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Fibre from pumpkin (cucurbita pepo l.) Seeds and rinds: Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients

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The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Formulations for bread substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken. The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also conducted. Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were higher than the values in control bread. Pumpkin seeds and rinds can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.
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Fibre from Pumpkin (C. pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds: Application as Bakery Product Ingredients 99
Mal J Nutr 19(1): 99 - 109, 2013
Fibre from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds:
Physico-chemical Properties, Antioxidant Capacity and
Application as Bakery Product Ingredients
Nyam KL 1*, Lau M 1 & Tan CP 2
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University
56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the proximate
composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds
and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on
bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Methods: Formulations for bread
substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were
produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes
as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken.
The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf
volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis
and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also
conducted. Results: Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was
high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and
DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/
100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of
pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall
acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total
dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in
breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were
higher than the values in control bread. Conclusion: Pumpkin seeds and rinds
can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.
Keywords: Pumpkin seeds and rinds, dietary fibre, bread, sensory evaluation
* Correspondence author: Nyam KL; Email: nyamkl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my
INTRODUCTION
Dietary fibre has many functional properties
such as water holding, oil holding,
emulsifying and gel formation. Dietary fibre
can be used in dairy, bakery, jam and meat
products (Elluech et al., 2011). Incorporation
of dietary fibre into food products helps to
modify the textural properties of the food,
avoid syneresis and stabilise high fat content
food and emulsion (Abdul-Hamid & Luan,
2000).
Total dietary fibres are made up of both
soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. Total
dietary fibre is an important component in
the daily diet where the intake of total dietary
Nyam KL, Lau M & Tan CP
100
fibre provides health beneficial effects
(Slavin, 2005) such as reducing
cholesterolaemia, modification of the
glycemic and insulinaemic response and
changes in the intestinal function; it also
possesses antioxidant activity. Total dietary
fibre also has technological functions such
as a fat binding, gel binding, chelating and
texturising agent (Abdul-Hamid & Luan,
2000). Examples of soluble dietary fibre are
pectins, beta glucan, galactomanan gums,
and a large range of non-digestible
oligosaccharides (Meyer, 2004). Soluble
dietary fibre functions in lowering serum
cholesterol (Slavin, 2005) and helps in
reducing the risk of heart attack and colon
cancer (Elluech et al., 2011). Soluble dietary
fibre dissolves in the gut and forms viscous
gel, which lowers the absorption of the
released glucose. Insoluble dietary fibres
consist of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
(Elluech et al., 2011), which prevent or relieve
constipation due to the absorption of water
from the digestive tract.
Pumpkin seeds and rinds contain high
amounts of fibre. Pumpkin seeds contain
24.20 % crude fibre (Nyam et al., 2009). Fibre
present in pumpkin seeds and rinds can
prevent constipation, reduce blood glucose
and cholesterol level, prolong intestinal
transit time and provide satiety. Pumpkin
seeds flour can be added into food products,
such as bakery products to enhance the
texture and flavour of the products. Pumpkin
rinds have an antifungal effect that treats
fungus infection in adults and infants (Park
et al., 2010).
There has been increasing interest in the
use of wholegrains in food products due to
numerous health benefits associated with
wholegrain consumption (Carolyn et al.,
2012). The health benefits of whole-grain
cereal are well recognised and are attributed
to the presence of dietary fibre and
phytochemicals (Mohammed & Cornelia,
2012). The addition of dietary fibre into
bakery products improves the nutritional
quality of the products (Byrne, 1997).
Therefore, pumpkin seeds and rind flour can
be used as substitution of regular flour due
to their functional and nutritional
properties.
No research has been done on the
functional properties of dietary fibre in
pumpkin seeds and rinds. Therefore, the
objectives of this study were to determine
the proximate analysis, functional
properties and antioxidant activity in
pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds. Last but
not least, this research also produces an
acceptable formulation for bread made of
pumpkin seeds and rinds and evaluates the
effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and
rinds on bread qualities and properties
through sensory evaluation, physical and
chemical analysis.
