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Coffee with cinnamon – Impact of phytochemicals interactions on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity

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... Despite the controversial effects of coffee on human health (Taylor & Demmig-Adams, 2007), coffee is a commonly consumed beverage in Europe and America (Debry, 1994). Our previous study clearly shows that roasted coffee brew possessed ability to inhibit LOX Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Kowalska, 2015;Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014a;Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Sugier, 2014b;Gawlik-Dziki et al., 2012). It was proved that this activity is mainly involved with their phenolic profile and antioxidant potential. ...
... Other factors, strongly influenced on bioactivity of phytochemicals, are interactions between them. Our previous study clearly indicates that both factors e changeable pH and/or action of digestive enzymes and interactions between bioactive compounds strongly modulate their activity (Durak et al., 2015;Durak et al., 2014a;Durak et al., 2014b). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate antiradical and LOX-inhibitory potential, mechanism of action and kind of interaction between phytochemicals derived from coffee and coconut in the light of their potential bioaccessibility. ...
... Most importantly, antiradicals from coffee were potentially bioaccessible, which may indicate on their beneficial effect on human organism. Results presented in this study were in accordance with literature data (D orea & da Costa, 2005;Castilho et al., 2002;Durak et al., 2015;Durak et al., 2014a;Durak et al., 2014b). While high antiradical activity of coffee brew was found, antiradical potential of DCM extract was significantly lower (in comparison with coffee). ...
Article
Antiradical and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory potential, mode of LOX inhibition and interactions between phytochemicals derived from coffee and dried coconut meat (DCM) in the light of their bioaccessibility in vitro were evaluated. LOX inhibitors and antiradical compounds from studied materials were bioaccessible in vitro. In the case of DCM simulated digestion caused a decrease of both activity (from 77.19 0.02 to 86.21 0.05 in case of LOX), which may be a consequence of low bioaccessibility and/or antagonistic interactions between active compounds, probably polyphenols. For better estimation of kind and strength of interaction the interaction factor (IF) was proposed. Water-extractable and potentially bioaccessible antiradical compounds from coffee and DCM acted synergistically (IF = 0.26). Water extractable LOX inhibitors acted antagonistically (IF = 1.12) and it was deepened after simulated digestion (IF = 1.51). Water-extractable phytochemicals from coffee acted as acompetitive, while potentially bioaccessible phytochemicals acted as noncompetitive LOX inhibitors. Water-extractable compounds from DCM acted as competitive whereas potentially bioaccessible fraction as noncompetitive inhibitors of LOX. Interestingly, water extractable and potentially bioaccessible compounds from coffee/DCM mixture did not change the maximum velocity of LOX (acted as competitive inhibitors).
... This antioxidant interaction is also influenced by the ratio of the substrates in the mixture or by the proportion of the phenolic compound(s) added (Enko & Gliszc zyń ska-Ś wigło, 2015). Some studies have been undertaken to investigate the antioxidant interaction between green tea and some herbs as well as coffee and cinnamon (Jain et al., 2011;Durak et al., 2014). However, the interaction between the antioxidants derived from cinnamon and cocoa is still poorly mapped and not well understood. ...
... There is limited information regarding the antioxidant interaction of cinnamon with other antioxidant-rich substrates. The first experiment elucidating this interaction was carried out by Durak et al. (2014) who studied the phytochemicals interaction effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in mixtures of coffee and cinnamon. The cinnamon was able to change the antioxidant activities of the coffee extract. ...
... Yin et al. (2012) working with the combination of catechin, epicatechin, and a-tocopherol observed synergetic effect in the phosphatidylcholine-based liposome system and o/w emulsion. Durak et al. (2014) showed that the interaction between cinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid resulted in synergetic interaction in lipoxygenase inhibition activity. However, it had an antagonistic interaction in antiradical potential. ...
Article
Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios. The results indicate that the addition of the cinnamon extract significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the cocoa extract. The interaction ranged from synergetic to antagonistic. The interaction was less synergetic when cinnamon extract was added in higher proportion. The interaction of their constituents substantially influenced the antioxidant activity of the mixture and was dependent on the ratio. The kinetics’ study could elucidate how the polyphenols work in a mixture.
... Quercetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol, coumaric acid, syringic acid, tannic acid [64] Cinnamon powder Shaking extraction: The samples (0.5 g) were extracted using boiling water (8 mL) for 30 min at 37°C. After centrifugation (15 min, 20°C, 8000g), the supernatants were decanted from the precipitate, and then the final volume was brought to 10 mL with distilled water Procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin dimer, procyanidin trimer, coumarin, cinnamic acid [117] C. zeylanicum Sonication extraction: The samples (1 g) were extracted using ethanol (50%, 5 mL) containing 0.1% formic acid under sonication condition for 5 min and then followed by centrifugation at 3000g for 10 min at 4°C. The procedure was carried out twice Caffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid, syringic acid, quercetin [171] C. zeylanicum bark and C. cassia bark Shaking extraction: The samples (5 mg) were extracted using ethanol (60%, 5 mL) for 1 h at 22°C, continued by centrifugation in 10-ml screw-cape tubes and subsequently in Eppendorf tubes ...
... The bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of compound released from food matrix that is available to be absorbed in the small intestine. [117] Sufficient data on the bioaccessible fraction of functional foods are essential because it is an important step in understanding the biological activity of the food constituents. [118] In the recent study of Helal et al., [64] a digestion model was designed to evaluate the bioaccessibility of total polyphenol in a cinnamon beverage. ...
... In another study using coffee-cinnamon beverage, similar results have been reported; antioxidative activity in a simulated-gastrointestinal system was lower than in raw material. [117] Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of a certain compound are influenced by the initial concentration of the compound, the food matrix, and the gastrointestinal conditions. [119] For an example, the presence of milk in the system decreases polyphenol bioaccessibility since phenolic compounds have a high affinity for caseins. ...
Article
Cinnamon has been reported to have significant benefits for human health, particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-hypertriglyceridemia agent, mainly due to its phytochemical constituents such as phenolic and volatile compounds. The phytochemicals in cinnamon can be extracted from different parts of plant by distillation and by solvent extraction. The use of cinnamon in food and its ability to prevent oxidation and inhibit microbial growth are covered in this review. Its bioaccessibility, safety, and consumer acceptance are comprehensively discussed. This review also clearly shows a route to the use of cinnamon as an ingredient in functional foods.
... Settharaksa et al. (2012) studied the powder of C. bejolghota and identified polyphenols: ferulic acid, quercetin, coumalic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, gallic acid and catechuic (0.17 ± 0.006, 8.55 ± 0.007, 0.49 ± 0.007, 4.49 ± 0.007, 0.29 ± 0.007, 27.23 ± 0.007 and 4.57 ± 0.045 mg/g, respectively). Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, and Pecio (2014) identified the phenolic compounds from cinnamon extract: the compounds from the proanthocyanidin class of flavonoids (procyanidin tetramer, procyanidin dimer, procyanidin trimer); the representative of the group of hydroxycinnamic acids (cinnamic acid) and other polyphenols such as coumarin and cinnamaldehyde. ...
... Lv et al. (2012) showed correlation between TPC and the high antioxidant capacity, although other undetected components may also contribute to this activity. Durak et al. (2014) reported that chlorogenic acid showed higher antioxidant activity than cinnamic acid, both present in cinnamon. ...
... Cinnamon extract showed the highest antiradical activity with an 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay and inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. After a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the antioxidant ability of the cinnamon extract improved (Durak et al., 2014). The radical scavenging activity was confirmed by Jayaprakasha et al. (2007) for the cinnamon fruit extracts, revealing that the extracts are free radical inhibitors due to their hydrogen donating ability. ...
Article
Background Cinnamon is used as a spice and an aromatic plant. Their leaves and bark are used as source of cinnamon oil. Cinnamon belongs to the Lauraceae family. Scope and approach For this review, an extensive bibliographic research on cinnamon was carried out, including its main uses, components (both nutrients and bioactive), biological activities, interactions with drugs and potential applications. Key findings and conclusions Cinnamon is a spice that can be used as a traditional medicine to control blood pressure, tumor growth, diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The nutrient composition of cinnamon reveals a great amount of vitamins and minerals and the main bioactive compounds are polyphenols and cinnamaldehyde. The amount of bioactive compounds depends on several factors, such as the variety, part of the plant, edaphoclimatic conditions, drying conditions, extraction and analysis methods. Due to its numerous biological properties, cinnamon can be used by direct application to food, to be incorporated in active food packaging, as an active principle by the pharmaceutical industry and as a fragrance by the cosmetic industry. As a result of its various and easy forms of use, this spice presents a vast potential of new applications with health benefits for the consumers.
... Cinnamon bark mainly contains phenylpropanoids but also many terpenoids, thus, it can be expected that essential oils have antioxidant properties. The total phenolic content (TPC) from 5 different publications can be averaged (± SEM*1.96) to 24.4 ± 13.5 µmol/g GAE (gallic acid equivalent) [34][35][36][37][38][39]. Even with the a priori exclusions, results from different publications are very difficult to compare because i) different (and not further characterized) raw material was used, ii) extractions were done with different solvents and iii) different standards and concentrations were employed as controls (ascorbate, gallate, Trolox, butylated hydroxyanisole as the most common). ...
... Even with the a priori exclusions, results from different publications are very difficult to compare because i) different (and not further characterized) raw material was used, ii) extractions were done with different solvents and iii) different standards and concentrations were employed as controls (ascorbate, gallate, Trolox, butylated hydroxyanisole as the most common). For instance, for the frequently used radical scavenging test ABTS values of 1.1, 18.5, 121.6 and 1119.9 µmol/g TE (Trolox equivalent) are reported, which clearly illustrates the problem [34,35,38,39]. Therefore, it is easier to compare results quantitatively only within the same publication and compare results among publications only qualitatively. ...
Chapter
The botanical name "Cinnamomum" is derived from the Hebraic and Arabic term amomon, meaning fragrant spice plant. The common name Cinnamon is derived from the Greek word kinamon that loosely means "Arabian spice". The aroma of Ceylon cinnamon has a very characteristic sweet, warm, spicy, and woody aroma, the flavor is warm, spicy and aromatic, the essential oil also has a sweet, spicy, slightly woody, and clove-like aroma. The major chemical constituents of cinnamon bark oil are cinnamaldehyde (65-80%) and eugenol (5-10%). Other abundant constituents are the cinnamyl group such as cinnamic acid and cinnamyl acetate, compounds containing endocyclic double bond as α-thujene, α-terpineol, α-cubebene, unconjugated exocyclic double bond eugenol, β-caryophyllene, terpinolene and hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic compounds. Cinnamon essential oil has biological activities, for instance, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antidiabetic among others. This work describes the botanical origin of cinnamon, production of its essential oil and come of the biological activities attributed not only to essential oil but also to individual components.
