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Residential Mobility and the Reproduction of Unequal Neighborhoods

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Residential Mobility and the Reproduction of Unequal Neighborhoods

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Abstract

Housing assistance policy has shifted away from project-based assistance toward tenantbased assistance. This shift in approach reflects a common assumption that, if families have the option to find homes on their own in the private market, they will seek out better quality homes in racially diverse neighborhoods with lower levels of poverty This article presents evidence to qualify this assumption by highlighting the limits of residential mobility in reducing, in any substantive way, the degree of racial and ethnic inequality in urban America. Two empírica observations form the basis of the argument. The first observation is that residential mobility typically serves to reproduce urban inequality instead of disrupting it. The second is that urban inequality is resilient: even when individuals or families make moves that disrupt patterns of racial and ethnic inequality, the changes such moves induce are undermined by system-level processes that serve to reproduce inequality in the urban landscape. As a result, changes in families' neighborhood environments ansingfrom residential mobility are often temporary and are diluted by subsequent changes occumng around families. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for housing assistance policy.

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... Additionally, households often lack complete information about neighborhoods and racial discrimination (Krysan and Bader 2009). The perceived potential for discrimination influences access as well (Sharkey 2012). The place stratification model notes that choice among blacks and Hispanics in particular is constrained by housing market discrimination (Alba and Logan 1993;Wacquant and Wilson 1989). ...
... With research revealing that the issues of choice and motivation are more complicated than first assumed , some have urged more deep consideration of the residential selection process (Sampson 2008). Scholars have turned to the residential decision-making frameworks provided in the demography and sociology literatures (Sharkey 2012;Briggs, Comey, and Weismann 2010;Darrah and Deluca 2014) in an effort to understand more about residential decision-making (Darrah and DeLuca 2014). While these frameworks largely consider the general population, using mobility frameworks can allow for a fuller understanding of the residential decision-making process for voucher holders. ...
... Low-income households and black and Hispanic households in particular face constraints also when considering their housing alternatives. Low-income households tend to move within, into, and across already distressed communities (Fitchen 1992;Schafft 2006;Sharkey 2012). Such households are also more likely to be "hypermobile" making "a series of downward and presumably unsatisfactory moves" (Kearns and Smith 1994, 116) often leading to increased insecurity for the households involved (Fitchen 1992;Schafft 2006). ...
Article
Many people poised to move through housing choice voucher programs cite violence as a primary factor in their decision-making. This study synthesizes a body of qualitative data to explore how participants recount their experiences with neighborhood violence and analyzes its relationship to residential decision-making. We find that while participants expressed a desire to move to improve their circumstances, they also recounted how neighborhood violence constrained choice by influencing a multitude of factors in the decision-making process. This shows the stress neighborhood violence places on households and how neighborhood factors constrain housing choice.
... Individuals allocate into neighbourhoods according to opportunities, constraints (financial, cognitive, or other limitations on accessibility), and preferences. The existence of moving costs also creates inertia in residential location (Hedman, 2013;Nordvik, 2001;Sharkey, 2012;Zhang, 2011 Interpreting a higher neighbourhood income as a sign of a better neighbourhood can be justified in different ways. Those who have the strongest financial position are able to outbid others and end up occupying the most preferred neighbourhoods. ...
... A naïve application of the spatial assimilation hypothesis would lead us to predict that children of immigrants and of natives locate similarly in the neighbourhood hierarchy; at least this would be the case after controlling for relevant characteristics. Casual observation and prior studies of integration and the dynamics of segregation indicate that this is not necessarily the case (Sharkey, 2012;Turner & Wessel, 2013;White & Sassler, 2000). At least three sets of mechanisms can contribute to differences in the neighbourhood attainment of children of immigrants and natives: ...
Article
One element in the integration of new groups of inhabitants is location in the neighbourhood hierarchy. We define neighbourhood hierarchy in Oslo according to the median income of working age males in the neighbourhood and use a rich register‐based data set to describe neighbourhood attainment (i.e., location in the hierarchy of neighbourhoods) subsequent to completion of education. We find that descendants of parents of Asian or African background systematically occupy lower status neighbourhoods than do descendants of natives. Higher education reduces differences in neighbourhood attainment between natives and descendants of African and Asian parents, but it does not eliminate the differences. Part of the differences can be due to some kind of intergenerational inertia; we test for this in a multivariate regression frame. The interdependency between median income in the neighbourhood when aged 16 and neighbourhood attainment is stronger than between parental income at 16 and attainment. Moreover, controlling for income variables, the educational premiums for natives vanish; for descendants of Asian and Africans, they are reduced but remain significant. These results lead us to ask whether higher education for children of immigrants is a vehicle for social mobility, whereas it for children of natives is a means for maintaining privileges.
... On an individual level, however, preferences for housing tenures, housing types or neighbourhood types might vary across the life course. Nevertheless, most residential moves take place between areas with a comparable social status and ethnic composition due to structural constrains (other locations are unaffordable) and cognitive constrains (other locations are unknown) (Sharkey, 2012). Although income increases are found to be associated with moves to more expensive housing in the US, this type of mobility confirms the social status of both the neighbourhood of departure and the neighbourhood of arrival (Morrow-Jones and Wenning, 2005). ...
... Conversely, the lack of economic capital prevents low-income households to move out of disadvantaged areas, making them 'stuck in place' (Sharkey, 2012). Housing pathways cover (1) moves between neighbourhood types and housing tenures, and (2) in situ upgrading and downgrading processes within the neighbourhood of residence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Housing wealth is the largest component of wealth for a majority of Swedish households. Whereas investments in housing are merely defined by income, the returns on this investment (capital gains) are dependent on local housing market dynamics. Since the 1990s, local housing market dynamics in Swedish cities have been altered by the upswing in levels of socio-spatial inequality. The simultaneous up- and downgrading of neighbourhoods is reflected in house price developments and exacerbates the magnitude of capital gains and losses. This article proposes that the selective redirection of housing pathways that causes an upswing in socio-spatial inequality translates into an uneven distribution of capital gains as well. A sequence analysis of the housing pathways of one Swedish birth cohort (1970–1975), based on population-wide register data (GeoSweden), is used to explain differences in capital gains between different social groups in the period 1995–2010. The results indicate higher capital gains for individuals with higher incomes and lower gains for migrants. When socio-spatial inequality increases, the more resourceful groups can use their economic and cultural capital to navigate through the housing market in a more profitable way.
... Factors that contribute to low-income residential mobility and its outcomes are critical components for housing policymaking (Dantzler & Rivera, 2018). Previous studies on long-term household mobility often exploit experimental shocks (e.g., housing assistance programs) to residential environments to understand their relocation outcomes for a small proportion of low-income families (Haase et al., 2012;Howley et al., 2009;Sharkey, 2012). However, the limited sample size of these studies restricts their generalizability outside the confines of policy experiments. ...
... Thus, this study adds to the household relocation literature by introducing a new behavioral perspective and by examining specific policy and neighborhood impact differences among households living in different neighborhoods. For instance, this study found that public housing in destination neighborhoods is not necessarily associated with the (re)production of concentrated poverty (see, e.g., Sharkey, 2012), as households in VLI tracts moving to neighborhoods with public housing tended to have significantly positive relocation outcomes. ...
Article
This paper examines residential mobility patterns of households living in low-income neighborhoods, paying close attention to the neighborhood characteristics that influence their mobility. Using several million records of household-level datasets for address change trajectories in the Chicago metropolitan area, this paper explores the relationship among movers and the associated neighborhood-level income differences between origin and destination locations, to interpret which households from low-income neighborhoods can use residential mobility to move up to more neighborhood conditions result in residential mobility outcomes to favorable neighborhood conditions and potentially end the cycle of poverty. This research finds the positive prospects for low-income neighborhood households to move up, while the characteristics (e.g., racial composition) of origin and destination neighborhoods play a significant role in relocation outcomes. In addition, housing mobility programs can have various impacts on households moving from neighborhoods of different income levels. Policymakers should be aware of the diverse needs of households in extremely low-income neighborhoods (less concentrated housing assistance) and in very low-income neighborhoods (public housing) that can help them move out of concentrated poverty and move up to neighborhoods with higher income spectrums.