METHODS
A total of 20kg of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita
pepo L.) were purchased from Giant
Hypermarket located at Saujana Impian
Kajang, Malaysia. The weight of each
pumpkin was around 1kg.
The pumpkin was cut into half and the
seeds were scooped out. The rinds of the
pumpkin were peeled off. The seeds and
rinds were then washed with distilled water.
The pumpkin seeds and rinds were oven
dried for 24 hours at 60 °C in MEMMERT
Convection Oven. Seeds and rinds were
ground using a grinder (SHARP Blender &
Mill EM-11, Japan) until a fine particle size
of 1 mm was achieved. The seed powder was
spread evenly throughout the drying tray
and oven dried at 60 °C for 4 hours. The
processed seed powder and ground rinds
were vacuum packed and kept in a air tight
container and stored in a cool and dry
cabinet.
Proximate analysis
Moisture, crude protein (micro-Kjeldahl),
crude oil (soxhlet), fiber and ash content were
determined using the AOCS (1997) Methods
Ba 2a-38, Ba 4a-38, Ba 3-38, Ba 6-84 and Ba
Fibre from Pumpkin (C. pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds: Application as Bakery Product Ingredients 101
5a-49, respectively, and total carbohydrate
was determined by difference. Total
carbohydrate= 100%- (% moisture+ % crude
protein+ % crude oil+ % fibre+ % ash). All
determinations were done in triplicate.
Total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH
radical scavenging activity
Total phenolic compound was determined
according to Waterhouse (2002), while the
antioxidant activity was determined
according to the method by Liu et al. (2008)
with slight modifications. A sample of 2 g
was weighed and added to 10 mL of ethanol
and then shaken using the shaker machine
(Msion Sseriker, Korea) for 1 h. The mixture
was filtered and the filtrate was then
evaporated until viscous. 0.5 mL of ethanol
was then added into the round bottom flask
and shaken vigorously for 1 min. 0.2 mL of
the concentrates was added with 2.8 mL of
ethanol. Then, 2.8 mL of 0.004% of DPPH in
methanolic solution was added and the
mixture was shaken vigorously using vortex
mixer (Copens Scientific, Japan). The mixture
was allowed to stand in a dark environment
at room temperature for 30 min. The
absorbance of mixture was measured at 517
nm (PRIM SELOMAM Spectrophotometer
RS232, France).
Functional properties
Swelling capacity
Swelling capacity was determined according
to the modified method of Rosell, Santos &
Collar (2009). One gram of sample was
mixed with 20 mL of distilled water and
allowed to hydrate for 24 h at 25 °C ± 1 °C.
The volume of the sample was recorded after
24 h. Swelling capacity was expressed as
mL per gram of sample.
Water holding capacity (WHC)
WHC was determined according to the
modified method from Sangnark &
Noomhorm (2003). One gram of sample was
weighed using the analytical balance
(Mettler Toledo ‘College’ B204-S,
Switzerland) and mixed with 20 mL of
distilled water. The sample was allowed to
hydrate for 24 h at 25 °C ± 1 °C. The excess
water was filtered off from the sample. WHC
was expressed as grams of water held per
gram of sample.
Water retention capacity (WRC)
WRC was determined according to the
modified method of Chantaro, Devahastin
& Chiewchan (2008). One gram of sample
was transferred into a 50 mL Falcon tube to
which was added 30 mL of distilled water .
The tube with sample was allowed to
hydrate for 24 h at 25 °C ± 1 °C. The sample
was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min.
WRC was expressed as grams of water
retained per gram of sample.
Oil holding capacity (OHC)
OHC was determined using the modified
method of Vazquez-Ovando et al. (2009). One
gram of sample was weighed and transferred
into a 50 mL Falcon tube. to which was
added 20 mL of vegetable oil. The sample
was stored in a cabinet for 24 h at 25 °C ± 1
°C. The sample was centrifuged at 2200 rpm
for 30 min. OHC was expressed as grams of
oil held per gram of sample.
Organic molecule absorption capacity (OMAC)
OMAC was determined according to the
modified method of Vazquez-Ovando et al.