... Different combinations of polyphenolic compounds: (1) 4 0 -hydroxymandelic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-(3 0 -hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and 3-(4 0 -hydroxyphenyl) lactic acid; (2) (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and punicalagin; (3) dihydroferulic acid, feruloylglycine, quercetin and 3-O-methylquercetin; (4) caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isoferuloylglycine; (5) hippuric acid, tyrosol, 4 0hydroxyhippuric acid and chlorogenic acid, show synergy in modulating the release in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines by Jurkat T-lymphocites (Ford et al., 2016). The combinations of coffee extract with the extracts of cinnamon (Durak et al., 2014); ginger (Durak et al., 2015); or dried coconut meat (Gawlik-Dziki et al., 2016) synergistically inhibit in vitro lipoxygenase (LOX-1), which is one of the pro-inflammatory factors. An oral nutraceutical mixture of berberin, red yeast rice, policosanol, astaxanthin, folic acid and coenzyme Q10 enhances anti-inflammatory effects in vivo: lowering LDL cholesterol level, and reducing systemic inflammation and endothelial injuries in patients with low-grade systemic inflammation (Pirro et al., 2016). ...
... The mode of interaction and the intensity of the interactive effect in some food combinations can change after the foods undergo gastrointestinal digestion. For instance, a raw water-soluble extract mixture of coffee and cinnamon shows synergy in the inhibition of lypoxygenase activity but changes to antagonism after digestion (Durak et al., 2014). In contrast, nondigested extracts of coffee and ginger act antagonistically but their digested bioaccessible constituents synergistically inhibit lypoxygenase (Durak et al., 2015). ...
Article
The combinations of two or more phytochemicals bring about changes in the ultimate biological effects and/or the bioavailability of each component. A number of mixtures of pure bioactive compounds or phytochemical-containing plant extracts provide synergy with regard to antioxidant status, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and chemoprevention of several oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in vitro. The biological activities of food phytochemicals depend upon their bioaccessibility and bioavailability which can be affected by the presence of other food components including other bioactive constituents. The interactions between phytochemicals during intestinal absorption could result in changes in the bioavailability of the compounds, which in turn affects the intensity of their bioactivities. This paper provides an overview of combined biological effects of phytochemical mixtures derived from fruits and vegetables with a focus on anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The bioavailability impairment or enhancement caused by the co-consumption of dietary phytochemicals is also discussed. Finally, research gaps for future studies on phytochemical interactions are identified.
... However, antiradical scavengers included in coffee and cinnamon acted as antagonists both before digestion and after the process. Furthermore, in the case of pure chemical compounds (CGA and cinnamic acid), we observed the same kind of interaction (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014). ...
... There are some data concerning the interactions between phytochemicals from coffee and its additives derived from selected plants (Durak et al., 2015(Durak et al., , 2014. Considering the coffee enriched with aromatic spices, we have shown that water-extractable LOX inhibitors from coffee and cinnamon acted synergistically, whereas changes during the simulated digestion caused antagonism between them, and antagonism was observed for pure chemical standards (CGA and cinnamic acid) as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study on determination of antiradical potential, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), chelating power (CHEL), OH∙ scavenging capacity (OH), superoxide dismutase-like activity, lipoxygenase (LOXi), and xanthine oxidase (XOi) inhibitory potential and also interactions between the phytochemicals from coffee and cardamom based on their bioaccessibility in vitro. Evaluation of interactions between coffee and cardamom in a model system showed that phenolic compounds may be responsible for the analyzed activity of the tested extracts. It was observed for FRAP, CHEL, and XOi that raw and digested extracts showed the same interactions as chemical standards. However, the LOX inhibitors present in raw extracts acted synergistically like chemical standards, but due to the changes during the simulated digestion process the kind of interaction between active compounds changed. Correlation between tested extracts and model system, despite the high bioaccessibility of the compounds with this capacity, was not only found for OH∙ radical neutralization. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... Studies [7] showed the synergistic action of ferulic and chlorogenic acids as LOX inhibitors. The same kind of interaction was found between chlorogenic and cinnamic acid [25], as well as chlorogenic and vanillic acid [26]. So far there is no information on TPO activators and their interactions in the literature. ...
... During research on antiradical activity, antagonism was found between chlorogenic acid and cinnamic acid [25], chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid [26], and chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid [28]. On the other hand, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid acted synergistically as hydroxyl radical scavengers [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The presented research concerns the triple activity of trans-cinnamic (tCA), ferulic (FA) and syringic acids (SA). They act as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activators, lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and show antiradical activity. All compounds showed a dose-dependent TPO activatory effect, thus the AC50 value (the concentration resulting in 50% activation) was determined. The tested compounds can be ranked as follows: tCA > FA > SA with AC50 = 0.10, 0.39, 0.69 mM, respectively. Strong synergism was found between FA and SA. The activatory effects of all tested compounds may result from interaction with the TPO allosteric site. It was proposed that conformational change resulting from activator binding to TPO allosteric pocket results from the flexibility of a nearby loop formed by residues Val352-Tyr363. All compounds act as uncompetitive LOX inhibitors. The most effective were tCA and SA, whereas the weakest was FA (IC50 = 0.009 mM and IC50 0.027 mM, respectively). In all cases, an interaction between the inhibitors carboxylic groups and side-chain atoms of Arg102 and Arg139 in an allosteric pocket of LOX was suggested. FA/tCA and FA/SA acted synergistically, whereas tCA/SA demonstrated antagonism. The highest antiradical activity was found in the case of SA (IC50 = 0.22 mM). FA/tCA and tCA/SA acted synergistically, whereas antagonism was found for the SA/FA mixture.
... 22 Cinnamic acid is found in the cinnamon water extracts as much as 1.0 mg/g. 23 The methanolic and ethanolic extracts contain 0.68 ± 0.01 mg/g and 8.99 ± 0.5 mg/g, respectively. 10-12 Cinnamic acid derivates have phenolic hydroxyl groups, so they are often associated with antioxidants. ...
... Cinnamon has strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. 23 Its antioxidants contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity. 41 Cinnamon inhibits the synthesis of COX-2 and prostaglandins. ...
Article
Full-text available
A B S T R A C TPlants are an important source of traditional medicines that can be used to improvehealth. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) has long been recognized to have manybenefits. Cinnamon was used traditionally as a remedy for arthritis, diarrhea, allergiesand ulcers. This literature review aimed to identify the bioactive compounds andbioactivity of cinnamon. Literature searches used PubMed and Google Scholar. A totalof 55 full text articles met the inclusion criteria of the review. The extract or essentialoil of cinnamon contains many bioactive compounds, such as eugenol, cinnamic acid,linalool, β-caryophyllene, coumarin, trans cinnamyl acetate, and 1.8 cineole. Thesecompounds have several bioactivities including anti-cancer, anti-arrhythmia, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-cholinesterase, and anti-lipidoxidation. Cinnamon extract has an excellent potential as an antioxidant andantidiabetic agent. Its potential and unique taste has contributed to its wide use inherbal remedies.
... Generation of excess free radicals creates redox imbalance which resultantly disturbs the cellular functions and may even accelerate the cell mortality rate (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014). Medicinal plants particularly spices and aromatic herbs are used as natural antioxidants since antiquity. ...
... The extracts and essential oil of C. verum, also possesses good antiinflammatory activity. Its aqueous extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme activity (Durak et al., 2014). Qadir et al. (2018) investigated the antiinflammatory role of C. verum methanolic and ethanolic extract. ...
Article
Cinnamomum verum is the widely used spice for its medicinal and culinary uses since ages. It is native to Sri Lanka and southern India but also distributed in many Asia, Caribbean, Australian and African countries. It is widely used in food preparations and industrial products like candies, chewing gums, mouthwash and toothpaste. It is also used to treat asthma, bronchitis, diarrhea, headache, inflammation and cardiac disorders. Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, caryophyllene, cinnamyl acetate and cinnamic acid are the major compounds found in its essential oil. These compounds exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, wound healing, anti-HIV, anti-anxiety and antidepressant, etc. This review highlights its comprehensive and up-to-date information on taxonomy, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacological and toxicity activities. Structure-activity relationship, mechanism of action and some research gaps has also been provided. Owing to its immense medicinal importance, more well-designed in-vivo and clinical studies are required.
... In oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species have been suggested to participate in the initiation and propagation of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, cancer, and diabetes [77]. Antioxidants which are found naturally in many foods and beverages provide health benefits in preventing heart disease and cancer by fighting against cellular damage caused by free radicals in the body [227]. ...
... [34,202,203] Pericarp and coffee beans are rich in polyphenols (clorogenic acid 3-5%, cafeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid), alkaloids (cofeină 0,3-2,5%, teofilină 0,01% și teobromină), proteins, carbohydrates and many more substances with special pharmacological effects on the human body. [36,77,171,[201][202][203] Polyphenols, along with their anti-oxidant effect, also show a significant antibacterial effect, cited in the literature. Herbal extracts obtained from Coffea canephora have a bactericidal effect on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bacteria sobrinus, present in the oral cavity and responsible for the appearance of dental caries. ...
Thesis
This is my Habilitation thesis, in order to have the right to coordinate PhD students.
... They observed a 34.8% reduction in peroxide value (PV) in the CinDAE treated meat balls, than control [36]. A significant inhibition of lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and scavenging of free radicals in an in vitro system have been observed with cinnamon administration [37]. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exerted similar effects on operating room personnel [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cinnamon has been used for centuries for ethnomedicinal purposes. It is a traditional spice widely used as a part of daily diet in majority of the tropical countries. This plant belonging to the lauraceae family, is one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, ethyl cinnamate, catechin, epicatechin, β-caryophyllene, coumarin, eugenol, procyanidins and linalool etc. It endows great potential in the fields of culinary, pharmacy, and preservation by virtue of its aromatic, antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. The objective of this article is to entail mechanisms involved in the actions of cinnamon as a whole and its active components, in combating different health disorders. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published the in peer-reviewed journals from 2003-2016 and sixty one research articles were extracted. This review might act as a baseline information reservoir for further exploration on cinnamon and its components to be used in modulating metabolic pathways involved in physiological malfunctions and health disorders in preclinical and clinical scenario with a societal impact.
... Secara tradisional, rempah-rempah seperti kayu manis ditambahkan pada makanan sebagai pemberi flavor (Durak et al., 2014). Senyawa sinamaldehid dari golongan senyawa aldehid yang terdapat pada kayu manis, diperkirakan dapat bereaksi dengan protein yang terdapat pada spirulina membentuk senyawa kompleks yang mampu menutup aroma off-flavor. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to know the effectiveness and the description of aroma of cookies, flakes, and dried noodles fortified with biomass of Spirulina platensis microalgae and cinnamon powder. Fortification was done to increase the nutritional value while the addition of cinnamon powder was done as an aroma masking ingredient to reduce off-flavor of the product. The observations included hedonic test using 60 panelists to find out the best concentration of cinnamon powder additions favored by panelists, followed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) using trained panelists to know the aroma description of the product. The cinnamon powder added to each product was 2.5; 5; 7.5; and 10%. The results showed the concentration of cinnamon for cookies, flakes, and spirulina drieds noodles were 10; 2.5; and 2.5 %, respectively. The selected product was then tested by QDA and generated respectively 13; 12; and 10 perceptions of aroma, while dominant perceptions emerging were cinnamon-like, sunflower seed-like, sand ginger-like, and caramel-like.
