ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Abstract and Figures

Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014 1
Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits.
Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high
cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain
components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and
anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and
green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce
macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract
prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition,
promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In
this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested
mechanisms of actions.
Key Words: Antioxidant, inflammatory activities, pomegranate
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Sedigheh Asgary, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Instute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Received: 28.09.2012, Accepted: 13.11.2012
Potent health effects of pomegranate
Aida Zarfeshany, Sedigheh Asgary1, Shaghayegh Haghjoo Javanmard
Physiology Research Center, 1Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Instute, Isfahan, Iran
Review Report
is Punica, with one predominant species called
P. granatum.[2]
The trees can grow up to 30 feet in height. The leaves
are opposite, narrow, oblong with 3‑7 cm long and
whichare 3cmindiameter withfourtove petals.
Edible fruit has a rounded hexagonal shape, with
5‑12 cm in diameter and weighing 200 g. The thick
skin surrounds around 600 arils, which encapsulates
the seeds.[3]
About 18% of dried and cleaned white seeds are oil.
The oil is rich in punicic acid (65%), which is a triple
conjugated 18‑carbon fatty acid [Figure 1]. There are
some phytoestrogen compounds in pomegranate seeds
Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) is a long‑lived
and drought‑tolerant plant. Arid and semiarid
zones are popular for growing pomegranate trees.
They are widely cultivated in Iran, India, and the
Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Egypt,
Tunisia, Spain, and Morocco.[1] However, pomegranate
is categorized as a berry but it belongs to its own
botanical family, Punicaceae. The only genus
Access this article online
Quick Response Code:
How to cite this article: Zarfeshany A, Asgary S, Javanmard SH. Potent health effects of pomegranate. Adv Biomed Res 2014;3:100.
Copyright: © 2014 Zarfeshany. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
2 Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014
that have sex steroid hormones similar to those in
humankind. The 17‑alpha‑estradiol is a mirror‑image
version of estrogen.[3]
Juice and peel
Pomegranate juice is a good source of fructose, sucrose,
and glucose. It also has some of the simple organic
acids such as ascorbic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid,
and malic acid. In addition, it contains small amounts
of all amino acids, specically proline, methionine,
and valine. Both the juice and peel are rich in
polyphenols. The largest classes include tannins and
avonoids [Figure 2] that indicate pharmacological
potential of pomegranate due to their strange
antioxidative and preservative activities.[3]
Ellagitannin is a type of tannins; it can be broken
down into hydroxybenzoic acid such as ellagic acid.
It is widely used in plastic surgeries, which prevents
skin flap’s death due to its antioxidant activity.
Two other ellagitannins that are found in both
pomegranate juice and peel are punicalagin and
include anthocyanins, avan 3‑ols, and avonols.
Pomegranate juice and peel have catechins with a high
antioxidant activity. They are essential compounds
of anthocyanin’s production with antioxidant and
juice, which is not found in the peel. All pomegranate
avonoids show antioxidant activity with indirect
inhibition of inammatory markers such as tumor
necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF‑α).[3]
Bark and roots
The pomegranate tree’s bark and roots are rich sources
of chemicals called alkaloids. They are carbon‑based
substances; they were used to treat worms in the
human gastrointestinal tract in traditional medicine.[3]
Table 1 Shows pomegranate’s nutrient values for 100 g
of raw edible portion[4]
Health effects
Prostate cancer
After lung cancer, the second leading cause of male
cancer death is prostate cancer worldwide. Its
progress before onset of symptoms is slow; therefore,
pharmacological and nutritional interventions could
affect the quality of patient’s life by delaying its
It was shown that pomegranate fruit could be used
in the treatment of human prostate cancer because it
could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis.[6] It leads
to induction of pro‑apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak)
and downregulation of anti‑apoptotic proteins (Bcl‑xL
and Bcl‑2).[6] Moreover, the presence of NFκB and cell
viability of prostate cancer cell lines has been inhibited
when using pomegranate fruit extract, because it
blocks NFκB.[7] Polyphenols of fermented juice and
pomegranate oil can inhibit the proliferation of LNCaP
Table 1: Pomegranate’s nutrient values for 100 g of raw edible
Nutrients Units Value per 100 g
Water g 77.93
Energy Kcal 83
Protein g 1.67
Total lipid (fat) g 1.17
Ash g 0.53
Carbohydrates g 18.70
Fiber g 4.0
Sugars, total g 13.67
Calcium Mg 10
Iron Mg 0.3
Magnesium Mg 12
Phosphorus Mg 36
Potassium Mg 236
Sodium Mg 3
Ascorbic acid, total Mg 10.2
Choline, total Mg 7. 6
Adapted from united states department of agriculture (USDA) National nutrient
database for standard reference
Figure 1: Chemical structure of punicic acid (9Z,11E,13Z-octadeca-
9,11,13-trienoic acid)
Figure 2: (a) Flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1, 4-benzopyrone). (b) Tannic acid
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014 3
(epithelial cell line derived from a human prostate
carcinoma), PC‑3, and DU145 human prostate cancer
cell lines. These effects were the result of changes in
cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction.[6] In
addition, it is reported that pomegranate fruit extract
oral administration in nude mice implanted with
decrease in serum prostate‑specic antigen (PSA)
level and inhibited tumor growth.[7] Besides, the
observed increase in NFκB activity during androgen
dependence to androgen independence transition in
the LAPC4xenograft model was terminated.[8]
Breast cancer
Fermented pomegranate juice has double the
antiproliferative effect compared to fresh pomegranate
juice in human breast cancer cell lines MCF‑7 (breast
cancer cell line isolated in 1970 from a 69‑year‑old
Caucasian woman) and MB‑MDA‑231. In addition,
pomegranate seed oil caused 90% prevention of
proliferation of MCF‑7 cells.[9,10]
Lung cancer
Pomegranate fruit extract can inhibit several
signaling pathways, which can be used in the
treatment of human lung cancer. Pathways include
Mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) PI3K/Akt
and NFκB. In addition, there was a 4 day delay in the
appearance of tumors (from 15 to 19 days) in mice
implanted with A549 cells.[10] These studies indicate
the chemopreventive effects of pomegranate fruit
Colon cancer
Adams et al.[11]havereportedtheanti‑inammatory
effects of pomegranate juice on the signaling proteins
in HT‑29 human colon cancer cell line. Reduction
in phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB, its
binding to the NFκB response, and 79% inhibition in
TNF‑α protein expression have been observed with
50 mg/L concentration of pomegranate extract.
Skin cancer
It has been demonstrated that pomegranate oil has
chemopreventive efcacy in mice. Reduced tumor
incidence (7%), decrease in tumor numbers, reduction
in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity (17%),
activator (TPA)‑mediated skin edema and hyperplasia,
protein expression of ODC and COX‑2, and epidermal
ODC activity have been reported with pomegranate
oil treatments.[12,13] Pomegranate extract in various
concentrations (5‑60 mg/L) was effective against UVA‑
and UVB‑induced damage in SKU‑1064 broblast
cells of human, which was relevant in reducing
NFκB transcription, downregulating proapoptotic
caspase‑3, and elevating the G0/G1 phase associated
with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair.[14]
Cardiovascular diseases
Pomegranate juice is an affluent source of
polyphenols with high antioxidative potential.
Moreover, its antiatherogenic, antihypertensive, and
studies in human and murine models.[15]
Hypertension is the most common disease in
primary care of patients. It is found in comorbidity
with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and the
majority of patients do not tend to be medicated.
