Article

High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Methods: Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age = 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep-EEG recordings 1.5 hours after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Results: Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = .69, p < .001); self-perceived exertion explained 48% of the variance in sleep efficiency (R2 = .48). Moreover, high self-perceived exercise exertion was associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset a shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Results from a multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep and decreased light sleep. Conclusions: Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia.

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... Accordingly, no differences are observed for any night sleep measures derived from polysomnography (i.e. total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, REM sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, proportion of the night spent in different sleep stages) when male cyclists undergo either no exercise or cycling for 15 min at 75 % peak power plus a 15-min maximal time trial at 7:00 p.m. [40]. Results from several studies [41][42][43] have even found that evening exercise may be associated with positive changes in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Buman et al. [41] found in a large sample of 1000 adults (aged 23-60 years) that evening (i.e. ...
... lower wake time after sleep onset and less time spent in light sleep stage 1 when exercising near bedtime). Brand et al. [43] have reported among young regular evening exercisers that greater self-perceived exertion when completing moderate to vigorous exercise 1.5 h before bedtime was associated with higher sleep efficiency (r = 0.71, p \ 0.001) and shortened sleep onset latency (r = -0.33, p \ 0.05) assessed by electroencephalograms. ...
... p \ 0.05) assessed by electroencephalograms. However, results may differ when investigating elite soccer players performing a 90-min competitive soccer match where exercise intensity and stress level are much higher than those reported in these studies [41][42][43]. In this respect, future studies may also investigate if sleep requirements differ according to playing position and/or individual activity performed during the match. ...
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In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep, potentially leading to sleep deprivation. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current available literature regarding the potential acute and chronic stressors (i.e. psychological, sociological and physiological stressors) placed on elite soccer players that may result in compromised sleep quantity and/or quality. Sleep is an essential part of the recovery process as it provides a number of important psychological and physiological functions. The effects of sleep disturbance on post-soccer match fatigue mechanisms and recovery time course are also described. Physiological and cognitive changes that occur when competing at night are often not conducive to sleep induction. Although the influence of high-intensity exercise performed during the night on subsequent sleep is still debated, environmental conditions (e.g. bright light in the stadium, light emanated from the screens) and behaviours related to evening soccer matches (e.g. napping, caffeine consumption, alcohol consumption) as well as engagement and arousal induced by the match may all potentially affect subsequent sleep. Apart from night soccer matches, soccer players are subjected to inconsistency in match schedules, unique team schedules and travel fatigue that may also contribute to the sleep debt. Sleep deprivation may be detrimental to the outcome of the recovery process after a match, resulting in impaired muscle glycogen repletion, impaired muscle damage repair, alterations in cognitive function and an increase in mental fatigue. The role of sleep in recovery is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative and qualitative importance of sleep and to identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualised solutions are likely needed.
... These associations have been shown in children, adolescents (Chen et al. 2008), college students (Brondel et al. 2010) and adults (Shi et al. 2008). Brand et al. (2014) even found that increased evening exertion was related to a greater sleep efficiency (SE) and a decrease in sensations of hunger next morning. However, morning EI was not measured in this study. ...
... Giving that studies on the effect of exercise on sleep have mainly focus on good sleepers leaving little scope for improvement (ceiling effect), secondary analyzes were conducted between good and poor sleepers (Youngstedt 2003). Brand et al. (2014) reported a decrease in next morning hunger following improvement of SE by evening exercise, potential sleep duration and quality improvement were expected to reduce next-morning spontaneous dietary intake measured by "ad-libitum" meals. ...
... Thus, whereas most previous studies have focused on lengthening of sleep duration, we suggest that improving sleep by exercise could yield greater benefits in terms of sleep architecture and qualitative sleep parameters. Other works found that increased evening exertion was related to a greater SE and a decrease in sensations of hunger next morning (Brand et al. 2014). However, it remains to be determined whether decreased hunger is accompanied by a decrease in EI. ...
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PurposeThis work studied the acute effects in healthy adults of evening exercise timing on their quality of sleep and dietary intake over the following 12 h.Methods Sixteen men and women, (age: 22.3 ± 1.4 years; BMI: 20.8 ± 1.4 kg/m2, intermediate chronotype) took part in three randomized crossover sessions spread over three consecutive weeks: control session (CTL), 1 h exercise session at 6:30 pm (E6:30) and 1 h exercise session at 8:30 pm (E8:30), in which exercise finished 4 h and 2 h before habitual bedtime, respectively. Exercise was an outdoor run at 60% HRmaxth. Energy expenditure and sleep were ambulatories monitored by accelerometry under free-living condition. Ad-libitum dinner and breakfast were used to measure subsequent energy intake and proportion of that energy derived from each macronutrient.ResultsEvening exercise did not disrupt sleep. Improvement in sleep quality compared to the control condition was observed only when exercise was performed 4 h before habitual bedtime (WASO: p < 0.01; SE: p < 0.02). Interestingly, our results give insight into differences in sleep parameters response to evening exercise between habitually poor and good sleepers mainly when it comes to sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset (all p < 0.01). There was no difference in calorie intake from ad-libitum dinner and breakfast. However, an association between improvement in sleep efficiency from acute exercise and reduction of energy intake the following morning was found.Conclusion Early evening exercise could offer a useful alternative for achieving better sleep in healthy young adults especially when it comes to poor sleepers.
... It is generally believed that physical exercise can improve sleep quality (1a, 4, 30). Meta-analyses and experimental studies have shown that both acute (31,46) and chronic (7,20,24) exercise has a positive effect on the quality of sleep, particularly slow-wave sleep (SWS), as well as on sleep duration, sleep latency, and nocturnal awakenings. Other studies, however, found that exercise had a neutral or even negative effect on sleep parameters in both nonexercisers and regular exercisers (12,28,29). ...
... Previous studies on the timing of exercise have shown that exercise in the evening is effective but differed in their findings regarding exercise within 4 h of bedtime (8,24,37,44). An epidemiological study on exercise intensity reported that regular moderate-intensity exercise promotes sleep (35), but there is no consensus regarding whether more intense exercise further improves sleep quality (7,29,43,45). In addition, excessively intense exercise can be too difficult to continue or to become a habit. ...
... Studies on the duration of an exercise session have also yielded inconsistent results. Driver et al. (12) found that healthy volunteers needed at least 1 h of exercise, but another study reported no effect on sleep improvement with 1.5 h of exercise (29), and a third showed sleep improvement with 1.5 h of exercise (7). Humans can only exercise continuously for a limited period, which means that the control of the length of individual exercise sessions is important. ...
Article
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The effects of exercise on sleep have been explored from various perspectives, but little is known about how the effects of acute exercise on sleep are produced through physiological functions. We used a protocol of multiple daytime sessions of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and examined the subsequent effects on sleep structure, core body temperature (CBT), distal-proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG), and subjective parameters. Fourteen healthy men who did not exercise regularly were evaluated under the baseline (no exercise) and exercise conditions on a within-subject crossover basis. Under the exercise condition, each participant performed a 40-min aerobic workout at 40% of maximal oxygen intake, four times between morning and early evening. We observed a 33% increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS; P = 0.005), as well as increases in slow-wave activity (SWA; P = 0.026), the fast-sigma power/SWA ratio ( P = 0.005), and subjective sleep depth and restorativeness the following morning. Moreover, both CBT and the DPG increased during sleep after exercise ( P = 0.021 and P = 0.047, respectively). Regression analysis identified an increased nocturnal DPG during sleep after exercise as a factor in the increase in SWA. The fast-sigma/SWA ratio correlated with CBT. The performance of acute exercise promotes SWS with nocturnal elevation in the DPG. Both CBT and fast-sigma power may play a role in the specific physiological status of the body after exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We used multiple daytime sessions of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to examine the effects on the sleep structure, core body temperature (CBT), distal-proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG), and subjective parameters. Significant increases in slow-wave activity (SWA), CBT, DPG, fast-sigma power, and subjective parameters were observed during the night and the following morning. Nocturnal DPG is a factor in the increased SWA.
... Lastly, an important factor for both physical and mental health is restoring sleep. Again, there is sufficient evidence on the associations between restoring sleep and higher physical activity patterns: Interventional [130,131] and associative studies [33,[132][133][134][135][136][137] suggested that higher physical activity levels favorably impacted on sleep quality; though, bi-directional and reciprocal processes appeared to be most plausible [138,139]. We considered these observations and asked if heavy exercisers reported less sleep disturbances, compared with light exercisers. ...
... In regard to the exercise-status-sleep-disturbance interaction, we noted that the combination of heavy exercise status and higher sleep disturbances predicted higher general health issues. This pattern of results appears particularly intriguing, as it does not follow the mainstream of interventional [130,131] and associative studies [33,[132][133][134][135][136][137], which suggested that higher physical activity levels favorably impacted on sleep quality. Thus, while we asked if heavy exercisers reported less sleep disturbances, compared with light exercisers, the answer was no (see Table 3); however, the combination of being a heavy exerciser and reporting sleep disturbances was important, as this combination impacted negatively on mental health. ...
Article
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Background: Physical inactivity has become a global somatic and mental health issue. To counterbalance, promoting regular physical activity appears plausible, above all among adults, where physical inactivity is particularly high. However, some, but sparse, research also indicates that excessive exercising might be associated with unfavorable mental health dimensions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that excessive exercising was associated with more mental health issues. To this end, we assessed mental health issues, stress, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances among heavy and light adult exercisers. Methods: A total of 200 adults (mean age: 35 years; 62% females) took part in the study. Of those, 100 were heavy exercisers (18-22 h/week), and 100 were light exercisers (1-6 h/week). Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, mental health issues, perceived stress, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances. Results: Compared with light exercisers, heavy exercisers reported higher mental health issues, more stress, but also higher mental toughness scores and less sleep disturbances. Higher age, lower mental toughness scores, heavy exerciser-status, and more sleep disturbances predicted higher mental health complaints. Conclusions: Compared with light exercising, heavy exercising might be associated with more mental health issues. As such, it appears that the association between exercise frequency, intensity, and duration and psychological well-being might be related to an optimum point, but not to a maximum point. In a similar vein, heavily exercising athletes, their coaches, parents, and representatives of sports associations should get sensitized to possible adverse psychological effects of excessive physical activity patterns.
... However, Brand et al. echoed the results of Alley et al.: they found exercise an hour and a half before bedtime to be associated with increased deep sleep and decreased REM sleep [35]. More specifically, individuals with greater self-perceived exertion during exercise had decreased light sleep and increased deep sleep compared with those who reported less self-perceived exertion [35]. ...
... However, Brand et al. echoed the results of Alley et al.: they found exercise an hour and a half before bedtime to be associated with increased deep sleep and decreased REM sleep [35]. More specifically, individuals with greater self-perceived exertion during exercise had decreased light sleep and increased deep sleep compared with those who reported less self-perceived exertion [35]. The same investigators summarize their findings by stating that self-perceived exercise exertion and objectively assessed sleep are positively associated, meaning that the encouragement of exercise as part of daily physical activity likely benefits the objective aspects of sleep. ...
