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Nostalgia as a Resource for Psychological Health and Well-Being

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Abstract

Historically, nostalgia has been viewed as a disease of the brain or the mind. However, in recent years, nostalgia has received a conceptual rehabilitation due to a revival of scholarly interest accompanied by the use of contemporary empirical methods. Drawing upon this recent work, we propose that nostalgia is an important resource for psychological health and well‐being. We begin by detailing the characteristics of the nostalgic experience and then discuss a wide range of studies demonstrating that psychological threat triggers nostalgia, nostalgia enhances psychological health and well‐being, and nostalgia promotes adaptive psychological functioning among individuals at risk for poor mental health. We also highlight the need for future research on nostalgia's relation to psychological health.

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... Nostalgia is "a wistful desire to return in thought or in fact to a former time in one's life" (dictionary.com). It is a valuable resource that people tend to draw on to strengthen connectedness (Van Tilburg, Sedikides, Wildschut, & Vingerhoets, 2019), forge self-continuity, cope with negative emotions (Routledge et al., 2011, Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013, and find meaning in life . In response to social distancing required by COVID and the consequence of loneliness and social disconnectedness, people may activate nostalgia as a coping mechanism to restore self-continuity and life meaning. ...
... Nostalgia is a common experience. It is usually triggered by negative moods such as loneliness (Wildschut et al., 2006), distress (Routledge et al., 2013), and negative sensory inputs such as adverse weather (Van Tilburg, . During COVID, people experience threats from the virus as well as heightened stress and isolation due to social distancing and disrupted daily routines, in addition to the fear of being infected. ...
... Although such adverse events may not be conducive to new product launches due to both financial and psychological factors affecting consumers, our research showed that it is not entirely prohibitive to release new products during such time. While consumer sentiment may be down during COVID or other negative natural social situations, nostalgia is an effective coping mechanism (Wildschut et al., 2006;Routledge et al., 2013) and produces important motivating downstream effects. Nostalgia motivates the desire for the search for meaning. ...
Article
This research investigates the motivational effect of nostalgia induced by aversive and threatening situations (e.g., COVID-19) on new product purchase intentions. Study 1 shows that perceived COVID severity induces feelings of nostalgia and that heightened nostalgia boosts purchase intentions for new products. We replicate the effect with nostalgia triggered by a different threat (i.e., social unrest) in Study 2. Further, by inducing nostalgia through a threatening personal situation (i.e., mortality salience, Study 3) and manipulating nostalgia directly (Study 4), we further generalize the link between nostalgia and new product purchase intentions beyond COVID-19. Our research offers both theoretical and practical implications.
... Globally, by the end of 2015, 65.3 million people were displaced worldwide because of wars, persecution and human rights violations. Of the 65.3 million, 21 million were refugees, 3.2 million were asylum seekers and 41.1 million were internally displaced persons [84]. If they were in one country, the forcibly displaced would be the 21st largest in the world [84]. ...
... Of the 65.3 million, 21 million were refugees, 3.2 million were asylum seekers and 41.1 million were internally displaced persons [84]. If they were in one country, the forcibly displaced would be the 21st largest in the world [84]. There are many challenges due to variations in culture and language and because of specific stressors associated with being a refugee and an asylum seeker. ...
... Trumble and Pearsall [96] defined nostalgia as "a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past". In fact, there are wide range of evidence have argued that nostalgic recollection is important psychological resource as most of these nostalgic memories are positive and show high level of social connectedness [84]. In RAS context, it is not unusual to see refugees and asylum seekers evoke nostalgic recollections of their countries shaped as an environment where values and norms provided a place of social support and trust that affected everyday life and social relation [65]. ...
Thesis
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This thesis presents a conceptual framework for understanding the challenges that refugees and asylum seekers face in Australia and the role of ICT in rebuilding their social capital. It has been built based on four studies that involved a mix of contextual inquiry, cultural probes, and participatory design methods. The framework offers implications for technology design, policies, and the theory of social capital. The collective contributions of this research will inform designers of appropriate technologies that support social capital in the refugee and asylum seeker context. It will also inform policymakers to implement policies that affect this demography.
... Crucially, the emotion has emerged as a psychological resource that confers a variety of intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits Frankenbach et al., 2021). In particular, nostalgia boosts self-esteem or self-positivity (Vess et al., 2012;Cheung et al., 2013Cheung et al., , 2016, increases meaning in life (Routledge et al., 2011Sedikides and Wildschut, 2018), fosters social connectedness and social support Reid et al., 2014;Sedikides and Wildschut, 2019), encourages help seeking , enhances psychological health and well-being (Routledge et al., 2013;Baldwin and Landau, 2014;Baldwin et al., 2015;Layous et al., 2021) and attenuates dysphoric states such as loneliness, boredom, stress or death anxiety (Zhou et al., 2008(Zhou et al., , 2021aRoutledge et al., 2011;Van Tilburg et al., 2013). Fig. 1. ...
... It is possible, then, that the psychological health benefits of nostalgia (e.g. decreased stress; Routledge et al., 2013) derive in part from the neural change in hippocampus during nostalgizing. We note, however, that Trost et al. (2012) did not differentiate nostalgia from other emotions with similar valence or arousal (e.g. ...
... When individuals experience nostalgia, their reward-related neural activity intensifies, which may modulate their neural responses to threat allowing them to be more resilient and less defensive. Overall, nostalgia might modulate neural responses to threats, thereby buffering their impact (Juhl et al., 2010;Routledge et al., 2011) and reducing defensive responding (Routledge et al., 2013;Sedikides and Wildschut, 2018). Future neuroscience research would do well to focus on providing further evidence for this proposed regulatory function of nostalgia. ...
Article
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Nostalgia arises from tender and yearnful reflection on meaningful life events or important persons from one’s past. In the last two decades, the literature has documented a variety of ways in which nostalgia benefits psychological well-being. Only a handful of studies, however, have addressed the neural basis of the emotion. In this prospective review, we postulate a neural model of nostalgia. Self-reflection, autobiographical memory, regulatory capacity, and reward are core components of the emotion. Thus, nostalgia involves brain activities implicated in self-reflection processing (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus), autobiographical memory processing (hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus), emotion regulation processing (anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex), and reward processing (striatum, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Nostalgia’s potential to modulate activity in these core neural substrates has both theoretical and applied implications.
... Two constructs that have been shown through considerable research to have protective effects against adverse wellbeing outcomes are nostalgia and spirituality. In the case of nostalgia, research consistently points to its protective influence on physical and mental health (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013a), and its interaction with resilience (Zhou, Sedikides, Wildschut, & Gao, 2008). Similar claims are made on how spirituality protects against psychopathology (Barton & Miller, 2015) and contributes to resilience (Howell et al. 2018). ...
... Nostalgia is broadly defined as the sentimental longing for the past (Pearsall, 1998). While initial conceptualizations of this emotion are associated with homesickness, recent research has identified that both positive and negative affect are apparent in nostalgic recollections (Routledge et al. 2013a). Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, and Routledge (2006) propose that while both positive and negative elements are experienced in nostalgic recollections, nostalgia is ultimately a positive emotion. ...
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Resilience promotes psychological growth and buffers against the effects of negative events, but the factors that promote optimal wellbeing beyond resilience remain poorly understood. The current study addresses this gap through a positive psychology perspective by examining how (i) promotive factors-optimism and hope, and (ii) protective factors-nostalgia and spirituality promote wellbeing. We hypothesized that both factors will be positively related to wellbeing above and beyond that predicted by resilience. A representative sample of six hundred and twenty-six (n = 626; M age = 32.66, SD = 10.11, 43.45% female) Malaysians responded to an online survey at the end of the country's second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (June-September 2020). We conducted a series of regression analyses, controlling for resilience, socioeconomic status, age, and perceptions towards government crisis management efforts. Results indicate that optimism and hope positively predicted wellbeing above and beyond that predicted by resilience. Results also showed that the only significant protective factor contributing to wellbeing is spirituality. Nostalgia did not significantly predict wellbeing beyond resilience. The findings are of theoretical relevance for wellbeing and resilience research, and practically beneficial in informing mental health interventions.
... In medical science, the root word of nostalgia can be traced back to 1000 years ago, which, firstly, was a medical term in a dissertation on nostalgia circa 1688 by Johannes Hofer (cf. Routledge et al. 2013;Sedikides & Wildschut 2018). Since then, nostalgia had been considered as a disease or some kind of cerebral disease (Routledge et al. 2013:808). ...
... The students were asked to write narratives related to nostalgia and also their feelings regarding their experience. The study concluded that (Routledge et al. 2013): ...
Article
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Several theologians unanimously accorded well with the notion that the writer of the Gospel of Matthew was a pastoral theologian. Nevertheless, the pastoral dimension of Matthew 22:32 has not been subjected to much scrutiny. In the text, Jesus celebrated the tradition of calling the God as the ‘God of the Fathers’. The tradition revealed that Jesus adapted the pastoral approach, which is termed as nostalgia in psychology. In empirical psychology researches, utilising nostalgia provides many positive benefits for people who have psychological problems, including an identity crisis. By using a psychological text to sharpen the understanding of the biblical text, this research showed the nostalgic construction in the tradition as a pastoral approach to the readers who were in a situation of a major crisis. Contribution: By using the nostalgia as a psychological text, this article attempts to explore the pastoral dimension of Matthew 22:32, which seems absent in the study of Matthew 22:32.
... In addition, when participating in leisure activities, individuals create diverse positive memories regarding experiences, people, places, and things, which can evoke nostalgic feelings (Cho et al., 2019d(Cho et al., , 2020cGvion, 2009). The critical role of nostalgic feelings in individuals' life, health, and behavior has been identified in various fields, such as psychology ( Routledge et al., 2013), marketing (Cho & Chiu, 2020), and sport tourism (Cho, 2021a;Cho et al., 2017Cho et al., , 2019aCho et al., , 2020bCho et al., , 2021a. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence linking the relationship between nostalgia and psychological outcomes in the context of leisure. ...