Pomegranate juice prevents the activity of serum
angiotensin‑converting enzyme and reduces systolic
blood pressure.[16] Angiotensin II acute subcutaneous
administration causes increased blood pressure
in diabetic Wistar rats. It has been shown that
pomegranate juice administration (100 mg/kg)
for 4 weeks could reduce the mean arterial blood
pressure.[17] Pomegranate juice consumption resulted
in 30% decrease in carotid intima‑media thickness
after 1 year. The patient’s serum paraoxonase 1
(PON 1) activity showed 83% increase, whereas both
serum low dwnsity lipoprotein (LDL) basal oxidative
decreased by 90% and 95%, respectively.[18]
Punicic acid, which is the main constituent of
pomegranate seed oil, has antiatherogenic effects. In
a study on 51 hyperlipidemic patients, pomegranate
seed oil was administered twice a day (800 mg/day)
for 4 weeks. There was a significant decrease in
triglycerides (TG) and TG: High density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol ratio by 2.75 mmol/L and 5.7 mmol/L,
respectively, whereas serum cholesterol, LDL‑C, and
glucose concentration remained unchanged.[19]
High plasma LDL concentration is the major risk factor
for atherosclerosis. Therefore, LDL modications,
including oxidation, retention, and aggregation, play
a key role in atherosclerosis as well. Studies have
shown that consuming pomegranate juice for 2 weeks
resulted in declined retention and aggregation of
LDL susceptibility and increased activity of serum
paraoxonase (a protective lipid peroxidation esterase
related to HDL) by 20% in humans. Pomegranate juice
administration in mice for 14 weeks showed reduced
LDL oxidation by peritoneal macrophages by more
than 90%, which was because of reduced cellular lipid
peroxidation and superoxide release. The uptake of
oxidized LDL showed 20% reduction in mice. The
size of atherosclerotic lesions reduced by 44% after
pomegranate juice supplementation.[20] Moreover,
pomegranate juice administration to apolipoprotein
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
4 Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014
E‑decient mice with advanced atherosclerosis for
2 months reduced oxidized LDL (31%) and increased
In cultured human endothelial cells and
hypercholesterolemic mice, both pomegranate juice
and fruit extract reduced the activation of ELK‑1 and
p‑CREB (oxidation‑sensitive responsive genes) and
elevated the expression of endothelial nitric oxide
synthase. It is suggested that polyphenolic antioxidant
compounds in pomegranate juice are responsible for
the reduction of oxidative stress and atherogenesis.[22]
In another study,[23] concentrated pomegranate juice
was shown to reduce heart disease risk factors.
Administration of concentrated pomegranate juice
to 22 diabetic type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia
ratio, and TC: HDL‑C ratio. However, it was unable to
decrease serum TG and HDL‑C concentrations.
Oraladministrationof pomegranateoweraqueous
extract in streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced albino Wistar
rats in both 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for
21days couldsignicantlyreduce brinogen(FBG),
TC, TG, LDL‑C, and tissue lipid peroxidation level
and increased the level of HDL‑C and glutathione
in impairing cardiac function. Endothelin (ET)‑1 and
NFκB are interactive fibroblast growth regulators.
It is suggested that pomegranate flower extract
(500 mg/kg/day) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats could
reduce the ratios of van Gieson‑stained interstitial
collagen deposit area to a total left ventricular area and
perivascular collagen deposit areas to coronary artery
and collagen I and II messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were
inhibited. It also decreased the upregulated cardiac
mRNA expression of ET‑1, ETA, inhibitor‑κBβ, and
peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑α and
γ and improves hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and fatty
heart in diabetic fatty Zucker rats.[25,26]
Punicic acid caused a dose‑dependent increase
in PPAR alpha and gamma reporter activity in
3T3‑L1 cells. Dietary punicic acid reduced plasma
glucose, suppressed NFκB activation and unregulated
TNF‑α expression and PPAR‑α/γ responsive genes in
adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.[27]
Pomegranate leaf extract was administered (400 and
800 mg/kg/day) to high‑fat‑diet‑induced obese and
hyperlipidemic mouse models for 5 weeks. The results
intake (based on food intake), serum total cholesterol
(TC), TG, FBG, and TC/HDL‑C ratio. Intestinal fat
absorption was inhibited as well.[28]
The high fat diet (HFD) with 1% pomegranate seed
oil (rich source of punicic acid) was administered for
12 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance in
mice. The pomegranate seed oil‑fed group exhibited
lower body weight (4%) and body fat mass (3.1%)
compared with only HFD‑fed mice. A clear improvement
was observed in peripheral insulin sensitivity (70%) in
pomegranate seed oil‑administered rats.[29]
Fatty liver is the most common abnormal liver
function among diabetics. Pomegranate ower was
examined for its antidiabetic effects on diabetic type II
and obese Zucker rats. Rats fed with 500 mg/kg/day
of pomegranate ower extract for 6 weeks showed
decreased ratio of liver weight to tibia length, lipid
droplets, and hepatic TG contents. In addition, it
increased PPRA‑α and Acyl‑COA oxidase mRNA levels
in HepG2 cells.[30]
In a study by de Nigris et al.,[31] they compared
the influence of pomegranate fruit extract with
pomegranate juice on nitric oxide and arterial function
in obese Zucker rats. They have demonstrated that
thrombospondin, and cytokine TGFP 1. Increased
plasma nitrite and nitrate were observed with
administration of either pomegranate fruit or juice.
Many studies have reported the anti‑inammatory
potential of pomegranate extract. In a study on 30
Sprague‑Dawley rats with acute inammation due
to myringotomy, it was observed that 100 μl/day
of pomegranate extract could signicantly reduce
reactive‑oxygen species (ROS) levels. The extract was
administered 1 day before and 2 days after surgery.
Reduced thickness of lamina propria and vessel
density was reported as well.[32] Both ellagitannins and
ellagic acid are the main components of pomegranate
extract, which have anti‑inammatory properties.
