ArticlePDF Available

We spend about one-third of our life either sleeping or attempting to do so

We spend about one-third of our life either sleeping or attempting to do so. Sleep is not only comforting, but is
also essential for our normal cognitive functioning and for our survival. Yet sleep can be disturbed or abnormal
in up to one-quarter of the US population. The field of sleep medicine has developed dramatically in the past
few years. To reflect these advances, we are proud to introduce the present two volumes, which are a novelty in
several respects. It is the first time that two Handbook volumes have been dedicated entirely to sleep and its dis-
orders. Readers will find in these two volumes considerable emphasis on recent developments in the field. There is
a new focus on diagnostic techniques, particularly imaging. Fresh attention is given to genetics and clinical aspects
of sleep. Finally, there is extensive coverage of management and of new therapeutic strategies for sleep disorders.
The volumes were edited by Pasquale Montagna and Sudhansu Chokroverty. As series editors, we reviewed
all the chapters and made suggestions for improvement, but we are delighted that the volume editors and chapter
authors produced such scholarly and comprehensive accounts of different aspects of sleep and its disorders.
Hence we hope that these volumes will appeal to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. Significant new advances,
particularly in terms of diagnosis and therapy, lead to new insights that demand a critical appraisal. Our goal is
to provide basic researchers with the foundations for new approaches to the study of these disorders, and clin-
icians with a state-of-the-art reference that summarizes the clinical features and management of the many neu-
rological manifestations of sleep disorders. In addition to the print form, the Handbook series is now available
electronically on Elsevier’s Science Direct site. This should make it even more accessible to readers and should
facilitate searches for specific information.
We are grateful to the two volume editors and to the numerous authors who contributed their time and expertise
to summarize developments in their field and helped put together these outstanding volumes. As always, we are
grateful to the team at Elsevier and in particular to Mr. Michael Parkinson, Ms. Caroline Cockrell, and Mr. Timothy
Horne for their unfailing and expert assistance in the development and production of these volumes.
Michael J. Aminoff
Franc¸ois Boller
Dick F. Swaab
... Sleep is a very important state for living organisms. It occupies approximately one third of our life [1][2][3] and it is known to affect emotional, physical and cognitive performance [4]. There have been many studies highlighting that poor sleep quality or disturbed sleep is associated with multiple health complications. ...
... where %DE θ is the percentage of events in a certain sleep angle θ; N is the number of desaturation events available; DE i represents the median angle linked to an event matching the criteria between brackets; and the Angle low θ and Angle high θ are the thresholds used around each sleep angle θ with the same window and resolution as Equation (2). ...
... The subject with more events was subject 2, with 246 desaturation events. Regarding the severity in terms of the ODI values, there are two healthy subjects (5 and 6), five mild (1, 3, 4, 7 and 10), one moderate (13) and one severe (2). Two subjects (2 and 10) changed their severity classification for worse, and two of them (4 and 7) changed it for better. ...
Full-text available
Poor sleep quality or disturbed sleep is associated with multiple health conditions. Sleep position affects the severity and occurrence of these complications, and positional therapy is one of the less invasive treatments to deal with them. Sleep positions can be self-reported, which is unreliable, or determined by using specific devices, such as polysomnography, polygraphy or cameras, that can be expensive and difficult to employ at home. The aim of this study is to determine how smartphones could be used to monitor and treat sleep position at home. We divided our research into three tasks: (1) develop an Android smartphone application (‘SleepPos’ app) which monitors angle-based high-resolution sleep position and allows to simultaneously apply positional treatment; (2) test the smartphone application at home coupled with a pulse oximeter; and (3) explore the potential of this tool to detect the positional occurrence of desaturation events. The results show how the ‘SleepPos’ app successfully determined the sleep position and revealed positional patterns of occurrence of desaturation events. The ‘SleepPos’ app also succeeded in applying positional therapy and preventing the subjects from sleeping in the supine sleep position. This study demonstrates how smartphones are capable of reliably monitoring high-resolution sleep position and provide useful clinical information about the positional occurrence of desaturation events.
... Similarly, computer use was linked to sleep quality. Adolescents spend an average of 56 min each day on computers [18][19]. The responses to weariness, sleeping and waking issues, and liking school are all consistent with physiological and psychological development aspects. ...