Article
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Although a substantial body of literature has explored the relationship between sleep and exercise, comprehensive reviews and definitive conclusions about the impact of exercise interventions on sleep are lacking. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 2013 and March 2017. Studies were included if they possessed either objective or subjective measures of sleep and an exercise intervention that followed the guidelines recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine. Thirty-four studies met these inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine studies concluded that exercise improved sleep quality or duration; however, four found no difference and one reported a negative impact of exercise on sleep. Study results varied most significantly due to participants’ age, health status, and the mode and intensity of exercise intervention. Mixed findings were reported for children, adolescents, and young adults. Interventions conducted with middle-aged and elderly adults reported more robust results. In these cases, exercise promoted increased sleep efficiency and duration regardless of the mode and intensity of activity, especially in populations suffering from disease. Our review suggests that sleep and exercise exert substantial positive effects on one another; however, to reach a true consensus, the mechanisms behind these observations must first be elucidated.
... Furthermore, physical activity is favored by many sleep experts as alternative treatment for insomnia (Dishman et al., 2015;Passos et al., 2011;Youngstedt, 2005; American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2004). Other studies show that any kind of physical activity, even in the evening before bedtime, impacts positively on sleep (Buman et al., 2014;Brand et al., 2014). Research also shows that both acute and regular exercise have beneficial effects on total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency and sleep quality (for a review see Kredlow et al. (2015) and Chennaoui et al. (2015)). ...
... A good example of a sleep-inducing activity is physical activity. Studies like Buman et al. (2014); Brand et al. (2014); Kredlow et al. (2015) and Santos et al. (2007) show that any kind of physical activity, even in the evening before bedtime, impacts positively on sleep. Essentially, then, a first relation states that: ...
Article
Time use models have been used to estimate the value of leisure - one of the components of the value of travel time savings - usually accepting that sleep duration is an exogenous variable. In this paper, we depart from this belief by considering time asleep as an endogenous decision framed by many elements well documented in the literature which we review using a three-discipline perspective: Social behavior sciences, Medical and health sciences, and Economics. Then we propose a microeconomic model that considers these contributions by capturing four effects: alertness (perception), time use trade-off, performance (productivity) and a series of technical relations linking sleep with other activities and goods consumption. The analytical properties are explored showing that there is a total value of sleep time with different components, that equals the value of leisure; that the value of time assigned to any other activity and the value of leisure increase with sleep time if the person sleeps less than medically recommended; and that the way in which sleep time acts on the value of travel time savings varies according to specific behavioral parameters related with the perception of sleep, work and leisure. A system to estimate behavioral and technical parameters econometrically is proposed.
... Die zeitliche Differenz zwischen körperlicher Aktivität und Schlaf bleibt unklar. Gerade der letzte Punkt scheint kontrovers perzipiert zu werden: Während zum Beispiel die American Sleep Association allgemeine körperliche Aktivität vor 14.00 Uhr empfiehlt und das Sporttreiben nach 14.00 Uhr und vor allem am Abend als schlafhinderlich ansieht, gibt es erstaunlicherweise für diese Schlafhygieneregel keine wissenschaftliche Evidenz (Brand et al. 2014c;Buman et al. 2014 (Caspersen et al. 2000;Madsen et al. 2009;Van Mechelen et al. 2000). ...
... Passos und Kollegen (2011) hielten folgende Resultate fest: Günstige Veränderungen in den objektiven Schlafvariablen und in den Befindlichkeitsskalen waren nicht von der Tageszeit des Trainings abhängig. Hiermit widerlegten die Autoren die schon weiter oben monierte Schlafhygieneregel, wonach eine regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität nach 14 Uhr nachmittags den Schlaf beeinträchtige (Brand et al. 2014c;Buman et al. 2014). Die Schlaflatenz nahm um rund 50 % auf 8,7 Minuten ab, die Schlafeffizienz stieg von 79,8 % auf 87,2 %, und die Wachzeit nach dem Einschlafen (WASO) nahm von 63,2 Minuten auf 40,1 Minuten ab. ...
Chapter
Der Schlaf ist ein psychophysiologischer Zustand, der zentralnervös gesteuert und von Umweltreizen moduliert wird. Innerhalb von 24 Stunden tritt er in einer Zeitdauer von ca. fünf bis neun Stunden regelmäßig auf. Körperliche Veränderungen des Schlafs sind eine stark verminderte Muskelspannung, geschlossene Augen, ruhige Atembewegungen, verminderte physiologische Prozesse sowie charakteristische neuronale Aktivitätsmuster. Kognitiv-emotionale Prozesse finden ebenfalls statt: Die Reizverarbeitung ist reduziert, explizite und implizite Gedächtnisinhalte werden gefestigt und Prozesse der Emotionsregulation in Gang gesetzt. Schlafdauer und -qualität werden durch psychophysiologische Tagesereignisse beeinflusst. Zu diesen Tagesereignissen gehört auch der Stress, also die subjektive Empfindung der körperlichen, emotionalen und kognitiven Überlastung. Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität hat das Potential, Schlafdauer und Schlafqualität günstig zu beeinflussen und zu regulieren, und Stress zu mindern.
... There is evidence in the existing literature that exercise training programs with increasing linear periodization offer better results in sleep, both measured objectively and in self-perception, in addition to positive results in anxiety and depression symptoms (Brand et al., 2014;Kovacevic et al., 2018) compared to nonperiodized programs of training (Chiu et al., 2017;Coelho-Júnior et al., 2019). Yet, according to the position stand of the American College of Sports Medicine, combined training is superior to isolated training in reducing body fat and maintaining lean mass to combat obesity more effectively (Donnelly et al., 2009). ...
... Further, participation in a survey may have contributed to indirect behavioral changes affecting sleep. Brand et al. (2014) observed that increased exertion during exercise was associated with improved sleep efficiency, corroborating our hypothesis that increased intensity yields significant results. Unlike this however, only the non-periodized training group significantly increased its sleep efficiency (Δ = 20.33%), ...
Article
Background: Combined exercise training has proven effective in preventing and treating sleep disorders among obese adults. However, structured progression of intensity in sleep parameters remains poorly investigated within this population. Purpose: To verify the effects of non-periodized and linear periodization combined training on the sleep quality of obese adults. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial involving adults with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, allocated to 3 groups: control (CG; n = 13), non-periodized training (NG; n = 9), and with linear periodization (PG; n = 13). Groups PG and NG trained for 16 weeks in 3 weekly sessions lasting of 60 minutes. The NG trained in 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) e 2 × 10-12 repetition maximum (RM) and the PG with progression in 3 mesocycles: 40-49%;50-59%; 60-69% HRR e 2x12-14; 2x10-12; 2 × 8-10 RM, with the total volume equated. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For statistics, we used Generalized Estimation Equations considering p ≤ 0.05. Results: Sleep latency was reduced in both training groups after intervention (NG-Δ = −25.56 minutes p = .028; PG-Δ = −22.23 minutes p = .035), while significant improvements in sleep efficiency were found only in the NG (Δ = 20.67%; p = .042). Conclusion: Despite the NG's apparent superiority, which model has the best sleep effects on obese adults cannot be stated. Hence, caution is needed while extrapolating the results.
... Die zeitliche Differenz zwischen körperlicher Aktivität und Schlaf bleibt unklar. Gerade der letzte Punkt scheint kontrovers perzipiert zu werden: Während zum Beispiel die American Sleep Association allgemeine körperliche Aktivität vor 14.00 Uhr empfiehlt und das Sporttreiben nach 14.00 Uhr und vor allem am Abend als schlafhinderlich ansieht, gibt es erstaunlicherweise für diese Schlafhygieneregel keine wissenschaftliche Evidenz (Brand et al. 2014c;Buman et al. 2014 (Caspersen et al. 2000;Madsen et al. 2009;Van Mechelen et al. 2000). ...
... Passos und Kollegen (2011) hielten folgende Resultate fest: Günstige Veränderungen in den objektiven Schlafvariablen und in den Befindlichkeitsskalen waren nicht von der Tageszeit des Trainings abhängig. Hiermit widerlegten die Autoren die schon weiter oben monierte Schlafhygieneregel, wonach eine regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität nach 14 Uhr nachmittags den Schlaf beeinträchtige (Brand et al. 2014c;Buman et al. 2014). Die Schlaflatenz nahm um rund 50 % auf 8,7 Minuten ab, die Schlafeffizienz stieg von 79,8 % auf 87,2 %, und die Wachzeit nach dem Einschlafen (WASO) nahm von 63,2 Minuten auf 40,1 Minuten ab. ...
Chapter
Der Schlaf ist ein psychophysiologischer Zustand, der zentralnervös gesteuert und von Umweltreizen moduliert wird. Innerhalb von 24 Stunden tritt er in einer Zeitdauer von ca. fünf bis neun Stunden regelmäßig auf. Körperliche Veränderungen des Schlafs sind eine stark verminderte Muskelspannung, geschlossene Augen, ruhige Atembewegungen, verminderte physiologische Prozesse sowie charakteristische neuronale Aktivitätsmuster. Kognitiv-emotionale Prozesse finden ebenfalls statt: Die Reizverarbeitung ist reduziert, explizite und implizite Gedächtnisinhalte werden gefestigt und Prozesse der Emotionsregulation in Gang gesetzt. Schlafdauer und -qualität werden durch psychophysiologische Tagesereignisse beeinflusst. Zu diesen Tagesereignissen gehört auch der Stress, also die subjektive Empfindung der körperlichen, emotionalen und kognitiven Überlastung. Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität hat das Potential, Schlafdauer und Schlafqualität günstig zu beeinflussen und zu regulieren, und Stress zu mindern.
... One related practical issue that has been minimally explored is that of timing of exercise with respect to sleep. In young persons, sleep was surprisingly improved with late-night, intense exercise ( Brand et al., 2014). However, the exercise timing issue remains unexplored in older persons with OSA. ...
Chapter
The health benefits of physical activity are clear. However, global rates of physical activity in older persons are low and on a downward trajectory, and the resulting public health-related consequences will continue to grow. Various potential causes of trends toward physical inactivity have been explored, with recent investigations into the “built environment,” metabolism, body composition, and sleep. Limited research has focused on the role of caffeine as a potential approach to improving body composition and levels of physical activity. This chapter summarizes recent findings that highlight the critical influence that sleep has on weight gain and obesity and related findings on the relationships between sleep and physical activity. Potential short-term stimulatory benefits of caffeine to increase physical activity and decrease weight gain in later life appear to be offset by caffeine's negative effects on sleep, energy balance, and the fatigue and physical inactivity that can result in this sensitive group.
... [42] Kalak et al. [43] reported improvement in the quality of sleep among adolescents following 3 weeks of morning jogging, compared with controls groups. Obviously, more vigorous exercise led to objectively improved sleep, [44] and that adult regular exercisers, irrespective of the time of the day at which they exercised, reported better quality of sleep. [45] Negative behavior in ASD appears in several forms for many reasons. ...
... On the other hand, with regard to difficulties falling asleep, a significant relationship was only found for MVPA. This might be attributable to the fact that MVPA may lead to higher perceived exertion than LPA, which has been associated with improved subjectively and objectively assessed sleep in a previous study in young subjects ( Brand et al., 2014). Although not assessed in the present study, scholars have proposed a number of mechanisms by which regular PA can positively impact on sleep. ...