... According to the spatial assimilation hypothesis, fewer socioeconomic resources limit the opportunities of minority families to move into higher quality neighborhoods (Logan, Alba, & Leung, 1996). Yet even after adjusting for socioeconomic status, legacies of racial segregation and discrimination in the housing market (e.g., the refusal of housing loans by banks) limit non-Whites from moving to better and distant neighborhoods (Crowder et al., 2006;Massey, 2013, Sharkey, 2012. Racial differences in exposure to and knowledge of other neighborhoods are also thought to constrain the potential for Blacks and Latinos to move into less disadvantaged neighborhoods and for Whites to move into more integrated neighborhoods (Krysan & Bader, 2009). ...
... Our results suggest that barriers to neighborhood attainment are strongest for Black local movers. Indeed, research on the general population has shown that Blacks are less likely than Whites to improve neighborhood quality when they move, except in the rare instances when they move out of county (Sharkey, 2012). High levels of neighborhood poverty serve as a greater barrier to out-migration for Blacks than for Whites (South, Pais, & Crowder, 2011). ...
Article
Objectives: Past research on the residential mobility of older adults has focused on individual-level factors and life course events. Less attention has been paid to the role of the residential environment in explaining residential mobility in older adults. We sought to understand whether neighborhood disadvantage had predictive utility in explaining residential relocation patterns, and whether associations differed between Whites and non-Whites. Method: Data are from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Neighborhoods were defined at the census tract level. Local movers (different census tract, same county) and distant movers (different county) were compared with stayers. Results: After adjusting for individual-level factors, neighborhood disadvantage increased the likelihood of a local move, regardless of race/ethnicity. For non-Whites, higher neighborhood disadvantage decreased the likelihood of a distant move. Among local movers, Blacks and Latinos were less likely to improve neighborhood quality than Whites. Discussion: Neighborhood disadvantage may promote local mobility by undermining person–environment fit. Racial differences in access to better neighborhoods persist in later life. Future research should explore how older adults optimize person–environment fit in the face of neighborhood disadvantage when the possibility of relocation to a better neighborhood may be restricted.
... Possible explanations for downward residential mobility among NH Black birthing persons include structural constraints, which refer to imbalances between the costs of living in a neighborhood and the economic resources available to families (Sharkey, 2012). Our findings suggest that constraints related to housing affordability (measured at the neighborhood level) may differ for Black compared to white persons. ...
... Historical and contemporary housing discrimination and cycles of racial residential segregation may further constrain residential options. These processes influence the 'mental perceptions' people have about which neighborhoods are available to them (Sharkey, 2012). Black and white residents have different neighborhood 'blind spots', such that Black persons are more familiar with predominantly Black neighborhoods that have been systematically disinvested in, while white persons have more familiarity with neighborhoods that tend to provide more resources (Krysan and Bader, 2009). ...
Article
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Background Substantial research documents health consequences of neighborhood disadvantage. Patterns of residential mobility that differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) may sort non-Hispanic (NH) Black and low-SES families into disadvantaged neighborhoods. In this study, we leverage a sibling-linked dataset to track residential mobility among birthing persons between pregnancies and investigate baseline characteristics associated with downward mobility, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pre-existing health conditions. Methods We used a probabilistic linkage strategy to identify births to the same person between 2007 and 2015 (n = 624,222) and categorized downward residential mobility by quartile-level increases in neighborhood disadvantage. We defined strong downward mobility as a move from a neighborhood with very low to very high disadvantage, and estimated the logit (i.e., log-odds) of strong downward mobility as a function of race/ethnicity, sociodemographic, and health characteristics of the birthing person and their first child. We further explored the role of housing affordability by examining changes in neighborhood affordability from the first to second birth by race/ethnicity. Results NH Black birthing persons show an over three-fold increased odds of strong downward mobility relative to NH white birthing persons (OR = 3.34, CI: 2.91, 3.84). To a lesser extent, Hispanic race/ethnicity, WIC receipt, low educational attainment, obesity, and infant preterm birth (PTB) also predict strong downward mobility. Examination of changes in neighborhood affordability indicate that over half of NH Black birthing persons move to a more affordable neighborhood, compared to less than a quarter of NH white birthing persons, before the birth of a second child. Results remain consistent across outcomes, measures of neighborhood SES, and modified log-Poisson models. Conclusion We find an elevated risk of strong downward mobility among NH Black and low-SES birthing persons. Future research may identify other factors (e.g., housing affordability) that generate downward residential mobility to identify interventions that promote neighborhood equity.
... constrains (other locations are unknown) (Sharkey, 2012). Although income increases are found to be associated with moves to more expensive housing in the US, this type of mobility confirms the social status of both the neighbourhood of departure and arrival (Morrow-Jones and Wenning, 2005). ...
... Others argue that new waves of gentrification are triggered by rent-seeking behaviour of starters with high cultural capital and knowledge of the local housing market (Hochstenbach and Boterman, 2015). Contrary, the lack of economic capital prevents low-income households to move out of disadvantaged areas, making them 'struck in place' (Sharkey, 2012). Housing pathways cover (1) moves between neighbourhood types and housing tenures, and (2) in-situ upgrading and downgrading processes within the neighbourhood of residence. ...
... People make choices about where to live based on a number of criteria and subject to familiar constraints. In the USA, segregation by race and income is the persistent and predominant outcome of residential mobility decisions (Clark et al. 2006;Vigdor 2006;Sharkey 2012). While there is some evidence of receding racial segregation over time, income-based residential segregation has been on the rise in the past two decades (Lee et al. 2015;Fry and Taylor 2012;Reardon and Bischoff 2011). ...
... Previous literature has long documented the role of racial/ethnic composition in residential choice where an influx of ethnic minorities or foreign nationals can lead to the outmigration of existing residents (Sharkey 2012;Crowder and South 2008; Crowder et al. 2011). Studies have also found an undeniable linkage between racial composition and neighborhood desirability (Krysan et al. 2009). ...
Article
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We present evidence for two mechanisms that can explain increasing geographic divide of partisan preferences. The first is " inadvertent sorting " where people express a preference for residential environments with features that just happen to be correlated with partisanship. The second is " intentional sorting " where people do consider partisanship directly. We argue that the accumulating political biases visible in many neighborhoods can be the effect of some mixture of these two mechanisms. Because residential relocation often involves practical constraints and neighborhood racial composition is more important than partisanship, there is less partisan segregation across the United States than there could be based on residential preference alone.
... In other words, it is a factor of change in this hierarchy, better demonstrating the dynamic nature of the competition of different social groups throughout the urban areas. Even assuming that it responds fundamentally to the housing market and the modes of production of the city, residential mobility constitutes a key element in the social division of urban space (Duhau 2003;Sharkey 2012). ...
... Mobility as a "hinge" practice between the social and residential structures, tends to reproduce the social division of the city (Knox and Pinch 2006;Sharkey 2012;Molinatti et al. 2014) when there are no major transformations in the social or urban spaces (Andújar 2017). However, residential mobility is a fundamental element of urban transformation. ...
Article
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--[ABSTRACT]--Urban neighborhoods in Barcelona and Madrid are currently experiencing intense social transformations, with exclusive (and excluding) areas expanding (more or less rapidly) in resurgent central spaces. Recent literature suggests that, in parallel with urban expansion and latent re-urbanization, the most vulnerable population segments are being displaced and concentrated in suburban areas with worse access to all types of services. By proposing a comprehensive analysis of annual data on migration and residential mobility based on municipal population registers, the present study outlines the role of an increasing participation of highly qualified individuals in migratory and residential flows to explain changes in social composition at the intra-urban spatial scale. For the first time in Spain, we have been able to consider the impact of an individual variable assessing ‘education level’ on migration and residential mobility patterns, allowing a better characterization of interconnected processes of population substitution, polarization and segregation.