Objectives: To ascertain the relationship between electronic media use and sleep patterns among secondary school students in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from July 2021 to December 2021. This study examined eight female secondary high schools, in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The sampling technique used was the stratification of governmental schools according to their location in the north, south, east, and west. According to the WHO sample size calculator, the sample size was 375. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 26 (SPSS version 26) (SPSS Incl., Chicago, IL) was used for the analysis of data. Results: A total of 388 female students were recruited, from the age group 12 to 40 years, with a mean age group of 16.45 ± 4.25 years. The majority of participants in our research utilized various types of electronic devices before going to bed. Some 335 individuals reported using electronic devices on a daily basis while at school, while 357 reported using electronic devices prior to sleeping on weekends. The more time spent on electronic gadgets, the more sleep is interrupted (p-value = 0.005). This condition was more prevalent among older children: 55% of third-year children and 41% of second-year children reported having it (p = 0.01). More than 20% had difficulty sleeping. Around 5% of respondents reported experiencing frequent nightly awakenings, whereas 23% reported feeling drowsy/sleepy feeling at school. After 10:00 p.m., 43% of the population (mostly the young) headed to bed, while older children remained awake (p = 0.001). Having a mobile phone (odds ratio, OR = 2.5; p = 0.01) or tablet (OR = 2.5; p = 0.05) was a significant predictor of sleep issues in the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The use of electronic media and the amount of time secondary school children spend on it can significantly alter sleep quality, through interrupted rest, and time, from a reduced duration of sleep. Parents and care providers can help by creating awareness about the negative effects of using electronic media on sleep and health among children.
... Also, the risk for developing musculoskeletal pain from poor sleep is well established among adults than adolescents (Andreucci, et al., 2020a), however, emerging evidence suggests an association between sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain in adolescents (Andreucci, et al., 2020a;Andreucci, et al., 2020b). While about one-third of an average individual's life is spent sleeping, a prevalence of 4% to 40% musculoskeletal pain accounts for the period of adolescents in a life time (Aminoff, et al., 2011;Harrison, et al., 2014). Hence, the increasing research on measures to reduce musculoskeletal pain derived from sleep disturbance (Mork, et al., 2014;Low, et al., 2017;Babiloni, et al., 2020). ...
Full-text available
Certain sleep surfaces may trigger complaints of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort among otherwise healthy individuals. Thus, studies investigating the association between sleep surfaces and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort are imperative. This study investigated the influence of sleep surfaces on musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students in Lagos, Nigeria. Five hundred undergraduate students of the College of Medicine University of Lagos from 300 to 600 level participated in this cross-sectional survey. They completed a 47-item modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Information sought included respondent's demographics, mattress characteristics, sleeping pattern, prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, location, predisposing factors, treatment approaches adopted and knowledge of ergonomics. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentages, and inferential statistics of chi-square to test for association among variables. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. A 12-month 79.7% prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was observed with females significantly (p<0.05) higher than males (57.9% vs 42.1%). The highest 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was on the low back (17.6%), while the highest point prevalence was on the neck (54.6%). Mattress type, size and duration of use were not significantly (p>0.05) associated with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students was high, more in females than males. Mattress type were not significantly associated with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students.
... It is an important physiological process, which serves the human body with various functions and is considered essential for normal cognitive functioning and survival. Therefore, it is estimated that humans spend approximately one-third of their lives either sleeping or attempting to sleep (Aminoff et al., 2011). According to EASA (2013), multiple scientific principles concerning sleep were considered for the revision of fatigue management regulations, such as the average sleep needed for an average adult, which is equal to six to eight hours a day to maintain the desired/optimal performance. ...
Fatigue is a prevalent and underreported issue within the aviation industry and can have an impact on flight safety and flight operations. The purpose of this research project was to obtain a better understanding of pilot fatigue, its causes and the impact it can have on flight safety. A literature review and an analysis of primary and secondary data have been conducted to meet the objectives of this research project. The quantitative research design has been chosen in combination with questionnaires, which have been distributed among commercial airline pilots. The results have shown the significance of pilot fatigue, as this particular physiological state has been experienced by almost all of the participants. Furthermore, the results indicated the ineffectiveness of regulatory fatigue countermeasures, such as flight time and duty limitations. As for the causes of fatigue, the participants of the research perceived several factors, such as crew scheduling and planning, regulations, flight time limitations (FTLs) and loss of sleep, to have had the greatest impact on pilot fatigue. It was possible to conclude that pilot fatigue still remains a serious issue that has not yet been dealt with accordingly, as there is further room for improvement in the regulations, which were also not based on scientific principles. A decrease in the current maximum flight duty periods and an increase in crew rest periods, as well as the implementation of new FTLs, which are based on scientific research and principles concerning sleep and sleep deprivation, are highly recommended and essential to improve the aviation industry
... Although past research has advanced our knowledge, few studies have examined whether sexual objectification influences sleep quality. Given that sleep takes up about one-third of our lives and plays an essential role in maintaining proper survival functioning (Aminoff et al., 2011;Toda et al., 2019), it is important to examine how sexual objectification may influence sleep quality, test the underlying psychological mechanisms, and reveal the implications for affective symptoms. To fill this research gap, in the current research, we empirically examined whether sexual objectification was positively associated with perceived stress, insomnia, and affective symptoms and whether the association between sexual objectification and affective symptoms was serially mediated by perceived stress and insomnia. ...