... Hence, this study consequently proposes the second hypothesis: H2: Nostalgia positively affects personal growth. Routledge et al. (2013) explained that nostalgia could be considered a positive psychological resource as it has the potential to help bolster individuals suffering from poorer mental health and act as a rejuvenating function for them. Batcho (2013) and Baldwin and Landau (2014) also mentioned that nostalgia is linked to opening up positive emotional experiences for a person, indicating nostalgia is a positive force on an individual's emotions, especially helping to eradicate negativity from the mind. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of leisure nostalgia on perceived leisure benefits, personal growth, and happiness among individuals who regularly participate in leisure activities. A total of 305 responses were collected from college students who actively participate in field hockey in Singapore. Results indicated that leisure nostalgia had a positive influence on perceived leisure benefits, while there were no direct influences of leisure nostalgia on personal growth and happiness. Moreover, perceived leisure benefits had a positive impact on personal growth, which, in turn, had a positive influence on happiness. However, the direct path from perceived leisure benefits to happiness was not significant. Additionally, the analysis of multiple indirect effects found significant relationships between leisure nostalgia and happiness, between leisure nostalgia and personal growth, and between perceived leisure benefits and happiness. This study extended the understanding of nostalgia in the context of leisure.
... In addition, new general knowledge on nostalgia has been growing quickly in the fields of psychology and sociology, which has encouraged researchers to rethink and re-evaluate this subjective experience or sociocultural phenomenon. For instance, recent psychological studies have identified nostalgia as a wellbeing emotion that serves four significant psychological functions in our daily lives: elevating positive mood, boosting self-esteem, strengthening social connectedness and increasing a sense of meaning in life Routledge et al., 2011;Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013;Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, Juhl, & Arndt, 2012;Sedikides, Wildschut, & Baden, 2004;Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006). Meanwhile, collective nostalgia is suggested to be a societal balance reacquiring mechanism that typically works sometime after radical changes in the society (Davis, 1977(Davis, , 1979. ...
... Perhaps even more surprisingly, with the support of compelling empirical data, experiencing nostalgia has been claimed to be beneficial to both psychological and physiological wellbeing. According to a series of recent cross-cultural studies (Iyer & Jetten, 2011;Juhl, Routledge, Arndt, Sedikides, & Wildschut, 2010;Routledge et al., 2011;Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013;Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, Juhl, & Arndt, 2012;Sedikides et al., 2008;Wildschut, Sedikides, & Cordaro, 2011) psychologists have identified four major functions of nostalgia which contribute to psychological wellbeing: 1) generating positive affect, 2) maintaining and enhancing self-esteem, 3) serving as a repository of social connectedness and 4) providing a sense of meaning in life. Furthermore, on the basis of the positive nature and psychological functions of nostalgia, the relationship between nostalgia and physiological wellbeing has also been identified as a potentially valuable future research direction (Sedikides et al., 2004;Sedikides et al., 2006). ...
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This dissertation takes a dynamic, forward-looking and experiential perspective to examine the multifaceted relationship between design and nostalgia for two purposes: 1) to serve as a ground-clearing work for analytical discussions about nostalgia in the design field, and 2) to study the viability of nostalgia-driven design as a strategy for brand revitalisation. The investigation is developed from three design- related angles: 1) nostalgia as a sociocultural phenomenon, 2) as a subjective experience, and 3) as the basis of a design strategy. As the existing definitions are unsatisfactory, the dissertation redefines nostalgia as the combination of emotional reactions engendered by the recall of nostalgic memory, based on the differentiation between remembered and immediate experience. To define the scope of nostalgia, it proposes a new typology in which different types of nostalgia and similar experiences are not seen as isolated entities, but form a spectrum with blurred boundaries. Moreover, it is argued that individuality and collectiveness are two essential attributes co-existing interdependently in nostalgic experience, rather than two opposing types of nostalgia as the previous literature suggests. The first research strand examines nostalgia (wave) as a design-related socio- cultural phenomenon. Drawn from multidisciplinary literature and cross-cultural observations, it establishes a dialectical relationship between (radical and rapid) changes, the increasing collective need for nostalgia, and creative nostalgia-driven design efforts. Through examining cross-cultural design cases, it critiques the out- dated view of considering nostalgia merely backward looking, which prevents active design explorations on this topic. It further suggests that the design field should re- understand nostalgia as a balancing or coping mechanism, and actively explore its positive potential in both social and market design contexts. The second research strand examines nostalgia as a subjective experience. It proposes a heuristic model explaining the underlying process of design-evoked nostalgic experience. This model emphasises the mediating role of nostalgic memory retrieval in nostalgic experience, and suggests that the design outcomes of nostalgia-driven design should be seen as mementos of nostalgic memory. Through deductive reasoning, cases, and a design experiment, it challenges the common equation of retro (appearance) design with nostalgic (experience) design, and elaborates the great potential of unexplored non-visual sensory modalities and both operational and social interactions in designing for nostalgic experience. Viewing nostalgia as the basis of a design strategy, the third research strand investigates how nostalgia-driven design has been deployed for ‘phoenix brand’ revitalisation, through a single case (i.e. Sarvis) and multiple-case studies (i.e. Forever, Jopo, TDK) within a constructivist paradigm. Multiple data sources are used, the most important of which are interviews with collectors, non-collectors and designers. Firstly, the single case study reveals the underlying process of nostalgic bond formation and change in perceived brand value, and also initially identifies four characteristics of a potential phoenix brand. Secondly, the multiple-case study not only facilitates the generalisation of the four characteristics, but more importantly it also identifies crafting an aura of authenticity to be the latent key to successful revitalisations. Accordingly, it develops a systematic analysis on how authenticity may be crafted synergistically in design, production and communication terms.
... Third, nostalgia is a source of social connectedness (Reid et al., 2015;Turner, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Gheorghiu, 2013;Wildschut et al., 2006), as nostalgic memories involve close family members, friends and other social groups. As nostalgia is related to meaningfulness and social connection, it is involved in reducing loneliness and increasing wellbeing (Cox, Kersten, Routledge, Brown, & Van Enkevort, 2015;Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013;Routledge et al., 2011Routledge et al., , 2012Sedikides, Wildschut, & Baden, 2004) both emotionally, psychologically, and socially (Rao, Wang, Sun, & Gai, 2018). Moreover, trait nostalgia has been positively associated with greater wellbeing, and moderates the relationship between age and wellbeing (Hepper et al., 2012). ...
... This in turn enhances optimism and wellbeing. We expected to observe a wellbeing-nostalgia relationship (Cox et al., 2015;Rao et al., 2018;Routledge et al., 2011Routledge et al., , 2012Routledge et al., , 2013Sedikides et al., 2004). Our results were in line with these expectations, as wellbeing (social, psychological and emotional) was positively linked to NOS2 in our study, depression was negatively correlated with NOS1. ...
Article
Nostalgia is an efficient coping strategy that helps elders overcome major life transitions. To better explore the protective functions of nostalgia, we set out to adapt a short-form nostalgia scale to French elders and examine its convergent and divergent validity in terms of self-esteem, depression, and wellbeing. Participants were 175 institutionalized French elders. After providing their written informed consent, they were asked to complete a demographic information form and respond to four questionnaires probing self-esteem, nostalgia, depression, and wellbeing. Principal component analyses and fit indices were used to explore convergent validity. An 8-item version showed acceptable psychometric properties and measured two dimensions of nostalgia. Spearman correlations were conducted to explore divergent validity. In our sample, the first dimension was negatively associated with global cognitive functioning, while the second dimension was positively associated with self-esteem and wellbeing, and negatively associated with depression. The negative relationship between depression and nostalgia supports the idea that nostalgia is a positive concept. Future research should explore factors liable to impact nostalgia, such as cultural differences and reminiscence therapy.
... Moreover, it has an artistic component that, combined with music, might affect additional cognitive and brain functions such as creativity, emotional intelligence or divergent thinking (Schellenberg and Hallam, 2005), as well as social interaction; it also has an affective component. In some cases, especially in older individuals, dance interacts with emotion and might give rise to reminiscing, perhaps bringing to mind memories of young adulthood, or experiences connected to autobiographical memory, which might promote optimism and wellbeing (Routledge et al., 2013). Additionally, dance might be an appropriate type of exercise to avoid boredom, as it includes a variety of styles that, combined with music, tend to arouse emotions in the aging mind, an aspect that might have important implications for both the motivational and cognitive functioning of elders (Marquez et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
Background : Dance is a multidomain activity that combines aerobic, coordination and cognitive exercise. This music-associated physical and cognitive exercise is a leisure activity that motivates people, elicits emotions, and avoids boredom, promoting adherence to practice. Continuing physical activity is of paramount importance, since cognitive benefits tend to disappear or even reverse when training ceases. Objective : The question we addressed in this systematic review is what influence dance has on the brain and cognition of healthy middle-aged and older adults. Literature survey : We systematically reviewed the effects of dance on brain and cognition in older adults using MEDLINE, Psyc-Info, PubMed and Scopus databases. Methodology : After screening 1,051 studies, thirty-five met the eligibility inclusion criteria. These studies showed that dance improves brain structure and function as well as physical and cognitive functions. Conclusions : The protective effect of dance training on cognition in older adults, together with the possibility of adapting intensity and style to suit possible physical limitations makes this activity very suitable for older adults.
... The lockdown coupled with social distancing has created a paradoxical situation that, on the one hand, dictates freedom constraintwhile on the other seems to offer more time to engage in activities normally associated with individuals' leisure. Such enforced leisure (a term that may be considered oxymoronic) has led many to reflect on the value of leisure, especially in its ability to act as a buffer for stressful situations (Iso-Ahola & Park, 1996;Kleiber et al., 2011) and its propensity to add meaning and purpose in times of distress, loneliness, and anxiety (Routledge et al., 2013;Watkins, 2000). Freedom of choice has not been extinguishedonly the extent of its physical and spatial parameters. ...