They are metabolized by gut microbiota to yield
urolithins. It is suggested that urolithins are the main
components responsible for the anti‑inammation
properties of pomegranate. It is suggested that
NFκB activation, MAPK downregulation of COX‑2,
and mPGES‑1 expression were inhibited through a
decrease in PGE2 production.[33] Neutrophils play
key roles in inflammatory processes by releasing
great amounts of ROS generated by NADPH‑oxidase
and myeloperoxidase. It is indicated that punicic
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014 5
acidexhibitedapotent anti‑inammatory effect via
prevention of TNF‑α‑induced priming of NADPH
oxidase by targeting the p38MAPKinase/Ser 345‑p
47 phox‑axis and releasing MPO.[34] Hyperglycemia
results in oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus, which
is a major factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular
disease. Results suggested that pomegranate extract,
owing to its polyphenol‑rich antioxidants (oleanolic,
ursolic, and gallic acids), could prevent cardiovascular
complications through decrease in LDL, increase in
HDL, serum paraoxonase 1 stability and activity, and
nitric oxide production.[35‑37]
The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis
and its major progressive degenerative joint disease,
which could affect joint functions and quality of
life in patients. It is mediated by proinammatory
cytokines such as IL‑1 and TNF‑α. MAPKs are
important due to their inammatory and cartilage
damage regulation.[38] P38‑MAPKs are responsible for
regulating cytokine production, neutrophils activation,
apoptosis, and nitric oxide synthesis. The MAPK family
phosphorylates a number of transcription factors such
as runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX‑2).[39‑41]
Pomegranate extract, with its rich source of
polyphenols, can inhibit IL‑1 β‑induced activation of
MKK3, DNA‑binding activity of RUNX‑2 transcription
factor, and p38 α‑MAPK isoform.[38]
Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease
that affects 0.5‑1% of people worldwide. Women are
Critical mediators in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid
arthritis are TNF‑α, IL‑1 β, MCP1, Inducible nitric
oxide synthase (iNOS), and COX‑2‑agents, which are
stimulated by p38‑MAPK and NFκB activation.[42,43]
It is shown that pomegranate extract could reduce
the onset and incidence of collagen‑induced arthritis
extract‑fed mice.[44]
Antimicrobial/fungal effect
Since bacterial resistance to antimicrobial
drugs is increasing, medicinal plants have been
considered as alternative agents. Pomegranate
has been widely approved for its antimicrobial
properties.[4,45,46] It has been shown that dried
powder of pomegranate peel has a high inhibition
of Candida albicans.[47] In addition, antimicrobial
effects of both methanol and dichloromethane
pomegranate extracts have been demonstrated on
the Candida genus yeast as pathogen‑causing disease
in immunosuppressive host.[48] Methicillin‑resistant
staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin‑sensitive
staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (multiple antibiotics
resistant) produce panta valentine leukocidin (PVL)
toxin, which can lead to higher levels of morbidity
and mortality.[49,50] It is indicated that a combination
of pomegranate peel extract with Cu (II) ions exhibit
enhanced antimicrobial effects against isolated MSSA,
MRSA, and PVL.[51] One of the leading etiological
bacteria of urinary tract infections is Escherichia Coli.
Strong antibacterial activity of ethanol extract against
E. coli has been shown.[52]
Solar ultraviolet radiations are the primary causes of
many biological effects such as photoaging and skin
cancer. These radiations resulted in DNA damage,
protein oxidation, and matrix metalloproteinases
induction. In one study, the effects of pomegranate
juice, extract, and oil were examined against
UVB‑mediated damage. These products caused a
decrease in UVB‑induced protein expression of c‑Fos
and phosphorylation of c‑Jun.[53] On the other hand,
productionofproinammatorycytokinesIL‑1β and IL‑6
was decreased by topical application of 10 micromol/L
of ellagic acid. The inflammatory macrophages
hairless UVB‑exposed mice for 8 weeks.[54]
Dental effects
The interbacterial coaggregations and these bacterial
interactions with yeasts are related to the maintenance
of oral microbiota. It is indicated that dried, powdered
pomegranate peel shows a strong inhibition of
C. albicans with a mean zone of 22 mm.[55] In another
study, the antiplaque effect of pomegranate mouth
rinse has been reported.[56] In addition, hydroalcoholic
extract of pomegranate was very effective against
dental plaque microorganisms (84% decrease
Reproductive system
One of the main constituents (16%) of the methanolic
pomegranate seed extract is beta‑sitosterol. It is
suggested that the extract is a potent phasic activity
stimulator in rat uterus, which happens due to the
non‑estrogenic effects of beta‑sitosterol on inhibiting
sarco‑endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+‑ATPase (SERCA)
and K channel, which resulted in contraction by
calcium entry on L‑type calcium channels and myosin
light chain kinase (MLCK).[58] It is demonstrated
that pomegranate fruit extract has an embryonic
protective nature against adrianycin‑induced oxidative
stress (adrianycin is a chemotherapeutic drug used
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
6 Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014
in cancer treatment).[59] Moreover, pomegranate
juice consumption could increase epididymal sperm
concentration, motility, spermatogenic cell density,
diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal cell
layer thickness.[60]
Hartman et al.[61] showed that mice treated by
pomegranate juice have 50% less soluble Abeta
42 accumulation and amyloid deposition in the
hippocampus, which could be considered for Alzheimer’s
disease improvement.
In the presence of pomegranate fruit rind, the
induced MMP‑9 mRNA levels by haemozoin or
TNF was decreased, which may be attributed to
the antiparasitic activity and the inhibition of the
of cerebral malaria.[62,63]
The anti‑HIV‑1 microbicide of pomegranate juice
blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5,
thereby preventing infection by primary virus clades
A to G and group O.[64]
Wound healing
Use of pomegranate extract and flower showed
signicant reduction in wound area and increased
few inammatory cells.[65,66] Properties of elevated
wound contraction and the period of epithelialization,
collagen, and protein synthesis were reported in
hydroalcoholic pomegranate extract.[67]
Mechanisms of action
Pomegranate can induce its beneficial effects
through its various metabolites. The antioxidant and
antiatherosclerotic potentials of pomegranate are
mainly relevant to the high polyphenol concentrations
in pomegranate fruit such as ellagitannins and
hydrolysable tannins.[68] COX‑1 and COX‑2 enzymes
and IL‑1 β activity can be inhibited by pomegranate
fruit extract.[69]
It is suggested that pomegranate can antagonize
the stimulation of mRNA of MMP‑9 in THP‑1/
monocytes. The whole fruit and compounds inhibit
TNF‑induced MMP‑9 promoter activity.[41] Urolithins
are metabolites that are metabolized by the human
intestinal microora. These compounds decreased
MMP‑9 sretion and mRNA levels induced by HZ or
TNF. It is suggested that ellagitannins are responsible
for the control of excessive production of MMP‑9, which
could result in decreased production of noxious cytokine
TNF.[70] TNF cytokines promote NFκB binding to target
sequences while inducing transcription of several genes
such as the MMP‑9 gene.[71] Ellagitannins prevent NFκB
promoter activity by blocking NFκB‑driven transcription
and affecting the entire cytokine cascade. Ellagitannins
MAPK.[40] In addition, pomegranate compounds could
inhibit angiogenesis through the downregulation of
vascular endothelial growth factor in cancers.[4]
Drug interactions involving pomegranate
would lead to an increase in its consumption.[72] It is
important that pomegranate consumption does not affect
the oral bioavailability of drugs.[73]
A study on human liver microsomes has shown the
inhibitory effect of pomegranate juice on CYP2CP
(a gene that codes for an enzyme to break down
warfarin in the body) and increased bioavailability
of tolbutamide (substrate for CYP2CP) in rats.
Moreover, it is suggested that pomegranate may inhibit
cytochrome P450‑3A (CYP3A)‑mediated carbamazepine
Pomegranate safety
Many studies have been carried out on the different
components derived from pomegranate but no adverse
effects have been reported in the examined dosage.
Histopathological studies on both sexes of OF‑1 mice
confirmed the non‑toxic effects of the polyphenol
antioxidant punicalagin. Besides, in a study on 86
overweight human subjects who received 1420 mg/day
of pomegranate fruit extract in tablet form for 28 days,
no side effects or adverse changes in urine or blood of
individuals were reported.[4,76]
Products and supplementation
Apart from fruit, pomegranate is available in various
forms such as bottled juice (fresh or concentrated),
powdered capsules, and tablets, which are derived from
seed, fermented juice, peel, leaf and ower, gelatin
capsules of seed oil extracts, dry or beverage tea from
leaves or seeds, and other food productions such as jams,
jellies, sauces, salad dressings, and vinegars. Anardana,
which is the powdered form of pomegranate seed, is used
as a form of spice.[3]
Pomegranate is a potent antioxidant. This fruit is rich
alkaloids, fructose, sucrose, glucose, simple organic
acids, and other components and has antiatherogenic,
antihypertensive, and anti‑inammatory properties.