(2009). Three grmas of sample was weighed
and transferred into a 50 mL Falcon tube to
which was added 10 mL of vegetable oil. The
tube with sample was stored in cabinet and
allowed to hydrate for 24 hat 25 °C ± 1 °C.
The sample was then centrifuged at 2000
rpm for 15 min at 25 °C. OMAC was
expressed as grams of oil per gram of sample.
Emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability
(ES)
EA and ES were determined according to the
modified methods of Vazquez-Ovando et al.
Nyam KL, Lau M & Tan CP
102
(2009). Two grams of sample was weighed
and 100 mL of distilled water was added.
The mixture was then homogenised for 2
min using IKA Ultra-Turrax T25 Digital
Homogeniser (China) and then added with
100 mL of vegetable oil and homogenised
for 1 min. The emulsion was immediately
transferred into a 50 mL Falcon tube and
centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 min. The
emulsion volume was recorded. EA was
expressed as volume of emulsion per 100 mL
of the emulsion volume.
ES was determined by heating the
prepared emulsion at 80 °C for 30 min. The
emulsion was then cooled to room
temperature and homogenised for 1 min. The
emulsion was transferred into a 50 mL
Falcon tube and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for
5 min. The emulsion volume was recorded.
ES was expressed as volume of the
remaining emulsion per 100 mL of the
original emulsion volume.
Preparation of bread
Three formulations of bread were prepared
based on 240 g of basic high protein flour as
control where no sample powder (0%), 5%
and 10% of sample flour were substituted
into high protein flour, respectively (Table
1). The control formulation was used as
comparison for other formulations
substituted with sample flour. The bread
mold was baked at 200 °C for 20 min in an
electric oven (Pensonic, Model AE-11N, AE-
18N, Malaysia).
Physical analysis of bread
Dough expansion was measured according
to the method of Sangnark & Noomhorm
(2003). The loaf volume was measured
according to the method of Abdul-Hamid &
Luan (2000). Crumb colour was determined
according to the method of Ajila, Leelavathi
& Prasada Rao (2008). The bread slice was
placed on UltraScan Pro HunterLab Colour
Measuring System. The surface colour L
(brightness), a (redness) and b (yellowness)
was measured.
Bread texture was determined according
to the method from AACC (1986). Bread loaf
was sliced into 1 cm thick slices and placed
on the texture analyser platform. The sliced
bread was compressed with a cylindrical
probe using 50% strain. Hardness,
springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and
resilience values were tested using TA.XT
plus Texture Analyser (North America).
Sensory evaluation
A total of 15 trained voluntary panelists were
involved in the hedonic test. Each panelist
was given a set of sensory evaluation forms
and required to taste each bread sample. The
panelists were required to rate the sensory
attributes of the bread sample tasted, such
as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and
overall acceptability. Each sensory attribute
was rated according to individual
preferences on a nine point hedonic scale of
1 as ‘Dislike Extremely’, 5 as ‘Neither one’,
and 9 as ‘Like Extremely’.
Ingredients (g) Control 5% seeds 10% seeds 5% rind 10% rind
High protein flour 240 228 216 228 216
Sample powder 0 12 24 12 24
Active dry yeast powder 2 2 2 2 2
Sugar 14 14 14 14 14
Salt 3 3 3 3 3
Shortening 10 10 10 10 10
Full cream milk powder 5 5 5 5 5
Water 78 78 78 78 78
Table 1. Formulation of pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds powder bread
Fibre from Pumpkin (C. pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds: Application as Bakery Product Ingredients 103
Control bread and the most preferred
bread formulation obtained from the hedonic
test for pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds
flour substituted bread were run for chemical
test to determine proximate analysis and
antioxidant level in bread product. Crude
fibre test was replaced with total dietary fibre
test using AOAC 985.29 method (2000).
