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Functional Properties of Vinegar

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Abstract

A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars.

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... Ocet jest jednym z najstarszych produktów fermentacyjnych, znanym od tysięcy lat. Istnieje wiele udokumentowanych informacji, że był ulubioną przyprawą, środkiem konserwującym oraz orzeźwiającym napojem w starożytnej Babilonii [1,5,14]. Od wieków znajduje również zastosowanie w medycynie ludowej do leczenia różnych infekcji. ...
... Ze względu na dobrą koniunkturę w grupie octów smakowych i owocowych, wiele octowni zaczyna wprowadzać je do swojej oferty. Ocet owocowy jest powszechnie stosowany jako konserwant żywności, gdyż skutecznie hamuje rozwój mikroorganizmów zanieczyszczających produkty spożywcze [5,6]. Uzyskany w procesach fermentacji ocet owocowy jest bogaty w kwasy organiczne: octowy, cytrynowy, mlekowy, bursztynowy i jabłkowy, enzymy, pektyny oraz przeciwutleniające związki fenolowe (kwas galusowy, kawowy, chlorogenowy, katechiny, epikatechiny) o potwierdzonych walorach prozdrowotnych [4,9,13,14,15,16,18,30]. Zawiera także niezbędne we wszystkich procesach życiowych składniki, takie jak: aminokwasy, pierwiastki (żelazo, fluor, potas, wapń, miedź, magnez, sód, fosfor, siarkę, krzem) oraz witaminy, w tym: B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E, P, A [4,5,12]. ...
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Article
Octy owocowe uzyskane metodami fermentacyjnymi stanowią atrakcyjny rodzaj żywności funkcjonalnej, która znajduje coraz większe uznanie wśród konsumentów ze względu na swoje walory prozdrowotne. Celem badań było opracowanie innowacyjnej technologii produkcji octu owocowego z wykorzystaniem lokalnych szczepów mikroorganizmów, pochodzących z kolekcji kultur Instytutu Biotechnologii Przemysłu Rolno-Spożywczego (IBPRS). Surowcem do biosyntezy octu były naturalne, tłoczone na zimno soki jabłkowe pozyskiwane od rolników i małych przedsiębiorców rolnych z województwa łódzkiego, śląskiego oraz mazowieckiego. Soki poddano wstępnym badaniom mikrobiologicznym i fizykochemicznym, polegającym na określeniu: liczby drożdży i pleśni, zawartości ekstraktu ogólnego, cukrów ogółem, kwasowości i pH oraz zawartości kadmu i ołowiu. Pierwszy etap produkcji octu stanowiła beztlenowa fermentacja soków jabłkowych, w wyniku której otrzymano wina, w których oznaczono zawartość alkoholu i cukrów. Drugim etapem była biosynteza kwasu octowego z użyciem win jabłkowych oraz szczepów bakterii octowych Acetobacter pasterianus O4 i Acetobacter pasterianus MW3. Podczas procesu biosyntezy oznaczano zawartość alkoholu oraz moc powstającego octu. Opracowana w Zakładzie Jakości Żywności IBPRS technologia otrzymywania octu owocowego umożliwiła uzyskanie produktu o mocy w zakresie 3,3 ÷ 4,5 g kwasu octowego w 100 cm3, pozbawionego chemicznych konserwantów, o wyjątkowych walorach smakowo-zapachowych, charakteryzującego się wysoką jakością i wartością żywieniową.
... Different kinds of vinegars are categorized based on their raw materials and production processes [5]. Vinegars are generally named after their raw material which could be apple cider vinegar, grape vinegar, sherry wine vinegar, malt vinegar, rice vinegar, potato vinegar, etc [6]. ...
... In addition, nowadays, consumers try to avoid consumption of foods treated with synthetic preservatives; that is why, vinegar solutions are accepted asan appealing natural alternative [17]. Although useful as a food ingredient for flavor and functional properties, the potential health benefits of vinegar varieties are leading researchers to further consider this long used food product [6]. According to research works of Yavuz et al. [18] and Yagnik et al. [7], it shows a positive effect of vinegar from various substrates on various pathogenic organisms. ...
... With documentation of the health benefits of vinegar, a concurrent increase in demand for fruit vinegar production has occurred [20]. Functional therapeutic properties of vinegar described include antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, reduction in the effectsofdiabetes, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and increased vigor after exercise [6]. Based on the above-mentioned health-and food safety related promising properties of vinegar products, this research is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activities of six vinegar samples produced from bitter kola and Jackfruit with and without added inoculants. ...
Article
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Vinegar is the product made from the conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid by a genus of bacteria Acetobacter. This work aims at determining the antibacterial effect of the vinegar produced from bitter kola (Garcina kola) and Jack fruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) on some clinical isolates. The bitter kola and Jack fruit vinegars were produced by fermentation with added inoculants and naturally by indigenous organisms. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated using agar well diffusion and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The clinical isolates evaluated include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. From the result, 3B ACV, 1A boiled, 4A natural and 4A ACV showed positive activity on E .coli. Only 1A boiled and 4A natural showed a positive activity on S. aureus. 1A boiled and 4B boiled had a positive result on P. aeruginosa. All the vinegars evaluated had a positive effect on B. subtilis. Generally from the result, it can be inferred that the vinegar produced from Garcina kola has a higher antimicrobial property than Artocarpusheterophyll usal though more research needs to be carried out the type of antimicrobial activity they exhibit (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) as well as the active ingredients present in the vinegar samples that allows them to exhibit such activities.
... The references from Hippocrates and Old Testament show that the wounds were cured medically by the use of vinegar. Sung Tse [4], who had used a vinegar and sulfur as a hand sanitizer for prevention of various infections. ...
... Vinegars are commonly used for pickling of fruits and vegetables and in the preparation of mayonnaise, salad dressings, mustard, and other food condiments. Although useful as a food ingredient for flavor and functional properties, the potential health benefits of vinegar varieties are leading researchers to further consider this long used food product [4]. Regular consumption of bioactive substances is promoted by many nutritional researchers and the functional food properties of vinegar have been reported in a variety of scientific and lay publications. ...
... With documentation of the health benefits of vinegar, a concurrent increase in demand for fruit vinegar production has occurred [5]. Functional therapeutic properties of vinegar described include antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, reduction in the effects of diabetes, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and increased vigor after exercise [4]. ...
Article
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Vinegar can be defined as an acetic acid liquid produced through fermentation from a suitable raw material of agricultural origin which contains starch or sugars as a carbon source also fit for human consumption.This work is aimed at determining the vinegar production capability of Garcina kola(Bitter Kola)and Artocarpusheterophyllus(Jack fruit). The bitter kola and jack fruit fermentation was carried out with added inoculant and naturally by indigenous inoculant for seven days at 30 o Cfor alcoholic fermentation and 28 day acetic fermentation where some of the samples were boiled and one of the groups was subjected addition of inoculant while the other contains no added inoculant. Proximate analysis of the produced vinegar was also carried out to have an insight on its nutritional quality. Results showed that the range of the pH of the vinegar was between pH 2.6-2.9 for the bitter kola, 3.20-3.73 for jackfruit with peel and pH 3.20-3.40 for jackfruit without peel. The range of acetic acid yield of the vinegar produced is between 0.80%-2.30% for bitter kola, 0.80-1.92% for jackfruit with peel and 0.98-1.92% for jackfruit without peel. The range of alcohol content was between 0-0.5. The specific gravity ranges from 1.001-1.083. The suspected organism present in the samples is Acetobacter sp. Sample 4A Natural showed to poses the highest colony count of Acetic acid bacteria with 3.49logcfu/ml. The jackfruit with peel vinegar had the highest protein, ash and total solid content with 2.45%, 1.5% and 17.3%. The jackfruit without peel vinegar had the highest moisture content with 88.36%. Generally, the substrates used which includes bitterkola and jackfruit showed to be able to be used in vinegar production and contain some nutritional properties although optimization process needs to be carried out to increase production of vinegar with better qualities.
... It was reported that acetic acid was the most lethal acid to Escherichia coli due to its capacity to pass into cell membranes of microorganisms, leading to bacterial cell death. Most fruit vinegars containing only 0.1% of acetic acid can effectively inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens in vitro, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus [24], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and others [25]. Generally, the techniques of manufacturing, AP and AJ, can be used for making vinegar from the RD and GD varieties respectively, with high antibacterial activity. ...
... These results can be explained by the high concentration of bioactive compounds existing in most of these cited samples. Acetic acid is one of many organic acids with a high capacity to inhibit the growth of microorganisms at low concentrations [24]. Al-Rousan et al. showed that acetic acid can reduce the growth of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 only at 0.4% [26], and can completely inhibit the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica at a concentration of 0.156% (v/v) [27]. ...
... Thus, apple vinegar is a food rich in phenolic compounds. The kind and quantity of each phenolic substance present in vinegar manifested different levels of respective activity [24]. A correlation was also found between E. coli (ATB: 57) and E. coli (ATB: 97), with r = 0.84, probably due to their similar membrane characteristics, while K. pneumonia was positively correlated with P. aeruginosa (r = 0.77). ...