Pomegranate can be used in the prevention and
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014 7
treatment of several types of cancer, cardiovascular
disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other
diseases. In addition, it improves wound healing and is
various bioavailable constituents and metabolites on
gene expression. Although many in vitro, animal and
clinical trials have been carried out to examine and
prove the therapeutic effects of these compounds, further
human trials and studies are necessary to understand
the therapeutic potentials of pomegranate.
1. Ercisli S, Gadze J, Agar G, Yildirim N, Hizarci Y. Genetic relationships among
wild pomegranate (
Punica granatum
) genotypes from Coruh Valley in Turkey.
Genet Mol Res 2011;10:459‑64.
2. Newman R. A wealth of phtochemicals. Pomegranate: The Most Medicinal
Fruit (Large Print 16pt). Sydney, Australia: Readhowyouwant; 2011. p. 184.
3. Newman RA, Lansky EP, Block ML.‑A Wealth of Phytochemicals. Pomegranate:
The Most Medicinal Fruit. Laguna Beach, California: Basic Health Publications;
2007. p. 120.
4. USDA 2010. Pomegranates, Raw. United States Department of Agriculture. [Accessed September 2010].Jurenka JS. Therapeutic
applications of pomegranate (
Punica granatum
L.): A review. Altern Med Rev
5. Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S, Adhami VM, Syed DN, Mukhtar H. Pomegranate
fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl
Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:14813‑8.
6. Rettig MB, Heber D, An J, Seeram NP, Rao JY, Liu H,
et al
. Pomegranate
extract inhibits androgen‑independent prostate cancer growth through a nuclear
factor‑kappaB‑dependent mechanism. Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7:2662‑71.
7. Albrecht M, Jiang W, Kumi‑Diaka J, Lansky EP, Gommersall LM, Patel A,
et al
Pomegranate extracts potently suppress proliferation, xenograft growth, and
invasion of human prostate cancer cells. J Med Food 2004;7:274‑83.
8. Kim ND, Mehta R, Yu W, Neeman I, Livney T, Amichay A,
et al
. Chemopreventive
and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (
Punica granatum
) for
human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002;71:203‑17.
9. Mehta R, Lansky EP. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of
pomegranate (
Punica granatum
) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ
culture. Eur J Cancer Prev 2004;13:345‑8.
10. Khan N, Hadi N, Afaq F, Syed DN, Kweon MH, Mukhtar H. Pomegranate fruit
extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and
tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:163‑73.
11. Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, Takada Y, Sand D, Heber D. Pomegranate
juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inammatory
cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:980‑5.
12. Hora JJ, Maydew ER, Lansky EP, Dwivedi C. Chemopreventive effects of
pomegranate seed oil on skin tumor development in CD1 mice. J Med Food
13. Syed DN, Malik A, Hadi N, Sarfaraz S, Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Photochemopreventive
effect of pomegranate fruit extract on UVA‑mediated activation of cellular
pathways in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Photochem Photobiol
14. Pacheco‑Palencia LA, Noratto G, Hingorani L, Talcott ST, Mertens‑Talcott SU.
Protective effects of standardized pomegranate (
Punica granatum
polyphenolic extract in ultraviolet‑irradiated human skin broblasts. J Agric
Food Chem 2008;56:8434‑41.
15. Gil MI, Tomás‑Barberán FA, Hess‑Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant
activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and
processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:4581‑9.
16. Stowe CB. The effects of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure
and cardiovascular health. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2011;17: 113‑5.
17. Mohan M, Waghulde H, Kasture S. Effect of pomegranate juice on
Angiotensin II‑induced hypertension in diabetic Wistar rats. Phytother Res
18. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, Nitecki S, Hoffman A, Dornfeld L,
et al
Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery
stenosis reduces common carotid intima‑media thickness, blood pressure
and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 2004;23:423‑33.
19. Mirmiran P, Fazeli MR, Asghari G, Shaee A, Azizi F. Effect of pomegranate
seed oil on hyperlipidaemic subjects: A double‑blind placebo‑controlled clinical
trial. Br J Nutr 2010;104:402‑6.
20. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, Volkova N, Kaplan M, Coleman R,
et al
. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic
modications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: Studies in humans and in
atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E‑decient mice. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1062‑76.
21. Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A, Coleman R, Dornfeld L, Vaya J,
et al
. Pomegranate
juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduces macrophage
lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of
atherosclerosis. J Nutr 2001;131:2082‑9.
22. de Nigris F, Williams‑Ignarro S, Sica V, Lerman LO, D’Armiento FP,
Byrns RE,
et al
. Effects of a pomegranate fruit extract rich in punicalagin on
oxidation‑sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress
and atherogenesis. Cardiovasc Res 2007;73:414‑23.
23. Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, Gaieni I, Alavi‑Majd H, Azadbakht L.
Cholesterol‑lowering effect of concentrated pomegranate juice consumption
in type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Int J Vitam Nutr Res
24. Bagri P, Ali M, Aeri V, Bhowmik M, Sultana S. Antidiabetic effect of
owers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation
and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol
25. Huang TH, Yang Q, Harada M, Li GQ, Yamahara J, Roufogalis BD,
et al
Pomegranate ower extract diminishes cardiac brosis in Zucker diabetic fatty
rats: Modulation of cardiac endothelin‑1 and nuclear factor‑kappaB pathways.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005;46:856‑62.
26. Huang TH, Peng G, Kota BP, Li GQ, Yamahara J, Roufogalis BD,
et al
Pomegranate ower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model:
Role of lowering circulating lipids. Br J Pharmacol 2005;145:767‑74.
27. Hontecillas R, O’Shea M, Einerhand A, Diguardo M, Bassaganya‑Riera J.
Activation of PPAR gamma and alpha by punicic acid ameliorates glucose
tolerance and suppresses obesity‑related inammation. J Am Coll Nutr
28. Lei F, Zhang XN, Wang W, Xing DM, Xie WD, Su H, DU LJ. Evidence of
anti‑obesity effects of the pomegranate leaf extract in high‑fat diet induced
obese mice. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31:1023‑9.
29. Vroegrijk, IO, van Diepen JA, van den Berg S, Westbroek I, Keizer H,
Gambelli L. Pomegranate Seed Oil, a rich source of Punicic Acid, prevents
diet‑induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Food Chem Toxicol
30. Xu KZ, Zhu C, Kim MS, Yamahara J, Li Y. Pomegranate ower ameliorates
fatty liver in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. J Ethnopharmacol
31. de Nigris F, Balestrieri ML, Williams‑Ignarro S, D’Armiento FP, Fiorito C,
Ignarro LJ,
et al
. The inuence of pomegranate fruit extract in comparison to
regular pomegranate juice and seed oil on nitric oxide and arterial function in
obese Zucker rats. Nitric Oxide 2007;17:50‑4.
32. Kahya V, Meric A, Yazici M, Yuksel M, Midi A, Gedikli O. Antioxidant effect
of pomegranate extract in reducing acute inammation due to myringotomy.
J Laryngol Otol 2011;1:370‑5.