... The lipid oxidative reaction started by adding an aliquot of the enzyme substrate: linoleic acid (1.25 mM) [17]) into a test tube containing the phytochemicals (final concentration: 0.2-2 µM of lutein and/or 2-12 µM of anthocyanins) and lipoxygenase (400 U/mL). The inhibitory effect of lutein and/or anthocyanins on lipoxygenase activity was assayed according to the protocol of Durak et al. [22] and calculation of the activity was based on the following equation: ...
Article
Full-text available
The interactive effects on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation of lutein combined with each of the six common anthocyanidin glucosides were studied in both chemical and cellular systems. The combined phytochemicals showed an antagonism in the inhibition of lipid oxidation in a liposomal membrane, but showed an additive effect on cellular antioxidant activity in Caco-2 cells. Lutein was an active lipoxygenase inhibitor at 2–12 μM while anthocyanins were inactive. The concentration of lutein when it was used in combination with anthocyanins was 25–54% higher than when lutein was used alone (i.e., IC50 = 1.2 μM) to induce 50% of lipoxygenase inhibition. Only the combination of lutein with malvidin-3-glucoside showed anti-inflammatory synergy in the suppression of interleukin-8, and the synergy was seen at all three ratios tested. Some mixtures, however, showed anti-inflammatory antagonism. The presence of anthocyanins (5–7.5 μM) did not affect lutein uptake (2.5–5 μM) by Caco-2 cells.
... Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of anthocyanins and/or carotenoids was assessed following the method described by Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, and Pecio (2014) with some modifications. Reaction mixture contained: xμL of anthocyanins and/or carotenoids (final concentration of carotenoids: 0.2-2 μM, and of anthocyanins: 2-12 μM), (1100 − x) μL PBS 50 mM pH 7.4, and 50 μL of LOX-1 solution prepared in PBS 50 mM pH 7.4 (final concentration of LOX-1: 400 U/mL). ...
Article
This study investigated the bioactivity interactions in vitro and ex vivo, and cellular uptake interaction between β-carotene and some common anthocyanins. The combined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of β-carotene and different anthocyanins were assessed in both chemical and biological systems. Bioactivity synergy was seen in none of the combinations in no system studied. Some mixtures even showed antagonistic effects. All of the tested anthocyanins except for delphinidin-3-glucoside, tested at 7.5 μM, significantly improved the cellular uptake of β-carotene (2.5 μM) by 68-200% although such increases of β-carotene intracellular content did not lead to an enhancement of the combined bioactivities. The increase of β-carotene absorption to a particular concentration facilitated the pro-oxidant activity of β-carotene. This effect could be partly responsible for the bioactivity antagonism seen in some of the combinations.
... In cooking, they are used as food flavouring mostly in curry and soup. The addition of cinnamon in tea or coffee to enhance the aroma may possess beneficial health due to their antioxidant properties [8]. The oil has been reported with strong antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei [9]. ...
Article
The evaluation of Kaempferia galanga, Citrus hystrix and Cinnamomum zeylanicum ethanolic extracts on antifungal activities and zone of inhibition were conducted. The yield for K. galanga, C. hystrix and C. zeylanicum were 0.4, 0.7 and 0.43 % of raw dried samples respectively. All the extracts demonstrated 5 mg/mL MIC with C. zeylanicum, K. galanga and C. hystrix average holozones diameter of 14.5 + 3.8, 12.0 + 1.8 and 12.0 + 0.8 mm after 3 days of incubation respectively with no effect on negative control. On the other hand, Zinc Pyrithione being more potent than imidazaole as a positive control with inhibition of 32.8 + 2.2 and 21.8 + 3.4 respectively. Based on the findings, the anti-fungal hair cream containing K. galanga ethanolic extract was formulated into oil-in-water cream and the physicochemical properties were evaluated. The cream demonstrated desirable characteristic with no separation between oil and water after vigorously shaken at 14,600 rpm for half an hour. Furthermore the viscosity and pH were 543.7 + 19.2 and 5.46 + 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, K galanga ethanolic extract has a potential to be used as an anti-fungal oil in water cream formulation.
... As a large source of antioxidant polyphenols, [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] GCBE as a dietary supplement of function foods and nutraceuticals, has many health benefits: antihypertension, [12][13][14] and body weight control. [15] Also, the intake of GCBE has been identified to associate with a lower risk of diseases of oxidative etiology, which probably attribute to its high phenolic content. ...
Article
Chlorogenic acids contribute great to the quality of green coffee beans extracts (GCBE). In this paper, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) was proposed to simultaneously determine the contents of seven chlorogenic acids (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 5-FQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) in 14 samples of GCBE. 5-CQA was the single-mark to calculate the contents of chlorogenic acids with relative response factors. The reliability and stability of the relative response factors of chlorogenic acids were studied. Taguchi’s method with orthogonal array of L16 was applied in design of experiment (DOE) and the minitab v16 software was used to analyse the relative response factors. The fluctuation and stability of the relative response factors were determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical approach. The impact and optimization of columns and instruments were also studied by Taguchi Analysis. The combination of Venusil MP column and WUFENG instrument was chosen to determine the chlorogenic acids. As a comparison, the quantitative analysis of multi-components by multiple standards (QAMM) also had been done in this paper. The compared results showed that there were no great differences in the contents of chlorogenic acids determined by QAMM and QAMS with relative response factors obtained in this work.
... Recently, the role of cinnamon and its constituents as physiologically active components in the diet is being increasingly acknowledged [32]. A considerable number of recent studies showed that cinnamon offer anti-cancer and anti-tumour, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antiviral activity [33][34][35][36][37]. Due to its unique composition and its potential health effects, cinnamon has been used to improve the health-promoting properties in foods, such as coffee and yoghurt [38,39]. ...
Article
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The use of nanocapsules to overcome incompatibility between bioactive compounds and food matrices targeting fortification has been widely acknowledged. This study provides a novel method to enhance the nutritional properties of chocolate by employing lyophilised colloidal nanoparticles made of a combination of shellac, xanthan gum and cinnamon extract. Lyophilised colloidal nanoparticles containing cinnamon extract (LCNP-CE) were prepared by an anti-solvent precipitation method followed by freeze drying. Cinnamon extract was loaded into nanoparticle to entrap the aroma of the cinnamon extract; thereby, the cinnamon extract can be incorporated in the chocolate to expand its bioactive profile without altering its sensorial characteristic. LCNP-CE was formulated into white and milk chocolate in multilevel ratios (0–2% w/w). The results show that the fortification of milk and white chocolates by LCNP-CE significantly improved the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the chocolates without remarkable changes in the fineness and melting profile properties. Even though slight changes in the hardness, flow behaviour and colour have been observed, the enriched chocolates are likely in the range of acceptable values. Encapsulation has a positive impact on preventing flavour alteration on the cinnamon enriched chocolates; however, a drawback in the release behaviour of the cinnamon extract from the chocolate was observed.
... In oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to participate in the initiation and propagation of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, cancer, or diabetes [76]. Antioxidants, which are found naturally in many foods and beverages, provide health benefits in the prevention of heart diseases and cancer by fighting cellular damage that caused by free radicals in the body. ...
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Coffea (coffee) species are grown in almost all countries along the Equator. Many members of the genus have a large production history and an important role both in the global market and researches. Seeds (Coffeae semen) are successfully used in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries due to its caffeine and high polyphenol content. Nowadays, the three best-known coffee species are Arabic (Coffea arabica L.), Robusta (Coffea robusta L. Linden), and Liberian coffees (Coffea liberica Hier.). Even though, many records are available on coffee in scientific literature, wild coffee species like Bengal coffee (Coffea benghalensis Roxb. Ex Schult.) could offer many new opportunities and challenges for phytochemical and medical studies.In this comprehensive summary, we focused on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and medical significance of coffee species up to the present.
... In vitro gastro-intestinal digestions were carried out using a system that mimics the oral, gastric and intestinal phases of human digestion and is typical of those used previously [17,18]. The compositions of the artificial juices used were (per 1000 mL); saliva (pH 6.8˘0.1): ...
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There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.
... This is suggestive of their potential to ameliorate the oxidative stress-mediated effects through their antioxidant action. These results also corroborate with the free radical scavenging ability of cumin and cinnamon [48,49] . Further, the decreased incidence of lethality (increased survival rate) evidenced among flies maintained on CU and CN enriched diet in the co-exposure regime clearly suggests their ability to promote survival pathways which are atleast in part may be mediated through antioxidant action. ...
... Generally, lower values of bioaccessibility and bioavailability are observed with bioactives from native food matrices compared to isolated extracts. Pure isolates also permit studies on the mechanistic effects on organisms and food matrices, even if their actual bioavailability might be substantially different (Durak et al. 2014). Further, it has also been reported that certain isolated forms confer greater health benefits than the original source (Prior et al. 2008(Prior et al. , 2010. ...
Article
Many biomaterials are encapsulated to preserve their health-promoting properties and promote targeted delivery. Numerous papers have been published about extraction and purification methods, encapsulation techniques, and release properties of encapsulated biomaterials. Despite the abundant information, the food applications of encapsulated materials are currently limited. One approach to increase the food applications is to investigate the mathematical aspects of release behavior and the effect of the food matrix. Such information is useful in evaluating suitable food matrices and predicting the extent of bioavailability of the biomaterial. This review aims to discuss the kinetic models of release, current efforts to promote sustained release, and food matrices currently used in in vitro investigations. Information from pharmaceutical studies are integrated and reviewed to determine possible food applications. Future research on microencapsulated biomaterials conducted along these aspects may hopefully hasten nutraceutical applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 8 is February 28, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... This is suggestive of their potential to ameliorate the oxidative stress-mediated effects through their antioxidant action. These results also corroborate with the free radical scavenging ability of cumin and cinnamon [48,49] . Further, the decreased incidence of lethality (increased survival rate) evidenced among flies maintained on CU and CN enriched diet in the co-exposure regime clearly suggests their ability to promote survival pathways which are atleast in part may be mediated through antioxidant action. ...
