A Comprehensive Nationwide Study of the Incidence Rate and Lifetime Risk for Treated Mental Disorders

JAMA Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.01). 05/2014; 71(5):573-81. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.16
Source: PubMed


IMPORTANCE Understanding the epidemiologic profile of the life course of mental disorders is fundamental for research and planning for health care. Although previous studies have used population surveys, informative and complementary estimates can be derived from population-based registers. OBJECTIVE To derive comprehensive and precise estimates of the incidence rate of and lifetime risk for any mental disorder and a range of specific mental disorders. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a follow-up study of all Danish residents (5.6 million persons), to whom all treatment is provided by the government health care system without charge to the patient, from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012 (total follow-up, 59.5 million person-years). During the study period, 320 543 persons received first lifetime treatment in a psychiatric setting for any mental disorder; 489 006 persons were censored owing to death; and 69 987 persons were censored owing to emigration. Specific categories of mental disorders investigated included organic mental disorders, substance abuse disorders, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, personality disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, and behavioral and emotional disorders. EXPOSURES Age and sex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sex- and age-specific incidence rates and cumulative incidences and sex-specific lifetime risks. RESULTS During the course of life, 37.66% of females (95% CI, 37.52%-37.80%) and 32.05% of males (31.91%-32.19%) received their first treatment in a psychiatric setting for any mental disorder. The occurrence of mental disorders varied markedly between diagnostic categories and by sex and age. The sex- and age-specific incidence rates for many mental disorders had a single peak incidence rate during the second and third decades of life. Some disorders had a second peak in the sex- and age-specific incidence rate later in life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This nationwide study provides a first comprehensive assessment of the lifetime risks for treated mental disorders. Approximately one-third of the Danish population received treatment for mental disorders. The distinct signatures of the different mental disorders with respect to sex and age have important implications for service planning and etiologic research.

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    • "T stands for Timing, to emphasise a lifespan developmental perspective. Mental disorders develop at different stages of the life course (Eaton et al. 2012b; Pedersen et al. 2014) and unique combinations of stressors and protective factors affect individual mental health at different stages of the life course (Mendelson et al. 2012). For example, in the prenatal period, maternal mental disorders have been associated with attachment difficulties and impaired cognitive development for children later in life (Stein et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To discuss the potential usefulness of a public health approach for 'mental health and psychosocial support' (MHPSS) interventions in humanitarian settings. Methods: Building on public mental health terminology in accordance with recent literature on this topic and considering existing international consensus guidelines on MHPSS interventions in humanitarian settings, this paper reflects on the relevance of the language of promotion and prevention for supporting the rationale, design and evaluation of interventions, with a particular focus on populations affected by disasters and conflicts in low- and middle-income countries. Results: A public mental health approach and associated terminology can form a useful framework in the design and evaluation of MHPSS interventions, and may contribute to reducing a divisive split between 'mental health' and 'psychosocial' practice in the humanitarian field. Many of the most commonly implemented MHPSS interventions in humanitarian settings can be described in terms of promotion and prevention terminology. Conclusions: The use of a common terminology across health, protection, education, nutrition and other relevant sectors providing humanitarian interventions has the potential to allow for integration of MHPSS activities in one overall framework, with diverse humanitarian practitioners working to achieve a common goal.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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    • "First, our use of patient registers, although a strength, can also be considered a weakness. Using the registers, we are able to identify true cases, as the prevalence of anorexia nervosa obtained from Danish patient registers (Pedersen et al., 2014) is comparable with that of other population-based studies (Hudson et al., 2007) and estimates of familial risk of register-based anxiety disorders (data not shown) were found to be similar to those previously reported Anxiety and Anorexia Nervosa S. M.Meier et al.from clinical and community-based samples. However, we do not capture all patients with anorexia nervosa and anxiety disorders given the fact that within the patient registers, only contacts with clinics and psychiatric outpatient services are recorded, but not contacts with general practitioners. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Eating Disorders Review
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    • "" The latter also recommends a greater focus on suicide among individuals with mental illness, especially in the early phases of the disorders (World Health Organization, 2014). People with mental disorders are a large risk group (Pedersen et al., 2014) for suicide, and they have the highest relative risk for suicide . Translated into population attributable risk, it has been estimated that if suicide mortality among individuals with mental disorders were reduced to the level found in the general population, the overall suicide risk could be reduced by almost 50% (Mortensen et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk is particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests that the mortality rates associated with psychotic disorders may be underreported because of suicide deaths taking place before first treatment contact. However, currently, no data exist to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Attempted suicide can be an early warning sign of later psychotic disorder. Data from different studies indicate that the risk of suicide attempt during the first year of treatment is as high as 10%. The most important risk factors for attempted suicide after the first contact are young age, female sex, suicidal plans, and a history of suicide attempt. Early intervention services are helpful in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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