... Owens (2015) suggests implementing property tax rebates for landlords who accept housing vouchers. Voucher programs should also promote "mobility counseling" to advise movers about different housing options in beneficial locations (Sharkey 2012). Postmove counseling that monitors and facilitates community integration would provide necessary assistance to mobile families in their adjustment to new communities. ...
... Choosing an inviting and high-quality area could offset potential problems with moving, such as the loss of social capital. Therefore, as discussed above regarding mobility assistance, counseling and advisement in the housing search process, such as housing information and support counseling from experts, could reduce negative mobility outcomes and lead to a more successful postmove adjustment (Sharkey 2012). Although these resources are no doubt important in order to provide individuals and families with appropriate residential choices, individual-level intervention can assist children and families who seem to be acclimating poorly. ...
Chapter
This chapter ties together the previous chapters and situates them in broader policy-based and applied contexts. First, the chapter details major policy debates regarding the large-scale effects of selective mobility and social disorganization discussed in Chap. 7. Since these policies influence programs and interventions at the neighborhood level, community- and school-based initiatives designed to facilitate postmove adjustment for mobile families are discussed. Lastly, the chapter identifies targeting and intervention strategies for social workers and other practitioners working with mobile and highly mobile families.
... A singular location could be a site of domestic servitude, terror, or abuse, and so moving from this location could be a means to find the safety of "being home" (Blunt & Dowling, 2006;Jones, 2000;Massey, 1994). Increasingly, neoliberal policies encourage residential mobility as a means for individuals to take control of their own upward social mobility (Imbroscio, 2012;Sharkey, 2012;Clark et al., 2014). These "pro-mobility" policies have raised questions and concerns about whether mobility should in fact be encouraged, enabled, or prevented (Imbroscio, 2012). ...
Article
This review traces the changing conceptualizations of “mobility,” “place,” and “home” under the new mobilities paradigm, and the effect of this reconceptualization on residential mobility research. The “new mobilities paradigm” describes the (re)conceptualization of the relationship between place and mobility among mobilities scholars (Cresswell, 2006; Sheller & Urry, 2006). The reconceptualization of place as linked to mobility led to a more dynamic and inclusive perception of home as a lived experience that can be moved from place to place (Gillespie, 2017). This review will trace how residential mobilities—or internal (re)locations within one nation state—are discussed as alternate, lived experiences of home by scholars within the paradigm. In the second part of this review, I discuss how the lived experience of home is currently integrated in theoretical and methodological approaches to residential mobility research. In particular, I consider the incorporation of longitudinal, ethnographic, narrative and biographical methods, and emerging geographical research that utilizes life course methodological frameworks to explore the dynamic and lived experience of home. By progressing the understanding of the “mobility of home,” residential mobility researchers can contribute to wider discussions on the influence of mobility on place experiences.
... Como ya se ha mencionado, la 6. Frente a la clasificación objetivista de los cambios residenciales como ascendentes, descendentes o neutros (Lévy, 1998), otras clasificaciones (Clark y Onaka, 1983;Susino, 2003) proponen la incorporación de las percepciones y de las motivaciones sobre los cambios de vivienda, distinguiendo entre aquellos que se hacen «forzados por las circunstancias, de aquellos otros que suponen una opción positiva, un proyecto» (Susino, 2003: 84). 7. Se emplea el concepto de división social del espacio urbano para hacer referencia a «las diferencias existentes en la localización intraurbana o intrametropolitana de diferentes grupos, estratos o clases sociales» (Duhau, 2003: 177). El concepto es similar al uso frecuentemente dado al de segregación residencial cuando esta se define como «el grado de proximidad espacial […] movilidad residencial se desarrolla en relación con dos estructuras (social y espacial), por lo que, en sí misma, tenderá a reproducir la división social del espacio urbano existente (Sharkey, 2012). Pero si bien es cierto que esta no puede entenderse como el elemento causal último de los procesos de transformación urbana, sí supone una parte esencial de los mismos 8 . ...
Article
Full-text available
La importancia de la movilidad ha sido, explícita o implícitamente declarada, esencial en los estudios relacionados con la composición social del espacio urbano y las transformaciones asociadas a la misma. Proponiendo un marco interpretativo desde la sociología urbana, este artículo analiza el efecto de la movilidad residencial en la transformación de la composición social del espacio urbano a escala inframunicipal en los periodos 2000-2007 y 2008-2013 en el municipio madrileño. Los resultados muestran que los efectos de la movilidad no son simples ni directos, por lo que resulta necesario atender a los cambios producidos en los agentes sociales protagonistas, a las modificaciones de las prácticas residenciales y a su relación con el espacio. El análisis evidencia un cambio en los efectos de la movilidad entre ambos periodos y la coexistencia de distintos procesos relacionados con la movilidad, lo que muestra su potencial como elemento analítico e interpretativo de los procesos de transformación urbana de carácter más general. Palabras clave: localización residencial; transformación urbana; barrios; posición social; prácticas socioespaciales.
... Cent. 2016, Sharkey 2012, Solari 2012. Characterizing this rising income inequality, Bischoff & Reardon (2013, p. 213) highlight the declining share of middle-income neighborhoods: ...
Article
Contemporary sociology offers competing images of the breadth and consequences of gentrification. One subset presents gentrification as a nearly unstoppable force that plays a prominent role in the spatial reorganization of urban life; another presents it as less monolithic and less momentous for marginalized residents, particularly racial minorities. Although neither camp is methodologically homogenous, more qualitative scholars, typically relying on micro-level analyses of individual neighborhoods, tend to present gentrification as increasingly endemic, advanced, and consequential, whereas more quantitative scholars, typically relying on macro analyses, tend to present it in less dire terms. These competing images of gentrification originate in the fact that each subset of research asks different questions, employs distinct methods, and produces particular answers. Exacerbating and partially driving these divergences are different responses to an anxiety within and beyond the academy about broader spatial and economic shifts, such as growing income inequality. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Sociology Volume 43 is July 30, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Moreover, it is possible that some women in our study may have moved residence during their pregnancy. While we cannot characterize these women due to the lack of information on the birth certificates pertaining to residential mobility, we hypothesize that many may have moved to neighborhoods with similar characteristics, as has been suggested by literature on " residential patterning "[41,42]. In addition, the study findings are only generalizable to pregnant women residing in Florida and other states with similar geographic characteristics. ...
Article
Purpose We examined the extent of geographic variability in gestational weight gain (GWG), identified areas where women have suboptimal GWG, and evaluated whether individual- and area-level factors account for such variability. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study including 1,385,574 women delivering term singleton live births in Florida. We used a Bayesian structured additive regression with a spatial function to analyze data from Florida’s birth certificates (2005-2012) and ZCTAs (ZIP code tabulation areas; 2010 Census). Results The prevalence of insufficient (7.7-42.9%) and excessive (17.1-82.4%) GWG varied widely within Florida. Geographic variability was not explained by risk factors under study. Clusters in Orlando, Tampa, and Miami exhibited increased likelihood of insufficient GWG, while clusters in the Northwest of Florida exhibited increased likelihood of excessive GWG. Conclusions We identified areas in Florida with high likelihood of suboptimal GWG that policy makers should prioritize in the implementation of programs for optimizing GWG.
... Development and dissemination of a federal reporting system of incident-level violence data would nonetheless be valuable for population research. Furthermore, there may be some measurement error in our estimates of community exposure prevalence if youth moved residences in the year prior to their Year 15 interview; however, past research suggests that moves most often occur between areas characterized by similar social and structural correlates of community violence risk [55]. ...