... On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that individuals feel nostalgia several times a week in usual conditions [20] independently from ages and cultures [22,24,45]. Although nostalgia has been associated with personal growth [21,23,45,46], or has been shown to be beneficial to psychological health [22,[47][48][49][50], in stressful circumstances, a prevailing focus on the past or becoming excited about the future may induce negative effects on PWB [22]. Our results showed that those people living in larger places, with terraces and with more children experienced less nostalgia, probably because they had the opportunity to do activities that others in other conditions could not do. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic posed a challenge for all confined populations, dealing with their home resources and suffering changes in their psychological well-being. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between home conditions (i.e., having children, square meters of the house and square meters of the terrace or similar) and psychological well-being, and to test whether this relationship is mediated by Internet addiction and nostalgia. The sample was composed of 1509 people, aged between 18 to 78 years (67.6% women). Structural Equations Models and 2 x 2 ANOVAs were analyzed. It was found that better home conditions mean greater psychological well-being, and that this relationship is partially mediated, in a negative sense, by Internet addiction and nostalgia, especially after day 45 of confinement and with greater intensity in women. These results provide evidence about how psychological well-being can be preserved during a confinement situation, which may be useful for planning healthy strategies in similar circumstances in the future.
... Recent authors have embraced nostalgia as an aid to overcoming the type of trauma experienced by society. In a pre-COVID-19 article, Routledge et al. (2013) discuss nostalgia, a readily available "resource," as an important coping mechanism. They consider it to be a mostly positive emotional state that promotes well-being, especially in the face of psychological threat. ...
Article
Nostalgia and homesickness are not currently regarded as mental disorders. The psychic pain associated with longing to return home had been considered a mental disorder for centuries, especially in Europe, where it was a sign of moral weakness between nations. Nostalgia's effects on American Civil War soldiers-anxiety, depression, and sleep and appetite disturbances, for example-were described by clinicians and linked to significant morbidity and mortality. Since then, although these effects of combat have been of interest, focus has shifted to psychic trauma, relegating the concept of nostalgia to an unclassified but commonly encountered condition. Besides wartime trauma, symptomatic conditions related to nostalgia have been described among displaced persons and refugees living in the diaspora longing for their homelands (e.g., social displacement syndrome). More recently, nostalgia has pervaded culture as a benign pastime, with no implications for psychopathology. Finally, the longing for return to an idyllic or imagined lifestyle has returned amid worldwide quarantining and isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this new sense, nostalgia has become a remedy rather than a disease. We identify four major iterations of nostalgia: the medical condition of homesickness, the condition studied in wartime, the application to migration and social displacement, and as a remedy for existential anxiety. We conclude that nostalgia per se is neither pathological nor normative, but a consistent phenomenon in human existence that should not be overlooked in cultural assessment and psychotherapy.
... In other words, examinations of its effects on depression in community-dwelling older adults remain inadequate (Tavares and Barbosa, 2018), and evidence of its effectiveness in dementia prevention is limited (Duru and Dutkun, 2018). Further, in recent years, research has been conducted on psychological effect focusing on nostalgia (Routledge et al., 2013;Ismail et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of simplified reminiscence practice using olfactory stimuli on depression and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. Accordingly, 61 individuals were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group, 12 sessions of reminiscence were performed using olfactory cards. In the control group, reminiscence sessions were similarly performed, but with language cards. The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) was used to measure mental health status and the Five Cognitive Test was used to measure cognitive function at baseline and after completion of the intervention. The final sample included 27 participants in the intervention group and 23 participants in the control group. Basic characteristics of the participants at baseline were compared and a significant difference was observed between the two groups in age ( p = 0.029). Repeated-measures analysis of covariance with age as the covariate revealed a significant interaction between time and group on the GDS-15 ( p = 0.04). Furthermore, a before and after comparison using a paired t -test showed a significant difference only in the intervention group ( p = 0.01). The results of this study suggest that simplified reminiscence practice using olfactory cards could serve as an intervention to help maintain the mental health of community-dwelling older adults.
... First, spending time in natural environments produces positive psychological benefits (Bowler et al., 2010); therefore, more aesthetic environments may create more psychological benefits (Ulrich, 1983). Second, more aesthetic environments create more attractive photos or memories for anglers to share with others or to reflect upon, creating longterm satisfaction (Routledge et al., 2013). Although important to anglers, aesthetics is a more subjective measure than catch, which could explain why it is considered less important in satisfaction research and varies more among studies. ...
Article
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Satisfaction is the reward that recreational anglers receive from their experiences, and it constitutes a relevant management target. Angler satisfaction also shapes preferences for regulations, compliance with rules and general angler behaviours. Because of its central role in recreational fisheries management, it is important to understand what drives angler satisfaction. Our objective was to study the catch and non‐catch‐related determinants of recreational angler satisfaction using a standardized literature search and synthesizing the literature using meta‐analytical techniques. After identifying and screening 279 papers, we obtained K = 172 effect sizes extracted from N = 23 studies that met our inclusion criteria. A three‐level random‐effects model on Pearson's R, derived from studies relating component satisfaction to overall satisfaction assuming a sum‐of‐satisfaction model, was fitted. The aggregated effect sizes revealed that catch‐related (i.e. catch rate, size of caught fish, fish harvest) and two non‐catch‐related components (i.e. access to fishing sites and crowding) were most related to angler satisfaction. Other non‐catch components (e.g. environmental quality, facilities, perception of relaxation quality) also contributed to angler satisfaction but were of less importance, more variable across studies and in some cases not significant (e.g. perceived water quality, quality of social experience). We conclude changes to access to fishing sites, crowding and a reduction in catch qualities, will in many cases produce dissatisfied anglers. In the absence of local studies, focusing management attention on these components can be recommended if the aim is to satisfy anglers or avoid managerial or social issues that emerge from dissatisfied anglers.
... For example, nostalgia leads to greater accessibility of positive attributes about the self (Vess et al., 2012), more optimism (Cheung et al., 2013), stronger perceptions of life as meaningful , lower attachment anxiety and avoidance (Wildschut et al., 2006), and higher perceived social support (Zhou et al., 2008). Put simply, nostalgia is a resource for the self that serves to improve and maintain psychological well-being (Hepper et al., 2021;Kelley et al., 2022;Layous et al., 2021;Routledge et al., 2013). elicitors of nostalgia, which then serves to buffer against and recover from these threats (Routledge et al., 2011;Wildschut & Sedikides, in press;Zhou et al., 2022), individuals can also benefit from nostalgia when the emotion is induced by external elicitors. ...
Article
In three studies, we examined food as an elicitor of nostalgia. Study 1 participants visualised eating either a nostalgic or regularly consumed food. Study 2 participants visualised consuming 12 foods. Study 3 participants consumed 12 flavour samples. Following their food experiences, all participants responded to questions regarding the profile of food-evoked nostalgia (i.e. autobiographical relevance, arousal, familiarity, positive and negative emotions) and several psychological functions (i.e. positive affect, self-esteem, social connectedness, meaning in life). Study 2 and 3 participants also reported their state nostalgia. Results revealed that food is a powerful elicitor of nostalgia. Food-evoked nostalgia has a similar contextual profile to previously examined elicitors, but is a predominantly positive emotional experience. Food-evoked nostalgia served multiple psychological functions and predicted greater state nostalgia.
... The concept of nostalgia has been studied or theorized for several hundred years (Davis, 1979;Jacobsen, 2020;Merchant et al., 2013). Researchers have found the occurrence of nostalgia to be quite prevalent among individuals who have reached mid-life (Batcho, 1995;Davis, 1979;Hepper et al., 2020;Routledge et al., 2013). Marketers across industries have tried using nostalgia-based practices in their marketing activities to exploit consumer memories. ...
Article
ABSTRACT This research article tracks the evolution of the concept of nostalgia as a concept in marketing and more generally. The present study specifically highlights the development of a theoretical framework that can serve to integrate existing conceptual models and to offer implications for understanding nostalgia as a phenomenon among consumers as a tool for marketing practice. The study aims to bring together existing research and to serve as a springboard for future research and applications.
... In terms of conducting the experiment during the COVID-19 pandemic, the tendency to think about the past rather than the uncertain future may have strengthened, which may have led to an opposite result to that of Caruso et al. (2013). Previous findings showing that the tendency to think about the past, such as nostalgia, increases when psychological threat and loneliness are high, can suggest this possibility (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013;Wildschut et al., 2006Wildschut et al., , 2010. Indeed, the findings of this study that the filling rate of duration is higher in the past than in the future seem to be part of the tendency that the phenomenon of thinking more about the past rather than the uncertain future was strengthened during the COVID-19. ...
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Caruso et al. (2013) reported the Temporal Doppler Effect (TDE), in which people feel that the past is farther than the future. In this study, we made two high-power (N = 2244 in total), direct replication studies of Caruso et al., and additionally examined whether illusory temporal expansion, depending on the degree of fulfillment in durations, is related to the TDE. We predicted that the past would be felt farther than the future because the filling rate of duration of the past should be higher than that of the future. The results showed that psychological distance was significantly closer in the past than in the future and was inconsistently correlated with the filling rate of duration or the number and length of events and errands. Further, in some cases, the correlations were significant in the opposite direction of the predictions. Overall, our results did not replicate the previous findings but were reversed, and the filling rate of duration failed to explain the psychological distance. Based on these findings, we highlight the aspects that need to be clarified in future TDE studies. Preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/d9ec3/(date of in-principle acceptance: 19/04/2022)
... Trumble and Pearsall [107] define nostalgia as "a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past". In fact, there is a wide range of evidence arguing that nostalgic recollection is an important psychological resource as most of these nostalgic memories are positive and show high levels of social connectedness [91]. Assmann and Czaplicka [7] examined the concepts of collective and cultural memory and their impact on individual identity. ...