Article
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Apple vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine as it contains many bioactive compounds. The apple variety and production methods are two factors that play a major role in determining the quality of vinegar. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quality of apple vinegar samples from different varieties (Red Delicious, Gala, Golden Delicious, and Starking Delicious) prepared by three methods using small apple pieces, apple juice, and crushed apple, through determining the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of these samples. The antibacterial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli (ATB: 57), Escherichia coli (ATB: 97), and Pseudomonas ae-ruginosa, using two methods, disk diffusion and microdilution, for determining the minimum in-hibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations. The results of this study showed that the lowest pH value was 3.6 for Stark Delicious, obtained by liquid fermentation, and the highest acetic acid values were 4.7 and 4% for the vinegar of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious , prepared by solid fermentation, respectively. The results of the antibacterial activity showed considerable activity of apple vinegar on the tested strains. Generally, the Staphylococcus aureus strain appears less sensitive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa seems to be very sensitive against all samples , while the other strains have distinct sensitivities depending on the variety studied and the method used. A higher antibacterial activity was found in vinegar obtained by the apple pieces method and the Red Delicious variety, with a low MIC and MBC recorded, at 1.95 and 3.90 µL/mL, respectively. This study has shown that the choice of both apple variety and production method is therefore an essential step in determining and aiming for the desired quality of apple vinegar.
... 36 Vinegar, camphor, sandalwood, and rose water are used in the form of spray. 42,47,59,61 Rosewater contains citronellol, geraniol, kaempferol, and nerol, which have antibacterial, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties. 24,28,32,42 Camphor contains camphor oil, linalool, and safrole, all of which have antimicrobial properties. ...
... 19,22,28,[32][33][34]47 Owing to the presence of acetic acid, catechin, and gallic acid, the vinegar possesses antibacterial and insecticidal properties. 19,[23][24]28,32,61 These medications are extremely effective and beneficial and are still vogue. Numerous fumigants are often addressed in the USM to sanitize the environment (Table 5). ...
... Vinegar is a natural food product resulting from carbohydrate-rich products, as a result of an alcoholic fermentation process followed by an acetic fermentation [10]. According to Budak et al. [11], traditional vinegars are produced from raw materials (grapes, apples, plums, coconut, rice, potatoes, and tomatoes) that contain sugar or starch and require a two-stage fermentation [12] with initial production of ethanol and subsequent production of acetic acid. The same authors mention acetic acid as having a strong antimicrobial and antifungal activity. ...
... The same authors mention acetic acid as having a strong antimicrobial and antifungal activity. One way of using vinegar is in the form of disinfectant owing to its low pH, and many researchers confirm its beneficial effect on Candida albicans [13,14], Escherichia coli [11,14], Klebsiella pneumoniae [15], and Staphylococcus aureus [14]. Moreover, Baldas et al. [16] confirms the use of apple vinegar and grape vinegar as a disinfectant for fruits and vegetables in Turkey. ...
Article
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Fruits of wild fruit species are considered healthy foods with the potential to treat and prevent chronic diseases. In recent years, the food industry and consumers have become increasingly interested in the nutritional value and safety of food and ingredients. A traditional method of processing fruits from spontaneous flora is in the form of vinegar by simple and easy techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the chemical composition of homemade vinegars obtained by traditional methods from the fruits of some wild fruit species, compared with commercial vinegars. To evaluate the characteristics of the two types of vinegar, analyses were performed regarding the physicochemical properties (density, soluble dry matter, total titratable acidity, and pH) and the content of phenolic compounds using HPLC. In terms of pH, it varied between 2.58 and 3.67 for homemade vinegar and between 2.22 and 2.86 for commercial vinegar. The density of vinegar varied between 1015 and 1070 kg/m3 in the case of homemade vinegar and between 1013 and 1030 kg/m3 in the case of commercial vinegar. The phenolic compounds, gallic acid, neochlorogenic acid, catechin hydrate, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, and myricetin were found in homemade vinegar. Fewer phenolic compounds were identified in commercial vinegars. The data obtained highlight the high quality of homemade traditional vinegars compared with commercial ones. The biochemical composition of vinegars traditionally obtained from wild fruits, through simple recipes, demonstrates their role and importance for human well-being and the potentially beneficial effects on health.
... Apple cider vinegar is used as a healthy and safe drink for diverse purposes. In traditional folk, medicine apple vinegar is applied for the treatment of several diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, Alzheimer's disease, common cold, and cough [14][15][16][17]. Fruits vinegar was the most kind recommended functional product to treat laryngitis, fever, swelling, stomachache [17]. ...
... In traditional folk, medicine apple vinegar is applied for the treatment of several diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, Alzheimer's disease, common cold, and cough [14][15][16][17]. Fruits vinegar was the most kind recommended functional product to treat laryngitis, fever, swelling, stomachache [17]. In our previous studies, we noticed that apple cider vinegar can ameliorate the metabolic disorder induced by a hypercaloric diet, and it possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities [18][19][20]. ...
Article
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Oxidative stress is the trigger of several diseases. It is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidants. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the protective property of Rosa canina fruits and apple cider vinegar combined or not against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. The experiment included five groups: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg b.wt), group 2 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt), group 3 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and apple vinegar (2 mL/kg b.wt); group 4 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and apple vinegar supplemented with Rosa canina fruits extract (300 mg/kg b.wt); group 5 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and extract of Rosa canina fruits (300 mg/kg b.wt). The doses were given once daily via a gavage. The antioxidant capacity of apple vinegar and Rosa canina extract was analyzed, and AST, ALT, PAL, urea, and creatinine were determined on day 22 of the experiment. In addition, the kidney and the liver tissues were analyzed. The results showed that H2O2 caused a significant elevation of blood urea, blood creatinine, and transaminases. The histopathology examination revealed that H2O2 caused congestion, hemorrhage, and Bowman’s space enlarged. On the other hand, the results clearly showed that apple vinegar and Rosa canina fruits counterbalance the biochemical and histological changes induced by H2O2. In conclusion, the two natural products studied in this work are effective against the harmful effect of oxidative stress, which explains their use in traditional medicine.
... Vinegar has been broadly used in folk remedies to treat different diseases [13,14]. Among ancient prescriptions described in the Chinese Book Fifty-Two diseases (300 BC) [13]. ...
... Among ancient prescriptions described in the Chinese Book Fifty-Two diseases (300 BC) [13]. Multiple studies have reported the beneficial effects of apple vinegar such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive benefits [11,13,14]. Several reports mentioned that the intake of vinegar helped in controlling blood glucose levels and that it has an inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase [15,16]. ...
Article
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The main objective of the current study was to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition of apple vinegar produced by artisanal and industrial methods. Apple vinegar samples were analyzed to identify their electrical conductivity, pH, titratable acidity, total dry matter, Brix, density, mineral elements, polyphenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C. The antioxidant activity of apple vinegar samples was evaluated using two tests, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Finally, we determined α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of artisanal and industrial apple vinegar. The results showed the following values: pH (3.69–3.19); electrical conductivity (2.81–2.79 mS/cm); titratable acidity (3.6–5.4); ash (4.61–2.90); ◦Brix (6.37–5.2); density (1.02476–1.02012), respectively, for artisanal apple vinegar and industrial apple vinegar. Concerning mineral elements, potassium was the most predominant element followed by sodium, magnesium, and calcium. Concerning bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C), the apple vinegar produced by the artisanal method was the richest sample in terms of bioactive compounds and had the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition. The findings of this study showed that the quality and biological activities of artisanal apple vinegar were more important than industrial apple vinegar
... These results were compared with our study and the antibacterial potency of persimmon peels vinegar for S. aureus, E. coli could be arranged as follows: E. coli (10.67 mm)> S. aureus (9.33 mm). Ozturk et al. [28] determined industrial and home-made traditional vinegar produced in Turkey concerning the antimicrobial effect. The sensitivity of the bacteria to the vinegar samples was notably variable. ...
... B. cereus was detected as the most sensitive strain, in which 90% and 100% of the industrial and traditional vinegar samples demonstrated antimicrobial activity at variable levels. Different studies have demonstrated that the acetic acid in vinegar was the most lethal acid to E. coli O157: H7 followed by citric, lactic, and malic acids [28]. ...
Article
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) wastes are defined as a new alternative source for vinegar production. This approach enables the utilization of the persimmon peels which are generally thrown during the consumption or processing of the fruit. The present study investigated total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid compound (TFC), antioxidant capacities (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC)) of persimmon peel vinegar. Additionally, the antimicrobial and some physicochemical properties of the persimmon peels vinegar were evaluated. TPC, TFC were 292.28 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L and 17.36 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/L, for persimmon vinegar, respectively. In terms of antioxidant activity, persimmon peels vinegar extracts had 225.44 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/L for DPPH assay, and 589.07 mg TE/L for CUPRAC assay. Titratable acidity, pH and Brix values of vinegar samples were found as 4.5%, 3.64%, and 1.2%, respectively. The vinegar showed a well antimicrobial effect. Generally, upon increasing the extract concentration, the inhibition zone was also increased, and the highest inhibition zone was observed at direct (100%) extract concentration applied against Escherichia coli for antibacterial activity and the highest inhibition zone was observed at direct (100%) extract concentration applied against Aspergillus niger for antifungal activity. This study suggested that especially in vinegar production, food waste might be evaluated and also, this vinegar has health-promoting qualities and might be a competitive product in the commercial market.
... For centuries, vinegar has been widely used all around the world, notably as a food preservative and a condiment. It is an essential ingredient of fruit and vegetable pickles and features prominently in mayonnaise, mustard and dressing recipes [1]. Vinegar can be made from fruit and many other products containing sugar. ...
... It is also a powerful antibiotic [38] and antioxidant [39]. Its health benefits are related to the content of nutrients and bioactive substances [1], which make it a functional food [40]. The main bioactive compounds in fruit vinegars include organic acids, fructooligosaccharides, minerals and vitamins [41]. ...