Article
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Understanding the burden of gun violence among youth is a public health imperative. While most estimates are based on direct and witnessed victimization, living nearby gun violence incidents may be consequential too. Yet detailed information about these broader experiences of violence is lacking. We use data on a population-based cohort of youth merged with incident-level data on deadly gun violence to assess the prevalence and intensity of community exposure to gun homicides across cross-classified categories of exposure distance and recency, overall and by race/ethnicity, household poverty, and neighborhood disadvantage. In total, 2–18% of youth resided within 600 m of a gun homicide occurring in the past 14–365 days. These percentages were 3–25% for incidents within 800 m and 5–37% for those within a 1300-m radius. Black and Latinx youth were 3–7 times more likely, depending on the exposure radius, to experience a past-year gun homicide than white youth and on average experienced incidents more recently and closer to home. Household poverty contributed to exposure inequities, but disproportionate residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods was especially consequential: for all racial/ethnic groups, the difference in the probability of exposure between youth in low vs high poverty households was approximately 5–10 percentage points, while the difference between youth residing in low vs high disadvantage neighborhoods was approximately 50 percentage points. Given well-documented consequences of gun violence exposure on health, these more comprehensive estimates underscore the importance of supportive strategies not only for individual victims but entire communities in the aftermath of gun violence.
... This is particularly relevant in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, because those who live in them, particularly blacks, are less likely to leave such neighborhoods in general and their current neighborhood in particular (Quillian, 2003). Of course, residential inequality and segregation is often replicated by residential mobility (Sampson and Sharkey, 2008;Sharkey, 2012). The lack of mobility among those who live in the poorest neighborhoods (and replication through mobility) implies that the negative and cumulative exposures of living in long-term concentrated poverty are amplified by exposure to these neighborhoods (Lippert, 2016). ...
Article
Neighborhoods (and people) are not static, and are instead shaped by dynamic long-term processes of change (and mobility). Using the Geographic Research on Wellbeing survey, a population-based sample of 2339 Californian mothers, we characterize then investigate how long-term latent neighborhood poverty trajectories predict the likelihood of obesity, taking into account short-term individual residential mobility. We find that, net of individual and neighborhood-level controls, living in or moving to tracts that experienced long-term low poverty was associated with lower odds of being obese relative to living in tracts characterized by long-term high poverty.
... Additionally, household mobility can, and often does, restructure populations based on age, social class, and family size and structure (Sharkey 2012). Understanding household mobility as well as where individuals and families move can have important implications for population size and structure, as well as for the changing American demographic landscape, including changes in housing markets, labor force demand, and local and state economies (Long 1988). ...
Chapter
A common problem in the study of internal migration is its conceptualization, especially in its differentiation from residential mobility. This first chapter introduces different types of relocation behaviors based on distance moved, reasons for moving, and relocation frequency. A brief discussion of international migration is included; however, a large and separate literature exists exploring patterns, trends, and outcomes of immigration. Key theoretical approaches to the study of household mobility are discussed in order to frame the chapters that follow. In particular, the life course perspective is introduced, as it informs the book’s structure as well as the reasons people choose to move and the effects of household mobility on individuals and families.
... For example, individuals living in poverty are differentially exposed to forced mobility through eviction (Skobba and Goetz 2013), more likely to be hypermobile (Cohen and Wardrip 2011), and less likely to make "upward" moves to better neighborhoods (Clark and Rivers 2012). Moreover, limitations in human capital, especially cognitive constraints to "individuals' mental perceptions and understandings of which communities are possible residential destinations," can lead to restricted housing searches (Sharkey 2012). On the other hand, individuals without an established support system may be more likely to broaden their search. ...
Chapter
As the last chapter demonstrated, findings on mobility effects have been mixed, largely because of differences in outcome domains, measurements, and the type and frequency of household mobility under study. Researchers who find evidence in support of mobility effects have proposed several explanations for why. This chapter discusses some of the principal mechanisms used to explain mobility effects. A proposed framework highlights the importance of preexisting resources and risk factors, the move context, and the accumulation of context-related stressors. To provide preliminary support for the cumulative context framework, several components of the model are explored using data from the NLSY79 linked mother–child files.
... School funds that support expenses such as teacher salaries, building construction and improvement, and textbooks, combine with intangible resources (such as parent networks and fundraising skills) to create substantial resource differences across schools (Putnam 2015;Wells et al. 2012). Environmental characteristics-such as air quality, access to public libraries and other out-ofschool enrichments, stable housing, community safety, and health care and transportation accessibility-are yet another set of factors that vary across geographic locations and shape young people's educational readiness and outcomes (Berliner 2006(Berliner , 2013Bryk et al. 2010;Sharkey 2012). ...
Article
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This study extends research on school choice policy, and on the geography of educational opportunity, by exploring how students understand their school choices and select from them within social-geographical space. Using a conceptual framework that draws from situated social cognition and recent research on neighborhood effects, this study explores the experiences of 36 students seeking admission to high school in Chicago Public Schools, a large urban district that offered 130 high school options the year of data collection. Our findings reveal that students’ choice processes were geographically specific, and mirrored spatial patterns of power and privilege in Chicago. This article concludes with a discussion of findings’ implications for socially and spatially equitable school choice policy, and for subsequent research on the geography of educational opportunity.
... What is more, they are located in a manner that resulted in relatively more clustered in their new distribution at the global scale. This finding complies with a theory stating that urban inequality is resilient, indicating unselected change is a long-term social phenomenon and therefore residential moves will reinforce urban inequality (Sharkey, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Since the mid-2000s housing crisis, housing prices have dropped dramatically in the State of Florida. The resultant socioeconomic and physical restructuring have had an impact on the redistribution of voucher holders in space. This study focuses on the differences in the distribution before and after the housing crisis. It provides a new descriptive methodology measuring the differences in the qualitative characteristics of voucher holders before and after the crisis. For this purpose, four qualitative variables, one of which originally obtained at the parcel level and three at the block level, are examined in two different years: 2000 and 2010. The distributional measures suggested significantly clustered pattern of voucher holders for all the three pairs of counties. The paper found more clustering within their new extents. However, in measuring the qualitative measures of the distribution of voucher holders based on the four variables a general pattern of downward mobility was observed.
... Jobs-housing fit refers to the extent to which the character and affordability of housing units in a particular area are well matched to the quality of locally available jobs. Although a poor fit at any income level could signal the potential for poor transportation performance, prior work has consistently demonstrated the unique barriers faced by low-income households, especially low-income households of color, as they engage in housing searches (Pendall, 2000b;Sharkey, 2012). In addition to outright discrimination in the housing market (Massey & Denton, 1993;Ross & Turner, 2005), land-use policies that restrict the supply of affordable housing, sometimes referred to as exclusionary zoning, are prevalent in suburban areas across the United States and have been shown to have measurable effects on neighborhood composition (Pendall, 2000a). ...
Article
Finding the right jobs-housing balance has long been an important concern for urban planners. More recently, attention has turned to jobs-housing fit – the extent to which housing price is well matched to local job quality. Prior analyses have been constrained by a lack of local data on job quality, making it difficult to identify the geography and scale of the problem. We introduce a new methodology for calculating the low-wage jobs-housing fit at both a jurisdiction and neighborhood scale that was designed in collaboration with affordable housing advocates and has been directly applied in urban planning and affordable housing policy efforts. Low-wage fit is particularly important because of ongoing difficulties with affordable housing provision and the disproportionate benefits of reducing transportation costs for low-income earners. We use the calculated metric at both a city and neighborhood scale to identify what can be learned from a low-wage jobs-housing fit metric that is not evident in traditional measures of jobs-housing balance. In contrast to jobs-housing balance, the low-wage fit analysis clearly highlights those jurisdictions and neighborhoods where there is a substantial shortage of affordable housing in relation to the number of low-wage jobs. Because of the geographic coverage of the data sources used, the results can be widely applied across the United States by affordable housing advocates, land-use planners, and policy makers.