Article
Upon arrival to a host community, refugees and asylum seekers face immense challenges to rebuild their social capital that is critical in the process of their resettlement. Developing a holistic understanding of these challenges can provide significant opportunities to inform designers and services providers working with this demography. We adopt the lens of social capital coupled with an inquiry into the heterogeneity of refugees and asylum seekers to gain a holistic understanding of various challenges that they with. We accordingly present a conceptual framework that has been iteratively built based on our four years of engagement with refugee communities. The framework highlights three important aspects: cultural backdrops, displacement-related stressors, and social resources in the host community. We offer several implications for technology design, policies, and the theory of social capital that can support members from these communities in their resettlement.
... In order to prepare high skilled employees, higher vocational education system existing in China needs to be change their developmental path which will focus on technical aspects such as methods of reforming, hiring, teaching-learning methods, and so on. The educational model has gradually changed from the knowledge-based education model to the ability-based education model, which has resulted in a number of new educational models, such as the simulation company (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013). Governments in all countries regard the development of education and human resources as the preferred strategy to enhance comprehensive national strength and international competitiveness, and as the key support system for sustainable socio-economic development (Sovet, Park, & Jung, 2014). ...
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With the rapid development of Higher Vocational Education in China, the main objective is to improve the quality of Higher Vocational Education in an all-round way. For a long time, higher vocational education has been using the knowledge-based education mode of general higher education or secondary vocational education. Until the early 1990s, the ability-based education model was gradually introduced. The understanding and research of higher vocational education should not be confined to the interior of education. Many policies and measures to accelerate development have been introduced, and the scale of vocational education has been expanding in recent years. Higher vocational education in China has become an important part of higher education. It is an important type of higher education and a high level of vocational education. In order to cultivate the sound personality of students in higher vocational colleges, it is necessary to establish a personality-based education model. Realize the innovation of talent training mode and the quality improvement of personnel training. Meeting the new normal of the innovation-driven society, the demand for high-quality technical skills is required. It is a major practical problem facing the current construction of a modern vocational education system.
... Subsequently, in the late twentieth century, nostalgia was regarded by Western academics as synonymous to homesickness, that primarily bounded to immigrants, seamen, soldiers, and first-year boarding or university students (Jackson, 1986). By the turn of the millennium, researchers began to point to the functional benefits of nostalgia (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013;: Studies showed that nostalgia increases the positivity of self-conceptions and self-esteem by prompting a return to an idealized past and by bestowing captivating (sometimes imaginative) luster on past selves (Kaplan, 1987;Vess, Arndt, Routledge, Sedikides, & Wildschut, 2012;Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006), elevating optimism (Cheung et al., 2013), deriving meanings (Routledge et al., 2011), and by offering a window to the intrinsic self (Baldwin, Biernat, & Landau, 2015). ...
Article
This paper investigates the psychological impact of an understudied, yet increasingly popular construct: nostalgia tourism. The research distinguishes between two approaches for constructing historical nostalgia: (a) the genuine approach (i.e. developing nostalgia destinations based on original historical architectures), and (b) the artificial approach (i.e. creating new architectures with collective historical memories). In two experimental studies, the paper explores how the features of nostalgia destinations and people's nostalgia proneness influence people's nostalgia experiences. The results indicate that: (a) both genuine and artificial approaches can elicit people's nostalgic feelings (Study 1 & 2), (b) emotions elicited through the genuine approach are stronger and more positive than the artificial approach (Study 1), and (c) the artificial approach is more effective in eliciting nostalgic feelings among people with high nostalgia proneness (Study 2). The research suggests that either personal or non-personal experience could trigger nostalgia, and highlights the role of historical nostalgia plays in tourism.
... 402) that can be revisited as a living memory distinct from the present. Broadly, nostalgia can contribute to identity building (Baldwin et al., 2015), meaning in life (Routledge et al., 2011), and social integration (Wildschut et al., 2010) and is a source of well-being (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides, & Juhl, 2013). In part due to their tangible and "replayable" nature, media artifacts are robust elicitors of nostalgia (Böhn, 2007;Niemeyer, 2014), from music (Cheung et al., 2013) to children's TV (Wulf et al., 2019) to webpages with older photography (Cox et al., 2015). ...
... Nostalgia has been defined as the longing for the past and a past-focused affective experience (Routledge, Wildschut, Sedikides & Juhl, 2013;FioRito & Routledge, 2020). Due to the capability of nostalgia to impact affective states that drive towards action (FioRito & Routledge, 2020), this feeling has been of interest to many knowledge fields such as sociology, marketing, advertising, or political science (Muehling & Pascal, 2012). ...
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In the last decades, neuroscience has provided an excellent comprehension of the impact of marketing outputs on cognitive and emotional processing. Understanding what constitutes the neurobiology of consumer decision-making has been the aim of neuromarketing since the beginning. New notions regarding the value of emotions in consumer preferences have changed the way companies develop their actions towards marketing and communication. Nostalgia has emerged as an effective strategy for reinforcing the positioning of established brands. Because of the nature of emotions in nostalgia and the trendy relationship between neuromarketing and emotions in business, this research offers an exploratory bibliographic review to set the guidelines that help in understanding the interplay between retro marketing, nostalgia, and neuromarketing on marketing consumption. This review was carried out in 3 phases: a) review of unstructured information, b) analysis, organization, and synthesis of content, and c) conclusions. Nostalgia is manifested through marketing stimuli that arise from people's internal memory and, therefore, the feelings derived from cogni-tive responses (attitudes) followed by a particular behavioral reaction. Research points out the lack of literature/studies regarding neuroscientific methodology into nostalgic empirical research.
... Although some scholars emphasize nostalgia as a sad emotion and define it as a yearning for a past that no longer exists, 3 most researchers believe that nostalgia is a positive emotion that will result in a positive experience. Some researchers believe that nostalgia can enhance people's self-esteem, 4 strengthen social connections, 5 subjective well-being, 6 and youth, 7 promote health optimism and physical activity, 8 reduce prejudice, 9 weaken or mitigate the perception of external threats, 10 and make people feel that life is more meaningful and create a peaceful mindset. 11 According to previous studies, nostalgia is a positive psychological resource. ...
Article
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Background: Research has demonstrated that nostalgia can improve self-esteem as a positive psychological resource in Western culture. Moreover, nostalgia is cross-culturally consistent. Therefore, nostalgia triggered by an event reflection task affects self-esteem in Eastern cultures. However, it is unknown whether the collective or personal content of nostalgia affects self-esteem and the role of loneliness in this process. Purpose: This study examined the cross-cultural consistency of nostalgia's impact on self-esteem, whether nostalgic content affects self-esteem levels, and what role loneliness plays in this process. Methods: We conducted two experiments in this study. Experiment 1 used an event reflection task with different instructions to prime the nostalgia and control groups. Participants were asked to complete the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and a revised positive version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale after priming. Experiment 2 used different instructions and pictures to prime the social and personal nostalgia groups. The PANAS, a revised positive version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Russell Loneliness Scale were then administered to the groups. Results: Experiment 1 showed that in the nostalgic condition, self-esteem was higher than in the control condition. In the nostalgia condition, participants felt more positive than in the control condition. Experiment 2 revealed that self-esteem was higher in the collective nostalgic context than in the personal nostalgic context. Regarding the positive effect, participants felt more positive in the collective nostalgic context than in the personal nostalgic context. Loneliness also had a mediating effect on this process. Conclusion: Results show that nostalgia affects self-esteem through cross-cultural consistency and social nostalgia can be a resource for positive mental health. Moreover, loneliness plays a significant role in mediating nostalgia's effect on self-esteem.
... Another of the themes which emerged from comparing the characteristics of these places was the importance of memory and nostalgia in creating place. It has been shown that nostalgia, or a sentimental longing for the past can facilitate wellbeing and aid social connectedness (Routledge et al. 2013). The nostalgia around the homes of our childhoods remains strong for many people, as Tony Hall writes, 'Collectively, backyards are a vivid part of the suburban image and symbolise stability in an unpredictable urban environment' (Hall 2010, ix). ...
Article
This article examines small scale green spaces developed on underutilised land in the inner city, looking at the ways in which familiar domestic outdoor design characteristics have been used for placemaking in what is essentially a commercial setting. Using case studies situated in Adelaide, South Australia, this research explores both the development and characteristics of small commercial or community inner city green spaces, how they have aided revitalisation through imaginative treatments of leftover spaces, and the integration of stories and nostalgia in place creation. One of the potential benefits of nurturing such small scale green interventions in our cities are the impacts on wellbeing, not only for those who are resident in the city, but also for those who work there, study in or visit the city. The focus of the article is an investigation of how three case studies – a café, a bar and a community garden – have brought a sense of home into the commercial centre of the city, specifically in terms of the placemaking and urban design moves that have been employed.
... One of the hallmarks of nostalgia is increased PWB (Hepper et al., 2021;Routledge et al., 2013;Sedikides et al., 2015). PWB is a multidimensional construct comprising a constellation of interrelated domains. ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, predicts or augments psychological wellbeing (PWB). We hypothesized that it does so—at least in part—via authenticity, a sense of alignment with one's true self. We obtained support for this hypothesis in four studies. Using a measurement-of-mediation design, across a Western (United States) and East-Asian (China) culture, we found that nostalgia is associated with both authenticity and PWB, and that the nostalgia-PWB link is mediated by authenticity (Study 1, N = 611). Using an experimental-causal-chain design, we showed that nostalgia increases authenticity across U.S. and Chinese samples (Study 2, N = 777). We then demonstrated that authenticity increases PWB on a domain-general measure (Study 3, N = 596, U.S. sample). Finally, we clarified that the benefits authenticity confers on PWB are domain general rather than domain specific (Study 4, N = 414, U.K. sample). This research represents the first attempt to address systematically the path from nostalgia to PWB via authenticity. We discuss implications for the broader literature.
... Following this tradition, the present study is designed to assess how "nostalgia," originally a medical problem, has transformed itself from disease to industry practice. The concept of nostalgia has existed for several hundreds of years (Davis, 1979;, and its occurrence is prevalent among both individuals and groups (Routledge et al., 2013). One can find psychographics such as response to sensory stimuli (Bergs et al., 2019;Holbrook and Schindler, 1989), values (Aziz et al., 2019), personality (Juhl et al., 2010;Rindfleisch et al., 2000), attitude (Sierra and McQuitty, 2007) and interests (Huppatz, 2009) linked to nostalgia. ...