Statistical analysis
Mean and standard deviation were
determined for each analysis and analysed
using Minitab Window version 13
(ANOVA). Differences were considered
statistically significant at p < 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 2 shows the proximate analysis,
functional properties and antioxidant
activity in pumpkin seeds and pumpkin
rind. Moisture in both pumpkin seeds
(4.32%) and pumpkin rinds (5.96%) was
relatively low. Pumpkin rind (5.77%) had
lower content of fat compared to pumpkin
seeds (24.27%). Therefore, pumpkin rind are
suitable for use as an ingredient in
developing low fat baking products that
require lower calorie intake. Although the
crude fat content in pumpkin seeds is high,
given the nutritional contents (vitamin E and
phytosterol) in pumpkin seeds oil, it is
suitable for incorporation into food
products. Oil content in pumpkin seeds is
rich in vitamin E (Murkovic et al., 1996) and
pumpkin seeds are also rich in plant sterols,
which is able to lower serum cholesterol
(Jones et al., 2000).
Both pumpkin seeds (20.21%) and
pumpkin rind (23.89%) contained a high
percentage of protein. Protein in pumpkin
seeds has unique functional properties and
contains high lysine content that aids in
producing high protein bread when
incorporated into bakery products (El-
Soukkary, 2001) and tryptophan, an
essential amino acid that is able to increase
brain levels of serotonin, known to fight
depression.
Pumpkin seeds also contain cucurbitine
which isresponsible for worm expelling
effects and only can be found in the seeds of
Characteristics Pumpkin seeds Pumpkin rind
Moisture (%) 4.32 ± 0.26b 5.96 ± 0.36a
Crude fat (%) 24.27 ± 0.70a 5.77 ± 0.29b
Crude protein (%) 20.21 ± 0.34b23.89 ± 0.53a
Ash (%) 0.68 ± 0.11a 0.41 ± 0.08b
Crude fibre (%) 31.48 ± 0.89a14.83 ± 0.96b
Total carbohydrate (%) 19.04 49.11
Swelling capacity (mL/g) 3.25 ± 0.50b 7.85 ± 0.44a
Water holding capacity (g/g) 2.47 ± 0.19b 5.50 ± 0.33a
Water retention capacity (g/g) 2.58 ± 0.14b 5.70 ± 0.26a
Oil holding capacity (g/g) 4.68 ± 0.22a 3.75 ± 0.29b
Organic molecule absorption capacity (g/g) 1.31 ± 0.13a 0.74 ± 0.10b
Emulsifying activity (g/100g) 46.25 ± 4.33a35.00 ± 2.89b
Emulsifying stability (g/100g) 38.75 ± 1.44b43.13 ± 0.72a
Total phenol compound(mg GAE/100 g) 22.92 ± 0.61b38.60 ± 0.82a
DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) 36.97 ± 1.76b69.38 ± 1.43a
Table 2. Proximate analysis, functional properties and antioxidant activity in pumpkin seeds and
pumpkin rinds
* Mean and standard deviation (n = 4) values in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly
(p < 0.05).
* Mean value for total carbohydrate (n = 2), without standard deviation.
Nyam KL, Lau M & Tan CP
104
Cucurbita species (Bombardelli &
Morazonni, 1997). Pumpkin seeds contained
0.68% of ash while pumpkin rinds contained
0.41% of ash. Both pumpkin seeds (31.48%)
and pumpkin rind (14.83%) contained a
high percentage of crude fibre, exceeding
the level found by Leila et al. (2012) for
Cucurbita maxima seed, which belongs to the
same botanical family (Cucurbitaceae). This
shows that both pumpkins seeds and
pumpkin rind are suitable for incorporation
into fibre rich food products. Total
carbohydrate for pumpkin rind (49.11%)
was higher than in pumpkin seeds (19.04%).