Article
Objectives: Regular physical activity (PA) can prevent sleep complaints and improve sleep among people with sleep disorders, whereas nocturnal shift work is linked with a higher risk of sleep problems. The present study examines the prospective relationship between PA, nocturnal shift work and sleep complaints. Methods: Data is based on 1406 health care workers (M=45.67 years, 88% women). Physical activity and sleep complaints were assessed via self-reports twice across a 2-year period. Results: Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with a lower risk of reporting difficulties falling asleep at the 2-year follow-up. Both light PA (LPA) and MVPA were associated with a lower risk of feeling exhausted at awakening. The association between PA and these two sleep complaints persisted after controlling for covariates. No significant prospective association was found between PA and waking-up during nighttime. Shift work was not related to any of the sleep complaints. Conclusions: The findings suggest that regular PA is associated with fewer sleep complaints, independent of whether participants engage in nocturnal shift work. Promoting PA can be a promising strategy to prevent sleep problems.
... However, elderly people need optimal sleep duration and high sleep quality in order to perform both physical and psychological functions properly. Although numerous studies have shown the associations between physical activity and sleep [19,20], little is known about whether sleep predicts physical activity, especially in elderly populations. ...
Article
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The main purpose of the study was to explore the associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with physical activity (PA). In this cross-sectional study, participants were 894 elderly individuals (mean age 80 ± 3 years; 56.0% women) living in nursing homes. PA, sleep duration, and sleep quality (based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were self-reported. The associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with PA at the nursing home level were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with clustering. Participants reporting short sleep duration (<6 h; OR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.25-0.80) were less likely to report sufficient PA, yet those reporting long sleep duration (>9 h; OR = 2.61; 95% CI 1.35-5.02) and good sleep quality (<5 points; OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.19-2.12) were more likely to report sufficient PA. When sleep duration and sleep quality were entered into the same model, the same associations remained. This study shows that elderly individuals who report short sleep duration are less likely to meet PA guidelines, while those who report long sleep duration and good sleep quality are more likely to meet PA guidelines. Strategies aiming to improve sleep duration and sleep quality are warranted.
... In previous studies, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia 40 , higher self-perceived exercise exertion 41 , and higher daily energy expenditure 42 were suggested to improve sleep efficiency. Exercise therapy 43 , counseling therapies 44 , and acupuncture and moxibustion treatment 45 were shown to be effective for fatigue. ...
Article
Objectives: Many middle-aged women are affected by sleep disturbance. We investigated how subjective insomnia is associated with objective sleep parameters and other background characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data obtained from 95 women aged 40-59 years who participated in another study assessing the effects of a dietary supplement. Participants wore an actigraph unit for 3 days to collect information concerning physical activities and objective sleep parameters and were then evaluated for body composition, cardiovascular parameters, and menopausal symptoms including insomnia and fatigue, and lifestyle factors. Stratifying Athens Insomnia Scale scores as low (0-5 points, control group) and high (≥ 6 points, subjective insomnia group), we sought to identify the parameters that are independently associated with subjective insomnia. Results: Women with subjective insomnia (n = 30) had lower sleep efficiency than did the controls. They were also older; had more live births, lower height, higher body mass index, lower ankle brachial index, and more severe menopausal symptoms including fatigue; took more naps; smoked more cigarettes; and more of them were full-time workers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low sleep efficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44 per 1% decrease in sleep efficiency; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.05) and fatigue assessed with Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57 per 1-point increase in BFI score; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.13) were independent contributors to subjective insomnia. Conclusions: Low sleep efficiency and feeling of fatigue were found to be independently associated with subjective insomnia in middle-aged women.
... Nevertheless, some sleep hygiene domains seem to have a stronger impact on sleep quality and sleep duration than others [50]. For instance, while avoiding electronic devices before sleep has been suggested to be a useful strategy [51], little evidence exists that exercising in the evening has a negative impact on subsequent sleep [52]. In summary, these findings suggest that the validity of sleep hygiene recommendations should be examined more thoroughly in future research [50,53]. ...
Article
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Background: Restoring sleep is associated with a broad variety of favorable cognitive, emotional, social and behavioral benefits during the day. This holds particularly true for adolescents, as maturational, social, cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes might unfavorably impact on adolescents’ sleep. Among adolescents, poor sleep hygiene practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that can be addressed via appropriate interventions. Accordingly, having reliable and valid self-report measures to assess sleep hygiene practices is essential to gauge individual responses to behavioural interventions and evaluate sleep hygiene recommendations. The aim of the present study therefore was to translate and to test the psychometric properties (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial and concurrent validity) of the Farsi/Persian version of the revised version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr). Method: A total of 1013 adolescents (mean age: M=15.4 years; SD=1.2; range: 12-19 years; 42.9% females) completed the ASHSr and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in their classroom during an official school lesson. Further, 20% completed the ASHSr six weeks later to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were calculated to examine internal consistency, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test factorial validity, whereas concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were examined via correlation analyses. Results: A first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) corroborated the six-factor structure of the ASHSr, including a physiological, behavioral arousal, cognitive/emotional, daytime sleep, sleep environment, and sleep stability factor. A second-order CFA showed that a higher-order sleep hygiene construct explained sufficient variance in each factor. Cronbach’s alpha values ranged between .71 and .75, correlations for test-retest reliability between .82 and .87. Significant correlations were found between most ASHSr scales and the PSQI indices. However, the magnitude of these correlations was weak. Conclusions: The Farsi/Persian version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale can be used as a reliable and valid tool for evaluation of sleep hygiene practices among Farsi/Persian-speaking adolescents.
... This was based on the view that intensive exercise close to bedtime may have negative effects on sleep [20]. However, the results of a recent study challenged this notion [44]; more studies are needed to determine whether evening exercise can also benefit sleep among individuals with insomnia or sleep complaints. ...
... In healthy young adults high exertion resulted in more slow wave sleep, less WASO, shorter SOL, and increased sleep efficiency. 83 Avoidance of exercise before bedtime should not be routinely recommended but patients who notice a difference in sleep quality in relation to the timing of exercise should adjust their timing of exercise accordingly. ment, or passive stretching. ...
Article
Chronic insomnia is a common condition that affects people worldwide and has negative effects on patients' health and wellbeing. The treatment of insomnia can be complex and time consuming for patients and providers. Although behavioral interventions are the first line therapy, there are barriers to access for these treatments. However, in recent years, alternative ways of providing these behavioral therapies that make them more widely available have been investigated. Drugs also play an important role in the treatment of insomnia and new drugs have been introduced as options for treating patients with sleep initiation and sleep maintenance insomnia. In this review, we will discuss advances in the past six years in both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments for patients with chronic insomnia. We will also review the controversies surrounding some of the current drug treatments, as well as the role that technology and personal activity monitoring devices may play in treating insomnia.
... The assumption that PA promotes sleep can partly be attributed to traditional hypotheses that sleep serves energy conservation, body restoration and thermoregulatory functions, ideas that have guided much of the research in this field (a recent overview of the literature and theories on how PA affects sleep has been provided by Chennaoui et al. [23]). Moreover, two very recent publications show that any kind of PA, even in the evening before bedtime, impacts positively on sleep [24,25]. However, it is still unclear exactly how PA impacts on sleep and vice versa. ...
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Purpose: Preliminary evidence among adults suggests that the ways in which individuals think about their physical activity (PA) behavior is more closely associated with their wellbeing than self-reported PA. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether and how self-reported PA and personal beliefs about sufficient PA are associated with sleep and psychological functioning in a sample of Swiss adolescents, using both cross-sectional and prospective data. Methods: An overall sample of 864 vocational students (368 girls, 496 boys, Mage=17.98 years, SD=1.36) was followed-up prospectively over a 10-month period. At each measurement occasion, participants filled in a series of self-report questionnaires to assess their physical activity levels, their personal beliefs about whether or not they engage in sufficient PA, sleep (insomnia symptoms, sleep quality, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings), and psychological functioning (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived stress, mental toughness). Results: Adolescents who believe that they are sufficiently physically active to maintain good health reported more restoring sleep. No differences were found between adolescents who do versus do not meet PA recommendations. Additionally, adolescents who believe that they are sufficiently physically active also reported better psychological functioning. This close relationship between adolescents’ beliefs about their PA involvement and their sleep and psychological functioning was corroborated in the prospective analyses. Conclusion: Cognitive factors should be studied more intensively when elucidating the relationship between PA, sleep and psychological functioning in young people, particularly when aiming to develop new exercise interventions targeting psychological outcomes.
... Likewise, experimental studies have typically indicated that moderate-to vigorous-intensity exercise ending as little as 30 min before bedtime does not result in disrupted objective or subjective sleep despite inducing increases in heart rate and core body temperature that have been shown to persist into the early hours of sleep (Myllymaki et al., 2011;Brand et al., 2014). Indeed, some studies have even observed better sleep following late-night exercise in comparison to a control non-exercise day (Flausino et al., 2012). ...
... For instance, a study compared the effects of acute morning or evening aerobic step physical exercise in two subjective insomnia criteria: difficulty in initiating sleep and early morning awakening. Results showed that acute physical exercise in the morning decreased the difficulties for initiating sleep but subjective sleep quality did not change after the acute interventions [24,25]. ...
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The sleep–wake cycle is a process regulated by multiple neurobiological mechanisms that in aberrant functioning provokes several sleep disturbances. Among the major categories of sleep disorders, insomnia represents one of the most reported in population. Pharmacological interventions aimed for treating this sleep disturbance include compounds such as antidepressants, antihistamines, sedative-hypnotics, among others. However, using pharmacological treatments increase undesirable side effects such as addiction to sleep-inducing drugs. Here, we review and summarize recent publications available in PubMed regarding the use of non-pharmacological/invasive means to control insomnia, including physical exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Current data suggest that these two strategies efficiently manage insomnia, and in turn opens new approaches to develop therapeutical tools to diminish this pathology. Nevertheless, additional research is required to understand the neurobiological mechanism of action of physical exercise and tDCS in insomnia control.
... While some studies reported positive health benefits of physical activity and physical fitness on sleep quality (Loprinzi & Cardinal, 2011;Lee & Lin, 2007;Brand, Kalak, Gerber, Kirov, Puhse ...
... proxy of improved cardiorespiratory performance appeared to be particularly beneficial to improve behavioral and mental dimensions (Brand et al., 2010a, b;Brand et al., 2017;Brand et al., 2014;Ekelund et al., 2016;Sadeghi Bahmani et al., 2020a). However, a closer look at the objectively assessed physical activity performance of the present study showed that for the 6MWT, improvements were only observed in the active control condition, when compared to the other study conditions. ...