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Citation: Antoniewicz, J.; Kochman, J.; Jakubczyk, K.; Janda-Milczarek, K. Abstract: Fermented foods have been an integral part of the cuisines of almost all cultures in the world. In recent years, they have gained ground again, mainly due to their potential health benefits. One such product is grape vinegar, which apart from characteristic taste, is also a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in the antioxidant potential and the content of polyphenols that occur during the storage of grape vinegar obtained by spontaneous fermentation. The research material consisted of vinegar made from different white grape varieties grown in Poland. For each variety, two variants were prepared: with and without the addition of sugar in the fermentation process. The antioxidant potential, polyphenol content, soluble solids content and pH were monitored both during the two-month fermentation process and the subsequent 6-months storage under various conditions. Storage conditions and time of the storage affected the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The content of these compounds was also influenced by the variety of grapes used as well as the method of vinegar preparation.
... Finally, the last improvement was achieved by the invention of automated Frings acetators, which have shown good ability and efficiencies in vinegar production. This technique can be conducted quickly for approximately 20 to 24 h at 30 °C for the production of wine vinegar (see Fig. 2), while in the Chinese vinegar it takes place for a long time, determined about 20 days, and is usually handled in an oblong cement pool (Budak et al. 2014;Natera et al. 2003;Garcia-Parilla et al. 1997;Xu et al. 2009;Callejón et al. 2009). ...
... The action of agitation provides oxygen. Also, this method can produce a large amount of vinegar to meet the increasing demand, or be conducted in a small size, for example, in the oblong cement pool (Natera et al. 2003;Garcia-Parilla et al. 1997;Xu et al. 2009;Budak et al. 2014;Callejón et al. 2009;Al-Dalali et al. 2019a). ...
Article
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Vinegar is a sour-taste liquid product produced mainly by three sequential steps: saccharification, alcohol fermentation, and acetification. Vinegar has a significant position in Chinese dishes and daily life due to its flavor characteristics and health benefits. It is directly used as a food ingredient or as a diluted solution with water. Nowadays, there are many types of vinegar, and every type has its unique and desirable flavors, differentiated based on their fermentation method and raw material used. This review summarized the fermentation techniques for producing different kinds of vinegar, especially for the four famous Chinese vinegar. Furthermore, the differences between traditional and modern techniques were also described. On the other hand, the previous studies conducted on the analysis of vinegar aroma profiles have been summarized. In addition, previous studies on the analysis of vinegar aroma compounds were elaborated, including the techniques for aroma extraction, identification, and quantification.
... In order to increases their shelf life, it is common to transform them into products such as vinegar and raisins (1). Vinegar is produced in both industrial and traditional forms (2) through alcoholic and acetic fermentation of sugar syrups (3). This product lowers blood sugar, triglycerides, and blood lipids (4,5). ...
... Consumption of 15 mL of vinegar (750 mg of acetic acid) during the day can be effective in improving lifestylerelated diseases, including high blood pressure and obesity (6). It seems that the therapeutic effects of vinegar may be related to the content of acetic acid and some other components (3,7). Vinegar has anti-bacterial, antiviral, anti-fungal, as well as anti-parasitic effects since it stimulates the immune system (7). ...
Article
Mycotoxins are known to be one of the most important food contaminants that pose potential health risks to humans. This study aimed to investigate the changes in total aflatoxin (TAF) content during grape vinegar production. Different types of aflatoxins including aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1), B 2 (AFB 2), G 1 (AFG 1), and G 2 (AFG 2) were spiked into washed grape samples in the level of 5 μg/kg. Then grape samples were converted to vinegar. After different stages of vinegar processing including juicing, alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, and pasteurization, sampling was performed and the level of each aflatoxin was measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). Among different processing steps, the pasteurization operation had the least effect on the removal of aflatoxin. After juicing, the amount of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 decreased by 14%, 11.18%, 13.77%, and 18.56%, respectively. Alcoholic fermentation had the greatest effect on the removal of aflatoxin so that it could reduce the levels of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 by 41.87%, 45.34%, 45.37%, and 46.52%, respectively. Overall, during processing and conversion of grapes to vinegar, the values of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 were reduced by 76.20%, 71.06%, 69.26%, and 75.85%, respectively. Processing grapes to vinegar can have a significant effect on the aflatoxin reduction.
... These chemical variations, mainly in terms of organic acids and polyphenolic compounds, can in turn affect the functional properties of vinegars (e.g., acidity, antioxidant activity). In this respect, Budak et al. have reported that functional and therapeutic properties of vinegar on human health comprise antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and improved blood glucose response [9]. Altogether, it becomes evident that the food industry requires robust analytical methodologies to characterize the quality and verify the geographical origin of vinegars. ...
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High-quality wine vinegars with unique organoleptic characteristics are produced in southern Spain under three Protected Designations of Origin (PDO), namely “Jerez”, “Condado de Huelva” and “Montilla-Moriles”. To guarantee their authenticity and avoid frauds, robust and low-cost analytical methodologies are needed for the quality control and traceability of vinegars. In this study, we propose the use of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical tools to discriminate Spanish wine vinegars according to their geographical origin, as well as to predict their physicochemical and functional properties. Linear discriminant analysis provided a clear clustering of vinegar samples according to the PDO with excellent classification performance (98.6%). Furthermore, partial least squares regression analysis demonstrated that spectral data can serve as accurate predictors of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vinegars. Accordingly, UV-Vis spectroscopy stands out as a suitable analytical tool for simple and rapid authentication and traceability of vinegars.
... Organic acids are available and easy to use but sometimes cause discoloration because of their acidic properties. Vinegar contains strong acetic acid which passes through the cell membrane causes acidification of cell organelles resulting in bacterial cell death (23)(24)(25). Calcium based sanitizers have proved their efficiency against microorganisms (26). Bacterial load (log 10 cfu/g ± SD) TVC: Total viable bacteria All the experiments have been done three times and one representative data have been shown Table 6). ...
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Fruits are important parts of our daily diet to maintain a healthy life as they have potential nutritional values. But unfortunately, a number of foodborne diseases have been noticed due to the consumption of raw and contaminated fruits. The present study was carried out to isolate the pathogenic microorganisms from fruits sample and to determine the effects of some household cleaning methods including washing and various common chemical treatments for the removal of bacterial load. A conventional spread plate technique was performed for the detection of bacteria. Total heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were found in 30 samples of 6 categories including Java apple (Syzygium cumini), Carambola (Averrhoa carambola), Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica), Olive (Olea europaea) Koromcha (Carissa carandas) and Pear (Pyrus). Tap water, hot water (50°C), 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 50 mg/L calcium lactate, 4% acetic acid and 2 ml/L CleanAva were used as decontaminating agents. All samples were soaked in tested cleaning agents for 20 min at room temperature. All the tested solutions were found to be effective and reduced bacterial loads in fruits compared to the unwashed fruits samples (p<0.01). It was revealed, NaOCl, calcium lactate, acetic acid and CleanAva were more effective cleaning agents than water wash. Two to three log of bacterial load was reduced when samples were subjected to treat with decontaminating agents. Potable water, the types and concentration of the disinfectant solutions are important parameters for effective washing.
... Both contain acetic (main component), malic, citric, formic, lactic, and succinic acids with lesser alcohol and more acetic acid in apple vinegar. [45] Serial no. ...
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Objectives: The aim of this article is to identify whether natural irrigants are better than synthetic conventional irrigants for smear layer removal and to analyze their influence on mechanical and chemical radicular dentin properties. Materials and methods: The last electronic search was performed on June 2020 through five databases, limited to articles either published or accepted for publication in the English language using the following keywords: "Natural extracts" or "Fruit and plant extracts" and "Smear layer removal." Results: According to the inclusion criteria, 36 articles were included. Most studies revealed that apple or apple cider vinegars, grape seed extract, citrus aurantifolia, 5-10% glycolic acid, and 0.5-1% phytic acid effectively removed the smear layer better or similar to synthetic conventional agents. Conclusion: Natural irrigants are effective smear layer removing agents with the least deteriorated effect on mechanical and chemical radicular dentin properties compared with synthetic agents.
... Comparing Vitamin C content in vinegar of studies has been reported by that showed (217 ± 6.3 mg/L) relatively similar amount of vitamin C content was seen in vinegar produced in present study. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant which can boost the blood [37] antioxidant levels and can also prevent and control the cancer . The obtained product comprises of 116 mg/Kg of Calcium. ...
Article
Vinegar is a liquid obtained after alcoholic uid is exposed to oxygen in controlled conditions. Millet vinegar was produced basically to nd a replacement for the commonly used and less economical apple cider vinegar. Initially, four millets were selected as whole grains and heated with 5 folds of water at 90 to 100°C for 2 to 3 hours. Further the liquid obtained was used as reaction mixture for alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation. Vinegar so obtained after 7 days of alcoholic fermentation and 15 days of acetic acid fermentation is measured for its various physicochemical parameters. Vinegar showed signicant acidity of (5.5%) as acetic acid and various vitamins and minerals with low energy value. Vinegar also showed notable antimicrobial property with respect to selected bacterial species. Overall attempt for vinegar production using millets was successful. Further investigation on other properties and by improving vinegar production with controlled parameters could produce better vinegar.
... The significant (p < 0.05) lowest and highest levels of dry matter were obtained in samples of HMV2 and HMV6, respectively. The efficiency of alcoholic fermentation was the most noticeable in raspberry vinegar (HMV2) with the lowest percentage of dry matter (3.0%) and the highest amount of alcohol 4.24% [40][41][42][43][44][45]. ...