Article
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AIM: Spice extracts and their bioactive molecules have been well recognized for their innumerable beneficial effects against various chronic diseases. However, experimental data regarding their potential to abrogate oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are rather limited. In the current study, we aimed to assess the neuromodulatory potential of aqueous extracts of spices viz., cumin and cinnamon and their bioactives (Cuminaldehyde (CU) and Cinnamaldehyde (CN) using a neurotoxin model of Drosophila. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male flies (Oregon K) were fed medium enriched (0.1–0.2%) with aqueous extract of Cumin or Cinnamon and their bioactives CU/ CN with without ROT (500 µM) for 7 days. The propensity of extracts or biaoctives to protect flies against ROT-induced lethality, locomotor phenotype, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity was determined. Both the extracts significantly protected the flies against ROT-induced locomotor phenotype and mortality. CU and CN-enrichment markedly reduced the mortality induced by ROT, improved the locomotion and significantly abrogated the degree of oxidative impairments. Both the bioactives also augmented the antioxidant enzyme activities and restored ROT-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. Interestingly, ROT -induced elevation of the activity of acetylcholinesterase and depletion of dopamine levels were also restored. Further, flies given prophylactic treatment with bioactives exhibited significant resistance to an acute challenge to Paraquat (PQ). In a parallel study, both the bioactives were found to significantly delay the onset of locomotor deficits among ROT-stressed flies besides extending their survival. CONCLUSION: We hypothesise that the efficacy aqueous extract and their bioactives to attenuate ROT-mediated neurotoxicity may be largely related to the combined antioxidant activity of bioactives resulting in improved locomotor performance , abrogation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on these results, we propose that cumin and cinnamon extracts may be exploited as therapeutics against PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
... Also, Bhatt and Patel (2013) hypothesized that the significant increase in total phenolic content of garlic after GI digestion could be related with the gradual release of phenols from proteins and other biomolecules during the digestive process leading to the alteration in chemical structure and functional properties. It was also postulated that the increment in the total phenolic acid content might be due to the hydrolysis of glycosidic hydrolysable tannins and ester bonds upon heating in digestion media (Durak et al., 2014). ...
Article
Bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal system is a priority for any molecule to exert its biological activity. This study was planned for investigating the bioaccessibility of the phenolic content of Hypericum perfoliatum L. together with its antioxidant profile. For this purpose, a simulation method of human digestion comprising of both gastric and intestinal phases was used. The total phenolic, phenolic acid, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the methanolic extract of H. perfoliatum were measured. Major phenolic compounds (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercitrin) and their bioaccessibilities were also evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography. Furthermore, two mechanistically different methodologies for the estimation of antioxidant capacities were employed. Free radical scavenging activities and also ferric and cupric ion reducing capacities were calculated. The results indicated the amount of bioaccessible content, also a high antioxidant capacity of the plant following the simulated digestion process.
... The type of interaction determined on the basis of isobolographic analysis was confirmed by the values of Interaction Factor (IF) presented in Table 1. They were calculated according to the following equation; IF = C A + C B , where C A and C B are the concentrations of a given component in the mixture divided by its concentration having the same effect as the mixture [18]. The value of IF higher than 1 indicates a synergistic effect; a value below 1 indicates antagonism, while a value equal to 1 means additive interactions. ...
Article
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Introduction The antioxidant interactions between the commonly used pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen) and green tea polyphenols were evaluated. Methods The antioxidant properties of the mixtures were evaluated by a scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Results The mixtures contained green tea extract and each drug exhibited lower antioxidant activity than the mathematical sum of the results obtained for individual components showing antagonistic effect. The results were obtained using isobolographic analysis and interaction factors also suggested the antagonistic type of interaction. Only when the concentration of the green tea infusion was relatively high (in comparison to the drug), an additive effect could be concluded. Conclusion The high concentration of green tea infusion in comparison to the drug should be used in developing the new formulations as it can help in the therapy due to their antioxidant properties.
... The focus of this study is to investigate interactions between coffee and added ingredients to better understand the real situation in a food matrix rather than evaluating the components individually, which would be beneficial for the industry and also for the literature to pinpoint the combinations with the most beneficial outcomes in this sense. Durak et al. 7 studied the interaction of coffee and cinnamon, carrying out their research in two different parts. In the first part, researchers focused on how individual bioactive phenolics of coffee and cinnamon interacted with each other, with both of those obtained from the extracts and standard chemicals for comparison. ...
Article
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Due to its strong aroma and stimulating effect, coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide, following water. Apart from being a luscious food product, its contents of high phenolic compounds dominated by chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and their derivatives have caused coffee to be consumed by individuals at higher ratios and have also encouraged the number of varying research studies for its health-promoting properties. However, it should be noted that these desirable beneficial actions of coffee phenolics are in dynamic behaviors, highly dependent on the roasting process parameters and presence of different types of phenolic compounds in the media. Interactions between coffee phenolics and other phenols might end up with induced or reduced biological activities, which is called synergism or antagonism, respectively. In this paper, bioactive properties such as antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and chelating power are reviewed in terms of synergism and antagonism of coffee phenolics and other bioactive compounds that are introduced into the matrix, such as cacao, ginger, cinnamon, willow bark, cardamom, and chili pepper. Furthermore, how these properties are affected after in vitro digestion and potential reasons for the outcomes are also briefly discussed with the aim of providing a better understanding of these interactions for the food industry. Revealing the synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the phenolics between coffee and different ingredients in a food matrix and their effects on bioactivity mechanisms is not only important for scientific studies but also for conscious food consumption of individuals.
... In addition, cinnamon and its derivatives are generally recognised as safe (so-called "GRAS' status in the USA) . Due to its potential health benefits, it has been used to improve the health-promoting properties of foods, such as coffee, chocolate and cocoa drinks (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014;Muhammad et al., 2019;Muhammad, Saputro, Rottiers, Van de Walle, & Dewettinck, 2018). Its incorporation in chocolate has significantly improved the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of white chocolate (Muhammad et al., 2018). ...
Article
This study aims at determining the potentials of cinnamon (Cinnamomun burmannii) extracts to improve the health-promoting properties of white chocolate. LC-HRMS analysis was employed to obtain information regarding the phytochemical content while the phosphomolybdenum, FRAP and DPPH assays were used to determine antioxidant activity of cinnamon extract. Furthermore, the cinnamon extract was loaded into nanoparticles before adding it to white chocolate. The results show that cinnamon extracts contained phenols up to 310 mg EE and possessed antioxidant activity up to 260 mg TAE per gram of dry extract depending on the extraction mode (i.e., traditional and ultrasonic-assisted method) and the solvent type. The cinnamon extract contained catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, quercitrin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid at levels of 51, 53, 1396, 13, 1138, 228 and 934 µg/g of dry extract, respectively. The encapsulated cinnamon extract increased the phenolic content of white chocolate from 47.6 to 1060.6 µg EE/g.
... Antioxidant compounds also decrease the generation of free radicals through the inhibition of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species production (Fu et al., 2011). Furthermore, they may play a role in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Durak et al., 2014). Antioxidants are divided into two categories: enzymatic and non-enzymatic. ...
Article
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Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant from the Amazon region with cultural importance. Despite its early ancestral use by indigenous tribes, the first reports regarding the benefits of guarana consumption for human health were published in the 19th century. Since then, the use of guarana seed in powder and extract forms has been studied for its diverse effects on human health, such as stimulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, and anti-obesity effects. These effects are attributed to the high content of bioactive compounds found in guarana seeds, especially methylxanthines and flavonoids. In fact, the Brazilian Food Supplement Law has officially acknowledged guarana as a source of bioactive compounds. The number and diversity of studies focused on guarana and human health are increasing; thus, organizing and describing the available evidence on guarana and its applications is necessary to provide a framework for future studies. In this narrative review, we have organized the available information regarding guarana and its potential effects on human health. Guarana produces unique fruits with great potential for human health applications. However, the available evidence lacks human studies and mechanistic investigations. Future studies should be designed considering its applicability to human health, including intake levels and toxicity studies.
... The phytochemicals present in the CP are caffeine, tannin, polyphenol, pectin, and monosaccharide and disaccharide compounds (Janissen and Huynh, 2018). In coffee, the major beneficial bioactive compounds are caffeine and various polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), ferulic acid, sinapic acid, gallic acid, and quinic acid (Hečimović et al., 2011;Durak et al., 2014). The main component of the phenolic fraction of the green coffee bean is CGA (Farah and Donangelo, 2006). ...
Article
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Background: Polyphenols and flavonoid-rich foods help in arresting reactive oxygen species development and protecting DNA from oxidative damage. Coffee peel (CP) preparations are consumed as beverages, and their total polyphenol or flavonoid content and their effect on oxidative stress–induced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are poorly understood. Method: We prepared hot water extracts of CP (CPE) and quantified the amount of total polyphenol and flavonoid using HPLC analysis. In addition, CPE have been studied for their α-amylase inhibitory effect and beneficial effects in oxidative stress–induced hMSCs. Results: The obtained results show that the availability of chlorogenic acid, vanillin, and salicylic acid levels in CPE is more favorable for enhancing cell growth, nuclear integrity, and mitochondrial efficiency which is confirmed by propidium iodide staining and JC-1 staining. CPE treatment to hMSCs for 48 h reduced oxidative stress by decreasing mRNA expression levels of LPO and NOX-4 and in increasing antioxidant CYP1A, GSH, GSK-3β, and GPX mRNA expressions. Decreased pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, NF-κβ, IL-1β, TLR-4) and increased tumor suppressor genes (except Bcl-2) such as Cdkn2A, p53 expressions have been observed. Conclusions: The availability of CGA in CPs effectively reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased tumor suppressor genes.
... Herein, ZBM and CAL showed a remarkable synergism (SI 1.33) at 3:1 of ZBM/CAL ratio (Fig. 2a), suggesting the best combination of ZBM and CAL to eliminate DPPH radical. The synergism degree became weaker when more ZBM was applied in the ZBM-CAL mixture, which were consistent with a previous study demonstrating that the synergism of two compounds depended on its concentration ratio applied [29]. However, a considerable antagonistic effect (SI 0.76) was observed in scavenging ABTS ·+ when the ratio was 1:10 and 1:7, and a SI value of 0.99 occurred at ratio 1:1, indicating an additive effect of ZBM and CAL to scavenge ABTS radical cation Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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The ingestion of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim. (ZBM) and Capsicum annuum L. (CAL) may give a special taste and is becoming more popular worldwide. In this study, the synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects of ZBM with CAL, as well as the possible mechanism were investigated by exploring their antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging activities with the methods of HPLC-TOF-MS, GC-MS, DPPH-, ABTS- and nitrite-scavenging analyses. Results showed that the main identified compounds in ZBM extract were catechin, rutin and hydroxyl-α-sanshool, and that in CAL was capsaicin. ZBM possessed stronger antioxidant abilities than CAL, and a varied interaction between ZBM and CAL could be observed in antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging analysis, which depended on their ratio used. The ZBM–CAL mixture displayed a significant synergism in scavenging DPPH· test at the ratio of 3:1 (ZBM/CAL, w/w), which might be attributed to the synergism of catechin and capsaicin. However, the mixture could show a distinct antagonistic effect in scavenging ABTS·+ at lower ratios. In addition, a general antagonism was observed in scavenging nitrite at all ratios tested, which was in agreement with corresponding antagonism of catechin (and rutin) in ZBM with the capsaicin in CAL. As the key pungency composition of ZBM, hydroxyl-α-sanshool showed no nitrite-scavenging ability, and its combination with capsaicin had distinct antagonism to scavenge DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation. This study is significant for the rational combination of ZBM and CAL used in food processing and cooking in consideration of health benefits.