33. González‑Sarrías A, Larrosa M, Tomás‑Barberán FA, Dolara P, Espín JC.
NF‑kappaB‑dependent anti‑inammatory activity of urolithins, gut microbiota
ellagic acid‑derived metabolites, in human colonic broblasts. Br J Nutr
34. Boussetta T, Raad H, Lettéron P, Gougerot‑Pocidalo MA, Marie JC, Driss F,
et al
Punicic acid a conjugated linolenic acid inhibits TNFalpha‑induced neutrophil
hyperactivation and protects from experimental colon inammation in rats.
PLoS One 2009;4:e6458.
Zarfeshany and Asgary: Pomegranate health effects
8 Advanced Biomedical Research | 2014
Source of Support: Nil, Conict of Interest: None declared.
35. Katz SR, Newman RA, Lansky EP.
Punica granatum
: Heuristic treatment for
diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 2007;10:213‑7.
36. Rock W, Rosenblat M, Miller‑Lotan R, Levy AP, Elias M, Aviram M. Consumption
of wonderful variety pomegranate juice and extract by diabetic patients
increases paraoxonase 1 association with high‑density lipoprotein and
stimulates its catalytic activities. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:8704‑13.
37. Fenercioglu AK, Saler T, Genc E, Sabuncu H, Altuntas Y. The effects of
polyphenol‑containing antioxidants on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation
in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications. J Endocrinol Invest
38. Rasheed Z, Akhtar N, Haqqi TM. Pomegranate extract inhibits the
interleukin‑1b‑induced activation of MKK‑3, p38a‑MAPK and transcription
factor RUNX‑2 in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.‑Arthritis Res Ther
39. Lee JC, Laydon JT, McDonnell PC, Gallagher TF, Kumar S, Green D. A protein
kinase involved in the regulation of inammatory cytokine biosynthesis. Nature
40. Kumar S, Votta BJ, Rieman DJ, Badger AM, Gowen M, Lee JC. IL‑1‑ and
TNF‑induced bone resorption is mediated by p38 mitogen activated protein
kinase. J Cell Physiol 2001;187:294‑303.
41. Loeser RF, Erickson EA, Long DL. Mitogen‑activated protein kinases as
therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2008;20:581‑6.
42. Hayden MS, Ghosh S. Signaling to NF‑B. Genes Dev 2004;18:2195.
43. Schieven GL. The biology of p38 kinase: A central role in inammation. Curr
Top Med Chem 2005;5:921‑8.
44. Shukla M, Gupta K, Rasheed Z, Khan KA, Haqqi TM. Bioavailable constituents/
metabolites of pomegranate (
Punica granatum
L) preferentially inhibit COX2
ex vivo
and IL‑1beta‑induced PGE2 production in human chondrocytes
in vitro
. J Inamm (Lond) 2008;5:9.
45. Lansky E, Shubert, S, Neeman I. Pharmacological and therapeutic properties
of pomegranate. Israel: CIHEAM‑Options Mediterraneennes; 2004;42:231‑5.
46. Satish S, Mohana D, Ranhavendra M, Raveesha K. Antifungal activity of
some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus
sp. J Agric Sci Technol 2007;3:109‑19.
47. Mithun P, Prashant G, Murlikrishna K, Shivakumar K, Chandu G. Antifungal
efcacy of
Punica granatum
Acacia nilotica
Cuminum cyminum
Foeniculum vulgare
Candida albicans
: An
in vitro
study. Indian J Dent Res
48. Höing JF, Anibal PC, Obando‑Pereda GA, Peixoto IA, Furletti VF, Foglio MA,
Goncalves RB. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida
species. Braz J Biol 2010;70:1065‑8.
49. Ferrara AM. Treatment of hospital‑acquired pneumonia caused by
Staphylococcus aureus
. Int J Antimicrob Agents
50. Wenzel RP, Bearman G, Edmond MB. Community‑acquired methicillin‑resistant
staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA): New issues for infection control. Int J
Antimicrob Agents 2007;30:210‑2.
51. Gould SW, Fielder MD, Kelly AF, Naughton DP. Anti‑microbial activities of
pomegranate rind extracts: Enhancement by cupric sulphate against clinical
isolates of
S. aureus
, MRSA and PVL positive CA‑MSSA. BMC Complement
Altern Med 2009;9:23.
52. Sharma M, Li L, Celver J, Killian C, Kovoor A, Seeram NP. Effects of fruit
ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on
Wnt signaling. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:3965‑9.
53. Afaq F, Zaid MA, Khan N, Dreher M, Mukhtar H. Protective effect of
pomegranate‑derived products on UVB‑mediated damage in human
reconstituted skin. Exp Dermatol 2009;18:553‑61.
54. Bae JY, Choi JS, Kang SW, Lee YJ, Park J, Kang YH. Dietary compound ellagic
acid alleviates skin wrinkle and inammation induced by UV‑B irradiation. Exp
Dermatol 2010;19:e182‑90.
55. Pai MB, Prashant GM, Murlikrishna KS, Shivakumar KM, Chandu GN.
Antifungal efcacy of
Punica granatum
Acacia nilotica
Cuminum cyminum
Foeniculum vulgare
Candida albicans
: An
in vitro
study. Indian J Dent
Res 2010;21:334‑6.
56. Bhadbhade SJ, Acharya AB, Rodrigues SV, Thakur SL. The antiplaque efcacy
of pomegranate mouthrinse. Quintessence Int 2011;42:29‑36.
57. Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS.
Punica granatum
(pomegranate) extract
is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6:79‑92.
58. Promprom W, Kupittayanant P, Indrapichate K, Wray S, Kupittayanant S.
The effects of pomegranate seed extract and beta‑sitosterol on rat uterine
contractions. Reprod Sci 2010;17:288‑96.
59. Kishore RK, Sudhakar D, Parthasarathy PR. Embryo protective effect of
pomegranate (
Punica granatum
L.) fruit extract in adriamycin‑induced oxidative
stress. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2009;46:106‑11.
60. Türk G, Sönmez M, Aydin M, Yüce A, Gür S, Yüksel M,
et al
. Effects of
pomegranate juice consumption on sperm quality, spermatogenic cell
density, antioxidant activity and testosterone level in male rats. Clin Nutr
61. Hartman RE, Shah A, Fagan AM, Schwetye KE, Parsadanian M, Schulman RN,
et al
. Pomegranate juice decreases amyloid load and improves behavior in a
mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Dis 2006;24:506‑15.
62. Dell’Agli M, Galli GV, Corbett Y, Taramelli D, Lucantoni L, Habluetzel A,
et al
Antiplasmodial activity of
Punica granatum
L. fruit rind. J Ethnopharmacol
63. Dell’agli M, Galli GV, Bulgari M, Basilico N, Romeo S, Bhattacharya D,
et al
Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (
Punica granatum
) antagonize
in vitro
the host inammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of
malaria. Malar J 2010;9:208.
64. Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY, Debnath AK.
Punica granatum
juice provides an HIV‑1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide. Ann
N Y Acad Sci 2005;1056:311‑27.
65. Pirbalouti AG, Azizi S, Koohpayeh A, Hamedi B. Wound healing activity of
Malva sylvestris and
Punica granatum
in alloxan‑induced diabetic rats. Acta
Pol Pharm 2010;67:511‑6.
66. Pirbalouti AG, Koohpayeh A, Karimi I. The wound healing activity of ower
extracts of
Punica granatum
and Achillea kellalensis in Wistar rats. Acta Pol
Pharm 2010;67:107‑10.