... Certain groups may also face cognitive constraints to moving because of limited or imperfect knowledge about different locations (Sharkey 2012). Information about mobility alternatives is unequally distributed. ...
Chapter
Building on the microlevel effects covered in previous chapters, this chapter discusses several ways that household mobility affects large-scale, macrolevel processes. One such way is through selective mobility—the notion that certain groups are more likely to move and move to different types of places. Selective mobility can lead to population redistribution and reinforce geographies of inequality. At the neighborhood level, high rates of household mobility can lead to low community cohesion and high rates of social disorganization and crime. Household mobility, especially over long distances, also spatially and geographically reorganizes kin and social networks. These three large-scale outcomes even have important implications for nonmobile individuals. This chapter brings together interdisciplinary research to show how household mobility can change population distributions, community organization, and sociospatial dynamics.
... The subjective preference of movers, and their readiness and ability to choose a different housing location are moderating factors in decision making. Residential mobility often is linked to spatial processes like suburbanisation or gentrification, as residential mobility often occurs in context of professional careers or the formation of a two or more person household, which both might increase the spending power of the household (Sharkey 2012). ...
Technical Report
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Along the borders between the “old“ and the ”new” EU, where sizeable differences in income and economic development persist, cross-border commuting and other forms of economically based cross-border relations have become increasingly relevant. This working paper analyses the perceptions of experts and civil servants of the effects of Eastern European enlargement in the Austrian-Hungarian and the Austrian-Slovak border regions with a particular focus on the labour market and the education sector. Whilst labour mobility between these countries is mainly unilaterally directed towards Austria, the Austrian-Slovak border region is also characterised by a slightly growing mobility of managers as well as residential mobility towards Austria. In contrast, the findings suggest that labour mobility between Hungary and Austria not only is but would stay unidirectional. The authors also suggest that cross-border mobility in the region goes beyond labour mobility and includes residential (e.g. Slovaks building houses in Austria) and educational mobility (e.g. Hungarian citizens enrolling children in the Austrian school system). Overall, the authors argue, cross-border mobility stays to be shaped by the specific spatial, economic and cultural conditions characteristic for a border region. They conclude that the abolition of the borders between the EU Member States are thus a necessary but not a sufficient condition for stronger regional integration which still mainly depends on the politics of cross-border mobility of Member States and regional and municipal administrations.
... As a result of such residential self-selection, over time places become more differentiated in terms of racial and socio-economic resources (Massey and Denton, 1993;Sampson and Sharkey, 2008;Sharkey 2012) which are correlated with political preferences. We know that increased geographic sorting has electoral consequences. ...
Article
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... Furthermore, public housing, long a source of affordable housing when none was available in the market, is being reduced. Public housing construction halted in the 1970s, leaving the provision of affordable housing to the private market (Section 8 vouchers and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit); such units can be difficult for residents to secure, and are often less affordable due to rents being set at the market rate rather than as a percentage of household income and located in high-poverty neighborhoods (DeLuca et al., 2013;Mast, 2013;Sharkey, 2012). Housing discrimination based on source of income, though illegal, is rarely enforced and fundamentally threatens housing choice voucher holders, particularly in gentrifying markets and high-opportunity neighborhoods (Aratani et al., 2018). ...
Article
Housing is a major pathway through which health disparities emerge and are sustained over time. However, no existing unified conceptual model has comprehensively elucidated the relationship between housing and health equity with attention to the full range of harmful exposures, their cumulative burden and their historical production. We synthesized literature from a diverse array of disciplines to explore the varied aspects of the relationship between housing and health and developed an original conceptual model highlighting these complexities. This holistic conceptual model of the impact of housing on health disparities illustrates how structural inequalities shape unequal distribution of access to health-promoting housing factors, which span four pillars: 1) cost (housing affordability); 2) conditions (housing quality); 3) consistency (residential stability); and 4) context (neighborhood opportunity). We further demonstrate that these four pillars can lead to cumulative burden by interacting with one another and with other structurally-rooted inequalities to produce and reify health disparities. We conclude by offering a comprehensive vision for healthy housing that situates housing's impact on health through a historical and social justice lens, which can help to better design policies and interventions that use housing to promote health equity.
... Several recent studies focused on the cases of Barcelona and Madrid (either the cities or the whole metropolitan areas) [39,[78][79][80][81][82] or analyzed the case of Catalonia [83]. However, few have related socio-residential restructuration dynamics to residential mobility patterns [84,85], and most of them have focused on specific case studies: Madrid [17], Barcelona [86,87], Paris [88], or Buenos Aires [89], among others. ...
Article
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After the deep economic crisis that began in 2008, in 2014, Spain started to show signs of recovery, entering the so-called “post-crisis” period. Though it has not yet reached the entire population, economic improvement has had a positive impact on the real estate market, economic activity, and employment. Residential mobility has also increased, but flows have become more unstable and complex. The direction of these flows, the reasons for moving, and the ages and socioeconomic categories of migrants have diversified. These complex “new mobility” patterns are reconfiguring the spatial distribution of the population in Spanish urban areas. On the basis of Continuous Register (Padrón Continuo) microdata, this paper primarily aims to study population changes in the 69 Spanish functional urban areas (FUAs) defined by the National Institute of Statistics (INE)/Eurostat, focusing on their population growth or decline in their centers and peripheries during the crisis (2011–2015) and post-crisis (2015–2019) phases. Then, the paper analyzes the five major Spanish metropolises (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, and Bilbao) in greater depth. The findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the post-crisis period, the population growth of cores and rings and thus the spatial distribution of urban inhabitants have been changing, resulting in the growing demographic heterogeneity of Spanish urban areas that are diversifying both internally and compared to each other.
... The patterns of spatial development both influence and result from individual decisions: while people choose a location based on its observed and perceived characteristics, their moving to a specific area also affects the socio-economic environment (Sharkey, 2012). Demonstrating the direction of the causal relationship between households' residential choice and spatial disparities can be challenging (Manley & Van Ham, 2012). ...
Article
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People are constantly moving to and within Kampala, Uganda. When choosing a place to settle, they have to find a balance between several housing preferences and constraints imposed by their socio-economic situation. Moreover, their options might be limited because of the city’s urban fabric: their housing preferences might not be available at their preferred location. This article analyzes the influence of households’ socio-economic situations on residential preferences and how these preferences interact with the existing morphology of the city, based on data from 2,058 surveys in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area collected in 2018. Using regression and spatial clustering analysis, results show that certain socio-economic factors such as household composition, education level, and traveling by private car are good predictors of revealed preferences regarding housing attributes. Responding households consider relational location (measured as travel time or distance to work/education) more than distance to the city center. Furthermore, while housing attributes showed clear patterns of spatial clustering, this was much less the case for household attributes. An uneven distribution of housing options together with residential choice constraints do not seem to limit households’ equitable access to Kampala, although more research at a finer geography and over time is recommended to capture the dynamics.
... The general premise is that the neighborhoods we experience as children affect residential mobility between neighborhoods of varying racial and ethnic compositions later in life. Neighborhood environments are where children are socialized, acquire skills and knowledge, form social ties to the community, and develop neighborhood preferences and outgroup dispositions that affect residential outcomes (e.g., Chauhan et al. 2017;Sharkey 2012a). Thus, in ways similar to neighborhood segregation, the neighborhood environment for children should also influence residential integration later in life. ...
Article
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The long run viability of stable multiethnic residential integration is perennially in question. This study compares the intergenerational reproduction of racially segregated residential contexts to the reproduction of multiethnic contexts to provide new insight into the social processes that influence residential integration. The data for this study come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the U.S. Census. Conditional logit models analyze patterns of residential reproduction and mobility for white and black families across a comprehensive typology of racially segregated and integrated neighborhoods. The results provide some support for the premise of a “diversity effect,” that children raised in integrated settings are more likely to attain diverse neighborhood environments in adulthood. The results also demonstrate a far stronger propensity to reproduce predominantly white and predominantly black neighborhood contexts than multiethnic contexts. The comparative ease through which racially segregated contexts are reproduced presents a challenge to the future growth and stability of multiethnic residential integration. The implications for theories of spatial incorporation that frame debates about race and ethnic relations are discussed.