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In the current study, the antioxidant activity of traditional homemade fruit vinegars (HMV) was estimated by measuring the rate of homogeneous redox reaction with 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+) using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant capacity of six HMV produced using traditional methods and the physicochemical characterization were measured in different vinegar production steps throughout a double spontaneous fermentation process, i.e., without any addition of yeasts or acetic acid bacteria. Their antioxidant capacity was compared with seven fruit commercial vinegars (ComV). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity was independently measured with the TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay, aiming at correlating with the electrochemical experimental data. Obtained results from both methods, the electrochemical and TEAC assays, interestingly indicated that all HMV have at least 10 times higher antioxidant activity than ComV. Furthermore, the large range of values for antioxidant capacity in samples of commercial vinegars from apples attested the importance of the raw material quality and technological procedures. The positive correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity measured by the two type of assays indicated that rose hip homemade vinegar (HMV5) has the highest antioxidant capacity. In contrast, the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were found in apple and persimmon homemade vinegars (HMV1 and HMV6, respectively) which indicated that the type of fruit is crucial towards the production of high-quality vinegars. In this way, the use of traditional processes for the production of fruit vinegars proved to be very promising in terms of producing differentiated vinegars and, concomitantly, reaching high levels of health-promoting antioxidant capacities.
... When demineralized, dissolution of the inorganic component occurs. Demineralization can reduce dental hardness through the formation of porosity on the surface of enamel (Budak et al., 2014). Acetic acid or so-called vinegar in daily life is widely used by the public. ...
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Background: Chitosan and Calcium can be regarded as the natural polymeric materials obtained from the exoskeleton of Xylotrupes gideon through demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation processes. Nano chitosan and calcium can inhibit the demineralization process, which is caused by the consumption of acetic acid. This study aims at determining the effect of nano chitosan pretreatment and nano calcium X. gideon on the application of acetic acid toward tooth enamel hardness. Methods: The study used 36 upper teeth premolars divided into 4 groups; the first group was artificial saliva control, the second group was acetic acid application without pretreatment with nano chitosan and nano calcium, the third group was given pretreatment with nano chitosan and the fourth group was given pretreatment with nano chitosan and nano calcium (5:1). Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in all groups both without or with nano chitosan pretreatment and combination nano chitosan and nano calcium X. gideon on the application of acetic acid to hardness of tooth enamel (p <0.05). Conclusions: Research using combination of nano chitosan and nano calcium proved to be more effective in inhibiting the demineralization process by increasing the hardness of tooth enamel as compared to other groups.
... of several studies have indicated the positive effects of vinegar on lipid profile and weight loss [2][3][4][5]. ...
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High blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. With regard to the significant role of a healthy diet in the prevention and even treatment of diseases together with the high cost and side effects of drugs, finding foods effective in the treatment of metabolic disorders has been widely considered. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oxymel – an Iranian traditional syrup with vinegar base – on cardiovascular risk indicators in obese and overweight people. Candidates were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups of control and test. The control group received 250 cc of water, while the test group received 250 cc water containing 30 cc of the oxymel for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical indicators were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The results showed that there were no significant changes in the body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and blood glucose level. However, weight (P = 0.053) and cholesterol (P = 0.083) decreased relatively significantly in the test group compared to the control group. This study shows that consumption of oxymel has positive cardiovascular effects such as lowering the blood cholesterol level and can contribute to weight loss; however, studies with a larger sample size are recommended.
... These discrepancies could result from different properties of the wide range of natural vinegars resulting from their chemical composition. The effects of vinegar arose from consuming bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid [47,48]. At the same time, it is impossible to point to the most effective substance. ...
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary rocket salad and apple cider vinegar on the oxidative stress (OS) status of broilers. Specifically, 720 Ross 308 chicks were divided into six groups: negative and positive controls (NC and PC with and without additives, Vi1 and V12 experimental groups fed with diets mixed with 5 and 10 mL of vinegar/kg, and Ro1 and Ro2 groups fed with diets mixed with 2 and 3 g of rocket salad/kg, respectively). The experimental groups Vi1 and Vi2 were fed with feed mixture moisturized with 5 and 10 mL of vinegar/kg, and Ro1 and Ro2 were fed with 2 and 3 g of rocket salad/kg, respectively. The birds’ productivity, oxidative serum parameters, and morphometric indices of the gastrointestinal tract were registered at 6 weeks of rearing. The vinegar or rocket salad additive had powerful potentials to significantly suppress (p ≤ 0.05) OS through improving the birds’ survivability, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass yield. The highest villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio of the duodenum were achieved by Vi2, Ro1-2, and NC (p ≤ 0.05). The villus surface area and muscular layer thickness were smallest in the PC, while they did not differ significantly in other groups (p > 0.05). Similar relationships were found in serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde; however, higher doses of both additives were more effective. It seems that liquid vinegar and rocket salad could have beneficial influences on the antioxidant status of birds.
... Since vinegar is produced from numerous fruits and vegetables rich in amino acids, organic acids, phenolics, vitamins, and mineral substances, they contain bioactive and display antioxidant, anti-obesity, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities (Bakir et al., 2017;Budak et al., 2011). They have been reported to have several effects such as anti-infective, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, and blood glucose and lipids regulation activities (Budak, Aykin, Seydim, Greene, & Guzel-Seydim, 2014;Budak et al., 2011;Ozturk et al., 2015). These effects and the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of vinegar depending on the raw materials and the fermentation method change. ...
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This study was aimed to be produced rosehip vinegar production from rosehip fruit, which has a limited usage, for the first time, and to monitor in detail the changes in bioactive compounds and volatile compounds, which affected on aroma property of it, during the rosehip vinegar production. Thus, it was aimed to contribute to the modernization of fermented foods and to produce rosehip vinegar as a healthy, aromatic and alternative product. The results showed that the rosehip vinegar had high TPC, TFC contents, and antioxidant activity. And catechin, ellagic-acid, quercetin, taxifolin, 4-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, and salicylic-acid were the important phenolic compounds in the rosehip wine and vinegar. Besides, vitamin-C content increased during the fermentation, and the highest value of vitamin-C was obtained in the rosehip vinegar. And, in the vinegar, it was displayed a total of 27 volatile compounds, the major compounds were acetic-acid, acetoin, pentanoic-acid, propionic-acid, octanoic-acid, followed by vitispirane, phenethyl-alcohol, isobutyric-acid, and 1-p-menthen-9-al. As a result, it has been thought that the rosehip fruit an adequate substrate for the production of rosehip vinegar which is a healthy and aromatic vinegar. Also, rosehip vinegar, obtained from rosehip fruit, which has a limited usage was contributed to the modernization of fermented foods.
... Ferulic acid (FA), which has demonstrated elevated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and antidiabetic, antitumor, and neuro-and cardio-protective properties [125,126], is found in vegetables and cereals in free or conjugated form [24,[127][128][129]. ...
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The treatment of tissue damage produced by physical, chemical, or mechanical agents involves considerable direct and indirect costs to health care systems. Wound healing involves a series of molecular and cellular events aimed at repairing the defect in tissue integrity. These events can be favored by various natural agents, including the polyphenols in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The objective of this study was to review data on the potential effects of different phenolic compounds that can also be found in EVOO on wound healing and closure. Results of in vitro and animal studies demonstrate that polyphenols from different plant species, also present in EVOO, participate in different aspects of wound healing, accelerating this process through their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and their stimulation of angiogenic activities required for granulation tissue formation and wound re-epithelialization. These results indicate the potential usefulness of EVOO phenolic compounds for wound treatment, either alone or in combination with other therapies. Human studies are warranted to verify this proposition.
... Vinegar is traditionally produced from alcohol-containing syrup that is obtained from a fermented raw material, which can come from several sources. The group of microorganisms known as acetic bacteria (AAB) performs the transformation of ethanol into acetic acid (Budak et al., 2014). Depending on the raw material, the addition of nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, might be necessary to a greater or lesser extent (Gullo et al., 2014). ...
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This study aimed to verify the need for minerals and vitamins to increase the production of cell mass by acetic acid bacteria (AAB) isolated from the vinegar industry (086/06) and standard strain (Acetobacter aceti CCT 2565). Five minerals (Mo, B, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and eight vitamins (p-aminobenzoic acid, thiamine, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, and inositol) were tested in a fractional factorial design. To prepare the inoculum, different compositions of MYP (mannitol, yeast, and peptone) medium were tested. The most adequate medium was mannitol 25 g/L, yeast extract 0.625 g/L, and peptone 0.375 g/L. Through contour curves, it was determined that strain 086/06 needed supplementation with minerals Mo, B and Mn and vitamins p-aminobenzoic acid, pyridoxine and cyanocobalamin. Standard strain CCT 2565 needed supplementation of all minerals and vitamins studied, except inositol. The lower requirement of micronutrients for high cell multiplication of the 086/06 strain may be related to the adaptation of strain 086/06 to industrial production conditions.
... Cider vinegar has functional therapeutic properties, such as antioxidative, antibacterial activity, promoting recovery from exhaustion, and regulating blood pressure and blood glucose (Johnston and Gaas, 2006;Verzelloni et al., 2007). With increasing interest in the potential health effects of cider vinegar worldwide, there have been many reports confirming the antioxidative activity of various kinds of cider vinegars (Budak et al., 2014). Phenolic compounds play an essential role in vinegar's antioxidative activity (Shimoji et al., 2002;Verzelloni et al., 2007;Zhao et al., 2018). ...