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Background: There is evidence that regular exercise training has the potential to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors. However, limited findings are available for individuals with high-grade glioma (HGG; WHO grade III and IV) after neurosurgery and undergoing radiochemotherapy. Given this, endurance and strengths training were employed to investigate their impact on symptoms of depression, feelings of stress and anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, and physical fitness, compared to an active control condition. Methods: A total of 29 patients (M = 52.07, SD = 12.45, 55.2% women) participated in this randomized controlled trial (RCT). After neurosurgical treatment and during adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy or combined radiochemotherapy, patients were randomly assigned to the following conditions: Endurance training (n = 10); strengths training (n = 11); active control condition (n = 8). At baseline, three weeks and six weeks later at the end of the study physical fitness was objectively measured with a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and a handgrip test. Participants completed a series of questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, symptoms of depression, stress, anxiety, fatigue, and insomnia. Further, experts’ rated participants’ severity of symptoms of depression. Results: Over time and compared to the strengths and active control condition, self-rated symptoms of depression, state and trait anxiety, stress and insomnia decreased and fatigue increased in the endurance condition. Over time and compared to the endurance and active control condition, no changes on symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, or insomnia were observed in the strength condition. Over time and compared to the endurance and strengths condition, symptoms of depression (self-ratings), stress, insomnia and fatigue decreased in the active control condition. Fatigue increased in both exercising conditions. Over time and irrespective from the study condition, physical fitness did neither improve nor decrease. Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that endurance training and an active control condition improved dimensions of depression, stress, and anxiety, while mere strengths training appeared to neither improve nor decrease dimensions of psychological functioning. Further, exercise interventions did not change physical fitness but increased fatigue. Overall, endurance training and an active control condition appeared to favorably impact on psychological well-being among patients with high-grade glioma after neurosurgery and undergoing radiochemotherapy.
... First, we did not use any objective measures of sleep quality (e.g., electroencephalogram, polysomnography). Future studies should consider utilizing multiple sleep latency tests to capture better psychobiological sleep profiles (Brand et al., 2014;Plante et al., 2017;Zhu et al., 2020). Also, given the use of DSM-III-R-defined CIDI-SF interviews, future research can determine if a similar pattern of findings is replicated using DSM-5 measures. ...
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BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) reliably precede and predict one another. However, there is insufficient data on mediators through which the longitudinal GAD-MDD association unfolds. Based on insomnia theories, such as the hyperarousal model of sleep, we tested the degree to which poor global sleep quality functioned as a mediator of the prospective bidirectional anxiety-depression relationship. METHOD: Participants were 3,294 community-dwelling adults who partook in three measurement waves nine years apart. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form assessed GAD and MDD in-person at baseline (Time 1 [T1]), Time 2 (T2; nine years after T1), and 18 years later (T3). T2 global sleep quality was measured using the multiple-domain Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index self-report at T2. We used longitudinal structural equation modeling mediation analyses. RESULTS: Analyses showed that higher T1 MDD and GAD severity individually predicted lower T2 global sleep quality (Cohen’s d = -0.561 to -0.480) and less T2 global sleep quality, thereby forecasted both higher T3 MDD and GAD (d = -0.275 to -0.190). Poorer T2 global sleep quality significantly mediated the T1 GAD–T3 MDD relation, explaining 41% of the association. Worse global sleep quality at T2 also significantly mediated the T1 MDD–T3 GAD association, mediating 11% of the T1 MDD–T3 GAD pathway. The results remained similar after controlling for multiple sociodemographic and clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer evidence for transdiagnostic theories of sleep and insomnia. Theoretical and clinical implications, such as prioritizing sleep improvement in cognitivebehavioral therapies, are also discussed.
... Likewise, moderate-to vigorous-intensity exercise ending as close as 30 min before bedtime has not impaired objective or subjective sleep despite causing increases in heart rate and core body temperature that persisted into the early hours of sleep [20]. Other studies have shown better subjective and/or objective sleep following late-night exercise compared to a nonexercise day [21,22]. However, the focus on trained adults without sleep complaints in these experimental studies is a prominent limitation of this literature, as adults who are physically inactive and/or with significant sleep complaints may be more reactive to and/or recover less quickly from late-night exercise than those with high aerobic fitness and healthy sleep. ...
... As an outlet to a stressful and/or challenging workday, that may occur over long time periods (12À14 hours shifts), engaging in physical activity can be a way to "clear the head" and "burn off energy," thus preparing some working men for a better night sleep. 50,51 Of the four interventions that included physical activity, only one 21 also included a sleep health education focus; yet all four were effective for improving some aspect of sleep quality. Likewise, none of the four stress management interventions had an explicit focus on sleep, though three of these were found to effectively promote sleep. ...
Article
Sleep health is an important aspect of wellbeing and merits incorporation into workplace health promotion programs for employees. Men are a unique population with whom many traditional workplace health promotion programs have had limited success. This systematic review posed the question do workplace health promotion programs improve sleep among men, and what program design features contribute to improving sleep among working men? Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL, Academic Search Complete and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition and Google Scholar. Empirical research reporting non-pharmacological behavioral sleep programs and/or interventions for working men were eligible for review. 1049 articles were identified; 15 intervention studies were included: 13 interventions were delivered through workplaces, and two recruited workers to programs delivered outside of work. Interventions incorporated health education, stress reduction/relaxation, and/or physical activity components. Eleven studies reported positive findings for sleep health outcome(s) in men. A moderate level of evidence exists for sleep health programs with physical activity and stress management components. Evidence for the effectiveness of sleep health education programs was mixed. That only one study included a gender-sensitized intervention, where men's preferences shaped the content of a stress-reduction program which resulted in improved sleep quality, attests to the insufficient evidence and lack of gender-specific content and analyses. Next research steps should include considering cultural constructions of masculinity in program design in order to strengthen the appeal and engagement of men, and optimize health benefits for working men.
... The literature has reported how immune function decreases after affective states associated with stress in the face of stressful situations, such as natural disasters, among which depression, anxiety, and loneliness stand out (Ironson et al., 1997). These emotional states and the relationship with the immune response have been described and also associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and drowsiness, as a result of sleep deprivation, establishing the important role of sleep in emotional regulation and its relationship with immune regulation (Brand et al., 2014;Irwin and Opp, 2017;Vandekerckhove and Wang, 2017). ...
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Healthcare workers who are on the front line of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are also undergoing shift schedules face long work hours with few pauses, experience desynchronization of their circadian rhythm, and an imbalance between work hours effort and reward in saving lives, resulting in an impact on work capacity, aggravated by the lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), few resources and precarious infrastructure, and fear of contracting the virus and contaminating family members. Some consequences are sleep deprivation, chronic insomnia, stress-related sleep disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. These sleep alterations critically affect mental health, precipitating or perpetuating anxiety, stress, and depression, resulting in the inability to regulate positive and negative emotions. Pre-existing sleep disorders are an important risk factor for the development and maintenance of PSTD when individuals are exposed to an important stressor such as a COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, how an individual regulates the emotion associated with worries during daytime functioning impacts nighttime sleep, precipitating and perpetuating difficulties in sleeping. All of these changes in sleep and emotional regulation also alter the immune system. Sleep deprivation is commonly associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, due to the desynchronizations in circadian rhythms, causing possible psychophysiological disorders and impaired neuroimmune-endocrine homeostasis. From this perspective, we clarify in this article how sleep disorders affect the immune system and emotional regulation, explaining their phenomenological and neurobiological mechanisms, and discussing elements of cognitive and behavioral coping for health professionals to adopt and manage a healthier sleep pattern in the COVID-19 outbreak.
... More specifically, it was found that persons with better self-perceived exertion during exercise had reduced light sleep and increased deep sleep when compared to those who reported less self-perceived exertion. Thus supporting the recommendation that exercise should be included as a part of person's daily routine; the likely benefits of which would be an improved level of sleep quality [30]. strong positive effects on all subscales of the PSQI. ...
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Objective – There are diverse results on the association between physical activity and sleep. So this study investigated the association of level and type of physical activity with short-term insomnia among college students. Methods - A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in India. The sample was 662 students with 359 males and 303 females. The predictor variables were type and level of physical activity and the predicted variables were sleep complaints. Physical activity components were assessed through an international physical activity questionnaire and sleep complaints using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. The binary logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 for all the analyses. Results – The age (mean + SD) of the participants were 23.2 ± 3.5 years. The self-reported symptoms of short-term insomnia such as global sleep quality (adjusted odds ratio(AOR)=15.58), subjective sleep quality (AOR=6.01), sleep latency (AOR= 5.09), sleep duration (AOR=0.13), sleep disturbances (AOR=4.88), daytime sleep dysfunction (AOR=5.59) had shown an association with the level of physical activity. There was no association of type of physical activity with any other predicted variables. Conclusions – The findings of the present study support that level of physical activity is a key predictor of short-term insomnia symptoms among college students. There should be Interventions to maintain and improve the level of physical activity among students.
... 1 The British Association of Psychopharmacology suggests that the first indication for insomnia should be cognitive behavioral therapy. 13 The use of complementary and integrative practicessuch as mindfulness meditation, 14 exercise, 15 and yoga 16 -are increasingly being encouraged, with some positive results being reported in relation to reducing the symptoms of insomnia. The current research team has investigated the effects of complementary practices in postmenopausal women who have insomnia, with significant positive results. ...
Context: According to the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3), it is estimated that the prevalence of insomnia in the general population varies between 6.6% and 12%. Insomnia is a sleep disturbance related to a reduction in the quality or quantity of satisfactory sleep. Among the available treatments, there are both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. One recent possible non-pharmacological approach that has been suggested is based on the use of probiotics and the gut-brain axis. There has been increasing scientific focus on this area because of the suggested importance of enteric microbiota in relation to many aspects of health. It has been proposed that probiotics can be used to interact with the intestinal environment to benefit individuals suffering from a variety of conditions. In relation to sleep, some studies have indicated that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) produced by the intestinal microbiota may influence the central nervous system (CNS) through the vagus nerve and have an influence on sleep. In this sense, Lactobacillus is one of the major GABA producing bacteria in the gut microbiota. Objective: Our hypothesis is that supplementation with Lactobacillus as a probiotic might improve sleep pattern and quality, acting as an ally in the treatment of insomnia. Design: In the present study, a search was conducted in Pubmed and Google Scholar databases, looking for articles with themes related to probiotics, intestinal microbiota and sleep. Results: No clinical trials were found that evaluated the effect of probiotics for sleep disorders in humans.Conclusions • Research and clinical use of probiotics have been growing due to their health benefits in several areas. In addition, the use of probiotics for sleep and emotional disorders, such as insomnia, stress, anxiety and depression, is gaining space. This way, future research can help developing complementary treatments for people with insomnia and other sleep disorders.
... Another important finding of the present study suggested increase in the percentage of N3 sleep which is comprised of slow frequency cortical waves, which in turn supports the theory of enhancement of slow waves in response to endurance exercise training [39]. Several trials [40,41] echoed the results of our study regarding increase in N3% and suggested that exercise interventions are likely to be associated with increased deep sleep. In similar lines, a cross-over trail involving 13 older adults observed 71% increase in SWS on PSG post exercise training as compared to the non-exercise condition before training and concluded that exercise is capable of improving sleep depth [42]. ...