... It has been suggested that there is a residualisation process which concentrates those with least choice into neighbourhoods with the poorest quality physical environment and services (Taylor 1980 US (Sharkey 2012). It has also been argued that geographical mobility itself does not necessarily lead to negative well-being, but rather low mobility, in conjunction with low levels of personal choice, has a negative effect on wellbeing (Stokols & Shumaker 1982, Stokols et al. 1983. ...
Thesis
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In recent decades there has been a rekindling of academic interest in place, and with the way in which processes associated with modernity, globalisation and individualisation may have diminished place based communities, and weakened the attachment between individuals and the neighbourhoods in which they live. There are also debates about the importance of neighbourhood context, particularly whether neighbourhood level material deprivation and increased ethnic diversity act to reduce individual belonging to neighbourhoods and interactions between neighbours. This thesis aims to contribute towards an understanding of the ways in which individual belonging to neighbourhoods, and interaction with neighbours, may have changed over time, in relation to individual and neighbourhood context. Data from the British Household Panel Survey, for England, for the period 1998 to 2008, measuring the outcomes of individual level belonging to neighbourhoods and the likelihood of talking to neighbours, are combined with neighbourhood level Census data. Longitudinal models are used to test for age and cohort effects, and then extended to consider neighbourhood level context. Specific attention is given to the relationship between the outcomes under study and neighbourhood material deprivation, neighbourhood ethnic diversity, household income and individual mobility between neighbourhoods. Some evidence was found for cohort effects, with younger cohorts, particularly those in higher income households, being less likely to talk to neighbours. There were no apparent cohort effects for the outcome of belonging to the neighbourhood, which is found to be associated with age (generally increasing as individuals get older), and neighbourhood context. In materially deprived neighbourhoods levels of belonging are lower, but only for individuals in households with low incomes. Similarly any effect of individual mobility was found to be conditional on household income and neighbourhood level material deprivation. In general, high or increasing neighbourhood level ethnic diversity was not associated with reduced individual belonging to neighbourhoods or likelihood of talking to neighbours once other contextual variables were considered. Also, increased ethnic diversity had a small positive effect on the outcomes under study for individuals living in neighbourhoods with high levels of material deprivation.
... Place matters for children's educational and life outcomes (Chetty and Hendren 2017;Chetty et al. 2016;Jencks and Mayer 1990;Massey and Denton 1993). Students who grow up in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty have less access to educational and economic resources due to residential segregation (Chetty et al. 2014a;Sampson 2012;Sharkey 2012) and rising income inequality (Chetty et al. 2014b), which lead to other forms of disadvantages. For example, documented geographic disparities are associated with poor health outcomes (Diez Roux and Mair 2010) and limited social mobility (Chetty et al. 2014a;Lareau and Goyette 2014;Massey and Denton 1993;Sampson 2012). ...
Article
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Place-based scholarships within the College Promise movement reduce the cost of college for students in particular places and often include incentives for families to live in places for a longer period of time to capture full program benefits. This financial incentive may change the residential mobility decisions of people living in and around Promise-targeted locations, potentially affecting a community’s composition and who can benefit from the scholarship. We use difference-in-differences with census tract-level data from the American Community Survey to assess whether the New Haven Promise, Say Yes Buffalo, or La Crosse Promise affect residential mobility based on household income, race/ethnicity, and age in their respective cities. We find evidence of overall in-migration due to program introduction, driven by the Say Yes Buffalo program, but corresponding decreases in those staying in treated Buffalo and La Crosse census tracts. Further, we find that White, high income residents are more likely to stay in New Haven to take advantage of the program. We also find a potential displacement effect in La Crosse for families with children, suggesting that originally targeted residents moved out the Promise-targeted areas, but that new families with children moved in as a result of the program. Overall, our short-term impacts suggest that since moving is expensive, higher income families are more likely to benefit from these programs than their lower income counterparts by having more control of whether, when, and where to move. Implications for communities and program (re)design are discussed.
... But where the remaining movers-both those forced by poverty and those liberated by affluence-are moving is reinforcing the economic and, increasingly, the cultural separations among us" (Fischer 2013). Yet, for many at the lower end of the economic spectrum, stability means imprisonment: even though many families have left, researchers estimate that some 70% of families in today's impoverished neighborhoods were living there in the 1970s as well (Sharkey 2012). ...
Article
The politics of gender, race, and class are present within and outside of schools, and are pivotal issues raised in the policies and practices of schooling. This article focuses on the ways in which gender, race, and class are addressed within institutional practices and politics, both historically and in contemporary inner-city schooling. I examine gender, race, and class as integrated or intersectional identities, rather than as isolated status categories. The discussion highlights experiences and perspectives of African American youth who identify as girls to depict the complex intersectional dynamics of gender, race, and class; and argues that these dynamics influence, if not dictate, the quality of their in-school and life experiences. I then identify new directions for research and practice that recognize and build upon inner-city students’ intersectional identities, urging policy initiatives that promote educational success while advancing equal educational opportunity. © 2017, © 2017 by The American Academy of Political and Social Science.
Thesis
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La siguiente Tésis doctoral se encuentra disponible para su consulta y descarga en el Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide (RIO). A través del siguiente enlace: "http://hdl.handle.net/10433/8654" --[RESUMEN]-- Esta investigación aborda algunas preguntas de investigación sobre la relación entre las dinámicas sociales y urbanas, especialmente a la relación entre el espacio social, prácticas residenciales y la estructura residencial. Así, se pretende avanzar en el conocimiento de las formas de ocupación de la estructura residencial de los grupos sociales, desde una perspectiva que permita integrar las dimensiones social y espacial a través de un análisis multiescalar y en un lapso temporal en el periodo anterior y posterior al inicio de la crisis de 2008. Los objetivos de la investigación son: 1) proponer un aparato conceptual que permita atender a los elementos estructurales en la interpretación de los comportamientos residenciales y que sea capaz de integrar las dimensiones social y física de la realidad socioresidencial; 2) analizar la relación entre las características de la vivienda y las de sus residentes, a fin de integrar las dimensiones social y física para el estudio de las situaciones de desfavorecimiento residencial; y 3) incorporar una perspectiva dinámica en el estudio de la ocupación del espacio urbano, analizando la relación entre la movilidad residencial y los procesos de transformación urbana de carácter más general. La tesis doctoral está conformada por compendio de publicaciones científicas. Su estructura comprende una primera Sección en la que se presentan el estudio y los objetivos de investigación, la propuesta teórica interpretativa propuesta y algunas cuestiones metodológicas de carácter general. La segunda Sección recoge las publicaciones científicas que conforman el compendio: el artículo Residential vulnerability and the housing question: a social and spatial-oriented analysis for the Andalusia metropolitan areas, publicado en el Boletín de la Asociación Española de Geografía (BAGE); el artículo Movilidad residencial y (re)composición social del espacio urbano en el municipio de Madrid, publicado en Papers. Revista de Sociología; y el artículo Movilidad residencial metropolitana y crisis inmobiliaria, publicado en la revista Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense. En la tercera Sección de la tesis se presentan las conclusiones generales y futuras líneas de investigación. El análisis de las prácticas residenciales desde la perspectiva del constructivismo estructuralista de Pierre Bourdieu ha evidenciado, primero, la existencia de relación entre vulnerabilidad residencial y vulnerabilidad pero que ésta no es siempre directa, lo que hace necesario el análisis de los sistemas de desigualdad específicos en contextos sociohistóricos y residenciales concretos; segundo, como las prácticas residenciales, y concretamente la movilidad residencial, no pueden entenderse sin considerar la posición de los agentes sociales en las estructuras de sus condiciones objetivas; y tercero que la movilidad residencial, como práctica ¿bisagra¿ entre el espacio social y la estructura residencial, tiende a reproducir la composición social del espacio urbano, pero que también supone un elemento fundamental de procesos de transformación urbana de carácter más general. --[ABSTRACT]-- This thesis addresses some research questions about the relationship between social and urban dynamics, especially the relationship between social space, residential practices and the residential structure. Thus, it is intended to advance in the knowledge of the occupation of the residential structure by social groups, from a perspective that allows integrating the social and spatial dimensions through a multi-scale analysis and in a period of time before and after the beginning of the 2008 crisis. The research objectives are: 1) to propose a conceptual framework that allows attending to the structural elements in the interpretation of residential behaviors and that allows to integrate the social and physical dimensions of the socio-residential reality; 2) to analyse the relationship between the characteristics of the dwelling and those of their residents, in order to integrate the social and physical dimensions for the study of situations of residential disadvantage; and 3) to incorporate a dynamic perspective in the study of the social occupation of urban space, analyzing the relationship between residential mobility and the more general urban transformation processes. The Phd is made up of a compendium of scientific publications. Its structure includes a first Section in which are presented the study and the research objectives, the theoretical-interpretative proposed and some general methodological questions. The second Section includes the scientific publications that make up the compendium: the paper Residential vulnerability and the housing question: a social and spatial-oriented analysis for the Andalusia metropolitan areas, published in Boletín de la Asociación Española de Geografía (BAGE); the paper Residential mobility and social (re)composition of urban space in the municipality of Madrid, published in Papers. Revista de Sociología; and the paper Metropolitan residential mobility and real estate crisis, published in Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense. The third section of the thesis presents general conclusions and future lines of research. Applying Pierre Bourdieu's structuralist constructivism perspective, the analysis has evidenced first, the existence of a relationship between residential vulnerability and social vulnerability; secondly, how residential practices, and specifically residential mobility, cannot be understood without considering the position of social agents in the structures of their objective conditions; and finally, that residential mobility, as a hinge practice between social space and residential structure, tends to reproduce the social composition of urban space, but at the same time it is a fundamental element of the transformation process of the socio-residential structure.