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Several quality attributes of wax apple cider vinegar (WACV) were determined every 30 days for six months at ambient temperature. Acetic acid fermentation significantly increased the acetic acid content in WACV. The lightness and yellowness gradually decreased, whereas redness increased during storage. Density, viscosity, and pH of WACV continuously retarded, and total acidity, volatile acidity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen content increased during storage. Phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of WACV were affected by storage. Various amino acids and volatile compounds were observed in WACV during storage. Throughout the storage period, the microbial growth in WACV was considerably low.
... A produção de vinagre podem ser uma boa solução para o desperdício durante a colheita, alta produtividade por árvore, curta vida de prateleira do frutas frescas e a falta de uso dessas frutas no processamento produtos (Viana et al.2017). (Budak, et al, 2014). O vinagre de maçã pode colaborar com benefícios saudáveis tais como, perda de peso, a redução dos níveis de glicose no sangue em pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 mellitus, ou diminuição do risco de doenças cardíacas (Song et al., 2019, Launholt, Kristiansen & Hjorth, 2020. ...
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Resumo O vinagre pode produzido de qualquer fonte de carboidrato, frutas, substrato amiláceo ou açucarado através de duas fermentações sucessivas, a alcoólica realizada por meio de leveduras e a acética por bactéria. A produção de vinagres de frutas como forma de aproveitamento de subprodutos de frutas é uma opção amplamente utilizada pela indústria alimentícia. A presente pesquisa produziu e caracterizou um vinagre elaborado a partir das cascas de maçã. O processo de fermentação utilizou a casca de maçã com meio de cultura, maceração através da solução hidroalcóolica a 10% em temperatura entre 27 ± 1 ° C com irrigação 3 (três) vezes ao dia, sem aeração por 12 dias. Foram realizadas determinações físico-químicas de acidez volátil, pH e teor de álcool a 20 °C. A análise de variância ANOVA e o teste de Tukey a 5% identificaram diferença entre o vinagre de maçã comercial e o artesanal produzido com casca de maçã. O vinagre produzido com casca de maçã apresentou resultado dentro do estabelecido pela legislação brasileira. A relação entre as variáveis físico-químicas e os vinagres artesanal e industrial foram estudadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA). Obteve-se, com 2 componentes, mais de 99,98% da variabilidade dos explicados. O vinagre produzido com casca de maçã possui os parâmetros físico químico acidez e teor alcoólico dentro do preconizado pela legislação, características físico-químicas semelhantes aos produzidos industrialmente e adequado para o consumo como vinagres comerciais.
... Vinegar is formed by a two-step fermentation, first of which is ethyl alcohol and then acetic acid is obtained from raw materials containing sugar or starch. Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and vitamins in vinegar can protect against oxidative stress due to their antioxidant activities (Budak, 2014). ...
... Vinegar has been widely used as a flavoring and cooking ingredient in foods for thousands of years. Various materials such as fruits, rice and whole grains are used for vinegar production via the solid-state fermentation process [1]. There are many advantages of vinegar, especially in medicinal applications, such as anti-infective, antidiabetic and cardiovascular-protective effects, digestive system assistance, appetite stimulation, regulation of blood pressure and recovery from exhaustion. ...
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Four types of traditional Thai rice—polished, black fragrant, glutinous and black glutinous rice—were separately used as raw material for vinegar production. During alcohol fermentation, using enriched baker’s dried yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a starter culture gave the highest ethanol content over 7 days of fermentation. The conversion of ethanol to acetic acid for vinegar production by Acetobacter pasteurianus TISTR 102 was performed for 25 days. The highest amount of acetic acid was detected with glutinous rice fermentation (6.68% w/v). The biological properties of Thai rice vinegars were determined, including the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Black glutinous rice vinegar exhibited the maximum total phenolic content of 133.68 mg GAE/100 mL. This result was related to the antioxidative activity findings, for which black glutinous rice vinegar exhibited the strongest activity against both ABTS•+ and DPPH• radicals. Cytotoxicity against the human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) provided an IC50 value of 74.02 μg/mL and weak activity in a mouse fibroblast normal cell line (L929) with an IC50 value of 171.06 μg/mL. Glutinous rice vinegar was the most effective vinegar for inhibiting pathogenic bacterial growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These results suggested that the value of total phenolic content corresponded to the anticancer activity and antioxidant activity results, while antibacterial activity depended on the acidity of rice vinegar.
... The antifungal activity of vinegar was tested against various fungal strains of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Candida [15,16]. Indeed, the acetic acid content in vinegar confers it an activity which can be used for the treatment of various infections even at low concentrations [3,17]. In addition, vinegar was used recently in certain dietary behaviors to prevent non-severe and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or as an effective disinfecting agent to stop its transmission. ...
Article
Citation: Kara, M.; Assouguem, A.; Fadili, M.E.; Benmessaoud, S.; Alshawwa, S.Z.; Kamaly, O.A.; Saghrouchni, H.; Zerhouni, A.R.; Bahhou, J. Contribution to the Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Potential, and Antimicrobial Activity of Vinegar Commercialized in Morocco.
... Another study demonstrated that up to 3 logs of E. coli cell reduction occurred when cabbage was subjected to treatment with 0.1% to 0.4% calcinated calcium for 20 mins (Fukuyama et al., 2009). Different studies showed the efficiency of vinegar (acetic acid) against pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce (Bakir et al., 2017;Budak et al., 2014). Chang and Fang (2007) reported that a 3 log reduction of E. coli was observed in lettuce leave when it was treated with 5% acetic acid and in another study, it was documented that a mixture of 4.03% acetic acid and lemon juice significantly reduced the load of Salmonella spp. ...
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Consumption of fresh fruits increases along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles. However, many foodborne illnesses have been reported due to the consumption of contaminated fruits. Fresh produces are subjected to various treatments for minimizing these outbreaks. The present study demonstrates the role of various simple household methods including water washing and some other common chemical treatments for the removal of bacterial load. By performing the spread plate technique, total heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were determined in 60 samples of 6 categories including Apple (Malus domestica); Grape (Vitis vinifera); Guava (Psidium guajava); Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa); Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana); Malabar plum (Syzygium cumini) before and after washing with tap water, hot water, 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 50 mg/L calcium lactate, 4% acetic acid and 2 mL/L CleanAva for 20 mins at room temperature. All the tested solutions were found to be effective and reduced bacterial loads in fruits compared to the unwashed fruits samples (P<0.01). Treatment with NaOCl, calcium lactate, acetic acid and CleanAva was the more effective washing technique rather than hot water wash. Two to three log of the bacterial load was reduced when samples were subjected to treatment with chemical decontaminating agents. The efficiency of washing depends on the purity of water, and the types and concentration of the disinfectant solutions. An appropriate washing technique needs to implicate to diminish bacterial load and the risk of foodborne infections caused by fruits.
... The antifungal activity of vinegar was tested against various fungal strains of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Candida [15,16]. Indeed, the acetic acid content in vinegar confers it an activity which can be used for the treatment of various infections even at low concentrations [3,17]. In addition, vinegar was used recently in certain dietary behaviors to prevent non-severe and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or as an effective disinfecting agent to stop its transmission. ...
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Vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine thanks to its physicochemical properties and its richness in bioactive molecules. However, its direct use by consumers can have complications and undesirable effects. Therefore, this study contributes to investigating the physicochemical and biological properties of eleven vinegars marketed in Morocco. Determination of pH, acetic acid, conductivity, total soluble solids and alcohol content in vinegar was carried out. The polyphenols (TP), flavonoids (TF), and condensed tannins (CT) content was determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Phosphomolybdenum Reduction Assay (TAC). Then, the antimicrobial activity was studied against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains, using the disk diffusion and the microdilution method. This study showed a wide range of acetic acid values from 0.65 ± 0.29 to 5.15 ± 0.20%. The high value of TP, TF, and CT in our samples V10, V9, and V4 was 655.00 ± 22.2 µgGAE/mL, 244.53 ± 11.32 µgQE/mL and 84.63 ± 1.00 µgTAE/mL, respectively. The tested strains showed variable sensitivities to the different samples with inhibition zones ranging from 6.33 ± 2.08 to 34.33 ± 0.58 mm. The lowest minimum inhibition concentrations were recorded against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213 ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µL/mL. While Aspergillus niger ATCC16404 showed resistance against all of the analyzed samples. In general, vinegar commercialized in Morocco presents a variable range of products with variable properties. Indeed, must take into account this diversity when using it. A future study is needed to identify the phytochemical composition that will further the comprehension of this variability and contribute to its valorization.
... Vinegar has been used for food and medical purposes since ancient time [9]. Regarding food purposes, vinegar is used as a seasoning, acidifying, and preserving agent. ...
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Vinegar and vegetable oil are frequently used in emulsion formulations, allowing the fabrication of new functional foods. In the present study, a potentially functional oil/vinegar dressing was formulated using an enriched omega-3 fatty acids oil blend (high-oleic sunflower and soybean oil) and several kinds of naturally occurring biophenols (white wine, red wine, pomegranate, apple, malt, alcohol, olive, and olive leaf vinegar). In the present study, vinegar and oil were efficaciously emulsified with an ultrasound bath without any addition of emulsifiers. Accelerated oxidation tests have been carried out on the oil/vinegar dressing samples. Most types of vinegars (i.e., white and red wine, pomegranate, apple, malt, and alcohol) shown to not affect the oxidation processes of oil/vinegar dressing. Interestingly, olive vinegar, obtained by the fermentation of olive-oil-mill wastewaters, and olive leaf vinegar, obtained by the maceration of leaves in alcohol vinegar, exhibited clear antioxidant activity. Results obtained may be helpful in developing a range of natural and healthy ingredients for the formulation of novel and functional foods.