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Background Sleep disturbance (SD) is quite prevalent among collegiate students and is reflected upon various scales of measurements such as electrophysiological and biochemical. Despite its high prevalence and negative consequences, very few studies have focussed on the management of SD in collegiates. Aerobic exercise (AE) is associated with improvement in sleep and due to its extensive benefits, it has been now considered as an alternative management strategy for SD.AimTo investigate the effect of 12-week AE training on electrophysiological and biochemical correlates of sleep in collegiate students.Methods Twenty-eight collegiate students with Pittsburgh sleep quality index score > 5 were randomly assigned into two groups: AE and control. Both the groups were taught basic sleep hygiene (SH) at the beginning of study. AE group, in addition to SH, received 12 weeks of moderate intensity AE training on treadmill. Pre- and post-intervention measures were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Sleep latency (SL), total sleep time, percentage of N1, N2, N3, NREM, REM and sleep efficiency (SE%) were calculated from over-night polysomnography (PSG). Concentration of serum melatonin and cortisol were also measured pre and post intervention.Results2 × 2 mixed ANOVA resulted in significant decrease and increase in N1% and N3%, respectively, after 12 weeks of AE. Serum cortisol also showed a significant decrease in its concentration post-intervention. Serum melatonin and other PSG variables did not show any difference with AE training.ConclusionAE training for 12 weeks improved sleep on electrophysiological and biochemical scales in SD collegiates.Trial registration number and dateCTRI/2019/05/019154.
... In addition, there is a significant link between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance [42], nevertheless, there was a remarkable relationship between sleep alterations and depression [43], aerobic walking is a recommended activity in mediating the relationship. Neuropsychological study demonstrated that physical exercise might represent a potential adjunctive treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment [44]. Furthermore, our study did not find significant effect of DAW on sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction even though a recent study supports the notion that high exercise exertion predicts good sleep efficiency [45]. ...
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Purpose Walking has beneficial effects on sleep quality in elderly population and patients in clinical settings. However, less is known whether walking improves sleep quality among healthy young adults. This study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week walking intervention on sleep quality among sedentary young adults. Methods Fifty-four healthy adults aged 19 to 36-years old participated a pedometer based aerobic walking intervention, a cross-over randomized control trial. Participants were assigned into two groups (group A and group B) randomly. The 12-week intervention was divided into three sessions equally. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and after session 1 and session 3. Omron HJ-112 pedometer and daily walking diary facilitated the intervention process. Within group and between group comparisons were made for statistical analysis. Results Within group comparison by repeated measures showed that sleep duration (p < 0.01, F-test 22.79), sleep medication (p < 0.05, F-test 5.22), subjective sleep (p < 0.05, F-test 5.51) and global sleep quality (p < 0.01, F-test 12.19) were significantly improved. The comparison between intervention group and control group showed that sleep disturbance was significantly improved (p < 0.05). Conclusion Daily walking exercise has a significant effect on facilitating sleep quality and sleep components among young adults. Further studies are suggested to examine the impact of walking intensity on sleep quality.
... This improvement related to mood enhancement and feelings of higher mental and physical energy after exercise. These findings come in accordance with other studies which showed the effect of exercise on anxiety symptoms reduction and decreased level of depression, which in turn will lead to sleep maintenance (Ehrt et al., 2006 andBrand et al., 2014). ...
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Somatic and mental functions of the majority of Parkinson's patients during different stages of their diseases could be affected by great neurotransmitter changes. Recently, regular exercise considered as a modern alternative tool to improve Parkinson's patients symptoms. Aims: The trial intends to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercises on depression and insomnia in Geriatrics Parkinson's Egyptian Population. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, between July 2017 and October 2017.Methodology: 30 geriatrics Egyptian individuals (15 males and 15 females), their age ranged from 65-70 years and their body mass index was less than 30 kg/m 2 attached to this study after meeting the study requirements. Self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Insomnia Severity Index have been used to assess all patients before and after treatment program, A program of exercise (walking on a treadmill) started for 30 minutes at 40-50% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for 12 weeks 3 times/week. Results: Self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Insomnia Severity Index showed highly significant decrease (p<0.001) in scores, after the 12 weeks of exercise training. Conclusion: Regular physical activity appears to be an adjunctive tool to decrease depression and insomnia that considered as common symptoms of geriatrics Parkinson's Egyptian population.
... As such, PA after the opening of the habitual sleep gate might delay circadian rhythms, and in turn, delay sleep onset; PA in the evening prior to the opening of the sleep gate could advance circadian rhythms, and in turn, hasten sleep onset (Landry & Liu-Ambrose, 2014). This nuanced effect might explain why some studies have shown that PA before bedtime does not negatively impact aspects of sleep (Brand et al., 2014;Buman, Phillips, Youngstedt, Kline, & Hirshkowitz, 2014). ...
Article
Sleep quality and physical activity (PA) appear to be interrelated; thus, by promoting one behaviour, it may be possible to improve the other in older adults. Examination of the within‐person day‐to‐day variation in PA and sleep quality could potentially elucidate the directionality of the association of these behaviours. We measured sleep quality (i.e. fragmentation, efficiency, duration and latency) and moderate‐to‐vigorous PA using the MotionWatch8© over 14 consecutive days and nights in community‐dwelling adults (n = 152; age range 53–101 years). Multilevel modelling estimated within‐subject autoregressive and cross‐lagged effects and between‐subject associations between PA and sleep quality. On days when individuals engaged in a high amount of PA on one day (relative to their averages), they were more likely to engage in a high amount of PA on the next day (estimate, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.14, 0.24). Nights in which individuals had a long sleep latency were followed by nights in which they also had a long sleep latency (estimate, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03, 0.14). In contrast, nights in which individuals slept for a long period of time were followed by nights in which they slept relatively less than their averages (estimate, −0.09; 95% CI, −0.13, −0.04). When individuals engaged in a large amount of PA during the day, they tended to sleep longer that following night (estimate, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.001, 0.02). All other associations between PA and sleep quality were not significant. Increasing PA therefore might increase sleep duration in older adults.
... However, as regards the influence of regular PA on sleep patterns of PwMS, research is still scarce. This observation is astonishing: First, there is sufficient evidence from studies with both clinical and nonclinical samples that regular PA impacts favorably on subjective and objective sleep (Kalak et al., 2012;Brand et al., 2014;Lang et al., 2016;Mählmann et al., 2017;Kredlow et al., 2015;Chennaoui et al., 2015). Second, PwMS report more impaired sleep patterns, compared to healthy controls (Braley and Boudreau, 2016;Veauthier, 2015;Veauthier and Paul, 2014;Fleming and Pollak, 2005;Caminero and Bartolome, 2011). ...
Article
Abstract: Background: In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity favorably impacts on psychological well-being. The aims of the present study were to investigate the influence of physical activity on depression, fatigue, sleep, paresthesia, and personality traits (intolerance of uncertainty), and to explore if endurance training or coordinative training are superior to an active control condition. Methods: 92 female individuals with MS (mean age: 37.36 years; mean EDSS: 2.43) took part in this intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned either to endurance training, coordinative training or to an active control condition. At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks later at the end of the study, participants completed questionnaires on sleep, depression, fatigue, paresthesia, and intolerance of uncertainty. Exercise training interventions took place three times/week for 45min/session. Participants in the active control condition also met with the same duration and frequency. Results: Sleep complaints and symptoms of depression decreased over time, but more so in the exercising groups, compared to the active control group. No changes over time and between groups were observed for fatigue, paresthesia, and intolerance of uncertainty. Conclusions: Both endurance and coordinative exercising had the potential to favorably impact on some aspects of cognitive-emotional processing, while also an active control condition appeared to have a positive impact.
... One reason for this recommendation is that exercise in the afternoon or evening might increase arousal and thereby prevent sleep [59]. However, evidence from numerous epidemiological, observational, and experimental studies have repeatedly failed to show such an adverse effect or have found that the opposite is true [54,130]. The issue of nocturnal autonomic modulation following exercise is of central importance for three reasons. ...
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Background: Unipolar depression is one of the most important mental disorders. Insomnia is a symptom of cardinal importance in depression. It increases the risk to develop depression, negatively affects disease trajectory, is the most common symptom after remission, increases the risk of relapse, and is associated with higher suicide rates. Existing therapies for insomnia in depression have limitations. Further adjuvant therapies are therefore needed. Acute aerobic exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep in healthy individuals and patients with insomnia. We therefore hypothesize that a single session of aerobic exercise has a positive impact on sleep in patients with unipolar depression. This trial aims to investigate the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on the subsequent night's sleep in patients with depression. Methods/design: This is a two-arm parallel group, randomized, outcome assessor blinded, controlled, superiority trial. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depression (without a psychotic episode) are included. Exclusion criteria are regular use of hypnotic agents, opioids, and certain beta-blockers, as well as the presence of factors precluding exercise, history of epilepsy, restless legs syndrome, moderate obstructive sleep apnea, and a BMI > 40. The intervention is a single bout of aerobic exercise, performed for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 80% individual anaerobic threshold. The control group sits and reads for 30 min. The primary outcome is sleep efficiency measured by polysomnography. Secondary outcomes include further polysomnographic variables, subjective pre-sleep arousal, nocturnal cardiovascular autonomic modulation, subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and adverse events. According to the sample size calculation, a total of 92 patients will be randomized using minimization. Discussion: This trial will add new information to the body of knowledge concerning the treatment of insomnia in patients with depression. Thereby, the results will inform decision makers on the utility of acute aerobic exercise. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03673397 . Protocol version 1 registered on 17 September 2018.
... 40 44 Brand et al observed that increased evening exertion was related to an immediate enhancement of sleep efficiency and led to a decrease in feelings of hunger the following morning. 45 Although significant differences were not obtained in the present study, breakfast energy intake tended to decrease, the novel outcome being that energy density measured during an ad libitum breakfast decreased, with a significantly lower intake from fat and sugars, without modifying the quantity of food or micronutrient intake. Most of the studies reported until now were interested in extending bedtimes or sleep hygiene interventions. ...
Article
Background: Although adolescence and obesity are related to impaired sleep duration and quality, exercise was admitted as a non-pharmacological treatment for sleep and better control of energy balance. Objectives: To investigate the acute effects of intense exercise on sleep and subsequent dietary intake. Methods: 16 adolescent girls with obesity (age 13.7±1.1 years, weight 82.7±10.2 kg, body mass index (BMI) 30.5±3.4 kg/m2, fat mass (FM) 39.2±3.1%, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 8.6±2.8, pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS) 19.6±5.9) took part in two experimental sessions in a random order: Control (CTL) and Exercise (EX). The two sessions were identical except for a continuous ergocycle exercise bout lasting 40 min and performed at 70% VO2max at the end of the morning of EX. Energy expenditure and sleep were measured by accelerometry and next-morning dietary intake in an ad libitum meal. Results: Higher sleep duration (p<0.03) and quality (decreased WASO: p<0.02; increased SE%: p<0.02) were observed in EX compared to CTL. This was associated with a non-significant decrease in caloric intake (−78 kcal) and a significant decrease in food energy density (p<0.04), fat and sugar consumption (respectively, p<0.02 and p<0.05) the following morning. Conclusions: Acute exercise efficaciously increased sleep duration and quality, resulting in a decrease in subsequent energy-dense food consumption in adolescent girls with obesity.