Research
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המחקר המוצג בדו״ח זה מציע תשתית לבחינה איכותנית מעמיקה של הסיכונים לעוני, בקרב קבוצות אוכלוסייה שונות בישראל. תשתית זו מבוססת על מחקר איכותני רחב היקף, שבחן את חוויות היומיום של אנשים החיים בעוני, במיקומים חברתיים שונים.
Article
Moving can be detrimental to the development of children from low-income families. Quality public early care and education programs, such as Head Start, may be a possible mechanism to support low-income children living in residentially unstable circumstances. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), we explored whether Head Start participation (via random assignment) moderates how residential mobility is associated with children's health, cognitive development, and socioemotional functioning prior to school entry among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 3- and 4-year-old children from low-income families (N = 3419). Results of propensity-score weighted instrumental variable analyses indicated a moderate effect size of Head Start attenuating the adverse link between prior multiple residential moves and parent-reported child health. Future directions for research and policy implications are discussed.
Article
Does the timing and frequency of program benefits influence student school outcomes? The poor may be especially vulnerable to income scarcity at the end of welfare program benefit cycles. Such scarcity may strain other aspects of family life and exacerbate children’s behavior problems. We use data from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and school disciplinary records to compare the incidence of disciplinary infractions at the beginning and end of months among Chicago Public School students in grades 5–8 whose families did and did not receive SNAP. Controlling for student and school characteristics, our estimates show that student disciplinary infractions generally spike at the end of the month irrespective of SNAP receipt status. However, spikes are exacerbated among students who receive SNAP benefits. The within-month difference in disciplinary infractions for students in SNAP recipient families is 7 percentage points larger than for nonrecipients. These differences are particularly pronounced for males.
Article
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The paper aims to analyse how the different economic phases that Spain has experienced in the first two decades of the 21st century (expansion, recession, and recovery) have influenced population stocks and migratory flows in the five largest metropolitan areas defined as Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) in Spain: Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Seville and Valencia. Using Padrón Continuo (municipal registers) and Estadística de Variaciones Residenciales (residential change statistics) as data sources, both native and immigrant – i.e. born abroad – stocks, and internal and international migration flows are analysed. We study differences between (a) diverse groups of foreigners (by continental origin), also comparing them to natives; and (b) different types of residential mobility by migrants’ previous place of residence: “intrametropolitan” movements (between urban cores and peripheries), migration flows between the five urban areas and the rest of Spain, and international migration. Results show that intrametropolitan migration flows between the five urban cores and their peripheries were characterised by suburbanisation during the expansion phase. These flows were particularly relevant for Spanish-born persons and, among foreign-born migrants, for people born in the Americas (mainly Latin Americans). These flows to the suburban periphery decreased during the economic crisis, and in 2013 and 2014 net intrametropolitan migration of most foreign groups was characterised by recentralisation. Spaniards’ intrametropolitan movements almost reached equilibrium during the recession years: Natives decreased their moves from cores to rings, while they were increasingly attracted to urban centres. Owing to the incipient economic recovery, suburbanisation is progressively recovering its previous strength. As for other types of residential moves, foreign-born migrants moving from abroad and the rest of Spain to the five FUAs during the economic expansion phase reversed the direction of their flows in the economic crisis years, migrating abroad or dispersing throughout Spain in search of jobs. Consequently, their stocks declined in some years. Currently, due to the incipient economic recovery, the five FUAs are attracting internal and international foreign-born immigrants once again, so their foreign-born population stocks are increasing in both cores and peripheries. Spaniards show the opposite behaviour regarding flows to and from the five areas analysed – they tended to disperse throughout the rest of Spain during the economic expansion phase. This trend continued during the crisis years, but at a slower pace, as natives became increasingly attracted to urban cores. Furthermore, this latter trend has strengthened during the post-crisis years. Finally, considering foreign-born and Spanish populations together, large urban areas are increasingly attractive. This global tendency is to the detriment of rural areas and of non-metropolitan small and medium size towns, which lose population due to negative net migration. * This article belongs to a special issue on “Internal Migration as a Driver of Regional Population Change in Europe: Updating Ravenstein”.
Article
Over fifty years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, how have mechanisms of residential segregation changed? Using a case study of a Los Angeles suburb’s reaction to Black movement through the federal Housing Choice Voucher program, I argue that policing should be considered among the contemporary forces of residential segregation. Through interviews with forty-three local residents, I show how one community’s reaction to voucher movement spans from attitudes to actions. First, I document widespread hostility towards Black voucher holders on the basis of their race, gender, and participation in the voucher program. Second, I trace how the city’s municipal code changes have responded to public sentiment and created an incentive to participate in policing. By attaching fines and incentives for landlords to evict tenants to broadly written and subjective nuisance codes, the city has created a pathway by which local residents can pressure unwanted neighbors out of the community. Third, I illustrate how some residents engage in participatory policing by surveilling neighbors they believe are using vouchers and dispatching city and police agencies to inspect, fine, and possibly evict these targets. These findings illustrate how communities can use policing to racially segregate space, how eviction might be communally produced, and how local opposition to Black movement breaks the pathway between residential mobility and socio-economic gains that underlies the voucher program.