Article
Purpose The use of nostalgia in the marketing domain has been popular around the world. Nostalgia has been considered a complex yet ambivalent emotion, which has ignited curiosity among marketing researchers and practitioners alike. In response to calls from marketing practitioners and scholars to understand nostalgia formation among consumers, this study tracks the evolution of nostalgia concepts in the domains of marketing and, more generally, business management. This study aims to highlight the development of a theoretical framework to integrate existing concepts and offer implications based on understanding nostalgia as a phenomenon among consumers as a tool for marketing practice. Design/methodology/approach This study is descriptive and inductive in nature. The manuscript is designed and positioned as a conceptual study exploring nostalgia’s journey from the domain of psychology to business management. The study synthesizes concepts of nostalgia from psychology, sociology and business management. Findings The study reveals that nostalgia in the business-management domain is not perceived in the same way as in psychology studies. It has journeyed through different schools of thought and is now used as an impactful marketing practice. The manuscript offers relevant information to marketing practitioners to improve their nostalgia marketing strategies, such as advertising and promotions, retro-branding, crowd-sourcing and culturally oriented practice. Subsequently, the manuscript offers pointers for understanding consumers across the generations and exploring nostalgia and consumption patterns for future research. Research limitations/implications The manuscript offers relevant information about nostalgia to marketing practitioners to improve their nostalgia marketing strategies and proposes avenues for future research to the domain scholars. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no comprehensive paper tracking the journey of nostalgia in business practices and providing directions for future research. This study extends existing literature both by suggesting future research directions and by drawing marketing practitioners’ attention to a conceptual framework for understanding the processes of and relationships with consumer nostalgia, including ways to use consumer nostalgia within marketing practices.
Book
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This book addresses the sustainability of happiness and well-being in Chinese societies. It starts by introducing the various conceptions of well-being, particularly in the Chinese sociocultural context. The book then proceeds with the examination of the sustainability of well-being by scrutinizing the effects of sociocultural, contextual, and personal factors on well-being. The contextual factors are the aggregates or averages of personal factors at the contextual levels of the regions and colleges in Mainland China, its special administrative region, and Taiwan. These factors cover personality traits, strengths, orientations, beliefs, values, and idolizing. By bringing together empirical studies and theoretical perspectives applied to Chinese societies, this book offers researchers in social science and humanities a valuable reference work on happiness and well-being in Chinese societies.
Article
Experiences during military deployments may have serious negative consequences for the health and well-being of veterans. The literature presents a wealth of information on these negative effects that are mostly studied relatively shortly after the veteran returned from deployment. Our purpose was to determine to what extent the deployment plays a role in the life of Dutch veterans who have left the Armed Forces and who returned from their deployment in a time frame from 1950 until 2018. Also, we aimed to assess how several deployment related factors are associated with their quality of life. We invited 6,000 veterans to fill out a questionnaire; 2,643 (44%) participated. We found support for long-term effects of deployments among almost half of the Dutch veterans. For most of those who experience an effect of the deployment in their life at present, that effect is positive. We also found support for deployment related factors to be related to veterans’ quality of life. Our findings underline the importance to study the long-term effects of experiences during deployment for veterans and thereby not to focus solely on the negative effects in order to get a more complete picture of the consequences of deployments veterans’ lives.
Article
Nostalgia is a prominently used emotion in marketing. This work adds to the burgeoning literature on how feelings of nostalgia influence consumption behavior by investigating how nostalgia influences eating attitudes and behaviors. Two experiments showed that people consumed more and reported more favorable attitudes towards healthy food when feeling nostalgic (versus neutral). Nostalgia also diminished the consumption of unhealthy food. Process evidence revealed that nostalgia's differential influence on the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods is due to increased perceptions of social support. Since perceptions of social support increase self-control resources, individuals were better able to make healthier food choices when in a nostalgic (versus neutral) state. The findings provided behavioral evidence that nostalgia positively influences healthy eating attitudes and behavior, and established perceived social support as an important mechanism underlying these effects. This work suggests that nostalgia can be a useful tool not only in our commercial marketing efforts, but also in public policy, in that it can help promote healthy food intake and well-being.
Article
Contemporary concerns that social media – and its hardware accomplice the smart phone – dumb down, socially isolate and cause addiction among users have historical precedents in earlier reactions to the Internet, television, radio, and even the printed word. Automated and interpretive analyses of thousands of comments on YouTube videos of products (Study 1) and television programs (Study 2) from the past suggest a link between concerns about the negative effects of smart phones and social media and autobiographical obsolescence, a sense that the lived past is psychologically disconnected from the present and irrelevant to the future. Ironically, having nostalgia experiences on social media may provide older consumers with a psychological remedy. Viewing and commenting on video material from the past helps them verify the reality of the lived past and establish its relevance to younger generations. Suspicion of the latest disruptive communication technology (DCT) may simply be part of this broader psychological restoration process.
Article
Given the crucial importance of nostalgia in individuals’ behavioral and psychological responses, this study measured the effect of leisure nostalgia on work-leisure conflict and subjective well-being. A total of 489 responses were collected from primary and secondary school teachers in Singapore, and this study conducted confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze the data. Results showed that leisure nostalgia positively affected work-to-leisure conflict and subjective well-being, and work-to-leisure conflict had a negative effect on subjective well-being. However, relationships related to leisure-to-work conflict were shown to be insignificant. The findings of this study advance the theoretical knowledge of nostalgia in the contexts of leisure and occupational health psychology and contribute to school management in developing strategies and approaches for the betterment of teachers’ well-being.
Article
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As an important marketing strategy, nostalgia marketing is widely used by enterprises to attract consumers and influence their decision‐making. Besides, feelings of nostalgia can be easily elicited in people's daily life and exert a great impact on them. Though the effect of nostalgia on consumer behavior has been extensively studied, whether and how nostalgia affects consumer preference for products with certain visual designs remain underexplored. Our research extends this domain by focusing on product shape preference as a new downstream consequence of nostalgia. Five studies (including one field experiment) demonstrate that nostalgia can increase consumer preference for circular‐shaped products, with social connectedness as the underlying driver. Moreover, the indirect effect of nostalgia on circular shape preference via social connectedness is moderated by consumers' current social connections, such that the effect holds true for consumers with a low number of current social connections but is eliminated for those with a high number of current social connections. Together, marketers seeking to increase the sales of circular‐shaped products may use nostalgic elements or cues in marketing campaigns.
Article
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Nostalgia, a bittersweet but predominantly positive emotion, arises from self-relevant and social memories. Evidence suggests that nostalgia is a potential source of happiness. Indeed, at the phenotypic level, this relation appears to be positive albeit tenuous. At the etiologic level, the relation is unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the phenotypic and genetic association between nostalgia and satisfaction with life (SWL). We assessed nostalgia and SWL in 464 twin siblings, including 117 monozygotic twin pairs and 115 dizygotic twin pairs. By comparing monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins, we analyzed the genetic and environmental effects on nostalgia and SWL simultaneously. We observed a small positive association between nostalgia and SWL (rphenotypic = 0.12), with this association being strengthened after neuroticism was partialled out (rphenotypic = 0.17). More importantly, nostalgia and SWL shared some environmental (but not genetic) sources (rnon-shared environment = 0.21), which accounted for the majority (88%) of their phenotypic association. Taken together, the findings support a positive relation between nostalgia and SWL, and further uncover the bases underlying this relation. The study adds to the burgeoning literature on nostalgia and well-being.
Article
Picture interactions are key to daily and long-term social connections between families and communities, especially through reminiscence. Across the nearly 200-year history of domestic photography, this social reminiscence has been accomplished largely through photo albums. However, in the now common digital setting, albums are pushed aside for the endless film roll metaphor. In this paper we explore this metaphor through the 20-year history of proposed digital picture interactions from Human-Computer Interaction research, and compare this to ongoing interactions with modern picture tools. Through these, we reveal that this prominent design metaphor does not create space for social reminiscence, but does fit the novel use of immediate sharing seen across social networking. Further, the endless and ever-growing nature of digital film rolls are not meaningfully browsable for either intended use. We close by reconnecting to the past works that explore the broad potential of digital pictures.
Article
In the context of a pandemic, this study uses the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions to examine how feelings of nostalgia could have a positive effect on well-being through willingness to explore novel behaviours and resilience. In total, 328 sport participants were recruited during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. Results indicated that nostalgia positively affected individuals’ willingness to explore novel behaviours and resilience. Willingness to explore novel behaviours had a positive effect on resilience. In addition, both willingness to explore novel behaviours and resilience positively affected well-being. The findings of this study expand the body of knowledge on the role of nostalgia and its impact on psychological resources that sport participants can potentially gain in spite of the reduction in their time participating in sport due to pandemic restrictions.
Article
This research examines how consumers evaluate the fairness of price increases during collective stress situations. Across three collective stress situations (COVID-19, Black Lives Matter protests, and economic downturn), the authors confirm that a collective stress situation evokes feeling of nostalgia as a coping mechanism. When the collective stress situation is more severe, it heightens feelings of nostalgia, which then enhances consumer empathy, such that people tend to infer benevolent motives for a price increase. That is, consumers perceive the price increase as more fair. This research also reveals how a consumer’s political identity can moderate the impact of the perceived severity of the collective stress situation on nostalgia and thus price fairness. As a collective stress situation becomes more severe, conservatives (vs. liberals) experience greater nostalgia, leading to higher perceived fairness of price increases.