... Among the 12 combinations evaluated in this study, CINN combinations required lower concentrations of compounds to inhibit the pathogens, exerting additive effects in most combinations. Therefore, CINN + HCA combination was elected for evaluation in sliced cooked ham due to their lower FIC values and similar chemical and sensorial characteristics, considering both are extracted from cinnamon (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014). ...
Article
Essential oil components (EOCs) show great potential for substitution of classic synthetic preservatives in the food industry, but their intense flavor at high concentrations hinders the commercial use. When combined with phenolic acids (PAs), however, the amount of EOC needed to inhibit microbial growth can be significantly reduced. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of several combinations of EOCs and PAs on the growth of foodborne pathogens and, thereafter, evaluate the best combination in sliced ham, a highly susceptible product to bacterial contamination in retail shops. Most combinations showed additive effects in vitro against a 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella Enteritidis and a Listeria monocytogenes strain culture. The most effective combination, cinnamaldehyde (CINN) and 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA), was evaluated in ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked ham. A package system based in filter papers was designed for continuous delivery of cinnamaldehyde (CINN) and 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) into the meat matrix. The treatment showed no significative effects in pathogen populations, instrumental color or pH throughout shelf life. Storage time exerted statistical influence in pH, but values remained as expected for ham. L. monocytogenes population varied through storage time, probably due to the psychrotrophic nature of this species.
... There are also other polyphenolic compounds in coffee beans, including tannins, anthocyanins, and lignans. Overall, polyphenols from coffee are known as excellent antioxidant, anticancer, and antiinflammatory agents (Acidri et al. 2020;Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, and Pecio 2014;Ferrazzano et al. 2009). ...
Article
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To date, there exists a debate on the effect of milk added to coffee infusions/beverages concerning the nutritional quality of coffee and the functional properties of its phenolic compounds. Yet, the full nutritional quality and functional properties of a coffee beverage without a significant negative impact on its sensorial profile are highly desired by the consumers. Negative/masking, positive, and neutral effects of milk on the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of coffee phenolics (particularly, chlorogenic acids) have been reported. Some potential factors including the type and amount of milk added, type of coffee beverage, the composition of both milk (protein and fat) and coffee (phenolic compounds), preparation method, assays used to measure antioxidant properties, and sampling size may account for the various reported findings. Interactions between phenolic compounds in coffee and milk proteins could account as the main responsible aspect for the reported masking/negative impact of milk on the antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility/bioavailability of coffee bioactives. However, considering the interactions between milk components and coffee phenolics, which result in the loss of their functionality, the role of milk fat globules and the milk fat globule membrane can also be crucial, but this has not been addressed in the literature so far. • Highlights • In most cases, milk is added to the coffee beverages in several various ways. • Effect of milk on the nutritional/functional properties of coffee is controversial. • Enough evidence suggests negative effects of milk addition on properties of coffee. • Interactions of coffee phenolics and milk proteins could account as the main aspect. • The role of milk fat globules and milk fat globule membrane may also be crucial.
... It has the best quality and the highest price (Kawatra and Rajagopalan 2015). Also, cinnamon has been identified to possess excellent anti-inflammatory (Durak et al. 2014), antioxidant (Mancinifilho et al. 1998), anticancer (Shahwar et al. 2015), and antibacterial properties (Shan et al. 2007). It is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations, seasonings, and cosmetics (Bandara et al. 2012;Kawatra and Rajagopalan 2015;Lee and Balick 2005;Ranasinghe et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This study demonstrates a rapid method for the identification of volatile and endogenous compounds in cinnamon through a coated direct intracavity probe (CDIP) coupled to the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for mass spectrometry direct injection. Sixty-seven molecular ions were screened from quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometer data as fingerprint ions of four varieties of cinnamons. Electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as comparisons were used to analyze the cinnamons. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that both GC-MS and CDIP-APCI-Q-ToF method could be used to identify different kinds of cinnamons effectively. Part of the fingerprint ions obtained via CDIP-APCI-Q-ToF could be matched to the compounds detected by GC-MS. These findings indicated that CDIP-APCI-Q-ToF direct injection considerably shortened sample analysis time and achieved a faster, more efficient, and sensitive identification of different varieties of cinnamons.
... The beneficial properties of coffee are continuously being discovered. In addition, aromatic ingredients such as cinnamon can modify the antioxidant properties of coffee extract, and antioxidant interactions can be established using methods of different difficulty levels (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the key elements in functional food innovations using food processing by-products and emerging ingredients. The role of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bioactive compounds, and minerals will be discussed in the point of view of innovative technologies, new ingredients, and the challenges in functional food development. The fortification of food products with functional ingredients to enhance its organoleptic properties, physicochemical properties, preservation, and morphological properties will be discussed. The valorization of food processing by-products provides functional macro- and micronutrients in a cost-efficient way. Also, emerging ingredients from various sources, including algae, insects, and hemp, provide a tremendous contribution to functional food development.
... It might be correlated with the continuous liberation of phenolic compounds from protein other macromolecules during the digestion process which changes the chemical structure as well as functional properties. It was also assumed that the increase in the polyphenol levels could be due to the hydrolysis reaction s which occurs during the digestion process (Durak et al. 2014). ...
Article
The effect of gastro intestinal digestion on total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and vitamin C levels of apple (Malus domestica) pomace and a local variety of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana) pomace was evaluated after drying at 110 °C for 3 h in a hot air oven. The physicochemical properties and functional properties of apple and jujube pomaces were also assessed. Prior to digestion, apple pomace displayed greater levels of TPC, RSA and vitamin C (17.30 ± 0.59 GAE/g DW, 81.16 ± 3.27%, 0.078 ± 0.01 g/L, respectively) in comparison with jujube pomace (16.90 ± 0.66 GAE/g DW, 54.65 ± 2.09%, 0.069 ± 0.01 g/L, respectively), whereas, TFC level was found to be higher in jujube pomace (19.22 ± 0.87 QE/g DW). After digestion, both samples showed an increase in TPC (56.17 ± 2.14 and 52.01 ± 2.18 GAE/g DW for apple and jujube pomaces) and TFC levels (48.45 ± 1.87 and 53.82 ± 2.34 QE/g DW for apple and jujube pomaces) and it was perceived almost 3 to 4 times higher than the TPC and TFC of the samples before digestion. But, RSA of the fruit pomaces were found to be affected by the in vitro digestion which was observed as 54.65 ± 2.09 and 81.16 ± 3.27% respectively for apple and jujube pomaces. It may be suggested that the fruit powders may be incorporated in developing new functional foods rich in bio active compounds and thus can be utilized in different food applications.
... The digestion process affects the type of interaction between phenolic compounds. For example, the antagonistic interactions between coffee and cinnamon phenolics lowered the lipoxygenase inhibition activity after digestion, while their water-soluble extracts acted synergistically against lipoxygenase activity (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Pecio, 2014). In contrast, water extracts of coffee and ginger showed antagonistic effect on their lipoxygenase inhibition activity, but digestion process changed it as synergistic interaction (Durak, Gawlik-Dziki, & Kowlska, 2015). ...
Chapter
Dietary antioxidants are associated with prevention of oxidative stress related chronic diseases including certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in extending the knowledge on their physiological effects in human body. There are numbers of epidemiological, clinical, meta-analysis, and in vitro studies to explain formation mechanisms of each chronic diseases as well as the potential effects of dietary antioxidants on these diseases and gut health. Comprehensive studies for food antioxidants' journey from dietary intake to target tissues/organs deserve a serious consideration to have a clear understanding on the physiological effects of dietary antioxidants. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of dietary antioxidants, and the factors affecting their absorption, such as solubility of antioxidants, food matrix, and interaction between antioxidants have been evaluated in several research articles. This chapter provides an overview about potential health effects of dietary antioxidants considering with their absorption and metabolism in human body.
... This anti-inflammatory effect may be due to the presence of polyphenols in the cinnamon extract (23). Durak et al study showed that cinnamon had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and was able to eliminate free radicals and inhibit lipoxygenase activity (14,24). Zaidi et al investigated the indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan such as cinnamon can be used to treat peptic ulcer and gastric cancer (25). ...
Article
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Introduction: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori has various side effects like antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon extract on complications of treatment and eradication of H. pylori in infected people. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 98 eligible healthy and H. pylori-infected patients approved by esophageal endoscopy were selected. The cinnamon group received multi-drug treatment including clarithromycin, amoxicillin and pantoprazole as well as a cinnamon extract capsule. The control group received multi-drug treatment and a 40 mg starch capsule. In order to analyze the cinnamon extract efficacy, the urea breath test (UBT) was performed 3 months after the start of treatment. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire at the beginning (day of 0), 7 days and 14 days after starting treatment. Results: The clinical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, headache, metallic flavor, epigastric pain, burp, and appetite were significantly reduced in the cinnamon group (P < 0.05). The odds ratio exhibited a higher eradication rate of H. pylori in the cinnamon group (73.47% in the cinnamon group compared to 53.06% in the control group) (P = 0.036). Conclusion: Cinnamon as assisted therapy is able to alleviate the disease and reduce the complications of H. pylori treatment.
... A considerable amount of literature has correspondingly shown its great potency as an anti-cancer, anti-Alzheimer's, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial agent and antioxidant agent (Ribeiro-Santos et al. 2017;Muhammad et al. 2019b). Previous studies have shown that cinnamon has been successfully used to improve the health-promoting properties of coffee and yoghurt (Durak, et al. 2014;Shori and Baba 2011). ...
Article
White chocolate is often considered as an unhealthy product with low phenolic content and antioxidant activity since it does not contain cocoa liquor. In this study, investigation on the phytochemical composition of cinnamon essential oil as well as its potential use to improve the antioxidant activity of white chocolate were carried out. The effect of the essential oil incorporation on the quality attributes of white chocolate was also examined. The results show that cinnamon essential oil was rich in cinnamaldehyde and exhibited antioxidant activity. The incorporation of cinnamon essential oil at a level of 0.1% (w/w) increased the antioxidant activity of the white chocolate more than twofold without significant effect on its hardness, melting properties and colour. However, a slight alteration on the flow behaviour of the white chocolate was observed. This study clearly shows that natural cinnamon essential oil could be an alternative to synthetic additives in foods to improve their antioxidant activity.
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Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially type 2, is increasing worldwide. Prevention, control and management of this chronic metabolic disease is the most important ways to avoid its consequences. The use of functional foods and bioactive compounds can be effective in preventing and controlling this disease due to the antioxidant compounds present. Low- level laser therapy (LLLT), as an adjunct therapy, along with medication can be effective in reducing the effects of DM.Objective: Our aim in the present study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LLLT and cinnamic acid on blood glucose, inflammatory factors, oxidative factors, and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.Methods: For this study, thirty healthy individuals were selected as the control group and thirty individuals with type 2 DM were selected. The levels of biochemical parameters, such as glucose, hydrogen peroxide, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) were studied in the samples of different control and diabetic groups, Inflammatory factors, such as Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also studied.Results: The results of all biochemical parameters showed significant differences in untreated and treated diabetic samples in compared to control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the reduction of inflammatory factors, glucose and hydrogen peroxide between the samples treated with both cinnamic acid and laser irradiation with the untreated diabetic sample (P > 0.05). A significant difference was observed in comparing the results of other biochemical factors (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Concomitant use of cinnamic acid and LLLT as a complementary treatment can reduce oxidative stress and thus prevent the diabetes complications.Keywords: Laser irradiation; Cinnamic acid; Functional foods; Oxidative stress; Diabetes mellitus.