Background : Sexual objectification is a form of interpersonal maltreatment that women may experience in daily life. Research has focused on testing how it leads to various psychological distresses. However, little research has examined its influences on women's sleep quality, the underlying psychological mechanism, and the potential implication for affective symptoms. We addressed this research gap by testing whether sexual objectification predicted perceived stress and insomnia, thereby predicting affective symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety). We further examined whether sex-is-power beliefs moderated these associations. Methods : Participants completed validated measures of sex-is-power beliefs, sexual objectification, perceived stress, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. We conducted regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping analyses to test the associations between these psychological constructs. Results : As predicted, the results showed that sexual objectification was positively associated with perceived stress, insomnia, and affective symptoms. Moreover, perceived stress and insomnia serially mediated the association between sexual objectification and affective symptoms. Furthermore, sex-is-power beliefs moderated the serial mediation effect, such that the effect was only observed among participants with weak sex-is-power beliefs. Conclusions : These findings advanced current theories and knowledge of sexual objectification by demonstrating that sexual objectification is associated with perceived stress and insomnia, thereby predicting affective symptoms. The findings also highlighted the role of beliefs in weakening the negative consequences of sexual objectification.
... Sleeping, like breathing, is an action that we undertake throughout our entire life. We spend approximately 30% of our time sleeping [1], and this is strictly necessary since sleep is the natural state of rest and self-regulation of the organism. However, several diseases can affect sleep quality, producing symptoms of varying severity. ...
Full-text available
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which can lead to serious comorbidities and impact patients’ recovery and quality of life. However, sleep tests are rarely performed on SCI patients, given their multiple health needs and the cost and complexity of diagnostic equipment. The objective of this study was to use a novel smartphone system as a simple non-invasive tool to monitor SDB in SCI patients. We recorded pulse oximetry, acoustic, and accelerometer data using a smartphone during overnight tests in 19 SCI patients and 19 able-bodied controls. Then, we analyzed these signals with automatic algorithms to detect desaturation, apnea, and hypopnea events and monitor sleep position. The apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher in SCI patients than controls (25 ± 15 vs. 9 ± 7, p < 0.001). We found that 63% of SCI patients had moderate-to-severe SDB (AHI ≥ 15) in contrast to 21% of control subjects. Most SCI patients slept predominantly in supine position, but an increased occurrence of events in supine position was only observed for eight patients. This study highlights the problem of SDB in SCI and provides simple cost-effective sleep monitoring tools to facilitate the detection, understanding, and management of SDB in SCI patients.
... [1] Sleep time occupies up to a third of the human lifespan. [2] With the increasing pressure of external factors such as modern society, environment, and working mode, the incidence rate of insomnia disorder is increasing year by year. Insomnia is a subjective feeling that sleep time and sleep quality do not meet daytime social function, accompanied by symptoms such as irritability or fatigue during wakefulness. ...
Full-text available
Background: Long term insomnia and low sleep quality often lead to depression, anxiety and other negative emotions, and often interact with each other. Many studies have confirmed the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders, but its specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rsfMRI) is an important means to study the changes of brain activity. However, the results are inconsistent and lack of systematic evaluation and analysis. Methods: Nine databases will be searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCOhost-medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database and Wan-Fang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from inception to January 2021. And screening clinical registration platform related research, in order to obtain more relevant studies. The outcomes include the change of rs-fMRI, sleep quality, depression, and anxiety. Quality assessment of the included studies will be performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Evidence quality will be assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. RevMan software (Version 5.3) and stata13.1will be used for statistical analyses. Subgroup analysis will be performed if necessary. If the data is insufficient, qualitative synthesis will be conducted instead of quantitative synthesis. Results: This study will analyze the effect of acupuncture on the brain activity changes, improvement of sleep quality and clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression with insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders. Conclusion: This study used meta-analysis method to explore the characteristics of acupuncture on brain activity changes in insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders, so as to provide effective evidence for clarifying its pathogenesis.
... Sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity in the elderly have been receiving extra attention because they have all been shown to be important factors to mental and physical health [3][4][5][6]. Sleep takes up nearly a third of the human lifespan [7] and its quality is especially important to older adults. A number of studies have identified significant changes in sleep structure with aging [8], including age-related changes in sleep patterns (decreased total sleep time and efficiency, lower percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, and less slow-wave sleep) and disturbances (increased night-time spent awake after sleep onset) [9]. ...
Full-text available
Sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity are significant factors influencing physical and mental health. However, few studies have explored their underlying mechanisms, especially among the elderly population in East Asia, where people have food culture and lifestyles distinct from those living in Western countries. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the relationships among sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, and physical and mental health in a Chinese elderly sample. Sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, physical health, and mental health were investigated among 313 Chinese elderly (aged 51–92 years, M = 67.90, SD = 7.94). Mediation analysis was used to examine the empirical model based on previous theories and literature. Close positive relationships were observed between all factors investigated (r = 0.22~0.73, p < 0.001). The relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health were partially mediated by diet quality and physical activity. In clinical interventions, sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity can be targeted to improve physical and mental health among the older adult populations.
... Sleep is an unconscious state of decreased motor function and heightened body restoration mechanistically regulated by homeostatic sleep pressure and the circadian clock (1,2). Daytime napping is a short sleep episode occurring midday conserved across species (3,4). ...
Full-text available
Background Chronic inadequate sleep and frequent daytime napping may inflict deleterious health effects including weight gain, cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases, and cancer, and it is plausible that these relationships may be partly influenced by the consumption of suboptimal diets. Objective The study aimed to identify potential causal links of genetically proxied longer habitual sleep duration and more frequent daytime napping on 61 dietary variables derived from a food frequency questionnaire. In addition, the study aimed to assess potential bidirectional causal links between habitual sleep duration or daytime napping and macronutrient composition. Methods Genetic variants robustly associated with habitual sleep duration and daytime napping from published genome-wide association analyses were used. Outcomes included 61 dietary variables estimated from food frequency questionnaire in the UK Biobank (n = 361,194). For bidirectional associations with macronutrient composition, genetic variants associated with % energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein were used. Two-sample MR effects were estimated with inverse-variance weighted analysis. Results In two-sample MR, genetically proxied longer sleep duration was associated with a 0.068 (95% confidence interval = 0.034, 0.103) category increase in salad/raw vegetable intake (PFDR = 0.006) per hour of sleep and with ‘no major dietary changes in the past 5 years’ (PFDR = 0.043). No associations were evident for daytime napping on dietary variables (all PFDR > 0.05). In addition, there were no bidirectional associations between habitual sleep duration or daytime napping with the relative intake of carbohydrate, fat, and protein (all PIVW > 0.05). Conclusions In this MR study, there was some evidence for associations of habitual sleep duration with dietary intake and no evidence for associations of daytime napping frequency with dietary intake. These preliminary findings suggest that changes to habitual sleep duration or daytime napping frequency may have limited impact on long-term changes in dietary intake.
The oxytocin (OXT) system has garnered considerable interest due to its influence on diverse behaviours. However, scant research has considered the influence of oxytocin on sleep-wake and sleep-related behaviour and neurobiology. Consequently, the objective of this systematic review was to assess the extant preclinical and clinical evidence for the influence of oxytocin-based interventions on sleep-wake outcomes. The primary search was conducted on 22/7/2020 using six electronic databases; 30 studies (19 preclinical, 11 clinical) were included based on inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated for risk of bias using the SYRCLE tool and the Cochrane risk of bias tools for preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. Results indicated manipulation of the OXT system can influence sleep-wake outcomes. Preclinical evidence suggests a wake-promoting influence of OXT system activation whereas the clinical evidence suggests little or no sleep-promoting influence of OXT. OXT dose was identified as a likely modulatory factor of OXT-induced effects on sleep-wake behaviour. Future studies are necessary to validate and strengthen these tentative conclusions about the influence of OXT on sleep-wake behaviour.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.