67. Hayouni E, Miled K, Boubaker S, Bellasfar Z, Abedrabba M, Iwaski H.
Hydroalcoholic extract based‑ointment from
Punica granatum
L. peels
with enhanced
in vivo
healing potential on dermal wounds. Phytomedicine
68. Gil MI, Tomás‑Barberán FA, Hess‑Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant
activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition
and processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:4581‑9.
69. Tao X, Schulze‑Koops H, Ma L, Cai J, Mao Y, Lipsky PE. Effects of Tripterygium
wilfordii hook F extracts on induction of cyclooxygenase 2 activity and
prostaglandin E2 production. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:130‑8.
70. Cerdá, B, Cerón JJ, Tomás‑Barberán FA, Espín JC. Repeated oral
administration of high doses of the pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to
rats for 37 days is not toxic. J Agric Food 2003;51:3493‑501.
71. Prescott SM, Fitzpatrick FA. Cyclooxygenase‑2 and carcinogenesis. Biochim
Biophys Acta 2000;1470: 69‑78.
72. Mena P, Girones‑Vilaplana A, Moreno Diego A, García‑Viguera C.
Pomegranate fruit for health promotion: Myths and realities. Funct Plant Sci
Biotechnol 2011;5:33‑42.
73. Shravan Kumar Y, Adukondalu D, Bhargavi Latha A, Vamshi Vishnu Y,
Ramesh G, Shiva Kumar R,
et al
. Effect of pomegranate pretreatment on the
oral bioavailability of buspirone in male albino rabbits. Daru 2011;19:266‑9.
74. Nagata M, Hidaka M, Sekiya H, Kawano Y, Yamasaki K, Okumura M,
et al
Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome P450 2C9 and tolbutamide
pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metab Dispos 2007;35:302‑5.
75. Misaka S, Nakamura R, Uchida S, Takeuchi K, Takahashi N, Inui N,
et al
. Effect
of 2 weeks’ consumption of pomegranate juice on the pharmacokinetics of a
single dose of midazolam: An open‑label, randomized, single‑center, 2‑period
crossover study in healthy Japanese volunteers. Clin Ther 2011;33:246‑52.
76. Vidal A, Fallarero A, Peña BR, Medina ME, Gra B, Rivera F,
et al
. Studies
on the toxicity of
Punica granatum
L. (
) whole fruit extracts.
J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:295‑300.
... ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; Φ, impairment; β, beta; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; COX-2, cyclooxygenase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; NO, nitric oxide; PMACI, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PTGES, prostaglandin E synthase. [36,37,39,48] Tannic acid Peel Anti-obesity and antioxidant [34,[50][51][52] Punicalagin Peel, flower, seeds, juice, and fruit Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory [8,32,[36][37][38][39]46,49] Urolithin A Polyphenol ellagitannin-gut microbial-derived metabolite ...
... Anti-obesity and antiinflammatory [53][54][55][56][57] Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory [8,32,[36][37][38][39]46,49] Urolithin A Polyphenol ellagitannin-gut microbial-derived metabolite Nutrients 2022, 14, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 20 ...
... Epicatechin Peel Anti-inflammatory [36,37,39,48] Tannic acid Peel Anti-obesity and antioxidant [34,[50][51][52] Punicalagin Peel, flower, seeds, juice, and fruit Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory [8,32,[36][37][38][39]46,49] Urolithin A Polyphenol ellagitannin-gut microbial-derived metabolite ...
Full-text available
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) can be considered a multipurpose medicinal and dietary plant due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Pomegranate can be used to prevent or treat metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. Although previously published reviews addressed the effects of pomegranate on different diseases, there is no systematic review that exclusively focuses on clinical trials related to all MetS-related risk factors. In view of this limitation, the objective of this up to-date, comprehensive, and systematic review is to critically evaluate the potential of pomegranate (P. granatum) on various MetS risk factors on the basis of clinical studies. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, COCHRANE, and Clinical databases were searched on 15 October 2021. The Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines were followed, and the bias risk evaluation was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We identified 5683 studies in the databases. After removing the duplicates, 3418 studies remained. Of these, 147 studies met the eligibility criteria, and finally, only 20 were included in the qualitative analysis. The included studies suggest that pomegranate can be beneficial to reduce body weight, blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Moreover, it can augment high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improve insulin resistance. Although relevant effects were observed, additional well designed clinical trials are needed to determine the correct formulations and doses to be used to prevent or treat MetS components.
... In addition, there are also other flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin glycosides, catechins, anthocyanins, and complex flavonoids [20,22]. These bioactive compounds are responsible for many pharmacological properties, notably their significant antioxidant activity and antibacterial characteristics [18,23]. Total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity against various microbes have been highly correlated [24]. ...
... Three methods were adopted in our approach to measure antioxidant activity: DPPH• radical scavenging activity, 2,2 -and-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant capacity (FRAP) [22,23]. Trolox, which is 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid, was used as a standard. ...
Full-text available
We are now seeing an increase in the production of agri-food waste, which is an essential resource for the recovery of bioactive compounds that may be employed as innovative natural ingredients in cosmetics. To date, the approach to cosmetics preservation has seen a significant shift in the search for biological components that give healthier alternatives for customers and help businesses operate in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this goal, we studied pomegranate extracts using the peel and, for the first time, extracts from the male flowers of a wide pomegranate variety cultivated in the Marche region, specifically, the Wonderful, Mollar de Elche, Parfianka, and less-studied G1 varieties. We studied the phenol compounds profile, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, and cell viability of the obtained pomegranate extracts. The identification and quantification of phenol compounds belonging to different classes, such as hydrolysable tannins, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroflavonol, gallocatechin, and anthocyanins, were performed using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Punicalagin isomers and punicalin resulted in the most abundant polyphenols found in the peel and male flower extracts. Mollar de Elche 2020 peel extract revealed a high concentration of punicalagin A and B (7206.4 mg/kg and 5812.9), while the content of gallic acid revealed high results in the G1 and Parfianka varieties. All extracts were spectrophotometrically analysed to determine their total phenol content (TPC) using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and their antioxidant capacity (AC). In terms of the total phenol obtained by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method, Mollar de Elche 2020 extracts reported the highest TPC content of 12.341 µmol GAE/g. Results revealed that the Mollar de Elche and Wonderful 2020 peel extracts demonstrated the highest TPC and AC. Furthermore, AC results indicated that the peel extracts displayed higher AC than the male flower extract due to the high punicalagin content detected by UPLC analysis. The antimicrobial activity testing revealed that the Wonderful and G1 2020 peel extracts resulted active against Escherichia coli, while all extracts exhibited promising anticandidal activity. Additionally, the cytocompatibility was evaluated in keratinocytes HaCaT cells by testing concentrations of pomegranate extracts ranging from 0.15 to 5.00 mg/mL. Extracts were non-toxic for the cells in the tested concentration range. The acquired results may help exploit pomegranate agri-food waste products provided by the Marche region’s short supply chain for their use as an antimicrobial and antioxidant booster in the formulation of cosmetic products.
... It was also used as an antipyretic 7 . On the will be some components of the Pomegranate like to the polyphénols with antioxydants, anti-inflammatoires and potontiel anti-cancérigènes 8,9 In addition, In vitro studies reported that Punica granatum L. peel and seed extracts have antimicrobial activity as they are rich in phenolic compounds 10,11 . Chemical studies on pomegranate suggested that it contains different phytochemicals. ...