Article
Study objectives Population-based studies on the association of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) with sleep among adolescents are rare. We examined this association by applying accelerometry and accounting for the day-by-day variability. Methods Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) were worn for one week by 1223 participants during the 15-year follow-up of the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISA to measure PA and sleep. PA was categorised into sedentary, lifestyle and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) referring to Sasaki and Romanzini. Sleep was analysed according to the algorithm developed by Sadeh. Sleep quality was represented by sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL) and time awake per hour after sleep onset (TAPH). Sleep and activity were additionally reported by diaries. Linear and generalized mixed-effects-models with logit-link with subject specific random intercepts were used stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding variables. Results Physical activity appears to be associated only with sleep quality the following night. Among female participants, SE improved (β=0.12[95%CI=(0.05;0.18)]) per ten minutes increase of MVPA. SOL decreased (OR=0.83[95%CI=(0.69;0.99)]) among male participants with at least 60 minutes of MVPA per day. Engaging in leisure sport MVPA was associated with higher SE among female (β=0.70[95%CI=(0.22;1.17)]) and male participants (β=0.76[95%CI=(0.18;1.34)]). Also, TAPH among female (β=-0.37[95%CI=(-0.65;-0.09)]) and SOL among male subjects (OR=0.70[95%CI=(0.57;0.85)]) decreased. Increasing lifestyle activity was related to longer SOL among female (OR=1.36[95%CI=(1.15;1.62)]) and male subjects (OR=1.32[95%CI=(1.10;1.58)]). Conclusions In this large population-based sample of German adolescents MVPA and leisure sport improved short term sleep quality, supporting regular PA in adolescents for their health benefit.
Article
Physical activity (PA) is considered an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improve sleep. However, the accurate measurement of PA and sleep among adolescents is fraught with challenges. Additionally, comparing the results of different studies is often difficult due to the diversity of assessment tools, analyses and data reporting procedures used. While previous reviews have considered variables that may confound this relationship, this systematic review examines the variations in measurement methods. Based on this overview, a meta-analysis was performed to assess possible influences of the various approaches on effect sizes. Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review, of which 12 were appropriate for meta-analysis. For this, four subgroups were formed: subjective PA and subjective sleep, objective PA and subjective sleep, subjective PA and objective sleep, and objective PA and objective sleep. The majority of studies used subjective measures, often with unknown reliability or validity. Few studies employed objective tools to measure sleep. The results suggest that adolescents with higher subjective and objective PA are more likely to experience good sleep subjectively and objectively. More studies employing subjective and objective measures for both PA and sleep are needed. Researchers should take into account several assessment factors unique to the adolescent population.
Article
Australian university students report experiencing higher levels of psychological distress compared to other Australians, and are at increased risk of developing mental health problems. Psychological distress has been connected with poor academic performance, higher attrition rates and sleep disturbances. A protective factor associated with sleep-related self-regulation is mindfulness. Mindfulness based programs have shown benefits in stress reduction and resilience. Resilience is considered a protective factor that interacts with stressors to reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes. Resilience is also associated with positive social and personal well-being together with enhanced mental health and adjustment to university life. The current study examines the attributes of resilient university students, by comparing the differences between high and low resilient students on levels of reported psychological distress, sleep disturbances and mindfulness. A total of 89 university students participated in the study aged between 18 to 57 years. Results showed that university students with high levels of resilience reported significantly lower levels of psychological distress and significantly higher levels of mindfulness, compared to university students reporting low levels of resilience. There were no significant differences reported with regard to sleep disturbances. The findings add to extant knowledge of resilience and provide support for universities to develop strategies that promote resilience in university students to reduce the risk of students developing mental health problems, thus enabling students to flourish under academic pressures.
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Objectives: The study aims to evaluate whether 4 weeks with restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 affects sleep, athletic performance, cognitive performance, and mood in high school athletes. Methods: Eighty-five athletes were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 44), who was instructed to not use any electronic media after 22:00, or a control condition (n = 41), where they could act as they preferred in terms of media use. Primary outcomes were sleep habits measured with a sleep diary. Secondary outcomes were (a) physical performance measured with a set of standardized tests (beep test, 20-m linear sprint, chin-up test, hanging sit-ups test, counter movement jump and sit-n-reach test); (b) cognitive performance (response time and response accuracy); and (c) positive and negative affect. Differences between groups were tested with mixed between-within subject analyses of variance. Results and conclusions: Thirty-five and 40 of the athletes in the intervention and control group, respectively, completed the study. Results showed that restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 did not improve sleep habits, athletic performance, cognitive performance, or mood in a group of high school top athletes with already good sleep habits. However, these findings give us knowledge about sleep habits and performance in this population that is of importance when designing future studies.
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Temporal associations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at four different multi-hour intervals during the day and the following indicators of sleep quality and sleep quantity in adolescents were examined. This research is a part of the CRO-PALS study, including 129 adolescents (48 boys, 81 girls; mean age ± SD = 15.6 ± 0.4 years) having complete data on sleep and MVPA measured by the SenseWear Pro3 Armband monitor. As data had a hierarchical structure, repeated measures multilevel modelling was used to assess the associations between PA and sleep. During school nights, in girls, morning MVPA was not related to following indicators of sleep quality and sleep quantity. At the same time, evening MVPA was linked with longer sleep onset latency (β=0.064;95%CI=0.025 to 0.103) and higher wake after sleep onset (β=0.156;95%CI=0.0482 to 0.2638). Moreover, during weekend nights, morning MVPA was not associated with sleep, while evening MVPA was accompanied by longer sleep onset latency (β=0.058;95%CI=0.023 to 0.093), higher wake after sleep onset (β=0.104;95%CI=0.012 to 0.20), and negatively with sleep efficiency (β=-0.019;95%CI=-0.037 to -0.001). In boys the specific multi-hour interval of performing physical activity was not associated with any of indicators of sleep quality. In conclusion, while no strong relations between MVPA and sleep were seen among boys, in girls morning hours MVPA resulted in better sleep patterns over school nights, while afternoon MVPA was followed with slight worsening of some indicators of sleep quality across the whole week.
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Background: Sleep disturbances are a common co-occurring disturbance in patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and accordingly deserve particular attention. Using a randomized design, we investigated the effects of three different adjuvant interventions on sleep and depression among patients with MDD: a sleep hygiene program (SHP), lorazepam (LOR), and their combination (SHP-LOR). Methods: A total of 120 outpatients with diagnosed MDD (mean age: 48.25 years; 56.7% females) and treated with a standard SSRI (citalopram at 20-40 mg at therapeutic level) were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: SHP (n=40), LOR (1 mg/d; n=40), SHP-LOR (1 mg/d; n=40). At the beginning and at the end of the study 8 weeks later, patients completed two questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess symptoms of depression. Results: Sleep disturbances decreased over time and in all groups. No group differences or interactions were observed. Symptoms of depression decreased over time and in all three groups. Reduction in symptoms of depression was greatest in the SHP-LOR group and lowest in the LOR group. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that all three adjuvant treatments improved symptoms of sleep disturbances and depression, with greater benefits for the SHP-LOR for symptoms of depression, but not for sleep. Nevertheless, risks and benefits of benzodiazepine prescriptions should be taken into account.
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Moderate-intensity exercise is generally recommended for improving sleep, whereas, high-intensity exercise (HIE) prior to bedtime is often discouraged. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if acute or regular (chronic) HIE performed before bedtime disrupts nighttime sleep of healthy adult, good sleepers compared with a no-exercise control. Six databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO) were searched from inception to 31st May, 2021. Studies were experimental trials published in English language, objectively (polysomnography, actigraphy) and/or subjectively assessed sleep after evening HIE in sedentary and physically fit, good sleepers (aged 18–50 y old). The revised Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials was used to assess risk of bias in the included studies. The random-effects model was used for the meta-analyses. We included 15 acute evening HIE studies in the meta-analysis with a total of 194 participants. Acute evening HIE ending 0.5–4 h before bedtime decreased rapid eye movement sleep (−2.34%; p = 0.002) compared with a no-exercise control. No other significant sleep changes occurred. A regular evening HIE did not disrupt nighttime sleep. Overall, acute evening HIE performed 2–4 h before bedtime does not disrupt nighttime sleep of healthy, young and middle-aged adults. PROSPERO, protocol registration number: CRD42020218299.
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Background: Atopic dermatitis has a significant impact on quality of life of children and families. Objective: It is important to assess gender differences in health-related quality of life in children with atopic dermatitis in order to effectively use health-related quality of life results. Methods: Children 5- to 16-years of age with atopic dermatitis from Italy, Singapore, Czech Republic, and Ukraine were divided into two groups (boys and girls). Each child in the group of boys was matched to a corresponding child in the group of girls from the same country whose age and scoring atopic dermatitis value were almost identical. Self-assessed health-related quality of life was measured by the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: The difference in overall Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index between boys and girls was not significant (P=0.33). Girls with atopic dermatitis assessed Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index item on embarrassment significantly higher (0.78±0.93 for boys and 1.14±0.93 for girls, P<0.05). Lowest scored items were the same and overall Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index results significantly correlated with scoring atopic dermatitis values in both groups. Two separate Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index items in boys and five items in girls significantly correlated with atopic dermatitis severity. The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index item on affected sleep significantly correlated with the age of boys (r=0.38, P=0.02) and another Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index item on school work/holiday with the age of girls (r=0.59, P<0.01). Conclusion: Despite that the authors did not find differences in overall health-related quality of life results, girls were more embarrassed, self-conscious, upset, and sad because of atopic dermatitis. The authors' results may influence the educational part of consultations of children with atopic dermatitis.
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Objectives: The main purpose of the present study was to explore the associations between sleep quality and insufficient physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Faculties in Croatia. Participants: Two thousand one hundred university students (1049 men and 1051 women) aged 18-24 years were recruited. Primary outcome: To assess the domains of sleep quality (independent variables) and ’insufficient’ physical activity (dependent variable), we used previously validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and International Physical Activity questionnaires. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the associations between the sleep quality and ‘insufficient’ physical activity. Results: When sleep quality domains were entered separately into the model, very bad subjective sleep quality (OR 3.09; 95% CI 1.50 to 6.56), >60 min of sleep latency (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.39), <7 h of sleep (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.96). <65% of habitual sleep efficiency (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.05), sleep disturbances >1/week (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.52), use of sleep medication >1/week (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.83 to 6.10), very big daytime dysfunction problem (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.57 to 4.93) and poor sleep quality (1.53; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.91) were associated with ‘insufficient’ physical activity. When all sleep quality domains were entered simultaneously into the model, the same significant associations remained, except for sleep disturbances. Both models were adjusted for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, life satisfaction, socioeconomic status, presence or absence of chronic diseases, smoking status, binge drinking and psychological distress. Conclusions: Our results show that ’poor’ sleep quality is associated with ’insufficient’ physical activity in young adults. In order to improve, special strategies and policies that leverage ‘good sleep’ quality are warranted. Key words: youth; sleep; problems; physical activity; associations
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This chapter addresses sleep complaints and sleep disorders commonly seen in the elderly preceded by a short discussion about neurology of aging, particularly changes in central nervous system (CNS) physiology and morphology in normal healthy elderly. The text also summarizes age-related changes in EEG and sleep architecture, common sleep problems in old age, and principles of treatment of sleep disturbances in the elderly.