... The fermentation process has an impact on halal status of food products, because it uses microbial assistance in its manufacture (Faridah & Sari, 2019). Vinegar is one of the products whose production process uses microbes (Budak et al., 2014). Soy sauce is also one of the food products are made through the fermentation process of soybeans, using yeast or tempeh mushrooms and added various ingredients such as herbs and spices, sugar, and water (Park et al., 2017). ...
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Padang is one of the cities in Indonesia with a majority of the Moslem population. It is a crucial thing to be considered by Moslems. This study aims to determine the critical point of halal food found at restaurants in the city of Padang as the novelty of this study. In this study, qualitative methods are used with a population of all restaurants in the city of Padang. The research sources data were informants or restaurant managers by using purposive sampling techniques. The data research was observations and interviews with informants and documentation. Data processing in this study used NVivo 11 software and it is descriptively equipped with data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion making. The result of this research show there are two dominant cooking techniques used in food processing; 65 dishes for frying and 37 dishes for boiling with coconut milk. The food processing using the burned technique, boiled with water, and sautéed are little. There are three types of beverages served; mineral water, sachet drinks (tea, coffee, cappuccino), and fruit processed (fruit juices) as the beverages menu. Identification results show the critical point of halal food in restaurants are divided into four; 1) high water content (beef, chicken, offal, Tempe, and tofu), 2) low water content (salt, sugar, flavoring, sachets, flour, rice flour, paneer flour, and crackers), 3) liquid raw materials (mineral water, cooking oil, soy sauce, and vinegar), and 4) processing equipment (brush polish). Food ingredients and processing equipment that have a critical halal point are meat, crackers, bulk oil, mineral water, and brushes. While other Food Materials, unique packaged ones, already have a halal label on the packaging. This research can contribute in providing information to Moslems about the importance of halal food from all aspects as good as facilitate the restaurant to get halal certification.
... Apple vinegar contains numerous biologically active components such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and catechin [43]. The presence of several bioactive compounds in apple vinegar are effective in inhibiting the installation of different illnesses including diabetes and cancer [78,79]. However, no attention has been paid examining the ability of apple vinegar to prevent phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia. ...
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This study aims to examine the ability of apple vinegar on phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced hemolytic anemia in Wistar rats. In vitro, phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were determined. In vivo, phenylhydrazine (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously into rats for 4 days and then treated with apple vinegar daily by gavage (1 mL/kg) for five weeks. high level of polyphenols and flavonoids (90 ± 1.66 mg GAE/100 mL and 7.29 ± 0.23 mg QE/100 mL, respectively) were found in the apple vinegar which gives it a good ability to scavenge free radicals (TAC = 4.22 ± 0.18 mg AAE/100 mL and DPPH, IC50= 0.49 ± 0.004 µL/mL). The phytochemical composition of apple vinegar revealed the presence of numerous bioactive compounds including arbutin, apig-enin, sinapic, ferulic and trans-ferulic acids. The major antioxidant components in apple vinegar were ferulic and trans-ferulic acids (40% and 43%, respectively). PHZ treatment induced changes in platelets, blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin concentration and mean capsu-lated hemoglobin. However, the co-administration of apple vinegar revealed its capacity to ameliorate the changes induced by phenylhydrazine. Therefore, apple vinegar use could have a positive impact on the prevention of hemolytic anemia induced by phenylhydrazine due to the antioxidant properties of its major components.
... The references from Hippocrates and Old Testament show that the wounds were cured medically by the use of vinegar. Sung Tse [4], who had used a vinegar and sulfur as a hand sanitizer for prevention of various infections. Vinegars are commonly used for pickling of fruits and vegetables and in the preparation of mayonnaise, salad dressings, mustard, and other food condiments. ...
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Vinegar is the product made from the conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid by a genus of bacteria Acetobacter. This work is based on the ability of vinegar to be produced from Garcina kola and Acer pseudoplatanus. The production of vinegar from bitter kola and sycamore to avoid waste or spoilage of the fruits which can serve for preservation and food preparation was the essence of the study carried out. It is a useful means to help ensure that losses incurred with fruits are reduced and the vinegar produced can help to properly preserve some foods against spoilage. Bitter kola and sycamore were processed, cut and eventually blended to evaluate the production and quality of the vinegar being produced. The bitter kola and sycamore were fermentation was carried out with added inoculant and naturally by indigenous inoculant for 7d at 30 o C. Results showed that pH, alcohol content and specific gravity were 4.0, 0.5 and 1.001g/cm 3 respectively. The acetic acid yields of the vinegars produced were within the range of 0.43%-1.84% due to the use of monoculture which was indigenous in the fruit and Braggs vinegar with mother. Microbiological and biochemical analysis was carried out during alcoholic and vinegar fermentation. The antimicrobial potential of the vinegars was also tested and found effective on clinical pathogens. The test proved that the G. kola had the most antimicrobial properties against the bacterial isolates than the A. Pseudoplatanus which had the lowest.
... Polyphenols and organic acids, mainly acetic acid, plays an important role in the beneficial properties provided by fruits vinegar [15]. Previously, it is shown that the administration of apple vinegar curbs the installation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by hypercaloric fed enriched in D-glucose in male and female rats [16]. ...
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The popularity of fruits vinegar (FsV) has been increased recently as a healthy drink wealthy in bioactive compounds that provide several beneficial properties. This review was designed in the frame of valorization of fruits vinegar as a by-product with high value added by providing overall information on its biochemical constituents and beneficial potencies. It contains a cocktail of bioactive ingredients including polyphenolic acids, organic acids, tetramethylperazine, and melanoidins. Acetic acid is the most abundant organic acid and chlorogenic acid is the major phenol in apple vinegar. The administration of fruits vinegar could prevent diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress, cancer, and boost immunity as well as provide a remarkable antioxidant ability. The production techniques influence the quality of vinegar, and consequently, its health benefits.
... The antifungal activity of vinegar was tested against various fungal strains of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Candida [15,16]. Indeed, the acetic acid content in vinegar confers it an activity which can be used for the treatment of various infections even at low concentrations [3,17]. In addition, vinegar was used recently in certain dietary behaviors to prevent non-severe and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or as an effective disinfecting agent to stop its transmission. ...
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Vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine thanks to its physicochemical properties and its richness in bioactive molecules. However, its direct use by consumers can have complications and undesirable effects. Therefore, this study contributes to investigating the physicochemical and biological properties of eleven vinegars marketed in Morocco. Determination of pH, acetic acid, conductivity, total soluble solids and alcohol content in vinegar was carried out. The polyphenols (TP), flavonoids (TF), and condensed tannins (CT) content was determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Phosphomolybdenum Reduction Assay (TAC). Then, the antimicrobial activity was studied against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains, using the disk diffusion and the microdilution method. This study showed a wide range of acetic acid values from 0.65 ± 0.29 to 5.15 ± 0.20%. The high value of TP, TF, and CT in our samples V10, V9, and V4 was 655.00 ± 22.2 µgGAE/mL, 244.53 ± 11.32 µgQE/mL and 84.63 ± 1.00 µgTAE/mL, respectively. The tested strains showed variable sensitivities to the different samples with inhibition zones ranging from 6.33 ± 2.08 to 34.33 ± 0.58 mm. The lowest minimum inhibition concentrations were recorded against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213 ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µL/mL. While Aspergillus niger ATCC16404 showed resistance against all of the analyzed samples. In general, vinegar commercialized in Morocco presents a variable range of products with variable properties. Indeed, must take into account this diversity when using it. A future study is needed to identify the phytochemical composition that will further the comprehension of this variability and contribute to its valorization.
... Other explanations have also been proposed including the membrane disruption, the interruption of metabolic reactions, and the accumulation of toxic anions [34]. The antimicrobial activity of organic acid is influenced by the target bacterial strains, temperature, pH, acid concentration and ionic strength [35]. ...
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The vinegar produced from different locally grown fruits and industrial produced vinegar was evaluated to determine its antimicrobial properties. Agar well diffusion method was used for this analysis. The antimicrobial activities of both locally and industrially produced vinegar were identified using different microbial isolates which includes Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida sp using different extracts of the vinegar.The results of the antimicrobial analysis showed that the vinegar exhibit different activities on the clinical isolates. Concentrations of 500mg/ml, 250mg/ml, 125mg/ml and 62.5mg/ml of the vinegar extracts were used. The aqueous and n-butanol extract of Vin A gave the highest zone of inhibition with a diameter of 19mm on Staphylococcus aureus at 500mg/ml concentration.The aqueous extract of Vin A gave diameter range of 15mm-19mm for S. aureus and 11mm-17mm for Candida sp. n-Butanol extract gave the range of 10mm-12mm for E.coli, 12mm-19mm on S. aureus and 7mm-15mm onCandida sp. The ethyl acetate of Vin A gave a diameter of 9mm and 10mm for Candida sp. The n-Butanol extract of Vin B gave the diameter of 10mm for E.coliat 500mg/ml, 6mm and 60mm for S. aureus and 9mm for Candida sp. the aqueous extract of Vin C gave diameter of ranges within 8mm-11mm for E.coli, and 10mm on cCandida sp. The n-Butanol extract gave the range of 7mm-10mm on E.coli, 8mm-12mm on S. aureus and 9-10mm on Candida sp. n-butanol extract of Vin D gave a diameter of 9mm for E.coli, 10mm for staph and a diameter range of 7-11mm for Candida sp. The ethylacetate of the extract gave 7mm and 8mm for E.coli, 9mm and 11mm for Candida sp. The vinegars analysed exhibited bactericidal, bacteriostatic and no activity on the clinical isolates.