Article
Background Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (Cinnamon) was known as a kind of hot herb, improved circulation and warmed the body. However, the active components and mechanisms of dispelling cold remain unknown. Methods The effects of several Chinses herbs on thermogenesis were evaluated on body temperature and activation of brown adipose tissue. After confirming the effect, the components of cinnamon were identified using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS and screened with databases. The targets of components were obtained with TCMSP, SymMap, Swiss and STITCH databases. Thermogenesis genes were predicted with DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed with Cytoscape 3.7.1 software. GO enrichment analysis was accomplished with STRING databases. KEGG pathway analysis was established with Omicshare tools. The top 20 targets for four compounds were obtained according to the number of edges of PPI network. In addition, the network results were verified with experimental research for the effects of extracts and major compounds. Results Cinnamon extract significantly upregulated the body temperature during cold exposure.121 components were identified in HPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Among them, 60 compounds were included in the databases. 116 targets were obtained for the compounds, and 41 genes were related to thermogenesis. The network results revealed that 27 active ingredients and 39 target genes. Through the KEGG analysis, the top 3 pathways were PPAR signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, thermogenesis pathway. The thermogenic protein PPARγ, UCP1 and PGC1-α was included in the critical targets of four major compounds. The three major compounds increased the lipid consumption and activated the brown adipocyte. They also upregulated the expression of UCP1, PGC1-α and pHSL, especially 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was confirmed the effect for the first time. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamon activated the expression of TRPA1 on DRG cells. Conclusion The mechanisms of cinnamon on cold resistance were investigated with network pharmacology and experiment validation. This work provided research direction to support the traditional applications of thermogenesis.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Located throughout the body, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) are therapeutic targets for obesity/metabolic diseases, neurological/mental disorders, and immune modulation. Phytocannabinoids are greatly important for the development of new medicines with high efficacy and/or minor side effects. Plants and fungi are used in traditional medicine for beneficial effects to mental and immune system. The current research studied five fungi from the genus Ganoderma and five plants: Ganoderma hainanense J.D. Zhao, L.W. Hsu & X.Q. Zhang; Ganoderma capense (Lloyd) Teng, Zhong Guo De Zhen Jun; Ganoderma cochlear (Blume & T. Nees) Bres., Hedwigia; Ganoderma resinaceum Boud.; Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.; Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae); Cynanchum otophyllum C. K. Schneid. (Asclepiadaceae); Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae); Prinsepia utilis Royle (Rosaceae); Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae). They show immunoregulation, promotion of longevity and maintenance of vitality, stimulant effects on the central nervous system, hormone balance and other beneficial effects. However, it remains unclear whether cannabinoid receptors are involved in these effects. Aim of the study: This work aimed to identify components working on CB1 and CB2 from the above plants and fungi, as novel phytocannabinoids, and to investigate mechanisms of how these compounds affected the cells. By analyzing the structure-activity relationship, we could identify the core structure for future development. Materials and methods: Eighty-two natural compounds were screened on stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, CHO-CB1 and CHO-CB2, with application of a label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology that measured cellular responses to compounds. CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2 were agonist probe molecules, and SR141716A and SR144528 were antagonist probes. Pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, LY294002 and U73122 were signaling pathway inhibitors. The DMR data were acquired by Epic Imager software (Corning, NY), processed by Imager Beta 3.7 (Corning), and analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: Transfected CHO-CB1 and CHO-CB2 cell lines were established and characterized. Seven compounds induced responses/activities in the cells. Among the seven compounds, four were purified from two Ganoderma species with potencies between 20 and 35 μM. Three antagonists: Kfb68 antagonized both receptors with a better desensitizing effect on CB2 to WIN55,212-2 over CP55,940. Kga1 and Kfb28 were antagonists selective to CB1 and CB2, respectively. Kfb77 was a special agonist and it stimulated CB1 in a mechanism different from that of CP55,940. Another three active compounds, derived from the Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), were also identified but their effects were mediated through mechanisms much related to the signaling transduction pathways, especially through the stimulatory Gs protein. Conclusions: We identified four natural cannabinoids that exhibited structural and functional diversities. Our work confirms the presence of active ingredients in the Ganoderma species to CB1 and CB2, and this finding establishes connections between the fungi and the cannabinoid receptors, which will serve as a starting point to connect their beneficial effects to the endocannabinoid system. This research will also enrich the inventory of cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids from fungi. Yet due to some limitations, further structure-activity relationship studies and mechanism investigation are warranted in future.
Article
Background: Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components. Results: Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa, and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95%-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22%-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R(2) = 0.794-0.924, p<0.01) and antiproliferative (R(2) =0.408-0.623, p<0.05) potentials. Moreover, gallic acid may be responsible for the antioxidant potential of 7 flowers rich in edible flowers. Conclusion: The antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of 10 edible flowers revealed a clear decrease after digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials, which merited further investigation on in vivo studies.
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The frequent intake of whole foods and dietary food variety is recommended due to their health benefits, such as prevention of multiple chronic diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Often, consuming whole fruits or vegetables showed the enhanced effects than consuming the individual dietary supplement from natural products, which is widely explained by the interactive effects of co-existing phytochemicals in whole foods. Although research relevant to interactive effects among the bioactive compounds mounted up, the mechanism of interaction is still not clear. Especially, biological influence factors such as bioavailability are often neglected. The present review summarizes the progress on the synergistic and antagonistic effects of dietary phytochemicals, the evaluating models for antioxidant interactions, and the possible interaction mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo, and with an emphasis on biological-related molecular mechanisms of phytochemicals. The research on the interaction mechanism is of value for guiding how to take advantage of synergistic effects and avoid antagonistic effects in daily diets or phytochemical-based treatments for preventing chronic diseases.
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This research aims to study the manufacture of herbal mixed coffee by blending the ground roasted coffee with the white turmeric extract and wild Javanese turmeric extract as a natural additive. The treatment was the ratio between ground roasted coffee and white turmeric and wild Javanese turmeric extract, which consisted of three levels namely 80:20%, 60:40%, 40:60%. The measurement of antioxidant activity was carried out using the DPPH method as % inhibition. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of coffee mixed with white turmeric was 18%, 19%, 48% respectively for each ratio and IC 50 of 12.98%; while coffee mixed with Javanese turmeric extract showed the antioxidant activity of 20%; 32%; 48% with IC 50 7.71%.
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The balance between coffee phytochemicals and post-harvest handling is complex and delicate since these compounds are affected either negatively or positively. Studies have shown positive health effects arising from regular consumption of coffee, which are linked to phytochemicals present in the coffee bean. However, phytochemicals must be available in considerable amounts at the time of consumption in order for them to confer the beneficial health effects. This review aims at summarizing the available literature on the impact of coffee processing steps on the content as well as sensory and functional characteristics of phytochemicals. The phytochemicals in coffee include, majorly: Chlorogenic acids, caffeine, diterpenes and trigonelline. Literature reveals that variation in coffee post-harvest handling techniques such as degree of roast, processing method, brew preparation method and parameters results into brew with varied sensory and functional properties. This could be majorly attributed to the variation in the phytochemicals content in the cup. Further research on how coffee phytochemicals are affected during post-harvest handling practices would unlock the health benefits of this popular beverage and immensely benefit the consumer.
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Several plants have traditionally been used since antiquity to treat various gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms similar to COVID-19 outcomes. The common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever or chills, cold, cough, flu, headache, diarrhoea, tiredness/fatigue, sore throat, loss of taste or smell, asthma, shortness of breath, or difficulty breathing, etc. This study aims to find out the plants and plant-derived products which are being used by the COVID-19 infected patients in Bangladesh and how those plants are being used for the management of COVID-19 symptoms. In this study, online and partially in-person survey interviews were carried out among Bangladeshi respondents. We selected Bangladeshi COVID-19 patients who were detected Coronavirus positive (+) by RT-PCR nucleic acid test and later recovered. Furthermore, identified plant species from the surveys were thoroughly investigated for safety and efficacy based on the previous ethnomedicinal usage reports. Based on the published data, they were also reviewed for their significant potentialities as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents. We explored comprehensive information about a total of 26 plant species, belonging to 23 genera and 17 different botanical families, used in COVID-19 treatment as home remedies by the respondents. Most of the plants and plant-derived products were collected directly from the local marketplace. According to our survey results, greatly top 5 cited plant species measured as per the highest RFC value are Camellia sinensis (1.0) > Allium sativum (0.984) > Azadirachta indica (0.966) > Zingiber officinale (0.966) > Syzygium aromaticum (0.943). Previously published ethnomedicinal usage reports, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activity of the concerned plant species also support our results. Thus, the survey and review analysis simultaneously reveals that these reported plants and plant-derived products might be promising candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, this study clarifies the reported plants for their safety during COVID-19 management and thereby supporting them to include in any future pre-clinical and clinical investigation for developing herbal COVID-19 therapeutics.
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Background Chronic degenerative diseases (CDDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. Nutraceuticals are compounds naturally found in foods that have preventive and therapeutic activities against CDDs. However, no single nutraceutical has been successful in preventing or curing CDDs. Consequently, a new research field has emerged: nutraceutical combinations that can work together for fighting CDDs more effectively. Scope and approach This review is designed as a practical guide for researchers and food industries (including experts and non-experts in the field) to develop effective nutraceutical combinations (ENCs) in the form of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements against CDDs. It covers history of combination of compounds against CDDs, nutraceuticals (definition, chemistry, advantages and disadvantages), nutraceutical combinations (advantages, types of interactions and methods to determine them), factors to consider for designing ENCs, a protocol proposed by us to develop ENCs, and cancer as a case study where we exemplify the application of the protocol. Key findings and conclusions To formulate ENCs against CDDs, several factors need to be considered, including doses, proportions, mechanisms, and bioavailability of the nutraceuticals in the ENC, as well as the raw material quality control, food matrix, processing, and post-production storage conditions used to develop the ENC. The protocol considers all these factors, and therefore can be used as a guide for designing ENCs against CDDs. More bioavailability, mechanistic, and clinical studies of individual and combined nutraceuticals are needed. Defeating CDDs could be just a matter of finding the right combination, along with a healthy lifestyle.
Chapter
This chapter overview the chemistry of phenolic compounds in herbs and spices. Herbs and spices are important flavoring agents used in the preparation of foods. The increasing curiosity for spices and herbs by the food industry and scientists is due to their strong antioxidant properties, which are mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Simple phenols, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, curcuminoids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, and anthocyanins have been reported in different herbs and spices. The major components were simple phenols, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, curcuminoids, and flavonoids.