Poster
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During the refugee crisis in 1938-1941, hundreds of thousands of people, mostly Jews, applied to immigrate to the United States. Holocaust survivors live with a sentimental nostalgic longing for the past that cannot be fulfilled. For second and third generation survivors the goal is to gain an image of a lost, mythic home, and heritage. It is the desire to learn more about the homeland, the family history, the sense of “belonging’’ as they struggle to cope with a past where memory is missing. Through this journey to the past, an attempt to come to terms with the personal and family trauma, the graphic artists find a "home" gesturing toward the recoverability of history that returning home is possible. How can the 44 destruction of Jews, Jewish life and culture be reconciled with the inevitable fragment of nostalgia and the sense of loss? By negotiating memory and trauma as distorted by nostalgia or fear, this article aims to trace the nostalgic turn in Holocaust graphic narratives. How can these narratives promote nostalgia for the immigration of Jews from Europe during the Holocaust and their descendants? Which ways the graphic artists utilize to depict or imply nostalgia in Holocaust graphic testimonies? What the mediated narration denotes and how possible is the historical journey toward the past? From Art Spiegelman’s Maus to Amy Kurzweil Flying Couch, this article will discuss how the refugee crisis during the Holocaust affected dramatically the lives of the survivors, and in which ways these traumatic experiences are transmuted into graphic narratives by their children and grandchildren as well. We will conclude that their imagining of the Holocaust is infused with a strong nostalgic “postmemorial” longing and a way to regain the lost sense of “belonging’’.
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The paper examines nostalgic reflections as a catalyst for the actualization of women's political aspirations in Salami-Agunloye's More Than Dancing. It specifically examines the concept of nostalgia in literature, the triggers, the influence of nostalgic reflections on women's political trajectories and the aftermaths of past heroines' achievements in contemporary society. The historical play reveals a post-independence nation where women are secluded, perpetually marginalized and deprived of political positions even though they have the resources, leadership capability and social mobilization skills. They draw on nostalgic reflections of foremothers and legendary figures like Queens Idia of Benin Kingdom, Moremi of Ife, Amina of Zazzau and Emotan of Benin, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Inipki of Igalaland and Kambassa of Bonny, among others, who offered priceless sacrifices to actualize their dreams during colonial era. Apart from the foregoing, the exposure of modern women to western education and international conferences does not only empower them academically but also activates their political consciousness to attain enviable leadership position in the country. The study concludes by encouraging women to continue to plan, strategize and aspire for the highest elective offices through collaborative effort with their male counterparts. The repeat of the chronicled events and legendary characters can be done through determination, self-sacrifices and a result-oriented spirit.
Conference Paper
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Positive emotions play an essential role in consumers' relationships with brands. Since brand nostalgia and personal nostalgia evoke pleasant feelings in consumers, it is important to examine their relational consumer brand interaction role. While nostalgia has been frequently studied in various consumer behavior contexts and marketing communication activities such as advertisements, limited studies examine brand-consumer interaction in relational contexts. In light of the importance of relational marketing in today's marketing strategies, it is crucial to investigate the relationships between brand nostalgia, brand engagement, and brand happiness. The present study examines these relationships in the context of nostalgic brands. A total of 397 individuals participated in the study. Regression analysis was conducted for testing the study’s model. As a result of the study's findings, active brand engagement mediates the relationships between personal nostalgia, brand nostalgia, and brand happiness. In addition, self-construal moderates these relations.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how nostalgia influences their attitude towards the European Professional Football Leagues (EPFL) sponsors and purchase intention towards EPFL sponsors' products. Based on a convenience sampling, a total of 317 EPFL fans in Singapore responded to an online survey that included items on sport nostalgia, attitude towards EPFL sponsors, and intention to purchase EPFL sponsors' products. Data were analysed using confirmation factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The results showed that sport nostalgia had a direct positive effect on both attitude and purchase intention towards EPFL sponsors’ products. Also, this study found that sport nostalgia had a significant indirect effect on purchase intention through attitude. From the findings of this research, sponsors could understand the role of sport nostalgia and would be able to implement marketing strategies that direct their consumers to purchase their products.
Article
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Nostalgia is an emotion that confers psychological benefits. The literature has neglected romantic nostalgia—that is, nostalgia specifically for past experiences shared with one’s partner—and its potential advantages for relationships. We examined romantic nostalgia in one correlational study, two experiments, and one daily diary study (N = 638). Romantic nostalgia was positively associated with greater relationship commitment, satisfaction, and closeness (Study 1). Additionally, inducing romantic nostalgia via a writing task (Study 2) or music (Study 3) strengthened relational benefits. Finally, participants reported more positive relationship-specific experiences on days when they felt greater romantic nostalgia (Study 4). We discuss contributions to the nostalgia and relationships literatures.
Article
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O estudo tem por objetivo identificar a estrutura da produção científica que fornece a base teórica para estudos sobre a nostalgia afim de demostrar a interlocução destas produções no processo de geração de novos conhecimentos. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória com abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa, centrando-se nas técnicas bibliométricas, especificamente a análise de cocitação. Os dados para as análises são provenientes de artigos científicos, recuperados na base de dados Web of Science. Os resultados da Análise Fatorial Exploratória, cuja variância total explicada foi de 78,20%, revelaram que as publicações que fornecem a base científica para estudos sobre a nostalgia podem ser agrupadas em cinco dimensões que foram nominadas: Efeitos positivos da nostalgia nos indivíduos; Nostalgia no comportamento do consumidor; Dimensões filosóficas e históricas da nostalgia; Nostalgia normal e patológica e, Nostalgia e significado das posses materiais. Na análise das cocitações, a pesquisa revelou que a quantidade de produções científicas envolvendo o tema nostalgia, nos últimos anos, vem aumentando gradativamente e nestas publicações as duas obras mais citadas foram, respectivamente, Future Nostalgia (Boym, 2001) e Yearning Yesterday (Davis, 1979). Os autores mais profícuos dentre os 289 artigos foram: Sedikides, Wildschut e Routledge. Este artigo abre perspectivas para novos estudos em outras bases científicas, além de servir de apoio para estudos empíricos, contribuindo para ampliar o conhecimento da área.
Article
Purpose Historically, hot springs have been regarded as hedonic and foodie destinations, yet the antecedents that affect tourists' intentions for local cuisine in hot springs remain unexplored. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap by considering the role of nostalgia and hedonic values in tourist food consumption. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 315 domestic tourists by intercept surveys conducted in the Beitou Hot Spring, Taiwan. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping were used to test the hypotheses as well as mediating effects. Findings Nostalgia positively influences hedonic values, which affect tourists' intentions for local food consumption. Unexpectedly, nostalgia does not directly influence tourists' preferences due to complete mediation through hedonic values. Research limitations/implications Given a growing number of young consumers visiting hot springs, hedonic experience is essential and more effective for pulling visitors and stimulating local food consumption than nostalgia vibes are. Cross-cultural samples and qualitative research are suggested for future studies. Originality/value The study demonstrates different levels of nostalgia in different ages. It highlights the mediating role of hedonic values between nostalgia and tourists' intentions for local cuisine in the hot spring destinations, which has been overlooked in previous studies. Originality is also established by simultaneously investigating hedonic values and behavioral intentions within the context of food tourism.
Article
Teaching is one of the most stressful professions, and school teachers show a high turnover rate. Although it is an important issue in society, the work-life balance of teachers has not been extensively addressed in the context of leisure. Therefore, given the critical role of leisure in life, this study examined the relationships among school teachers’ leisure nostalgia, leisure satisfaction, work commitment, turnover intention, and well-being. A total of 489 responses were collected from school teachers in Singapore. Results revealed leisure nostalgia positively influenced leisure satisfaction and work commitment. Furthermore, leisure satisfaction had positive effects on work commitment and well-being, while work commitment negatively affected turnover intention and positively affected well-being. This study also found the significant indirect effects of leisure nostalgia on work commitment, turnover intention, and well-being. This study contributes to a better understanding of the work-leisure relationship and provides strategies to improve well-being.
Article
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Injil Matius ditujukan bagi komunitas yang tengah mengalami krisis yang sangat hebat. Dalam merespons situasi tersebut, penulis injil menuliskan peraturan komunitas (Gemeindeordnung), yang tertulis dalam Matius 18. Hal yang menarik dari peraturan tersebut adalah, Matius mengawali tulisannya dengan mengangkat kisah Yesus yang menempatkan seorang anak kecil (Mat.18:2). Kisah ini menjadi sebuah kisah yang sangat fenomenal mengingat pada masa itu anak kecil adalah kelompok masyarakat yang rendah dan dianggap tidak begitu penting. Dari kisah yang menarik dan fenomenal ini memunculkan pertanyaan: Mengapa Yesus menggunakan anak kecil? Sejumlah penafsir menyimpulkan bahwa itu adalah semacam simbol. Penafsir lain menyatakan bahwa itu merupakan semacam model. Namun demikian, ada sejumlah penafsir yang menyimpulkan dengan sangat berbeda namun menarik yaitu bahwa penggunaan anak kecil ini adalah terkait dengan masa lalu. Sayangnya penjelasan mengenai pendekatan “masa lalu” yang digunakan oleh Yesus ini belum diuraikan lebih jauh. Melalui tulisan ini, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa Yesus sedang menggunakan sebuah pendekatan pastoral yaitu nostalgia. Dengan memanfaatkan sejumlah penelitian empiris dalam penelitian psikologi, penulis menilai bahwa penggunaan anak kecil adalah agar para murid dapat kembali kepada masa lalu mereka yang penuh dengan narasi penyertaan Allah, baik kepada para leluhur mereka maupun kepada diri mereka sendiri. Sebagai komunitas yang tengah mengalami krisis, pendekatan ini diharapkan akan menghadirkan harapan. Tema utama Injil Matius - Allah Bersama Kita - dan penelitian empiris tentang nostalgia dalam psikologi akan digunakan sebagai bingkai kerja penafsiran.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to show how non-random groupings of YouTube videos can be combined with automated text analysis (ATA) of user comments to conduct quasi-experiments on consumer sentiment towards different types of brands in a naturalistic setting. Design/methodology/approach NCapture extracted thousands of comments on multiple videos representing different experimental treatments and Leximancer revealed differences in the lexical patterns of user comments for different types of brands. Findings User comments consistently revealed hypothesized relationships between brand types, based on existing theory regarding motivations for nostalgia and the relationship between consumer preferences, online product ratings and purchases. These results demonstrate the viability of conducting quasi-experimental research in naturalistic settings via non-random groupings of YT videos and ATA of user comments. Research limitations/implications This research adopts a single quasi-experimental design: the non-equivalent group, after-only design. However, the same basic approach can be used with other quasi-experimental designs to examine different kinds of research questions. Originality/value Overall, this research points to the potential for ATA of comments on different categories of YT videos as a relatively straightforward approach for conducting field experiments that establish the ecological validity of laboratory findings. The method is easy to use and does not require the participation and cooperation of private, third party social media research companies.