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TÜBA; Akademi Başkanı Prof. Dr. Muzaffer Şeker, Sağlık Bakanlığı Bilim Kurulu Üyesi Prof. Dr. Ali Özer ve Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi (AYBÜ) Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Cem Korkut’un editörlüğünde, salgının hayatımızın her alanındaki etkisine ışık tutan, 1.000 sayfayı aşkın “Küresel Salgının Anatomisi: İnsan ve Toplumun Geleceği” başlıklı kitap yayımladı. TÜBA üyeleri dahil çok sayıda bilim insanının çalışmalarıyla hazırlanan yayın, kapsamının genişliği ve yer verilen detaylar, öngörüler, analizler dolayısıyla bir ilk olma özelliği taşıyor. Kitapta; sağlıktan eğitime, bilişim teknolojilerinden siyaset bilimine, ekonomiden uluslararası ilişkilere, ticaretten felsefeye, yapay zekâ çalışmalarından sosyolojik tahlillere, çevre ve tarımdan uzay ve kutup çalışmalarına kadar geniş yelpazede salgın sonrası dönem için öngörüler yer alıyor.
Chapter
TÜBA; Akademi Başkanı Prof. Dr. Muzaffer Şeker, Sağlık Bakanlığı Bilim Kurulu Üyesi Prof. Dr. Ali Özer ve Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi (AYBÜ) Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Cem Korkut’un editörlüğünde, salgının hayatımızın her alanındaki etkisine ışık tutan, 1.000 sayfayı aşkın “Küresel Salgının Anatomisi: İnsan ve Toplumun Geleceği” başlıklı kitap yayımladı. TÜBA üyeleri dahil çok sayıda bilim insanının çalışmalarıyla hazırlanan yayın, kapsamının genişliği ve yer verilen detaylar, öngörüler, analizler dolayısıyla bir ilk olma özelliği taşıyor. Kitapta; sağlıktan eğitime, bilişim teknolojilerinden siyaset bilimine, ekonomiden uluslararası ilişkilere, ticaretten felsefeye, yapay zekâ çalışmalarından sosyolojik tahlillere, çevre ve tarımdan uzay ve kutup çalışmalarına kadar geniş yelpazede salgın sonrası dönem için öngörüler yer alıyor.
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This study aims to investigate the potential differences in the anti-hyperglycemia and antioxidant effects of fermented faloak ( Sterculia quadrifida R.Br) stem bark (FSB) kombucha and FSB brew (without fermentation) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Black tea (BT) kombucha was used as a kombucha control. FSB kombucha, BT kombucha, and FSB brew were administered orally at a dose of 5 mL/Kg bw/day into the alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 28 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), body weight, superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and pancreatic histopathology of the rats were analyzed. The results of this study showed that FSB kombucha, BT kombucha, and FSB brew were able to effectively reduce FBG, increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, improve lipid profile, and repair pancreatic β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The administration of FSB kombucha significantly ( P <0.05) showed a more optimal potency than the unfermented FSB brew, while the ability was comparable to that of BT kombucha. Thus, faloak ( Sterculia quadrifida R.Br) stem bark can be used as an alternative substrate other than black tea in the making of kombucha.
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Vinegar is a natural product- produced from alcoholic fermentation- that has shown strong antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the commercial grape (GV) and apple vinegar (AV) as well as to evaluate their antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. GV showed higher total acidity and total phenolic content, and lower antiradical activity (DPPH activity) compared to AV. The populations of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were significantly reduced by neat GV and AV samples. The antibacterial activity of GV was superior to AV (p<0.05). While AV and GV samples at 50% concentration did not form a visible zone of inhibition against S. aureus, they showed an inhibitory effect against P. aeruginosa (16.25 mm for GV and 16.5 for AV). The vinegar applied at the lowest concentration (25%) did not show any antibacterial effect on either bacteria. Solutions containing 25% to 6.25% vinegar samples prevented almost 100% biofilm formation in both bacteria. Taken together, commercial GV and AV significantly reduced the viability of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, thereby decreasing biofilm formation.
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Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a root-based fruit type which has been used for centuries as a staple food among the Andean population. In South America it is a traditional food, but in the European Union it is considered novel. It has a long history of safe use in South America and even elsewhere with potential health-promoting properties including prebiotic, antidiabetic, antioxidative and antimicrobial effects. Due to its status in Europe, yacon has to be assessed for its safety before being introduced on the European market. Since the latest novel food regulations accept history of safe use data from outside Europe, research has been conducted to establish whether yacon meets the regulatory requirements and can be authorized in Europe. Yacon has a well-documented and unambiguous history of safe use and its composition involves no obvious concerns in terms of detrimental effects, toxic substances or antinutrients.
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Melanoidins formed at the last stage of the Maillard reaction have been pointed out to possess certain functional properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities. In order to gain more insights on these functional properties different soluble melanoidins and melanoidin fractions isolated from several amino acid–glucose model systems has been analysed In the case of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, low molecular weight compounds bounded to melanoidins (BMC fraction) exerts antioxidant and antimicrobial activities usually higher than those of the pure melanoidins to whom they are linked. Contrary, in the case of antihypertensive activity it has been found that the main activity is related to the melanoidin core, not to BMC fraction. In addition it has been found no correlation, except for ABTS assay, among colour and antioxidant, antimicrobial or antihypertensive activity, supporting the idea that melanoidin chromophores are not responsible for these actions.
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A beverage made of wine vinegar and grape juice (Budo-no-megumi™) was recently developed for people who wish to obtain effective amount of both polyphenols and vinegar for their health. In this study, we assessed its cardiovascular effects using an in vivo pentobarbital-anesthetized rat. A recommended dose of the beverage (3 ml/kg, p.o.) decreased the heart rate and mean blood pressure, while no significant change was detected in the electrocardiogram parameters (n = 6). These results suggest that the new beverage may be useful for people who are worried about palpitation and/or hypertension. More work will be required to estimate which components in the beverage are essential to the current results in addition to establishing its long-term efficacy.
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The habitats and the biology of acetic acid bacteria are relatively well known due to the considerable economic profits and losses that these bacteria cause in industry. Since Persoon’s description of acetic acid bacteria in 1822, an extensive literature about these organisms has accumulated. This information has been reviewed several times, most recently by Asai (1968). In nature, the acetic acid bacteria seem particularly well adapted to sugary or alcoholized solutions. The older literature is focused on the acetic acid bacteria used in vinegar manufacture and on their role as spoilers in beers and wines. Other niches are flowers, fruits, the beehive, ‘ ‘tea-fungus “, and palm wine. The isolation of acetic acid bacteria and their assignment to either the genus Gluconobacter or Acetobacter generally pose few problems.
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Chapter
Introduction and General CharacteristicsAcetic acid bacteria comprise a widespread group of Gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. They occur mainly in sugary, acidic and alcoholic habitats and have been studied extensively, since they can play a positive, neutral or detrimental role in foodstuffs and beverages. Some species of the Acetobacteraceae play a key role in the industrial manufacture of vinegar. The following genera belong to this family: Acetobacter (type genus), Acidomonas, Asaia, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter and Kozakia. The names Acetobacter and Gluconobacter are known in literature since 1898 and 1935, respectively, whereas the other genus names were published after 1989.All members of the Acetobacteraceae are obligately aerobic and their metabolism is strictly respiratory with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. A common feature of the acetic acid bacteria (with the exception of Asaia) is the aerobic oxidation of ethano ...
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Kurosu, a product made from unpolished rice through stationary surface acetic acid fermentation, is one of the most common traditional vinegars. The antihypertensive effect of Kurosu free from acetic acid (Kurosu extract) was studied in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Single oral administration of the Kurosu extract reduced systolic blood pressure in SHR. In the SHR given the Kurosu extract for three months, their blood pressure was significantly lowered when compared with those of the control. These results suggest that daily intake of the Kurosu extract is effective for prevention against hypertension.
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Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the residues of 24 kinds of vinegars including 6 kinds of unpolished rice vinegars, 4 kinds of polished rice vinegars, 6 kinds of grain vinegars were determined fluorometrically. Among them, rice vinegars, especially unpolished rice vinegars, showed relatively stronger inhibitory activity for the enzyme. Amino acids and some related compounds in unpolished rice vinegars might affect the inhibitory activity, while organic acids were not related. However, the degree of inhibition of unpolished rice vinegar was stronger than that of glycine, which inhibits the ACE activity most strongly among amino acids. The results suggest that the ACE activity is inhibited not only by amino acids but by the other components in vinegars. Comparable study of the determination methods, colorimetry and fluorometry, was also done and showed that the fluorometric method was useful to assay of ACE in turbid sample solutions.
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The interaction of four phenolic acids, representative of three chemical groups present in human diet, with peroxyl radicals was studied in vitro in a low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation model. The controlled oxidation of LDL was initiated by free radicals generated from a hydrophilic azo initiator and followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption and the fluorescence quenching of cis-parinaric acid previously incorporated into LDL. The hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, have high stoichiometric numbers and reactivity with peroxyl radicals as compared with trolox, the water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, whereas ellagic acid (a tannic compound) compares with trolox effects. Protocatechuic acid (a hydroxybenzoic acid derivative) exhibits a complex reaction with peroxyl radicals, as indicated by UV spectroscopy, resulting in undefined inhibition periods of LDL oxidation and low reactivity with peroxyl radicals. Presumably, secondary radicals of these compounds are unable to initiate LDL oxidation. The antioxidant activity of the various phenolic compounds is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships.