Article
Residential selection is central in determining children’s housing, neighborhood, and school contexts, and an extensive literature considers the social processes that shape residential searches and attainment. While this literature typically frames the residential search as a uniform process oriented around finding residential options with desired characteristics, we examine whether individuals may differentially conceive of these searches in ways that sustain inequality in residential attainment. Drawing on repeated, in-depth interviews with a stratified random sample of 156 households with young children in two metropolitan counties, we find that parents exhibit distinct residential search logics, informed by the constraints they face. Higher-income families usually engage in purposive searches oriented around their residential preferences. They search for “forever homes” that will meet their families’ needs for years to come. In contrast, low-income parents typically draw on a logic of deferral. While they hope to eventually search for a home with the unit, neighborhood, and school characteristics they desire, aspirations for homeownership lead them to conceive of their moves (which are often between rental units) as “temporary stops,” which justifies accepting homes that are inconsistent with their long-term preferences. In addition, because they are often “pushed” to move by negative circumstances, they focus on their immediate housing needs and, in the most extreme cases, adopt an “anywhere but here” approach. These logics constitute an unexamined mechanism through which economic resources shape residential searches and ultimate attainment.
Article
Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent’s exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life. The urban continuity pathway captures the temporal consistency of the built and topographical environment in providing similar residential opportunities across generations. Findings from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. Census data indicate that the legacy effect of racial residential segregation among black families operates primarily through the neighborhood effects that influence children growing up. For white families, there is less support for the legacy effects of segregation. The findings are supported by a comprehensive mediation analysis that provides a formal sensitivity analysis, deploys an instrumental variable, and assesses effect heterogeneity. Knowledge of the legacy of segregation moves neighborhood attainment research beyond point-in-time studies of racial residential segregation to provide a deeper understanding into the ways stratified residential environments are reproduced.
Article
Despite decades of research on residential mobility and neighborhood effects, we know comparatively less about how people sort across geography. While there are reasons for lagging developments in the area of residential decisions, we join others in calling for research to consider residential selection as a social stratification process—one ripe with significant conceptual and policy potential. In this paper, we present findings from work our team has done over the last 17 years to explore how people end up living where they do. We focus on four key decisions: whether to move; where to move; whether to send children to school in the neighborhood; and whether to rent or own a home. We found that many residential mobility decisions among the poor were “reactive,” with unpredictable shocks forcing families out of their homes. As a result of reactive moving, time frames became shorter as poor parents employed short‐term survival solutions to secure housing instead of long‐term investment thinking about neighborhood quality and schools. These shocks, constraints, and shorter time frames led parents to decouple important aspects of neighborhood and school quality from the housing search process while maximizing others like immediacy of shelter, unit quality, and proximity to work and child care. Finally, we found that policies can have a significant impact on some of these decisions. Combined, our research revealed some of the decision‐making processes that underlie locational attainment and the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood context.
Article
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This study analyzes influential factors of such ‘Spatially Exclusionary Residential Mobility’ (SERM) in Korean large cities. Based on pooled data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport’s (MOLIT) Korean Housing Survey, we analyze the factors that contribute to SERM through a multi-level ordered logistic model. The study finds that various regional factors as well as household characteristics influence SERM. Specifically, the study confirms the influence of regional mean of housing prices, apartment share, public rental housing supply, small-scale housing supply obligations, and activities of social enterprises. The results show that a high level of spatial openness for low-income households has a positive effect in mitigating SERM. Based on these results, this study calls for a continuous supply of public rental housing, a greater variety of housing types, more affordable housing for residents displaced by redevelopment projects, and the implementation of mitigation policies differentiated by region.
Article
Families using the Housing Choice Voucher Program rarely experience large gains in neighborhood or school quality when compared with unassisted poor renters. Research on housing mobility programs has reached mixed conclusions about whether vouchers can improve neighborhood and school quality, especially in the long term. We revisit these findings using new data from the partial remedy to the Thompson v. HUD desegregation case in Baltimore, known as the Baltimore Housing Mobility Program (BHMP). Through targeted vouchers, intensive counseling and innovative policy features, the BHMP helped families move to low-poverty, nonsegregated neighborhoods with higher performing school districts. We examine residential outcomes for the first 1,800 families that moved through the program for a period of up to 9 years. We find that BHMP families moved to more integrated and affluent neighborhoods, in school districts with more qualified teachers and fewer poor students—and most families stayed in these neighborhoods beyond their initial lease-up period. Eventually, a small proportion of families moved to neighborhoods that are less white, but still significantly less poor and less segregated than their original communities. We interpret these findings in light of past mobility programs and discuss policy implications for the Housing Choice Voucher Program.
Article
Background: Prior research documents spatial concentration in the incidence of child maltreatment reported to and confirmed by Child Protective Services (CPS), but without estimates of the prevalence of such reports, the extent of CPS contact in different communities is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of CPS reports during early childhood and substantiated investigations during childhood for children living in different types of neighborhoods. Participants and setting: Children who experienced CPS reports and substantiated investigations in Connecticut. Methods: This study uses synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative risk of CPS reports before age five and substantiated CPS investigations before age 18, by neighborhood poverty rate and neighborhood racial composition. Results: The analysis reveals substantial stratification in the prevalence of CPS contact by the demographic characteristics of children's residential neighborhoods. For example, while 7% of children in low-poverty neighborhoods (under 10% poor) experience a substantiated CPS investigation at some point during childhood at 2014 and 2015 rates, this risk more than doubles to 17% for their peers in moderate-poverty neighborhoods (10-20% poor) and more than triples to 26% for their peers in high-poverty neighborhoods (over 20% poor). Similar trends emerge when examining CPS reports in early childhood as well as when comparing neighborhoods with different proportions of White residents. Conclusions: CPS reports and substantiated investigations are a widespread and disproportionately experienced life event for children in poor neighborhoods and children in non-White neighborhoods.
Chapter
Rapid urban growth in China threatens sustainable development because policies and infrastructure have not developed to ensure that the promised benefits of city life are shared equitably. In this vein, educational equality and equity in China are unavoidably influenced by urbanization and the broader pro-urban and pro-costal development model. This chapter places the debate on educational equality and equity within the context of rapid urbanization in China. The consequences of urbanization, such as rapid urban expansion and marginalization, together with the effects of the rural–urban dichotomy, have challenged equal and equitable educational opportunities and attainment. Through the lenses of educational investment, quality school enrolment, the examination system, and private tutoring in education, the chapter identifies and discusses multiple educational disparities. Amid rapid urbanization and demographic mobility, the lack of inclusive urban communities and quality schools are fundamental reasons for China’s educational disparities.
Article
This study, recognizing the longstanding criticisms of HOPE VI as a vehicle for gentrification, compares the goals of local officials with the stated goals of HOPE VI in order to investigate the extent to which local officials are using or misusing HOPE VI to achieve local development and revitalization goals. HOPE VI positioned itself as a program intended to deconcentrate poverty, however, in the case of Liberty Green, the focus on neighborhood development embedded within the federal policy results in HOPE VI developments being described as successful based on physical changes at the site rather than outcomes for public housing residents, who largely do not benefit from these changes. Evidence from this study suggests that most of the emphasis for the Liberty Green HOPE VI development revolves around neighborhood and community development goals. And self-sufficiency, while a goal of the HOPE VI program, remains secondary.
Article
While studies have revealed some factors that generally influence residential mobility patterns within the urban setting, the effects of the interplay of these factors on residential movements of low income families are less understood. This study therefore examined the dynamics of residential mobility in Ojo area of Lagos megacity Nigeria. Data were obtained from a survey of households in eleven electoral wards of Ojo Lagos using systematic random sampling methods. Results showed that majority of the residents had moved several times over their life course. The observed residential mobility rates in the study area were explained by six latent variates that cumulatively accounted for 72.9% of the total variance. Regression analyses showed that a number of family lifecycle and household contextual factors were significant predictors of residential mobility in Ojo area of Lagos. However, in contrast to existing studies gender, employment status and neighborhood condition had insignificant influence on residential mobility in the low-income neighborhoods of Lagos. This study provides useful insights for understanding residential mobility dynamics in urban low-income neighborhoods, and it also provides important policy and theoretical implications for improving the polarized housing markets in the Global South cities.
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