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The potential synergistic effects of Flavan-3-ols to inhibit the formation of acrylamide have attracted wide attention. This study aims to investigate the synergistic inhibitory effects of the B-type procyanidin and flavan-3-ols monomer on acrylamide production in food matrix. By comparing the inhibitory effects of different compounds in food matrix, procyanidin B2 and catechin were screened out for examining their synergistic inhibitory effects on acrylamide by Isobologram analysis. When the interaction index (γ) was lower than 1, the interaction was synergistic reaction. The results showed the procyanidin B2/catechin ratio of 1:3 (γ = 0.57) had similar synergistic effect to that of 1:9 (γ = 0.53), both of which showed better effects than the ratio of 1:1 (γ = 0.71). The optimal synergistic inhibitory effect (70.11 ± 2.07%) was achieved when the procyanidin B2 and catechin concentrations were 0.6 µg/mL and 5.4 µg/mL, respectively. Compared with single use, the combined use of B2 and catechin could decrease the dosage of B2 to 1/10 and that of catechin to 1/3.
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Aims: Firstly, Cinnamomum zeylani essential oil (CZEO) was isolated and characterized. Secondly, CZEO was used in Malva sylvestris mucilage (MSM) coating and its antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on lamb meat slices were evaluated in 10 days at 4°C. Methods and results: The main chemical compounds and functional groups of the CZEO were identified and quantified by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and by an Fourier transform infrared spectrometer respectively. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of CZEO were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent-based and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Various microbiological, physicochemical analyses and sensory evaluations were also utilized regarding the coated lamb meat slices. CZEO contains benzyl benzoate (40.93%), caryophyllene oxide (26.07%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.01%), with strong radical scavenging activity and antibacterial effect against investigated pathogenic microorganisms. The CZEO-loaded MSM edible coating greatly postponed the growth of microorganisms and extended the product life (>10 days). The pH value, moisture content and hardness of the samples were also preserved more efficiently when high concentrations of the essential oil were incorporated into the edible coating (p < 0.05). The CZEO-rich MSM coating was also able to possess considerable activity against lipid oxidation in lamb meat samples, and significantly decreased the production of primary and secondary oxidation products (p < 0.05). Moreover, sensory parameters of the samples were preserved more efficiently during cold storage when the CZEO-enriched edible coating, particularly MSM + 2% CZEO was used. Conclusions: The use of edible coating based on MSM and CZEO is therefore effective in reducing microbial growth and chemical reactions in lamb meat during the storage period. Significance and impact of the study: The importance of the results of this study is in order to increase the use of natural preservatives, maintain food safety and of course the health of the people in the community.
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Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites generally involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress conditions. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). These compounds have a number of beneficial health properties related to their potent antioxidant activity as well as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and antiviral activities. The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. During coffee processing, CGA may be isomerized, hydrolyzed or degraded into low molecular weight compounds. The high temperatures of roasting also produce transformation of part of CGA into quinolactones and, along with other compounds, melanoidins. This review focuses on the chemical characteristics, biosynthesis, and distribution of CGA and related compounds in coffee. The influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors as well as processing on the chemical composition of coffee beans is discussed. The impact of CGA composition of green coffee on cup quality is also approached. Despite the existence of substantial published information on the total levels of CGA in coffee, more research is needed on the composition of minor phenolic compounds and specific CGA isomers (and related substances) in green and roasted coffee beans, as well as their impact on coffee quality.
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The total antioxidant activity of coffee beverages was measured with stabilized radical EPR spectroscopy. Depending on which stabilized radical is used, Fremy's salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) or 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) values can differ significantly. For the determination of antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products in coffee, TEMPO appears to be the better radical marker. Thus the contribution of both main antioxidant active compounds (polyphenols, melanoidins) whose ratio varies with roasting conditions could be estimated. During storage experiments of coffees brews changes in antioxidant action are found to be time dependent. The content of chlorogenic acids increased significantly at higher storage temperatures, probably caused by a release from polymer structures. Additional antioxidant capacity of coffee melanoidins seems to be strongly influenced by atmospheric oxygen. The higher roasted sample is less vulnerable than medium or light roasted coffee. Investigations with model systems showed that among all coffee constituents the carbohydrates are mainly responsible for the formation of oxygen scavenging substances.
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The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed.
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The antioxidant properties of seven dessert spices (anise, cinnamon, ginger, licorice, mint, nutmeg, and vanilla) were compared with those of the common food antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (E-320), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E-321), and propyl gallate (E-310). The influence of irradiation process on antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Mint and cinnamon exhibited a higher percentage of inhibition of oxidation than the other spices analyzed and the food antioxidants, as tested by the lipid peroxidation assay (LOO*). Nutmeg, anise, and licorice showed the strongest protection in the deoxyribose assay (OH*). Vanilla exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the peroxidase-based assay (H2O2). Nutmeg, propyl gallate, ginger, and licorice improved the stability of oils (sunflower, corn, and olive) and fats (butter and margarine) against oxidation (110 degrees C Rancimat). Cinnamon was a better superoxide radical scavenger than the other analyzed spices and additives. When the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay was used to provide a ranking order of antioxidant activity, the result in decreasing order of antioxidant capacity was cinnamon approximately equal to propyl gallate > mint > anise > BHA > licorice approximately equal to vanilla > ginger > nutmeg > BHT. Irradiated samples did not show significant differences (p < 0.05) in the antioxidant activity with respect to the non-irradiated samples (1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy) in the assays used.
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Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in more than 100 diseases. In living organism ROS can be formed eg.with lipoxygenase (LOX) action. In this study the LOX-inhibitory activity and phenolics profiles of dandelion and lime flowers tinctures were compared and the interactions between them were evaluated using an isobolographic analysis. Dandelion flowers tinctures were a good source of phenolic acids, whereas lime flowers tinctures were better source of quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin. Higher LOX inhibitory activity was obtained for dandelion tincture (IC50 about 36.4 μg d.m./ml) whereas for lime tincture IC50 average about 46.4 μg d.m./ml. Isobole curve for 50% inhibition of dandelion: lime flowers mixture took the convex form. This result indicates that LOX inhibitors of studied preparation acted antagonistically.
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The biological activities of in vitro bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds of tomato, onion, garlic, and lettuce and their interactions in commonly consumed combinations were studied. The bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (ACP), the potential bioavailability (AVP), the antioxidant bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV), the bioefficiency (BEF), and the interaction (IF) factors were determined. It was found that antiradical compounds were bioaccessible. Furthermore, antiradical compounds from tomato/garlic acted synergistically (IF = 0.42), whereas in other cases additive interactions were observed. BAC values of catalase activators averaged at about 1.50; however, owing to their potential bioavailability (BAV above 5.56) they possessed high bioefficiency (BEF about 9). On the other hand, all vegetables that contained bioavailable and bioefficient lipoxygenase inhibitors acted antagonistically. Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors were found to be bioavailable (BAV from 2.61 to 3.98) and bioefficient (BEF from 2.87 to 5.50) and strong synergistic interactions between them were also determined.
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The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cinnamon were investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic injury in rats. The elevated serum AST and ALT enzymatic activities induced by CCl 4 were restored towards normalization significantly by orally administrated 200 mg/kg of either extracts once daily for 7 days as compared to non treated rats. There was a significant elevation in the level of liver malondialdhyde (MDA) while the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase (SOD and CAT) were significantly decreased in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. The results obtained indicated that ethanolic extract have potent hepatoprotective action more than water extract against CCl 4 by lowering the MDA level and elevate the antioxidants enzymes activities (SOD and CAT). It is concluded that, the possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging polyphenols compounds.
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Spices and herbs have been added to foods since ancient times, not only as flavoring agents, but also as folk medicines and food preservatives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total content of polyphenols, flavonoid, tannins and their correlation to antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of spices. Cardamom, coriander seeds and dried bay leaves were used to prepare extracts and iron(III) reduction, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide , superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging , reducing power were assayed as antioxidant capacity. Although bay leaves showed greater amount of phenols and high antioxidant activity, cardamom and coriander are also good sources of flavonoid and scavengers of free radicals. Both extracts of these spices are promising alternatives to synthetic substances as food ingredients with antioxidant activity.
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Previous studies have shown that significant changes to green tea catechins occur as a result of changes in pH similar to those found in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study we have demonstrated that the sum of the antioxidant activities attributable to the four major catechins in brewed green and black tea samples was less than the total measured antioxidant activity, although there was a high degree of correlation between antioxidant activity and total measured polyphenol concentration. In addition, incubation of either form of tea at acid pH (as found in the stomach) had little effect of the concentration of individual catechins. However, incubation at slightly alkaline pH, similar to that found in the small intestine, resulted in a rapid decline in the concentrations of both green and black tea catechins, but with a lesser reduction in antioxidant activity and polyphenol concentration.
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A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
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The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of selected spices and their influence on the activity of peroxidase and some prooxidant enzymes. Extracts from basil and rosemary were the strongest activators of peroxidase activity (204.7% and 205.8%, respectively). The highest ability for lipoxygenase inhibition was exhibited by tarragon and oregano extracts (60.2% and 57.9%, respectively). In turn, the highest xanthine oxidase inhibition was found in the case of black pepper and basil extracts (70.9% and 67.0%, respectively); whereas the lowest in the case of the cinnamon extract (28.09%). Linoleic acid was the most effectively prevented by oregano and rosemary extracts. O2− scavenging activities of basil, thyme, rosemary, tarragon and cinnamon extracts ranged from 47.5% to 32.7%. The H2O2 scavenging abilities ranged from 42.8% for tarragon to 99.2% for black pepper extract. The results obtained suggest that spice condiments used in food preparations contain phenolic/flavonoid compounds that can significantly inhibit prooxidant enzymes (lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase) and enhance antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, hence diet supplementation with herbs may be helpful in preventing or slowing down the progress of lifestyle-related and chronic diseases.
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Purpose – The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current research on the health risks and benefits associated with coffee drinking. Design/methodology/approach – This review includes up-to-date information from the original literature on coffee drinking and health and presents findings in a manner accessible to both experts and non-experts. Findings – Coffee contains caffeine, antioxidants, and other phytochemicals, all of which affect disease risks. There is evidence that coffee drinking may not be suitable for certain individuals. Overall, however, coffee drinking seems to be a non-harmful habit for those who drink it regularly and in moderation, and recent studies indeed suggest that it may even be beneficial for most people. The most currently available evidence suggests that coffee drinking can help reduce the risk of several diseases, most notably type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, although the underlying mechanisms for this effect are still being investigated. Practical implications – Current studies suggest that coffee drinkers can help protect themselves from neurodegenerative and other diseases by drinking an average of two cups of regular, filtered coffee per day. Originality/value – This article provides accessible and comprehensive information to researchers, nutritionists, and consumers who are interested in the potential health risks and benefits of regular and moderate coffee drinking.