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Production of Sherry wine vinegar encompasses a variable period of aging in wood. Changes in phenolic compounds during Sherry vinegar aging were studied. Samples were divided according to their aging period in wood (less than 2 years, more than 2 years) and phenolic compounds determined in a total of 38 samples by means of HPLC and Photodiode Array Detection. Results of Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) confirms that there were significant differences among both groups. Good recalling rates were achieved in both Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA (mean=92.9%) and Artificial Neural Networks trained by Back Propagation (BPANN) (mean=90.4%) whilst prediction abilities are more discrete. Applying the forward selection of variables, six variables were selected according to the Wilks' lambda criterion: gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde, coumaroyltartaric acid glycoside, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and isoquercetrin. Three of these compounds (gallic acid, hydroxymethylfuraldehyde and coumaroyltartaric acid glycoside) were shown to have an increasing trend through most aging systems.
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Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the U.S., and atherosclerosis is the major cause of heart disease and stroke (1). It is widely appreciated that cholesterol plays an important role in atherogenesis. Normally, most cholesterol serves as a structural element in the walls of cells, whereas much of the rest is in transit through the blood or functions as the starting material for the synthesis of bile acids in the liver, steroid hormones in endocrine cells (e.g., adrenal gland, ovary, testes), and vitamin D in skin. The transport of cholesterol and other lipids through the circulatory system is facilitated by their packaging into lipoprotein carriers. These spherical particles comprise protein and phospholipid shells surrounding a core of neutral lipid, including unesterified (“free”) or esterified cholesterol and triglycerides. Risk for atherosclerosis increases with increasing concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol whereas risk is inversely proportional to the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (2, 3). The receptor-mediated control of plasma LDL levels has been well-defined (4, 5), and very recent studies have now provided new insights into HDL metabolism (6–11).
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Regular moderate wine consumption is often associated with reduced morbidity and mortality from a variety of chronic diseases in which inflammation is the root cause. This review is focused on three of the numerous bioactive compounds present in wine: resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol and melatonin. Resveratrol and hydroxytyrosol are polyphenols. Melatonin, recently described in wine, is an indoleamine. Their structures, concentrations in wine, bioavailability, pharmacokinetic and health promoting properties are reviewed. Resveratrol seems to be one of the most promising compounds due to its bioactivity, with wine being the main source of resveratrol in diet. Hydroxytyrosol, which its main source in diet is olive oil has been also found in both red and white wine in considerable amounts. Melatonin has been found in wine in low amounts. However, both high bioactivity and bioavailability have been attributed to it. They show antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and antiaging activities. However, human studies are still in the initial stages and therefore further studies are needed.
Article
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) comprise a group of gram-negative or gram-variable, ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that have an obligate aerobic metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. In the first classification of AAB, two main genera were determined as Acetobacter and Gluconobacter, but nowadays twelve genera are recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia and Ameyamaea. Isolation, purification, identification and preservation of AAB are very difficult. Phenotypic methods based on physiological abilitiesies have been used for identification of AAB by using various media. These phenotypic properties have now been complemented or replaced by molecular techniques, which are DNA and RNA based techniques.AAB are widespread in nature on various plants (fruits, cereals, herbs, etc.). They are important microorganisms in food industry because of their ability to oxidize many types of sugars and alcohols to organic acids as end products during fermentation process. The best known industrial application of AAB is vinegar production. This group of bacteria is also used in cellulose and sorbose production. On the other hand, the oxidizing ability of AAB could have spoilage effect in some products such as in wine. The aim of the present review is to introduce the importance of AAB in food industry by showing their current taxonomy, enumeration, isolation and identification methods, isolation sources and beneficial effects in food production systems.
Article
The advanced lesions of atherosclerosis represent the culmination of a specialized form of chronic inflammation followed by a fibroproliferative process that takes place within the intima of the affected artery. Proliferation of smooth muscle cells and generation of connective tissue occur. Proliferation results from interactions between arterial smooth muscle, monocyte-derived macrophages, T lymphocytes, and endothelium. The initial lesion of atherosclerosis, the fatty streak, begins as an accumulation of monocytederived macrophages and T lymphocytes, which adhere and migrate into the intima of the affected artery. Smooth muscle cells, which are present in the intima or which migrate into the intima from the media, then replicate. Monocyte-derived macrophages and T cells also replicate during lesion formation and progression due to the production of cytokines and growth-regulatory molecules. These molecules determine whether there is proliferation and lesion progression or inhibition of proliferation and lesion regression. Several growthregulatory molecules may play critical roles in this process, including platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF), transforming growth factor beta, fibroblast growth factor, heparinbinding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, and others. PDGF may be one of the principal components in this process because protein containing the PDGF B-chain has been demonstrated within activated lesion macrophages during every phase of atherogenesis. The presence of this growth factor and its receptors on lesion smooth muscle cells creates opportunities for smooth muscle chemotaxis and replication. Smooth muscle proliferation depends upon a series of complex signals based upon cellular interactions in the local microenvironment of the artery. The intracellular signalling pathways for mitogenesis versus chemotaxis are being investigated for smooth muscle. The roles of the cytokines and growth-regulatory peptides involved in these cellular interactions represent critical points of departure for intervention and the development of new diagnostic methods. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging has been developed to demonstrate the fine structure of lesions of atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries not subject to cardiac motion. This noninvasive methodology holds great promise for the future of these approaches.
Article
An optimisation strategy based on desirability functions together with experimental design has been used to optimise a chromatographic method applied to the separation and quantification of l-proline and seven organic acids in vinegar samples. Chromatographic problems often force to reach a compromise between different experimental variables in order to achieve the best chromatographic separation. The importance of the use of multi-objective optimisation methods lies in the ability to cope with this kind of problems. The quality of the multicriteria optimisation method was tested through the validation of the analytical parameters of the final chromatographic method developed. The versatility of this methodology allows to use it in other chromatographic applications resulting in a suitable adaptive procedure to solve new analytical problems. Furthermore, the determination of l-proline and organic acids in vinegar is useful for several industrial goals such as the correct monitoring of fermentation, for the study of nutrient needs at all times during the twofold fermentation process and for the detection of possible adulterations in the final product.
Article
In this study, rice vinegar with high content of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) was prepared by using sprouted rice as raw material, supplemented with red yeast rice, glucoamylase preparation and raw starter complex during saccharification and alcohol fermentation, and the brewing conditions of the rice vinegar with high GABA content were studied. Through Plackett–Burman design, three factors (adding amounts of raw starter complex, red yeast rice and glucoamylase preparation) were identified as significant factors, which were subsequently optimized using Box–Benhnken center-united experiment design. At the optimal conditions, which were 500g smashed sprouted rice, 4g red yeast rice, 1.5g raw starter complex, 1.6mL glucoamylase preparation, 5g sodium glutamate, 335mL water, fermented at pH 6, 28°C for 5 days, the estimated value of GABA was reached at 147.09mg/100mL fermenting mash, and the average experimental GABA value was 145.18mg/100mL. After that, the acetic acid fermentation in solid-state through adding wheat bran and chaff into the fermenting mash was carried on for 7d before maturing for 8d. In the end, the rice vinegar containing 100mg/L GABA was prepared.
Article
1 Objective: Acetic acid bacteria were traditionally used to produce fermented food. Furthermore, acetic acid bacteria contain unique membrane lipids that would be expected to attenuate inflammation. This study examined the effects of oral intake of acetic acid bacteria isolated from fermented milk on muscle damage after moderate-intensity exercise. Methods: In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, 40 untrained subjects (16 men and 24 women; age, 46.4 ± 4.3 yr; height, 162.8 ± 10.8 cm; weight, 60.2 ± 9.4 kg; body mass index, 22.6 ± 2.9 kg/m 2 ) took 111 mg of dried acetic acid bacteria per day (supplemented group) or 111 mg of cornstarch per day (placebo group) for 1 week and walked for 60 min on the last day of administration. Results: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, IL-6 and creatine kinase (CK) activity, myoglobin (Mb) concentration and perceived pain in parts of the body were measured pre and post exercise. All values, except for IL-6, were significantly increased post-exercise compared with pre-exercise in both groups. However, neutrophil counts and ankle pain were significantly lower in the supplemented group. In addition, the increase of CK activity in the supplemented group was significantly attenuated at 24 h after exercise (supplemented group, 114 ± 54 U/l; placebo group, 126 ± 68 U/l). The supplemented group also demonstrated a trend toward a lower level of CK activity after exercise (p = 0.06). Other values did not differ between groups. Conclusion: These results suggested that acetic acid bacteria supplementation was useful to attenuate muscle damage after moderate-intensity exercise. Abstract
Article
Royal jelly (RJ) is an important functional food item that possess several health promoting properties. It has been widely used in commercial medical products, healthy foods and cosmetics in many countries. RJ has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity and antitumor activity. Biological activities of RJ are mainly attributed to the bioactive fatty acids, proteins and phenolic compounds. In consideration of potential utilisation, detailed knowledge on the composition of RJ is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which RJ can be put gives this novel food great industrial importance. This review summarises the composition, nutritional value and functional properties of RJ.
Article
Nineteen commercially available samples of aceto balsamico tradizionale (TBV, traditional balsamic vinegar) have been investigated, in order to study the relationships between their physical and chemical profiles and their sensory quality. Density, acidity, total phenols, furanic compounds, sugars, carboxylic acids and ABTS+ radical scavenging assay were measured. Sugars, density and dry matter positively influence vinegar quality, while other parameters, such as acetic acid, have a negative influence. In addition, radical scavenging activity was not only correlated with phenolic content, as expected, but also with some quality parameters.Also unexpected correlations between hydroxymethylfurfural and lactic acid and between vinegar quality, ash content and radical scavenging activity were found.