always come into view in examining universities and internationalisation trends. Some prestigious universities enjoy and reinforce their academic capital while others are on the fringes of research and academic productivity. By analysing the patterns of international collaboration exhibited by Latin American academics in the field of higher education, this chapter offers a critical perspective on co-authorship as an expression of academic dependency. Geopolitical considerations for a more fruitful development of international collaboration in higher education are offered.
Higher education partnerships have the potential to bring benefits to the collaborating partners. Nevertheless, power asymmetries mean that they are regarded with scepticism when it comes to North-South collaboration. In this chapter, we present the unique case of such a partnership where the southern partner is not only short of resources but also located in a conflict-ridden region. The case of a special German-Iraqi partnership provides an interesting opportunity to examine a higher education partnership with a focus on peacebuilding initiatives. In doing so, we develop a framework for the risk and success factors that explain the dynamics of North-South higher education partnerships (N-S HEPs ). Based on analysis of the reflections of some of the key participants, we found that the success of and risks to higher education partnerships for peacebuilding are not merely determined by security concerns. Rather, a complex array of dynamics, both within and between the partnering organizations, play a role in illustrating when such collaboration might be successful and what factors may pose risks to its success.KeywordsUniversity partnershipsNorth-south collaborationPeacebuildingTransformative partnershipsRisks
South Africa, nearly three decades since the dispensation of democracy, boasts of its cultural diversity and the transformation of its educational system. Democratic education at the forefront of these endeavors have resulted in educational institutions adopting various responses to diverse student populations. However, in light of a global pandemic such as that of COVID-19, the cracks in the education system have been revealed, leaving policy makers and departments of education to find alternatives and emergency teaching approaches. The focus of this chapter is on how partnerships, embedded in multicultural education, can foster ways to engage at-risk students and elevate students to participate in their education in anticipation of escalating that participation in the context of global education. These partnerships both advance, and are anchored in local and non-local assets and collaboration with others – all of which constitute the context for multicultural education conditions.
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Accompanied by an emergent ‘strategy’ and ‘sustainability’ discourse, international higher education (HE) partnership building has become increasingly orchestrated by non-academic (i.e. operational, and managerial) agents, thereby shifting away from universities’ ‘academic heartland’. The purpose of this article is to scrutinise the frequently used, yet often ill-defined, ‘strategic’ and ‘sustainable’ nature of international partnership building and the way it transforms power dynamics and sense of agency both across and within universities. Drawing on qualitative research with university staff at two partnering higher education institutions (HEIs) in UK and China, this article explores different interpretations of what strategic and sustainable partnership building means and sheds light on the conflicts that emerge between academic and non-academic stakeholders in this process. In doing so, it highlights the all-pervasive influence of managerialism in HE and the potential effects it can have on the success or failure of international partnerships.
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The formation of partnerships between firms is becoming an increasingly common way for firms to find and maintain competitive advantage. While the antecedents of partnership formation and the characteristics of the resulting cooperative working relationship have been explored in the literature, an understanding of characteristics associated with partnership success is lacking. Such an understanding is important in reconciling the prescriptions to form partnerships with the reality that a majority of such partnerships do not succeed. We hypothesize that partnership attributes, communication behavior, and conflict resolution techniques are related to indicators of partnership success (satisfaction and sales volume in the relationship). The hypotheses are tested with vertical partnerships between manufacturers and dealers. Results indicate that the primary characteristics of partnership success are: partnership attributes of commitment, coordination, and trust; communication quality and participation; and the conflict resolution technique of joint problem solving. The findings offer insight into how to better manage these relationships to ensure success.
As educational partnerships and collaboratives have become more popular in the last several decades, researchers and practitioners have sought to understand why these arrangements flourish or flounder. Taking into consideration the contextual factors affecting partnerships, we have conceptualized a framework of the types of partnerships that can develop between a school system and an external resource agency. The framework reflects the dynamic nature of partnerships, including the growing complexity of interorganizational arrangements that exist as partnerships move from a cooperative to a collaborative relationship. We conclude by discussing the value and utility of this framework as school districts and external agencies consider establishing short- or long-term partnerships.
A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships is presented and is assessed empirically on a sample of distributor firms and a sample of manufacturer firms. A multiple-informant research method is employed. Support is found for a number of the hypothesized construct relations and, in both manufacturer firm and distributor firm models, for the respecification of cooperation as an antecedent rather than a consequence of trust. Some implications for marketing practice are discussed briefly.
A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships is presented and is assessed empirically on a sample of distributor firms and a sample of manufacturer firms. A multiple-informant research method is employed. Support is found for a number of the hypothesized construct relations and, in both manufacturer firm and distributor firm models, for the respecification of cooperation as an antecedent rather than a consequence of trust. Some implications for marketing practice are discussed briefly.
As educational partnerships and collaboratives have become more popular in the last several decades, researchers and practitioners have sought to understand why these arrangements flourish or flounder. Taking into consideration the contextual factors affecting partnerships, we have conceptualized a framework of the types of partnerships that can develop between a school system and an external resource agency. The framework reflects the dynamic nature of partnerships, including the growing complexity of interorganizational arrangements that exist as partnerships move from a cooperative to a collaborative relationship. We conclude by discussing the value and utility of this framework as school districts and external agencies consider establishing short- or long-term partnerships.
Interagency collaboration is being touted as a means for schools to address the increasing social, emotional and health care needs of students. In this article, we contend that if interagency collaboration is to become more than a buzzword, then school leaders must work diligently to build a shared commitment to the school's vision by engaging service providers in sustained and collective discussions and decisions about the school's direction. Two promising approaches for building this shared commitment—strategic planning and collaborative visioning—are highlighted, including a discussion of how several newly-formed collaboratives are confronting the cultural, procedural/regulatory, and personal barriers that prohibit meaningful interagency collaboration.
This document provides a synthesis of the history, context, and types of educational partnerships. Examples of partnerships from simple to complex and from policy and systemic educational improvement to classroom partners are given to illustrate the different types and impacts of partnerships. The following major elements of successful partnerships are also reviewed: top-level leadership; grounding in community needs; effective public relations; clear roles and responsibilities; racial-ethnic involvement; strategic planning; effective management and staffing structure; shared decision making and interagency ownership; shared credit and recognition; appropriate, well-timed resources; technical assistance; formal agreements; action and frequent success; patience, vigilance, and increased involvement; and local ownership. Finally, the evaluation of partnerships and various outcome measures are also discussed. A list of contact sources is included. (Author/LMI)
The stages of development of the process of collaboration between Queens College, the New York City Board of Education, and Louis Armstrong Middle School, are presented in an effort to help universities and schools form partnerships. (MD)