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Nostalgia is a common emotion that people frequently feel in daily life. Nostalgia is typically defined as “sentimental longing for (one’s) past.” Previous studies have examined its characteristics, function, and individual differences. Nostalgia can be induced by a variety of triggers such as remembering nostalgic events, listening to nostalgic music, viewing nostalgic pictures, and being in certain types of state. A ques- tionnaire is the most popular method used to assess the degree of induced nostalgia, although some studies have used physiological measurements. Furthermore, previous evidence reveals individual differences that affect the degree of induced nostalgia and sometimes alter nostalgia function. In this paper, I review the literature regarding nostalgia induction and suggest future nostalgia research.
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Merely anticipating a future sad event motivates consumers to “accumulate happiness” in order to enhance their ability to cope with the anticipated sadness later—a phenomenon that we call banking happiness. To bank happiness, consumers not only choose positive stimuli over non-positive stimuli when given the choice, but even when such a choice does not exist, tend to recall more positive memories. Consumers bank happiness because of the lay theory that happiness is a resource that can be accumulated (i.e., banked) and consumed later. As a proactive mood-regulation strategy, banking happiness differs from reactive mood regulation: a) the strength of consumers’ happiness-is-bankable lay belief predicts their tendency to bank happiness, but not their propensity to repair their negative moods after actually experiencing sadness; b) consumers who are more future-oriented are more likely to bank happiness in the face of anticipated sadness, whereas those who are more present-oriented are more likely to regulate their negative mood when they actually experience sadness. Further, believing that happiness is bankable increases consumers’ engagement with positive stimuli when anticipating sadness, possibly boosting the hedonic utility consumers obtain from the positive stimuli and helping them to build a stronger buffer against the negative stimuli later.
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Traditionally, nostalgia has been conceptualized as a medical disease and a psychiatric disorder. Instead, we argue that nostalgia is a predominantly positive, self-relevant, and social emotion serving key psychological functions. Nostalgic narratives reflect more positive than negative affect, feature the self as the protagonist, and are embedded in a social context. Nostalgia is triggered by dysphoric states such as negative mood and loneliness. Finally, nostalgia generates positive affect, increases self-esteem, fosters social connectedness, and alleviates existential threat.
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Ostracism means being ignored and excluded by one or more others. Despite the absence of verbal derogation and physical assault, ostracism is painful: It threatens psychological needs (belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence); and it unleashes a variety of physiological, affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Here we review the empirical literature on ostracism within the framework of the temporal need-threat model.
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The development of a self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), is described. Subjects included 136 female and 139 male university undergraduates. Three subscales, each addressing a different source of support, were identified and found to have strong factorial validity: (a) Family, (b) Friends, and (c) Significant Other. In addition, the research demonstrated that the MSPSS has good internal and test-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validity. As predicted, high levels of perceived social support were associated with low levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Gender differences with respect to the MSPSS are also presented. The value of the MSPSS as a research instrument is discussed, along with implications for future research.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
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In three experiments we tested whether nostalgia bolsters meaning in life relative to two other modes of autobiographical thought: imagining a desired future experience and recalling a positive past experience. In Experiment 1 participants thought about a nostalgic or desired future experience and then completed a presence of meaning scale. Thinking about a nostalgic (compared to desired future) experience increased perceived presence of meaning. In Experiment 2 we examined whether nostalgia can additionally reduce the search for meaning. Participants thought about a nostalgic, desired future or recent positive experience, and then completed a search for meaning scale. Nostalgia, relative to both comparison conditions, decreased the search for meaning. Finally we tested whether, by virtue of its capacity to increase meaning, nostalgia can mitigate threats to meaning. In Experiment 3 participants were exposed to either absurd or representational art, under the guise that they would later have to interpret its meaning, and then thought about either a nostalgic or a recent positive experience. Meaning was subsequently measured. The absurd art interpretation condition decreased the perceived presence of meaning but nostalgic reflection attenuated this effect.
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Nostalgia fulfills pivotal functions for individuals, but lacks an empirically derived and comprehensive definition. We examined lay conceptions of nostalgia using a prototype approach. In Study 1, participants generated open-ended features of nostalgia, which were coded into categories. In Study 2, participants rated the centrality of these categories, which were subsequently classified as central (e.g., memories, relationships, happiness) or peripheral (e.g., daydreaming, regret, loneliness). Central (as compared with peripheral) features were more often recalled and falsely recognized (Study 3), were classified more quickly (Study 4), were judged to reflect more nostalgia in a vignette (Study 5), better characterized participants' own nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences (Study 6), and prompted higher levels of actual nostalgia and its intrapersonal benefits when used to trigger a personal memory, regardless of age (Study 7). These findings highlight that lay people view nostalgia as a self-relevant and social blended emotional and cognitive state, featuring a mixture of happiness and loss. The findings also aid understanding of nostalgia's functions and identify new methods for future research.
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The present research tested the proposition that nostalgia serves an existential function by bolstering a sense of meaning in life. Study 1 found that nostalgia was positively associated with a sense of meaning in life. Study 2 experimentally demonstrated that nostalgia increases a sense of meaning in life. In both studies, the link between nostalgia and increased meaning in life was mediated by feelings of social connectedness. Study 3 evidenced that threatened meaning increases nostalgia. Study 4 illustrated that nostalgia, in turn, reduces defensiveness following a meaning threat. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 showed that nostalgia disrupts the link between meaning deficits and compromised psychological well-being. Collectively, these findings indicate that the provision of existential meaning is a pivotal function of nostalgia.
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Individuals who are low (compared with high) in attachment-related avoidance rely on social bonds to regulate distress, and the authors hypothesized that nostalgia can be a repository of such social connectedness. Studies 1-3 showed a positive association between loneliness and nostalgia when attachment-related avoidance was low, but not when it was high. Study 4 revealed that low-avoidance individuals derived more social connectedness from nostalgia than did high-avoidance individuals. Study 5 extended these findings and demonstrated that, in addition to being a source of social connectedness, nostalgia increased participants' perceived capacity to provide emotional support to others. As in the case of social connectedness, this beneficial effect of nostalgia was significantly stronger when attachment-related avoidance was low (compared with high).
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Interest in meaning and meaning making in the context of stressful life events continues to grow, but research is hampered by conceptual and methodological limitations. Drawing on current theories, the author first presents an integrated model of meaning making. This model distinguishes between the constructs of global and situational meaning and between "meaning-making efforts" and "meaning made," and it elaborates subconstructs within these constructs. Using this model, the author reviews the empirical research regarding meaning in the context of adjustment to stressful events, outlining what has been established to date and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of current empirical work. Results suggest that theory on meaning and meaning making has developed apace, but empirical research has failed to keep up with these developments, creating a significant gap between the rich but abstract theories and empirical tests of them. Given current empirical findings, some aspects of the meaning-making model appear to be well supported but others are not, and the quality of meaning-making efforts and meanings made may be at least as important as their quantity. This article concludes with specific suggestions for future research.
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The ability to make sense of events in one's life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans' searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval--the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001--among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N=931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people's fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability.
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In three studies we investigated the utility of distinguishing among different domains of interpersonal competence in college students' peer relationships. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire to assess five dimensions of competence: initiating relationships, self-disclosure, asserting displeasure with others' actions, providing emotional support, and managing interpersonal conflicts. Initial validation evidence was gathered. We found that self-perceptions of competence varied as a function of sex of subject, sex of interaction partner, and competence domain. In Study 2 we found moderate levels of agreement between ratings of competence by subjects and their roommates. Interpersonal competence scores were also related in predictable ways to subject and roommate reports of masculinity and femininity, social self-esteem, loneliness, and social desirability. In Study 3 we obtained ratings of subjects' competence from their close friends and new acquaintances. Relationship satisfaction among new acquaintances was predicted best by initiation competence, whereas satisfaction in friendships was most strongly related to emotional support competence. The findings provide strong evidence of the usefulness of distinguishing among domains of interpersonal competence.
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In this article I evaluated the psychometric properties of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Using data from prior studies of college students, nurses, teachers, and the elderly, analyses of the reliability, validity, and factor structure of this new version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale were conducted. Results indicated that the measure was highly reliable, both in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha ranging from .89 to .94) and test-retest reliability over a 1-year period (r = .73). Convergent validity for the scale was indicated by significant correlations with other measures of loneliness. Construct validity was supported by significant relations with measures of the adequacy of the individual's interpersonal relationships, and by correlations between loneliness and measures of health and well-being. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a model incorporating a global bipolar loneliness factor along with two method factor reflecting direction of item wording provided a very good fit to the data across samples. Implications of these results for future measurement research on loneliness are discussed.
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Synopsis Homesickness has not received due attention from psychological researchers, in spite of the fact that it is of considerable interest to counsellors and care-givers of those who have migrated or moved temporarily or permanently (e.g. immigrants, refugees, students, soldiers). First, this review addresses the definition of homesickness, the possible different kinds of homesickness, its prevalence rate, and symptomatology, Secondly, an overview is given of the theories that account for psychological distress following leaving home. These theories link homesickness with separation-anxiety and loss, the interruption of lifestyle, reduced control, role change, and internal conflict. In addition, the review focuses on: ( i ) studies that show that subjects reporting homesickness differ from non-homesick persons in terms of personality; ( ii ) the analyses of environmental characteristics that may play a crucial role in the onset and course of homesickness. Thirdly, Fisher's (1989) composite model of homesickness, which summarizes key findings of the major studies on homesickness is discussed. Fourthly, methodological issues are addressed. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented and possibilities for interventions are proposed.