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Different types of breads enriched with onion skin were studied. The objectives were twofold: to show and examine protein-phenolic interactions and to discuss results concerning phenolic content, antioxidant activity and protein digestibility in the light of in vitro bioaccessibility. Phenolic contents and antiradical abilities were linked with the level of onion skin supplement however, the amounts determined were significantly lower than expected. Fortification influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 78.4% for control breads to 55% for breads with a 4% supplement). Electrophoretic and chromatographic studies showed the presence of indigestible protein-flavonoid complexes - with molecular weights about 25kDa and 14.5kDa; however, the reduction of free amino group levels and the increase in chromatogram areas suggest that flavonoids also bind to other bread proteins. The interaction of phenolics with proteins affects antioxidant efficacy and protein digestibility; thus, they have multiple effects on food quality and pro-health properties.
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The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, synapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isoramnethin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation.
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Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1-25μg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25μg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions.
Article
Recently, interest in plant-derived food additives has grown, mainly because synthetic antioxidants suffer from several drawbacks. Furthermore, plant extracts have been shown to possess health-promoting properties. In the present study, hydrodistilled extracts from basil, laurel, parsley, juniper, aniseed, fennel, cumin, cardamom, and ginger were assessed for their total phenol content, and antioxidant (iron(III) reduction, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, iron(II) chelation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and inhibition of hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation, site and nonsite-specific) activities. The extracts from basil and laurel possessed the highest antioxidant activities except for iron chelation. Although parsley showed the best performance in the iron chelation assay, it was less effective at retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid. In the linoleic acid peroxidation assay, 1 g of the basil and laurel extracts were as effective as 177 and 212 mg of trolox, respectively. Thus, both extracts are promising alternatives to synthetic substances as food ingredients with antioxidant activity.
Article
The knowledge of dietary intake of polyphenols and their bioaccessibility in the human gut are key factors in assessing their significance in human health. The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of total polyphenols consumed in a whole diet (Spanish Mediterranean diet) and their intestinal bioaccessibility. Total polyphenols were determined, as the sum of the polyphenols present in methanol:acetone:water extracts (extractable polyphenols) of plant foods and condensed tannins and hydrolysable polyphenols (non-extractable polyphenols) in the corresponding residues. The polyphenols intestinal bioaccessibility was estimated by an in vitro gastrointestinal model where food polyphenols are released by enzyme digestion and colonic fermentation. The mean daily intake of polyphenols in the Spanish diet was estimated between 2590 and 3016 mg/person/day. The amount of non-extractable polyphenols was almost double that of extractable polyphenols. It was estimated that about 48% of dietary polyphenols are bioaccessible in the small intestine, while 42% become bioaccessible in the large intestine.
Article
Eleven fruit and vegetable byproducts and two minor crops were screened for industrial polyphenol exploitation potential by determination of their extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC, Folin–Ciocalteu), and antioxidant activity (NTZ/hypoxanthine superoxide assay, ferric thiocyanate method). Extracts with the highest activity, economic justification and phenolic content were obtained from apple (TPC maximum 48.6 ± 0.9 mg Gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry extract), pear (60.7 ± 0.9 mg GAE g−1), tomato (61.0 ± 3.0 mg GAE g−1), golden rod (251.4 ± 7.0 mg GAE g−1) and artichoke (514.2 ± 14.9 mg GAE g−1). Apple, golden rod and artichoke byproducts were extracted at pilot plant scale and their antioxidant activity was confirmed by determination of their free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and the inhibition of stimulated linoleic acid peroxidation (TBA and Rancimat® methods). The preservative effect of the three extracts (determination of the peroxide value in test crème formulations with 0.1–1.0% extract concentrations) was similar to the established antioxidants Oxynex® 0.1%, Controx® KS 0.15%, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 0.01%. This study demonstrates the possibility of recovering high amounts of phenolics with antioxidant properties from fruit and vegetable residuals not only for food but also cosmetic applications.
Article
The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum barks (CBE) were evaluated with reference to antioxidant compounds like butylated hydroxyl anisole, trolox and ascorbic acid. By virtue of their hydrogen donating ability, all of the tested compounds and CBE exhibited reducing power. They were found to be potent in free radical scavenging activity especially against DPPH radicals and ABTS radical cations. The hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide radicals were also scavenged by the tested compounds. CBE also exhibited metal chelating activity. The peroxidation inhibiting activity of CBE recorded using a linoleic acid emulsion system, showed very good antioxidant activity.
Article
The aims of this work were to assess the influence of concentration, heat treatment, and pH value on antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) and Galangal (Alpinia galanga). The antioxidative properties were evaluated. The ethanolic extracts of Holy basil and Galangal showed good heat stability (80 °C, 1 h). At neutral and acidic pH, Holy basil extracts had high antioxidative stability, whereas Galangal extracts showed higher antioxidative stability at neutral than at acidic pH ranges. Antioxidant activity of both extracts at neutral pH was higher than at acidic pH ranges. Holy basil and Galangal extracts exhibited strong superoxide anion scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, and reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner. Antioxidant activity of both extracts correlated well with reducing power. Furthermore, ethanolic extracts of Holy basil and Galangal acted as radical scavenger and also as lipoxygenase inhibitor.
Article
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
Synergistic interactions are of vital importance in phytomedicines, to explain difficulties in always isolating a single active ingredient, and explain the efficacy of apparently low doses of active constituents in a herbal product. This concept, that a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers advantages over a single isolated ingredient, also underpins the philosophy of herbal medicine. Evidence to support the occurrence of synergy in within phytomedicines is now accumulating and is reviewed here. Synergistic interactions are documented for constituents within a total extract of a single herb, as well as between different herbs in a formulation. Positive and negative aspects of interactions are discussed together with the methods used to identify and measure synergy. The evidence is divided into experimental, in vitro instances, as well as clinical examples where available. Herbs discussed include Ginkgo biloba, Piper methysticum (Kava-Kava), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Cannabis sativa, Salix alba and others.
Article
The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves.
Article
Soil ingestion can be a major exposure route for humans to many immobile soil contaminants. Exposure to soil contaminants can be overestimated if oral bioavailability is not taken into account. Several in vitro digestion models simulating the human gastrointestinal tract have been developed to assess mobilization of contaminants from soil during digestion, i.e., bioaccessibility. Bioaccessibility is a crucial step in controlling the oral bioavailability for soil contaminants. To what extent in vitro determination of bioaccessibility is method dependent has, until now, not been studied. This paper describes a multi-laboratory comparison and evaluation of five in vitro digestion models. Their experimental design and the results of a round robin evaluation of three soils, each contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead, are presented and discussed. A wide range of bioaccessibility values were found for the three soils: for As 6-95%, 1-19%, and 10-59%; for Cd 7-92%, 5-92%, and 6-99%; and for Pb 4-91%, 1-56%, and 3-90%. Bioaccessibility in many cases is less than 50%, indicating that a reduction of bioavailability can have implications for health risk assessment. Although the experimental designs of the different digestion systems are distinct, the main differences in test results of bioaccessibility can be explained on the basis of the applied gastric pH. High values are typically observed for a simple gastric method, which measures bioaccessibility in the gastric compartment at low pHs of 1.5. Other methods that also apply a low gastric pH, and include intestinal conditions, produce lower bioaccessibility values. The lowest bioaccessibility values are observed for a gastrointestinal method which employs a high gastric pH of 4.0.
Article
We have recently reported that flavonoids of cocoa inhibit the mammalian 15-lipoxygenase-1-a catalyst of enzymatic lipid peroxidation. To elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the inhibitory effect, we investigated the effects of 18 selected flavonoids of variable structure on pure rabbit reticulocyte and soybean 15-lipoxygenases using linoleic acid as substrate. Moreover, the inhibition by quercetin was studied in detail to gain insight into the mode of action. Quercetin was found to modulate the time-course of the reaction of both lipoxygenases by three distinct effects: (i) prolongation of the lag period, (ii) rapid decrease in the initial rate after the lag phase was overcome, (iii) time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme during reaction but not in the absence of substrate. A comparison of the IC(50) for the rapid inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase-1 revealed that (i) the presence of a hydroxyl group in the flavonoid molecule is not essential, (ii) a catechol arrangement reinforces the inhibitory effect, (iii) in the presence of a catechol arrangement the inhibitory potency inversely correlates with the number of hydroxyl groups, (iv) a 2,3-double bond in the C ring strengthens the inhibitory effect. The flavone luteolin turned out to be the most potent inhibitor of the mammalian enzyme with an IC(50) of 0.6 microM followed by baicalein (1 microM) and fisetin (1.5 microM).
Article
Total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and phenolic content of 26 common spice extracts from 12 botanical families were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics in the spice extracts were systematically conducted by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Many spices contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. Wide variation in TEAC values (0.55-168.7 mmol/100 g) and total phenolic content (0.04-14.38 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) was observed. A highly positive linear relationship (R2= 0.95) obtained between TEAC values and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds in the tested spices contributed significantly to their antioxidant capacity. Major types of phenolic constituents identified in the spice extracts were phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, and volatile oils (e.g., aromatic compounds). Rosmarinic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in the six spices of the family Labiatae. Phenolic volatile oils were the principal active ingredients in most spices. The spices and related families with the highest antioxidant capacity were screened, e.g., clove in the Myrtaceae, cinnamon in the Lauraceae, oregano in the Labiatae, etc., representing potential sources of potent natural antioxidants for commercial exploitation. This study provides direct comparative data on antioxidant capacity and total and individual phenolics contents of the 26 spice extracts.
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins, and DNA. In contrast, beneficial effects of ROS/RNS (e.g. superoxide radical and nitric oxide) occur at low/moderate concentrations and involve physiological roles in cellular responses to noxia, as for example in defence against infectious agents, in the function of a number of cellular signalling pathways, and the induction of a mitogenic response. Ironically, various ROS-mediated actions in fact protect cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress and re-establish or maintain "redox balance" termed also "redox homeostasis". The "two-faced" character of ROS is clearly substantiated. For example, a growing body of evidence shows that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. This review will describe the: (i) chemistry and biochemistry of ROS/RNS and sources of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) in the maintenance of cellular "redox homeostasis"; (iv) overview of ROS-induced signaling pathways; (v) role of ROS in redox regulation of normal physiological functions, as well as (vi) role of ROS in pathophysiological implications of altered redox regulation (human diseases and ageing). Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Topics of current debate are also reviewed such as the question whether excessive formation of free radicals is a primary cause or a downstream consequence of tissue injury.
Article
In this paper we report the antioxidant activity of different compounds which are present in coffee or are produced as a result of the metabolism of this beverage. In vitro methods such as the ABTS*+ [ABTS = 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] decolorization assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) were used to assess the capacity of coffee compounds to scavenge free radicals. The importance of caffeine metabolites and colonic metabolites in the overall antioxidant activity associated with coffee consumption is shown. Colonic metabolites such as m-coumaric acid and dihydroferulic acid showed high antioxidant activity. The ability of these compounds to protect human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by copper and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride was also explored. 1-Methyluric acid was particularly effective at inhibiting LDL oxidative modification. Different experiments showed that this caffeine metabolite is not incorporated into LDL particles. However, at physiologically relevant concentrations, it was able to delay for more than 13 h LDL oxidation by copper.
Lipoxygenases in soybeans
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