Pumpkin rind (7.85 mg/g) had higher
swelling capacity compared to pumpkin
seeds (3.25 mg/g). This might be due to the
fat content present in pumpkin rind and
pumpkin seeds. According to Sowbhagya et
al. (2007), the residual oil trapped inside the
fibre matrix of the sample will restrict the
entry of water molecules and therefore lead
to a lower swelling capacity. Pumpkin rind
(5.50 g/g) had higher water holding capacity
than pumpkin seed (2.47 g/g). Water
holding capacity is related to soluble dietary
fibre content and therefore shows pumpkin
rind has higher content of soluble dietary
fibre. Water retention capacity of pumpkin
seeds (2.58 g/g) was lower than in the
pumpkin rinds (5.70 g/g) when external
force was applied. Pumpkin seeds had better
ability in holding oil within the fibre matrix
(4.68 g/g) than pumpkin rind (3.75 g/g). The
organic molecule absorption capacity for
pumpkin seeds (1.31 g/g) was higher than
in pumpkin rind (0.74 g/g). This might be
due to the higher content of insoluble dietary
fibre in pumpkin seeds which has a higher
capacity and impact on OMAC. Samples
with high OMAC will function efficiently in
interacting with fat, bile acids, cholesterol,
drugs and toxic compounds in the intestine
(Vazquez-Ovando et al., 2009).
Pumpkin seeds (46.25 g/100 g) had a
higher emulsifying activity compared to
pumpkin rind (35.00 g/100 g). Foods with
high emulsifying activity are beneficial to
health as they help in absorbing biliar acid
and thus limit the acid absorption in the
small intestine. Further, it also increases
faeces excretion and reduces blood
cholesterol level (Vazquez-Ovando et al.,
2009). Pumpkin rind had better emulsifying
stability compared to pumpkin seeds
although pumpkin seeds had better
emulsifying activity indicating that
pumpkin rind’s emulsifying stability is more
thermodynamically stable than pumpkin
seeds. Pumpkin rind was able to hold the
emulsion without breaking down easily into
water and oil than pumpkin seeds.
Pumpkin rind (38.60 mg GAE/100 g dry
weight) contained higher total phenol
compounds as compared to pumpkin seeds
(22.92 mg GAE/100 g dry weight). Since
pumpkin rind is the outer most layer of the
pumpkin and serves as a first line of
protective layer, the phenol compounds in
pumpkin rinds is high. Pumpkin rinds had
higher DPPH radical scavenging activity of
69.38% as compared to pumpkin seeds
(36.97%).
Physical analysis of bread
The expansion of dough for larger particle
size of flour inhibits dough expansion
compared to finer particle size (Sangnark &
Noomhorm, 2003). The particle size of
pumpkin rind was smaller than that of the
pumpkin seeds. Therefore, the higher water
absorption capacity of pumpkin rind caused
a slightly lower expansion of pumpkin rind
dough than pumpkin seeds dough (Figure
1).
The loaf weight of 10% pumpkin rind
bread was the highest among all due to the
higher water absorption of pumpkin rind
compared to pumpkin seeds (Table 3). With
an increased amount of fibre-rich flour, the
dough expansion decreased. This was due
to the gluten content being diluted by the
added fibre, changing the crumb structure,
which impaired carbon dioxide retention of
dough and affect loaf volume (Hu et al.,
2009). According to Tosh & Yada (2010),
Fibre from Pumpkin (C. pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds: Application as Bakery Product Ingredients 105
increasing the amount of fibre rich flour in
bread formulas tends to decrease loaf volume
and specific volumes. This in agreement
with the reduction in volume of 10%
pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rind breads
compared to control bread. Besides, water
partitioning and gluten elasticity also affects
loaf volume.
The darkness of crumb was directly
related to the increase in fibre content in the
formulation (Abdul-Hamid & Luan, 2000).
For a* values, 5% pumpkin rinds bread (3.15)
and 10% pumpkin rinds bread (3.12) were
redder than control bread (0.03). Whereas
5% pumpkin seeds bread (-0.62) and 10%
pumpkin seeds bread (0.00) were greener
than control bread. Bread with 5% pumpkin
rinds was the yellowest followed by 10%
pumpkin rind bread, 10% pumpkin seeds
bread, 5% pumpkin seeds bread and lastly
the control bread.