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Few studies have examined the association between sleep and burnout symptoms in elite athletes. We recruited 257 young elite athletes (Mage=16.8 years) from Swiss Olympic partner schools. Of these, 197 were re-assessed six months later. Based on the first assessment, 24 participants with clinically relevant burnout symptoms volunteered to participate in a polysomnographic examination and were compared to 26 (matched) healthy controls. Between 12-14% of young elite athletes reported burnout symptoms of potential clinical relevance, whereas 4-11% reported clinically relevant insomnia symptoms. Athletes with clinically relevant burnout symptoms reported significantly more insomnia symptoms, more dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions, and spent less time in bed during weeknights (p<.05). However, no significant differences were found for objective sleep parameters. A cross-lagged panel analysis showed that burnout positively predicted self-reported insomnia symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions might be a promising measure to reduce subjective sleep complaints among young elite athletes.
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For analyzing changes in an individual's health over time, this research has developed objective measures for comparing behavioral patterns, including sleep quality and activity scores. These novel measures of behavioral health have provided insight about how sleep debt accumulates after long, extended days, how sleep disruption and recovery from wakefulness occur during the night, and when cross-correlations exist between measures. This data-driven approach to quantifying behavioral patterns is informed by minute-by-minute data from consumer-grade, wrist-worn wearables. In this 8-month longitudinal study, Jawbone UP wristbands and the Jawbone UP API were utilized to collect minute-by-minute data about the behavior of crewmembers participating in a simulated Mars mission. To study the challenges of living and working on the planet Mars, for eight months, these crewmembers were confined to a Mars-like habitat, living in close quarters, isolated from the rest of humanity at a high elevation on Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, wearing mock spacesuits while exploring the volcanic terrain, consuming shelf-stable foods, restricted in water usage, relying on solar energy, and delayed in communications with 20-min lag-times for delivering messages to and from the crew. Analyzing the behavior of these astronaut-like individuals has led to the development of objective measures for quantifying sleep patterns, that have potential for contributing to the development of next-generation, smart wearables.
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The aim of this study was to gain insight into the sleep quality of college students and related factors from a new perspective by using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). A total of 1,288 college students from four universities in Wuhu city participated in the study. LCA was used to identify the classes of sleep behaviors. Differences in class membership related to selected research factors were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Four distinct classes of behaviors were identified: (1) good sleep (Class 1, 31.8%), (2) prolonged sleep latency (Class 2, 49.1%), (3) sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction (Class 3, 6.8%), (4) multiple poor sleep behavior (Class 4, 12.3%). The latent classes of sleep behavior were correlated with the DBAS-16 total score (rs = −0.109, P < 0.001). Learning pressure and mental state during the day could affect overall sleep (Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4), and female students were at higher risk of severe sleep problems (Class 3 and Class 4), while bedtime exercised could improve mild sleep problems (Class 2). The sleep behavior of college students in Wuhu city has obvious class heterogeneity, and different influencingfactors may affect sleep to varying degrees. In addition, our research provides a basis for targeted intervnetion in college student’s sleep. .
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Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in college students. Exercise is a widely prescribed behavioral treatment for sleep and mood issues; however, more focused and gender-specific prescriptions are needed. The present study examined relationships between exercise, sleep, and mood in undergraduate men and women. Students (N = 866, 19.6 ± 1.4 years, 38.7% women) were recruited from campus recreation facilities and completed demographic, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, mood (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), and exercise questionnaires. The Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines were used to dichotomize those who did and did not meet weekly aerobic and strength training exercise recommendations. In men, greater exercise frequency associated with less daytime dysfunction (β = 0.147) and less depressive mood (β = -0.64, ps < .05). In women, greater exercise frequency associated with earlier bedtime (β = -12.6), improved sleep quality (β = 0.17), increased positive affect (β = 0.91), less depressive mood (β = -0.71), and less anger (β = -1.24, ps < .05). Compared to men, women reported earlier bedtime, poorer sleep efficiency, and more anxiety and depressive mood (ps < .05, η p 2 range: 0.01-0.04). Compared to individuals who met physical activity guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines reported later bedtimes, less positive affect, more anxiety, and more anger (ps < .05 η p 2 s = 0.01). Among men, those who met physical activity guidelines reported falling asleep more quickly than those who did not meet guidelines ( η p 2 = 0.01, p = .007); however, no relationship between guideline adherence and sleep latency was observed in women. Adhering to physical activity guidelines may be important for optimal sleep and emotional health. Clinicians should consider gender when creating exercise prescriptions for sleep issues.
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Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intraindividual changes in physical activity were correlated with intraindividual changes in mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) across four measurement time-points over 6 years, both from between-person and within-person perspectives. Methods: Health care workers (N = 3717; mean age = 46.9; SD = 10.0) were the target population in this study, which is part of a larger longitudinal survey that included questionnaires on physical activity levels and mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) at four time points across 6 years (2004-2010). Physical activity was assessed with an adapted version of the widely used 1-item, 4-level Saltin Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Depression, anxiety, and burnout were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the associations of change between physical activity and mental health. Results: Baseline levels of physical activity were moderately associated with baseline levels of mental health (rs = -.27 to -.40, ps < .01). Changes in physical activity were moderately to strongly associated (rs = -.57 to -.79, ps <. 01) with change in mental health at the between-person (correlated change) level and significantly, but weakly (rs = -.08 to -.14, ps <.01), associated with change at the within-person (coupled change) level of analysis. Conclusions: Changes in physical activity were associated with, and traveled together with, changes in depression, anxiety, and burnout across time. Changes in physical activity, and not only current or previous levels of activity, may be important to consider in preventive work linked to mental health within this population.
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Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as cAMP response element-binding (CREB) activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in adolescents. Methods: Nine trained and seven sedentary male adolescents, matched in age (14.0±2.2 years), were recruited for the study. Trained boys performed higher physical activity levels (expressed both as total energy expenditure and as physical activity energy expenditure) and showed significant bradycardia when compared with sedentary ones. Results: We found that BDNF and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in trained adolescents than in sedentary ones. However, no effect of training was found in the activation of CREB in PBMCs. Conclusions: We demonstrated the increase of neuroplasticity-related proteins due to exercise training in adolescents. Our results emphasize the significance and impact of exercise in this developmental period.
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Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on three days a week at five times of measurement within twelve weeks. Participants´ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p=.07; η2=.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of strateg
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Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration.
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This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control.
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This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of insomnia. The findings indicate that nonpharmacological therapies produce reliable and durable changes in several sleep parameters of chronic insomnia sufferers. The data indicate that between 70% and 80% of patients treated with nonpharmacological interventions benefit from treatment. For the typical patient with persistent primary insomnia, treatment is likely to reduce the main target symptoms of sleep onset latency and/or wake time after sleep onset below or near the 30-min criterion initially used to define insomnia severity. Sleep duration is also increased by a modest 30 minutes and sleep quality and patient's satisfaction with sleep patterns are significantly enhanced. Sleep improvements achieved with these behavioral interventions are sustained for at least 6 months after treatment completion. However, there is no clear evidence that improved sleep leads to meaningful changes in daytime well-being or performance. Three treatments meet the American Psychological Association (APA) criteria for empirically-supported psychological treatments for insomnia: Stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and paradoxical intention; and three additional treatments meet APA criteria for probably efficacious treatments: Sleep restriction, biofeedback, and multifaceted cognitive-behavior therapy. Additional outcome research is needed to examine the effectiveness of treatment when it is implemented in clinical settings (primary care, family practice), by non-sleep specialists, and with insomnia patients presenting medical or psychiatric comorbidity.
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To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Seventeen sedentary adults aged >or=55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 [SD±4.3] years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration <6.5h and a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score >5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (p<.0001), sleep latency (p=.049), sleep duration (p=.04), daytime dysfunction (p=.027), and sleep efficiency (p=.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=.044), daytime sleepiness (p=.02) and improvements in vitality (p=.017) compared to baseline scores. Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia.
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Perceived barriers are modifiable correlates of participation in physical activity. Associations of specific perceived barriers with participation in and level of walking for recreation, and other leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were examined. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with these perceived barriers were then examined. From 2003 to 2004, 2 surveys collected data on recreational walking and other LTPA, perceived barriers to participation, and personal, social, and environmental attributes, from 2194 Australian adults. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models examined associations of perceived barriers with walking and other LTPA. Generalized linear models identified the correlates of these perceived barriers. The perceived barriers of lack of motivation and time were associated with level of LTPA, while lack of motivation, poor health, and lack of facilities were associated with the odds of nonparticipation in LTPA. Personal, social, and environmental factors independently contributed to variations in perceived barriers. Level and likelihood of participation in LTPA are associated with different perceived barriers. Perceived barriers are a function of both nonmodifiable personal factors and potentially modifiable personal, social, and environmental factors. These findings suggest that the provision of relevant environmental opportunities and social support may effectively reduce perceived barriers to LTPA.
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Anxiety often remains unrecognized or untreated among patients with a chronic illness. Exercise training may help improve anxiety symptoms among patients. We estimated the population effect size for exercise training effects on anxiety and determined whether selected variables of theoretical or practical importance moderate the effect. Articles published from January 1995 to August 2007 were located using the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Scientific Database, supplemented by additional searches through December 2008 of the following databases: Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Forty English-language articles in scholarly journals involving sedentary adults with a chronic illness were selected. They included both an anxiety outcome measured at baseline and after exercise training and random assignment to either an exercise intervention of 3 or more weeks or a comparison condition that lacked exercise. Two co-authors independently calculated the Hedges d effect sizes from studies of 2914 patients and extracted information regarding potential moderator variables. Random effects models were used to estimate sampling error and population variance for all analyses. Compared with no treatment conditions, exercise training significantly reduced anxiety symptoms by a mean effect Delta of 0.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.36). Exercise training programs lasting no more than 12 weeks, using session durations of at least 30 minutes, and an anxiety report time frame greater than the past week resulted in the largest anxiety improvements. Exercise training reduces anxiety symptoms among sedentary patients who have a chronic illness.
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The relationship between physical activity and mental health has been widely investigated, and several hypotheses have been formulated about it. Specifically, during the aging process, physical exercise might represent a potential adjunctive treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment, helping delay the onset of neurodegenerative processes. Even though exercise itself might act as a stressor, it has been demonstrated that it reduces the harmful effects of other stressors when performed at moderate intensities. Neurotransmitter release, neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis, and cerebral blood flow alteration are some of the concepts involved. In this review, the potential effects of exercise on the aging process and on mental health are discussed, concerning some of the recent findings on animal and human research. The overwhelming evidence present in the literature today suggests that exercise ensures successful brain functioning.
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Human and other animal studies demonstrate that exercise targets many aspects of brain function and has broad effects on overall brain health. The benefits of exercise have been best defined for learning and memory, protection from neurodegeneration and alleviation of depression, particularly in elderly populations. Exercise increases synaptic plasticity by directly affecting synaptic structure and potentiating synaptic strength, and by strengthening the underlying systems that support plasticity including neurogenesis, metabolism and vascular function. Such exercise-induced structural and functional change has been documented in various brain regions but has been best-studied in the hippocampus - the focus of this review. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of central and peripheral growth factors and growth factor cascades, which instruct downstream structural and functional change. In addition, exercise reduces peripheral risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which converge to cause brain dysfunction and neurodegeneration. A common mechanism underlying the central and peripheral effects of exercise might be related to inflammation, which can impair growth factor signaling both systemically and in the brain. Thus, through regulation of growth factors and reduction of peripheral and central risk factors, exercise ensures successful brain function.