Full-text available
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit endowed with therapeutic properties that is widely consumed as fresh fruit. Several works have demonstrated how this fruit acts as antioxidant, antidiabetic. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the functional properties of this fruit, which is a contribution to the valorization in a medical, industrial and pharmaceutical context of pomegranate peel relying on the evaluation of natural compounds which can be beneficial for the consumer. Pomegranate peels varieties were chosen in this study. The morphological studies were conducted in different varieties according to the geographical location, such as Italy Wonderful (E1), France Provence (E2), Morocco Sefri (E3) and two local varieties Algerian (L1) and ( L2) respectively, Skikda and Sidi Bel Abbés local variety, were subjected to extraction using the solvent (water and ethanol). The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP test) and total phenolic contents, flavonoids and tanins were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 70 % ethanol: in local Skikda variety (L1) (33.7 %). The results also showed that the extract of pomegranate skin Punica granatum L. is very rich in total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively obtained for the variety of France with values of (270,14 ± 11,04 mg EAG / g) and (30.84 ± 4.66 mg EC / g) (22.67 ± 2.51 mg EAG / g). Our results reveal that all the extracts have a good antioxidant activity whose IC50 varies between 35,90 ± 26,62 and 121,63 ± 0,77 μg / ml compared to the different varieties studied. The pomegranate bark is rich in potassium, an important source of polyphenols, which are nutritional components found in plants that actively fight against free radicals. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Polyphenols, Pomegranate bark, Punica granatum.l
... Although pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has an ancient origin, it is considered an emerging crop because of the beneficial effects that its fruit might have on consumers' health, given its high content in polyphenols with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects (Zarfeshany et al. 2014). Moreover, pomegranate tree is adaptive to a wide range of climate and soil conditions, and this has facilitated the spreading of its cultivation (Chandra et al. 2010). ...
Full-text available
The fungal genus Alternaria is a relevant pathogen for several commodities including citrus and pomegranate fruits. On citrus, it mainly causes brown spots on fruits and leaves, whereas on pomegranate, it mostly causes a fruit heart rot. In the present study the presence of Alternaria rots on citrus and pomegranate fruits cultivated in Albania was assessed. Representative fruits were collected from different regions. Nineteen and thirteen Alternaria spp. isolates were obtained from pomegranate and citrus samples, respectively. The isolates were identified at species and morphotype level. Micro and macroscopic features separated isolates into four morphotypes. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis using the SCAR Marker OPA1-3 confirmed the isolate identity. All 32 isolates proved to be Alternaria alternata and belonged mainly to morphotype alternata , followed by limoniasperae and tenuissima . All Alternaria strains proved to possess the pksI gene of alternariol biosynthesis. Citrus isolates were tested for the presence of genes of the biosynthesis of the phytotoxins ACT and ACR, but none of them proved to possess them. Concluding, Alternaria spp. might represent a treat to pomegranate and citrus production in Albania, and thus effective control means are needed.
... The Bible tells us that herbs are placed on earth for the healing of men. For example, Punica granatum or pomegranate has long been used in herbal medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammation and rheumatism (Zarfeshany et al., 2014). In Ayurvedic medicine, pomegranate is considered "a pharmacy unto itself", where the whole plant can be used to cure diseases (Jurenka, 2008). ...
Cancer is one of the most important reasons for death worldwide. Cancer illness is increasing at a world-wide scale, signifying that the current cancer treatments need to be revisited to improve their efficacy and the development of less adverse toxicity drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective and less toxic anticancer agents. The role of medicinal plants as a future anticancer medicine was obtained from the literature. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the role of medicinal plants as a future anticancer medicine. Furthermore, we discuss the ancient’s science of medicinal plants from an Ayurveda perspective, recent findings on the anticancer activity of medicinal plants, the role of plants polyphenol or phytochemical as an antioxidant, fingerprint for new drug development, and anticancer agent. It is projected that up to four billion people (representing 80% of the world’s population) living in the third-world countries depend on herbal medicinal remedies as the main source of their health care. No science has been able to develop medicines, better than those prepared by Mother Nature especially medicinal plants. In reality, some of the most active cancer drugs available today were resulting from natural products. There are many miracle drugs in the science of medicine of the ancients which can be utilized for modern-day diseases. The phytochemicals of medicinal plants either as pure compound(s), active fractions or standardized extract are possibly important candidates for the development of novel anticancer therapeutic agents. Hence, it is paramount important to revisit the role of medicinal plants as a future anticancer medicine.
... Pomegranate polyphenols have antioxidant properties, as they indirectly inhibit inflammatory markers. They also present anti-carcinogenic effects [78,79]. Pomegranate extracts seem to have a beneficial effect on changes characteristic of MetS, as confirmed by the findings from the available studies. ...
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disease that has a complex etiology. It is defined as the co-occurrence of several pathophysiological disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MetS is currently a severe problem in the public health care system. As its prevalence increases every year, it is now considered a global problem among adults and young populations. The treatment of choice comprises lifestyle changes based mainly on diet and physical activity. Therefore, researchers have been attempting to discover new substances that could help reduce or even reverse the symptoms when added to food. These attempts have resulted in numerous studies. Many of them have investigated the bioactive potential of polyphenols as a “possible remedy”, stemming from their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and properties normalizing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Polyphenols may be supportive in preventing or delaying the onset of MetS or its complications. Additionally, the consumption of food rich in polyphenols should be considered as a supplement for antidiabetic drugs. To ensure the relevance of the studies on polyphenols’ properties, mechanisms of action, and potential human health benefits, researchers have used laboratory animals displaying pathophysiological changes specific to MetS. Polyphenols or their plant extracts were chosen according to the most advantageous mitigation of pathological changes in animal models best reflecting the components of MetS. The present paper comprises an overview of animal models of MetS, and promising polyphenolic compounds whose bioactive potential, effect on metabolic pathways, and supplementation-related benefits were analyzed based on in vivo animal models.
... Pomegranate has been used since ancient times for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, has strong antioxidant activity, and is rich in anthocyanins, tannins and unique punicalagin. Studies have shown that pomegranate fruit and its juice, extracts and oils are able to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-tumor effects by modulating multiple signaling pathways [31][32][33][34]. ...
Full-text available
Members of the sugars will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET) family regulate the transport of different sugars through the cell membrane and control the distribution of sugars inside and outside the cell. The SWEET gene family also plays important roles in plant growth and development and physiological processes. So far, there are no reports on the SWEET family in pomegranate. Meanwhile, pomegranate is rich in sugar, and three published pomegranate genome sequences provide resources for the study of the SWEET gene family. 20 PgSWEETs from pomegranate and the known Arabidopsis and grape SWEETs were divided into four clades (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ) according to the phylogenetic relationships. PgSWEETs of the same clade share similar gene structures, predicting their similar biological functions. RNA-Seq data suggested that PgSWEET genes have a tissue-specific expression pattern. Foliar application of tripotassium phosphate significantly increased the total soluble sugar content of pomegranate fruits and leaves and significantly affected the expression levels of PgSWEETs. The plant growth hormone regulator assay also significantly affected the PgSWEETs expression both in buds of bisexual and functional male flowers. Among them, we selected PgSWEET17a as a candidate gene that plays a role in fructose transport in leaves. The 798 bp CDS sequence of PgSWEET17a was cloned, which encodes 265 amino acids. The subcellular localization of PgSWEET17a showed that it was localized to the cell membrane, indicating its involvement in sugar transport. Transient expression results showed that tobacco fructose content was significantly increased with the up-regulation of PgSWEET17a, while both sucrose and glucose contents were significantly down-regulated. The integration of the PgSWEET phylogenetic tree, gene structure and RNA-Seq data provide a genome-wide trait and expression pattern. Our findings suggest that tripotassium phosphate and plant exogenous hormone treatments could alter PgSWEET expression patterns. These provide a reference for further functional verification and sugar metabolism pathway regulation of PgSWEETs.
... Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae), one of the oldest fruits with medicinal properties has long been used to treat a multitude of disease conditions including chronic pain 14,15 . P. granatum has been used as a traditional remedy to treat sore throat, cough, digestive and skin disorders, urinary infection, arthritis and expel tape-worm. ...
Full-text available
Punica granatum L. has been used as a traditional remedy to treat sore throat, cough, digestive and skin disorders, urinary infection, arthritis and expel tape-worm. Modern research focuses on its use on arthritis, diabetes and cancer. The present study was conducted to identify the bioactive phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (PGP) through GC-MS to illustrate its proliferation, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in an established in vitro primary cultured chondrocyte. The cells were treated with 25 μM indomethacin, positive control and different concentration of PGP in the absence or presence of different inhibitors such as (H 2 O 2 for ROS production and sodium nitroprusside [SNP] for nitric oxide [NO] induced cell death). The cell viability assay and cell cycle analysis were performed to study the proliferation of cells. Oxidative stress was measured as intracellular ROS and anti-apoptotic activities were studied through nuclear staining assays like DAPI and PI-Exclusion staining. The GC-MS result indicates the presence various antioxidants such as kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, vitamin C and lycopene. The PGP treatment on chondrocytes shows increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis through the reduction of oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner. The rise in the total number of chondrocytes at higher doses of PGP was significant (p<0.05) as compared to indomethacin (positive control) treated cells. The findings suggest that PGP exhibits therapeutic antioxidant potential due to the presence of bioactive components regulating oxidative stress , promoting the chondrocytes proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis of chondrocytes.
Full-text available
Introduction: Dadima (Pomegranate/Punica granatum), considered to be one among Nitya Sevaniya Ahara (balance diet/wholesome daily food) and used as both Ahara (food) as well as Aushadha (medicine). Methods: The study was an open labelled double arm clinical at tertiary Ayurveda healthcare centre attached to a teaching institute, situated at the district headquarters in South India. Total of 51 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected through convenient sampling method. In Dadima group (study group) 22 samples were included and in Pathya (diet) group (control group) 29 samples were included. They were administered with Dadima Swarasa (Fresh Pomegranate juice), 30ml once in a day at morning before food or Pathya (diet) for 7days. Results: The effect of therapy was assessed for signs and symptom and haemoglobin% before and after treatment. Dadima group showed statistical significance after 7 days of treatment. While comparing the effect in between the groups of Dadima and Pathya it showed no significant difference. Keywords: Dadima, Diet, Nutritional anaemia, Pandu, Pathya, Pomegranate Received 19th April
Full-text available
Dry pomegranate peel was extracted with acetone and the extract was added to a Phillips type polyethylene. The concentration of the extract was changed from 0 to 1000 ppm in six steps and stabilization efficiency was checked by the multiple extrusion of the polymer followed by the characterization of chemical structure, processing, and residual stability. The results confirmed the excellent processing stabilization efficiency of the extract, but also the poor long-term stability of PE containing it in accordance with previously published results. The extract is amorphous and its solubility is relatively large in the polymer; thus, these factors cannot be the reason for the poor stabilization efficiency in an oxygen-rich environment. Chemical factors like the self-interaction of the polyphenol molecules, the stability of the radicals forming after hydrogen abstraction, and the lack of hydrogens with the necessary reactivity must be considered during the evaluation of the efficiency of the extract. These factors as well as the insufficient number of active hydrogens hinder the reaction of the additive molecules with oxygen-centered radicals, thus leading to inferior long-term stability. The extract can be used for the processing stabilization of polymers, but for applications requiring long-term stability, it must be combined with other natural antioxidants like flavonoids or Vitamin E.
Full-text available
The transcription factor NF-kappaB has been the focus of intense investigation for nearly two decades. Over this period, considerable progress has been made in determining the function and regulation of NF-kappaB, although there are nuances in this important signaling pathway that still remain to be understood. The challenge now is to reconcile the regulatory complexity in this pathway with the complexity of responses in which NF-kappaB family members play important roles. In this review, we provide an overview of established NF-kappaB signaling pathways with focus on the current state of research into the mechanisms that regulate IKK activation and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity.
Full-text available
Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs. Binding of the pyridinyl-imidazole compounds inhibited CSBP kinase activity and could be directly correlated with their ability to inhibit cytokine production, suggesting that the CSBPs are critical for cytokine production.
Full-text available
2007). Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp. Journal of Agricultural Technology 3(1): 109-119. Aqueous extract of fifty-two plants from different families were tested for their antifungal potential against eight important species of Aspergillus such as A. candidus, A. columnaris, A. flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, and A. tamarii which isolated from sorghum, maize and paddy seed samples. The test fungi were mainly associated with seed biodeterioration during storage. Among fifty-two plants tested, aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica, Achras zapota, Datura stramonium, Emblica officinalis, Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Mimusops elengi, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Polyalthia longifolia, Prosopis juliflora, Punica granatum and Sygigium cumini have recorded significant antifungal activity against one or the other Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded high susceptibility and hence solvent extracts viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of all the twelve plants were tested for their antifungal activity against it. Among the solvent extracts tested, methanol gave more effective than ethanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether, except for Polyalthia longifolia, where petroleum ether extract recorded highly significant antifungal activity than other solvent extracts.
Full-text available
Back ground and the purpose of study Many drug substances and variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components are capable of interaction with the CYP enzyme system. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pretreatment on the bioavailability of buspirone in rabbits. Methods White New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.1±0.13 Kg were selected for study. The bioavailability of buspirone after pre-treatment with pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg−1 for seven days) was compared with an oral solution of 10 mg kg−1 of buspirone in distilled water. Animals were allowed free access to food and water, until night prior to dosing and were fasted for 10 hrs. In the first phase oral solution (10 mg kg−1) was administered through feeding tube followed by rinsing with 10 ml of water. In the second phase, the group was pretreated with pomegranate juice for 7 days and study was conducted after 15 days of washout period. Results and conclusion The results showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the bioavailability of buspirone after pre-treatment with pomegranate juice.This increase in bioavailability might be due to inhibition of CYP3A4. Further studies are required to prove this mechanism in humans.
The role of pomegranate on folk medicine has been largely established and in recent years a notable increase of scientific support has occurred. However, what is real? Evidence suggests that phenolic phytochemicals of pomegranate fruit, mainly anthocyanins and ellagitannins, could exert multiple therapeutic properties on health management as playing an essential role in oxidative stress balance, preventing important cardiovascular diseases, and fighting as chemoprotective agent against several kinds of cancer. In addition, pomegranate antioxidant bioactives also could possess a role as neuroprotectors in some neurological disorders just as broad antimicrobial activities among other beneficial implications. Regarding promising prospects of pomegranate phenolics, this review summarizes the available scientific information related to health promotion features of pomegranate-derived products and underlines the influence of multiple constituents on the observed biological actions, pointing out pomegranate juice as interesting source to obtain the pomegranate attributed health benefits.
Background For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.