The hardness of bread was reduced with
the addition of pumpkin seeds and
pumpkin rind flour into bread formulas
(Table 3). This is due to the higher moisture
content in breads added with fibre rich flour
(See, Wan Nadiah & Noor Aziah, 2007),
which have higher water holding capacity
and water retention capacity in the fibre
matrix compared to bread flour (Sunday &
Dickson, 1992). The addition of pumpkin
seeds and pumpkin rind flour had no effect
on the springiness and cohesiveness of
breads. Chewiness of the bread samples was
reduced with the addition of pumpkin seeds
and pumpkin rind flour. Control bread had
the highest resilience score of 0.41.
Sensory evaluation
Bread consisting of 5% pumpkin rind had
the highest score among all five samples,
indicating that panelists preferred bread
samples added with pumpkin rind flour
(Table 4). The panelists preferred the redder
and darker crumb colour of pumpkin rind
bread over greenish brighter crumb colour.
The tea scent of pumpkin rind bread
proved that pumpkin rinds contain
catechins, which are flavonoids usually
present in tea leaves and cocoa beans
(Yilmaz, 2006). These results show that the
bread substituted with 5% pumpkin seeds
and 5% pumpkin rind flour are almost
equally preferred and accepted by panelists
as the control bread.
A total of 5% pumpkin rind bread had a
higher score in terms of texture compared to
Figure 1. Dough expansion for five bread samples
*Based on mean value (n = 4)
Nyam KL, Lau M & Tan CP
106
Sensory attributes Control 5% seeds 10% seeds 5% rind 10% rind
Appearance 5.87 ± 0.99a5.73 ± 1.39a5.80 ± 0.94a6.47 ± 1.36a6.07 ± 1.44a
Aroma 5.80 ± 1.15a5.87 ± 1.25a5.73 ± 1.22a5.93 ± 1.10a5.73 ± 1.71a
Flavour 5.87 ± 1.25ab 5.87 ± 1.25ab 5.27 ± 1.28b6.67 ± 0.98a6.00 ± 1.15ab
Texture 6.13 ± 0.74ab 5.40 ± 1.50cd 4.80 ± 1.21d6.60 ± 1.24a5.60 ± 1.40bc
Overall acceptability 6.07 ± 0.96ab 5.87 ± 1.30ab 5.27 ± 1.28b6.60 ± 0.99a6.27 ± 1.16a
Table 4. Sensory attributes of 5 different formulations of bread samples in hedonic test
* Mean and standard deviation (n = 15) in the same row with different superscript means differ significantly (p < 0.05)
Characteristics Control 5% seeds 10% seeds 5% rind 10% rind
Loaf weight (g) 373.80 ± 1.98e 385.83 ± 1.00d 394.99 ± 0.43b 388.70 ± 1.44c 397.48 ± 1.07a
Loaf volume (cm3) 1187.00 ± 4.76b1305.50 ± 6.40a1103.00 ± 3.46d1314.00 ± 4.90a1144.50 ± 6.40c
Specific volume (cm3/ g) 3.17 ± 0.00a 3.38 ± 0.02a 2.79 ± 0.01c 3.38 ± 0.02a 2.88 ± 0.00b
Colour
L* 73.64 ± 0.62a 72.56 ± 0.94a 64.37 ± 0.29b 64.58 ± 0.37b 61.13 ± 1.31c
a* 0.03 ± 0.02c -0.62 ± 0.21e 3.15 ± 0.05a 0.00 ± 0.09d 3.12 ± 0.19b
b* 11.07 ± 0.22e 14.14 ± 0.27d 17.82 ± 0.14a 14.92 ± 0.17c 16.84 ± 0.72b
TPA parameters
Hardness 2038.60 ± 12.50a 844.30 ± 78.50c1753.60 ± 50.40b1790.10 ± 376.60b1696.60 ± 19.60b
Springiness 1.00 ± 0.00a 1.60 ± 0.84a 1.00 ± 0.00a 1.02 ± 0.01a 1.00 ± 1.00a
Cohesiveness 0.73 ± 0.02a 0.80 ± 0.06a 0.71 ± 0.03a 0.72 ± 0.05a 0.75 ± 0.01a
Chewiness 1484.00 ± 45.60a1068.00 ± 541.60b1246.10 ± 10.10b1300.00 ± 167.10b1272.90 ± 26.80b
Resilience 0.41 ± 0.01a 0.38 ± 0.00b 0.34 ± 0.00b 0.36 ± 0.01b 0.37 ± 0.02b
Table 3. Effect of pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds flour substitution on physical characteristics of bread
* Mean and standard deviation (n = 4) int the same row with different superscript means differ significantly (p < 0.05).