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In this review, we discuss the role of inactivity and exercise on appetite regulation, both in the short and long term, and the potential mechanisms involved. A better short-term appetite control has been described in active compared to sedentary men, and an exercise intervention was shown to improve appetite control in previously sedentary individuals. The mechanisms whereby exercise improves short-term appetite control remain obscure and although the changes in the postprandial release of satiety peptides are attractive hypotheses, it remains unproven. The impact of exercise on habitual food intake is also controversial and likely to be dependent on restraint level and body weight. We hypothesize that the beneficial impact of exercise on appetite regulation can contribute to its well-established efficacy in the prevention of weight regain in obese individuals. However, more studies are needed in the obese population to clearly establish the role of exercise on appetite control in this group.
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In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal hormone secretion and changes in their activity appear to contribute to the aberrances of sleep in affective disorders. A reciprocal interaction of the sleep-promoting growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), which promotes wakefulness and REM sleep, plays a key role in sleep regulation, at least in male subjects. Also galanin and ghrelin promote sleep in men. Neuropeptide Y is involved in the timing of sleep onset. The effects of peptides of sleep are influenced by the time of administration, age, gender and depression. In healthy subjects and in remitted depressed patients motoric memory learning is consolidated during sleep. This effect is absent in depressed patients who are at least 30 years old, and is probably related to elevated glucocorticoid levels.
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Objective To assess the relationship between sleep, time of exercise and intensity of exercise in a large American sample. Methods The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults stratified by age (23-60 years) and US geographical region. Sleep outcomes included self-reported sleep quality, total sleep time, sleep latency, and waking unrefreshed. Exercise timing was characterized as morning (>8 hr before bed), afternoon (4-8 hr before bed), or evening (<4 hr before bed). Exercise intensity was assessed with a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results After adjustment for confounders, evening moderate or vigorous exercisers did not differ in any of the reported sleep metrics compared to non-exercisers. Morning vigorous exercisers had the most favorable sleep outcomes, including greater likelihood of reporting good sleep quality (OR=1.88, p<.001) and lower likelihood of waking unrefreshed (OR=0.56, p=.03). Most individuals who performed vigorous evening exercise believed that their sleep was of equal or better quality (97%) and duration (98%) on days they exercised. Conclusion Evening exercise was not associated with worse sleep. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that sleep hygiene recommendations should not discourage evening exercise.
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Statement of problem: Epidemiological studies examining the association between physical activity and sleep have relied on self-report measures of physical activity and have primarily been conducted in older adults. Therefore, to address these gaps in the literature, the purpose of the present study was to examine the association between objectively-measured physical activity and a variety of self-reported sleeping parameters in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults of all ages. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 were used in the analyses. 3081 adults ranging in age between 18 and 85 were included in the analyses. At the mobile examination center, participants were asked to wear an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer on the right hip for 7 days following their examination. Questions on sleep were asked during the household interview. Results: After controlling for age, bmi, health status, smoking status, and depression, the relative risk of often feeling overly sleepy during the day compared to never feeling overly sleepy during the day decreased by a factor of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) for participants meeting physical activity guidelines compared to those not meeting guidelines. Similar results were also found for having leg cramps while sleeping and having difficulty concentrating when tired. Conclusions: Objectively-measured physical activity was associated with several self-reported sleeping-related parameters. Future experimental studies are required to confirm that increasing physical activity causes improvements in these parameters.
Article
Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effect of aerobic training and strength training as a treatment for depression in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Methods: PubMed (Medline), ISI knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library) and Scopus databases were consulted from January 1970 to September 2011. Data were collected on variables as follows: total number of patients (pre- and postintervention), age, randomized (yes or no), diagnostic criteria, assessment instruments, and the percentage of remission and treatment response. Subsequently, we collected information on time intervention, intensity, duration, frequency, method of training (aerobic training and strength training) and type of supervision. Standardized mean differences were used for pooling continuous variables as endpoint scores. Binary outcomes, such as proportion of remission (no symptoms) and at least 50% reduction of initial scores (response), were pooled using relative risks. Random effects models were used that take into account the variance within and between studies. Results: Ten articles were selected and subdivided by their interventions, controlled training modality and levels of intensity. As there was no statistically significant difference between the two types of intervention (strength or aerobic training), we combined data which finally showed a 0.61 (95% CI: -0.88 to -0.33) standard deviation reduction in the intervention group compared to the control group. When the analysis was restricted only to those studies that used the Hamilton scale (n = 15), we observed a reduction of 3.49 points compared with the control group. Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, the present meta-analysis concluded that physical exercise improves the response to treatment, especially aerobic training. However, the efficacy of exercise in the treatment of depression was influenced by age and severity of symptoms.
Article
To compare sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning of healthy adolescents running regularly in the mornings with those of control subjects. Although several studies have shown that regular moderate-to-vigorous exercise is related to favorable sleep and psychological functioning in adolescents, research on the effectiveness of short interventions is more limited. Fifty-one adolescents (mean age = 18.30 years; 27 female [53%]) took part in the study; they were randomly assigned either to a running or to a control group. The running group went running every morning for 30 minutes at moderate intensity during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning were assessed in both groups before and after the 3-week period. All participants also kept a sleep log for 3 weeks. Objective sleep improved (slow-wave sleep increased; sleep onset latency decreased) in the running group compared with the control group. Subjective sleep quality, mood, and concentration during the day improved, whereas sleepiness during the day decreased. Thirty minutes of running in the morning during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks impacted positively on sleep and psychological functioning in healthy adolescents compared with control subjects. Running is inexpensive and easy to implement during school schedules, and as both objective and subjective improvements were observed within 3 weeks, regular physical exercise should be promoted.
Article
Accumulating evidence from animal and human research shows exercise benefits learning and memory, which may reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, and could delay age-related cognitive decline. Exercise-induced improvements in learning and memory are correlated with enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. In this present chapter we will highlight the effects of physical activity on cognition in rodents, as well as on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, spine density, neurotransmission and growth factors, in particular brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF).
Article
To investigate the influence of different intensities and durations of exercise before bedtime on the sleep pattern and core body temperature of individuals considered good sleepers, we selected 17 healthy males and all underwent 5 nonconsecutive days of study. Measurements of polysomnographic parameters and core body temperature were taken at baseline and after each experimental protocol, performed at night. We found increased sleep efficiency (p = .016) among all protocols compared with baseline data and increase in REM sleep latency (p = .047) between two experiments; there was decrease in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (p = .046) and wake after sleep onset (p = .003). Core body temperature did not change significantly during the nights following exercise. Exercise performed before sleep does not impair sleep quality; rather, its practice improves sleep in good sleepers who are nonathletes, and may be considered to improve sleep pattern.
Article
To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon. Nineteen sedentary individuals with chronic primary insomnia, mean age 45.0 (standard error [SE] 1.9) years, completed a 6-month exercise training protocol, randomized to morning and late-afternoon exercise groups. Combining polysomnographic data across both time points, this study found a significant decrease in sleep onset latency (from 17.1 [SE 2.6] min to 8.7 [SE 1.4] min; P<0.01) and wake time after sleep onset (from 63.2 [SE 12.8] min to 40.1 [SE 6.0] min), and a significant increase in sleep efficiency (from 79.8 [SE 3.0]% to 87.2 [SE 1.6]%) following exercise. Data from sleep diaries revealed significant improvement in sleep onset latency (from 76.2 [SE 21.5] min to 80.3 [SE 7.4] min) sleep quality (from 41.5 [SE 5.2]% to 59.4 [SE 6.6]%) and feeling rested in the morning (from 50.8 [SE 5.3] to 65.1 [SE 5.0]). There were generally no significant differences in response between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Following exercise, some quality-of-life measures improved significantly, and a significant decrease was seen in the following Profile of Mood State measures: tension-anxiety (from 7.2 [SE 1.0] to 3.5 [SE 1.0]), depression (from 5.9 [SE 1.2] to 3.3 [SE 1.1]) and total mood disturbance (from 9.2 [SE 4.8] to -1.7 [SE 4.8]). These effects did not vary between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Long-term moderate aerobic exercise elicited significant improvements in sleep, quality of life and mood in individuals with chronic primary insomnia.
Article
Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily load. Regular physical activity enhances overall sleep quality, but the effects of acute exercise on sleep are not well defined. In sleep hygiene recommendations, intensive exercising is not suggested within the last 3 h before bed time, but this recommendation has not been adequately tested experimentally. Therefore, the effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep were examined by measuring polysomnographic, actigraphic and subjective sleep quality, as well as cardiac autonomic activity. Eleven (seven men, four women) physically fit young adults (VO(2max) 54±8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) , age 26±3 years) were monitored in a sleep laboratory twice in a counterbalanced order: (1) after vigorous late-night exercise; and (2) after a control day without exercise. The incremental cycle ergometer exercise until voluntary exhaustion started at 21:00±00:28 hours, lasted for 35±3 min, and ended 2:13±00:19 hours before bed time. The proportion of non-rapid eye movement sleep was greater after the exercise day than the control day (P<0.01), while no differences were seen in actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. During the whole sleep, no differences were found in heart rate (HR) variability, whereas HR was higher after the exercise day than the control day (54±7 versus 51±7, P<0.01), and especially during the first three sleeping hours. The results indicate that vigorous late-night exercise does not disturb sleep quality. However, it may have effects on cardiac autonomic control of heart during the first sleeping hours.
Article
To investigate whether chronic vigorous exercising is related to improved sleep and psychological functioning, and whether this association varies with gender. Both lay and scientific opinions hold that physical activity is an efficient remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. However, empirical evidence on adolescents is very limited. A total of 434 adolescents (258 athletes, 176 controls; mean age 17.2 years) took part in the study. Weekly hours spent exercising were 17.69 hours and 4.69 hours, respectively. To assess sleep patterns and psychological functioning, participants completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days and several self-rating questionnaires. Compared with controls, athletes reported better sleep patterns including higher sleep quality, shortened sleep onset latency, and fewer awakenings after sleep onset, as well as less tiredness and increased concentration during the day. Athletes reported significantly lower anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms. Compared with males, females reported fewer variations in sleep. Male controls had particularly unfavorable scores related to sleep and psychological functioning. Findings suggest that chronic vigorous exercising is positively related to adolescents' sleep and psychological functioning. Results also indicate that males with low exercise levels are at risk for increased sleep complaints and poorer psychological functioning.
Article
Lay and scientific opinion alike hold that physical activity is efficient as both remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. There is evidence that strenuous exercising of adolescent elite athletes leads to favourable sleep patterns. However, research on this in non-elite athletes is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep-EEG patterns of higher leisure time exercisers and controls. A total 38 adolescents (M = 18.59) took part in the study; 17 were high, and 21 were low exercisers. Mean weekly exercise duration was 8.5 h for high and 2 h for low exercisers. Sleep-EEG recordings were performed following a day without exercise. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding their psychological functioning. Compared to low exercisers, high exercisers had more slow wave sleep, and less light and REM sleep, higher scores for positive coping and curiosity, and lower scores for depressive symptoms and somatosensory amplification. Multiple regression analyses showed that weekly exercise duration predicted shortened SOL, low number of awakenings, and increased slow wave sleep. Regular, though not necessarily vigorous, exercise is related to improvement in objective sleep patterns and better psychological functioning. Regular physical activity should be promoted and access to sports facilities should be facilitated.