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Personal Projects Analysis (B. R. Little, 1983) was adapted to examine relations between participants' appraisals of their goal characteristics and orthogonal happiness and meaning factors that emerged from factor analyses of diverse well-being measures. In two studies with 146 and 179 university students, goal efficacy was associated with happiness and goal integrity was associated with meaning. A new technique for classifying participants according to emergent identity themes is introduced. In both studies, identity-compensatory predictors of happiness were apparent. Agentic participants were happiest if their goals were supported by others, communal participants were happiest if their goals were fun, and hedonistic participants were happiest if their goals were being accomplished. The distinction between happiness and meaning is emphasized, and the tension between efficacy and integrity is discussed. Developmental implications are discussed with reference to results from archival data from a sample of senior managers.
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Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N = 104) and community adults (N = 264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness, meaning in life, and wealth experienced. Results revealed significant effects of happiness and meaning on ratings of desirability and moral goodness. In the college sample, individuals high on all 3 independent variables were judged as likely to go to heaven. In the adult sample, wealth was also related to higher desirability. Results suggest a general perception that meaning in life and happiness are essential to the folk concept of the good life, whereas money is relatively unimportant.
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The effect of age on happiness, as defined by positive and negative affect, was examined in a survey of 2,727 persons of a broad age range (25-74) conducted by the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Midlife Development. The age-affect association was examined, controlling for a host of sociodemographic, personality, and contextual influences. Among women, age was related to positive affect nonlinearly but was unrelated to negative affect. Among men, age interacted with 2 key variables in predicting affect: extraversion and marital status. These findings lend support to recent life span theories of emotion and indicate that personality, contextual, and sociodemographic variables, as well as their interactions, are all needed to fully understand the age-affect relationship.
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Age differences in emotional experience over the adult life span were explored, focusing on the frequency, intensity, complexity, and consistency of emotional experience in everyday life. One hundred eighty-four people, age 18 to 94 years, participated in an experience-sampling procedure in which emotions were recorded across a 1-week period. Age was unrelated to frequency of positive emotional experience. A curvilinear relationship best characterized negative emotional experience. Negative emotions declined in frequency until approximately age 60, at which point the decline ceased. Individual factor analyses computed for each participant revealed that age was associated with more differentiated emotional experience. In addition, periods of highly positive emotional experience were more likely to endure among older people and periods of highly negative emotional experience were less stable. Findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of socioemotional selectivity theory.
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Traditionally, nostalgia has been conceptualized as a medical disease and a psychiatric disorder. Instead, we argue that nostalgia is a predominantly positive, self-relevant, and social emotion serving key psychological functions. Nostalgic narratives reflect more positive than negative affect, feature the self as the protagonist, and are embedded in a social context. Nostalgia is triggered by dysphoric states such as negative mood and loneliness. Finally, nostalgia generates positive affect, increases self-esteem, fosters social connectedness, and alleviates existential threat.
Book
Mobility of mankind has increased enormously in the past few decades. People leave their homes and native countries for business and study, for vacation or to flee from unsafe conditions like wars and natural disasters. In all cases the sojourner faces a dual challenge of breaking with the familiar home environment and adjusting to new surroundings. This book deals with the psychological and health consequences of leaving the familiar home and the process of creating a new one. The focus is mainly on acculturation stress and homesickness, which both are relevant to those who travel. Acculturation refers to the process and outcome of a person's encounter with, and adaptation to, a culturally new and different environment. Homesickness is defined as a depression-like reaction to leaving one's home. The contributions in this book present empirical data as well as theoretical and conceptual discussions. Causes, consequences, moderating variables, and theoretical explanations are discussed. Both short-term (e.g., vacations) and long-term (e.g. immigration) separations from home receive attention. By combining these different but related topics, this book provides a valuable overview for researchers, teachers, students and professionals working with people who present with problems related to migration or traveling.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
a b s t r a c t Three studies tested and supported the proposition that nostalgia buffers existential threat. All studies measured nostalgia proneness and manipulated death awareness (mortality salience; MS). In Study 1, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition responded less pos-itively to an identity threat than participants in the control condition. In Study 2, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition evidenced greater levels of death anxiety than participants in the control condition. In Study 3, at high, but not low, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition indicated greater feelings of state nostalgia than participants in the con-trol condition.
Book
The purpose of this book is to demystify clinical work with suicidal patients by grounding this work within a model of suicidal behavior, the interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005). The theory is ambitious in that it attempts a comprehensive and empirically defensible answer to the question, Why do people die by suicide? This book focuses on issues that we argue have been resolved, such as aspects of suicidal behavior that heretofore have not received adequate attention—indeed, in some theories have received no mention whatsoever—and that nonetheless are necessary for a full understanding of the phenomenon. The theory's emphasis of these constructs allows clinical work with suicidal patients a new level of rigor and focus. The book is meant as a "guidebook" of sorts. Each chapter in this guidebook addresses a component of clinical work with suicidal patients. The first two chapters address aspects of assessment. In chapter 1, we focus on diagnoses associated with suicide. In chapter 2, we offer theory-based recommendations on what information should be gathered in the process of suicide risk assessments as well as how to optimally obtain and analyze this information. We also provide an overview of available risk assessment frameworks through the lens of the interpersonal theory. The next three chapters address aspects of treatment. In chapter 3, we describe crisis intervention strategies and techniques through the lens of the theory. In chapter 4, we focus on treatments that work for suicidal behavior, surveying various treatment approaches through the lens of the theory and describing in detail one approach that directly targets all components of the interpersonal theory. In chapter 5, we focus on the therapeutic relationship, including a more detailed exploration of the optimal therapeutic stance. We also address between-sessions accessibility by the therapist. The final two chapters use a broader perspective to examine clinical implications of the interpersonal theory. In chapter 6, we address suicide prevention and public health campaigns. In the concluding chapter, we provide an integrative statement on a comprehensive, theory-based protocol for clinical work with suicidal patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The literature on nostalgia is summarized under the headings: (1) symptoms, (2) susceptibility (as related to race and nationality, age, temperament, intelligence, education, rural and urban backgrounds), (3) conditions precipitating nostaligia, (4) theories (physiological, anatomical, and psychological), and (5) prevention and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Baumeister and Tice's (this issue) social exclusion theory of anxiety proposes that a primary source of anxiety is perceived exclusion from important social groups. This article elaborates the basic propositions of social exclusion theory, then applies the theory to a broader analysis of affective reactions to exclusion. Specifically, the article examines the relationship between perceived social exclusion and social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, and depression. The function of self-esteem and its role in moderating reactions to perceived exclusion are also discussed.
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According to terror management theory, people turn to meaning-providing structures to cope with the knowledge of inevitable mortality. Recent theory and research suggest that nostalgia is a meaning-providing resource and thus may serve such an existential function. The current research tests and supports this idea. In Experiments 1 and 2, nostalgia proneness was measured and mortality salience manipulated. In Experiment 1, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the more they perceived life to be meaningful. In Experiment 2, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the less death thoughts were accessible. In Experiment 3, nostalgia and mortality salience were manipulated. It was found that nostalgia buffered the effects of mortality salience on death-thought accessibility.
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Previous studies on loneliness and interpersonal dependency suggest a shared relation with eating disorders. Previous findings of the relation of interpersonal dependency with eating disorders may have misestimated the importance of interpersonal dependency by not including loneliness. Measures of loneliness, interpersonal dependency, and disordered eating (drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction) were given to 176 college students. Mediation models were used to test the relative influence of interpersonal dependency and loneliness on body dissatisfaction. Loneliness mediated the relation between interpersonal dependency and body dissatisfaction; no other mediation models could be tested.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
Four studies (N = 643) supported the hypothesis that social exclusion would reduce the global perception of life as meaningful. Social exclusion was manipulated experimentally by having a confederate refuse to meet participants after seeing their videotaped introduction (Study 1) and by ostracizing participants in a computerized ball-tossing game (Study 2). Compared to control condition and acceptance conditions, social exclusion led to perceiving life as less meaningful. Exclusion was also operationalized as self-reported loneliness, which was a better predictor of low meaning than other potent variables (Study 3). Study 4 found support for Baumeister's model of meaning (1991), by demonstrating that the effect of exclusion on meaning was mediated by purpose, value, and positive self-worth.
Article
Four studies tested whether nostalgia can counteract reductions in perceived social support caused by loneliness. Loneliness reduced perceptions of social support but increased nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, increased perceptions of social support. Thus, loneliness affected perceived social support in two distinct ways. Whereas the direct effect of loneliness was to reduce perceived social support, the indirect effect of loneliness was to increase perceived social support via nostalgia. This restorative function of nostalgia was particularly apparent among resilient persons. Nostalgia is a psychological resource that protects and fosters mental health.
Article
Meaning in life is an important construct in psychology, but one which has been the focus of limited research. Most research has concentrated on the relation between meaning and psychopathology, and has been conducted with the Purpose in Life Test. This paper examines the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being using several meaning measures and both positive and negative well-being dimensions. A strong association is found between meaning in life and well-being, which is replicated in two different samples. Meaning in life is found to have a stronger association with positive than with negative well-being dimensions, suggesting the value of taking a salutogenic approach to mental health research. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
A theoretical model of adolescent behavior is examined separately for males and females (N = 722). The model hypothesizes that depression and self-derogation may lead to a lack of purpose in life, which, in turn, may lead to suicide ideation and substance use. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation procedures were used to examine the model, using Bentler's (1984) EQS computer program, which is available from BMDP. For both the men and women, the model adequately accounted for the data although there were some important differences between the sexes. In response to psychic discomfort (i.e., Depression and Self-derogation), men are more apt to turn to drugs and alcohol, whereas women consider suicide. Conversely, the situation changes in response to feelings of meaninglessness or a lack of purpose in life. Here, the females appear to turn to substance use, whereas the males react with thoughts of suicide.