Fibre from Pumpkin (C. pepo L.) Seeds and Rinds: Application as Bakery Product Ingredients 107
control bread. This was due to the smooth
and firm texture of 5% pumpkin rind bread
with higher water holding capacity than
bread flour. Bread with 10% pumpkin seeds
was the least preferred bread among all five
bread samples, followed by control, 10%
pumpkin rind, 5% pumpkin seeds and 5%
pumpkin rind. Therefore, both 5% pumpkin
seeds and 5% pumpkin rind bread samples
were selected. The proximate analysis and
antioxidant analysis of these two
formulations of breads were tested and
compared with control bread.
Proximate analysis and antioxidant activity
in control, 5% seeds and 5% rind bread
samples.
The addition of pumpkin seeds and
pumpkin rinds flour into bread increased
the moisture content (Table 5). This might be
due to the higher water absorption capacity
in the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rind
flour, which were high in fibre compared to
wheat flour (Sunday & Dickson, 1992).
Pumpkin seeds flour and pumpkin rind
flour are suitable for incorporation into
bread formulas so as to increase protein
content in bread. The addition of pumpkin
seeds and pumpkin rind flour into bread
improves its protein, inorganic matter and
mineral content. Total dietary fibre in
pumpkin seeds bread was the highest
among all three bread samples. This was due
to the high crude fibre content in pumpkin
seeds (31.48%) compared to pumpkin rind
(14.86%), which affects the total dietary fibre
content in bread samples. Bread flour is the
main contributor for total carbohydrate
content in bread. The addition of pumpkin
seeds flour and pumpkin rind flour will
reduce the carbohydrate content in bread
and provide lower calories than control
bread.
Breads, which were substituted with
pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rind flour
showed a higher TPC value. Results showed
a 37.99 % increase in DPPH radical
scavenging activity in pumpkin seeds bread
and a 114.32 % increase for pumpkin rind
bread compared to control bread. This shows
that DPPH radical scavenging activity of
both pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds
breads were not totally destroyed by the high
temperature of 200 °C.
CONCLUSION
The high fibre content of both pumpkin seeds
and rind can be used in the preparation of
high fibre foods. Its use will reduce the total
carbohydrate of the end product, as it is
replaced in part by the fibre content thus also
reducing total calories of the product.
Pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rind flour can
Characteristics Control 5% seeds 5% rind
Moisture (%) 39.23 ± 0.10a40.62 ± 0.09b41.02 ± 1.07b
Crude fat (%) 2.51 ± 0.17a4.18 ± 0.37b2.40 ± 0.16a
Crude protein (%) 7.00 ± 0.29a8.14 ± 0.34b9.10 ± 0.29c
Ash (%) 0.85 ± 0.03a0.93 ± 0.04b 0.94 ± 0.04b
Total dietary fibre (%) 2.3 4.3 3.0
Total carbohydrate (%) 48.11 41.83 43.54
Total phenol compound (mg GAE/100 g) 15.21 ± 1.99a35.66 ± 1.11b42.34 ± 1.14c
DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) 17.11 ± 0.92a23.61 ± 1.72b36.67 ± 1.31c
Table 5. Proximate analysis and antioxidant activity in control, 5% seeds and 5% rind bread
samples
* Mean and standard deviation (n = 4) in the same row with different superscript means differ significantly
(p < 0.05).
* Mean value for total carbohydrate and total dietary fibre (n = 2), without standard deviation.
Nyam KL, Lau M & Tan CP
108
be added into bakery products to enhance
the texture, flavour and nutritional value of
the food product.
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