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We spend about one-third of our life either sleeping or attempting to do so

We spend about one-third of our life either sleeping or attempting to do so. Sleep is not only comforting, but is
also essential for our normal cognitive functioning and for our survival. Yet sleep can be disturbed or abnormal
in up to one-quarter of the US population. The field of sleep medicine has developed dramatically in the past
few years. To reflect these advances, we are proud to introduce the present two volumes, which are a novelty in
several respects. It is the first time that two Handbook volumes have been dedicated entirely to sleep and its dis-
orders. Readers will find in these two volumes considerable emphasis on recent developments in the field. There is
a new focus on diagnostic techniques, particularly imaging. Fresh attention is given to genetics and clinical aspects
of sleep. Finally, there is extensive coverage of management and of new therapeutic strategies for sleep disorders.
The volumes were edited by Pasquale Montagna and Sudhansu Chokroverty. As series editors, we reviewed
all the chapters and made suggestions for improvement, but we are delighted that the volume editors and chapter
authors produced such scholarly and comprehensive accounts of different aspects of sleep and its disorders.
Hence we hope that these volumes will appeal to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. Significant new advances,
particularly in terms of diagnosis and therapy, lead to new insights that demand a critical appraisal. Our goal is
to provide basic researchers with the foundations for new approaches to the study of these disorders, and clin-
icians with a state-of-the-art reference that summarizes the clinical features and management of the many neu-
rological manifestations of sleep disorders. In addition to the print form, the Handbook series is now available
electronically on Elsevier’s Science Direct site. This should make it even more accessible to readers and should
facilitate searches for specific information.
We are grateful to the two volume editors and to the numerous authors who contributed their time and expertise
to summarize developments in their field and helped put together these outstanding volumes. As always, we are
grateful to the team at Elsevier and in particular to Mr. Michael Parkinson, Ms. Caroline Cockrell, and Mr. Timothy
Horne for their unfailing and expert assistance in the development and production of these volumes.
Michael J. Aminoff
Franc¸ois Boller
Dick F. Swaab
... Sleep represents approximately one-third of our life (44) and is observed as well in all species of living organisms on the planet, including reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and other animals, like Homo sapiens (44). As for circadian and other biological rhythms, also sleep has an ancient origin (45). ...
... Sleep represents approximately one-third of our life (44) and is observed as well in all species of living organisms on the planet, including reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and other animals, like Homo sapiens (44). As for circadian and other biological rhythms, also sleep has an ancient origin (45). ...
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Circadian rhythms are a series of endogenous autonomous oscillators that are generated by the molecular circadian clock which coordinates and synchronizes internal time with the external environment in a 24-h daily cycle (that can also be shorter or longer than 24 h). Besides daily rhythms, there exist as well other biological rhythms that have different time scales, including seasonal and annual rhythms. Circadian and other biological rhythms deeply permeate human life, at any level, spanning from the molecular, subcellular, cellular, tissue, and organismal level to environmental exposures, and behavioral lifestyles. Humans are immersed in what has been called the “circadian landscape,“ with circadian rhythms being highly pervasive and ubiquitous, and affecting every ecosystem on the planet, from plants to insects, fishes, birds, mammals, and other animals. Anthropogenic behaviors have been producing a cascading and compounding series of effects, including detrimental impacts on human health. However, the effects of climate change on sleep have been relatively overlooked. In the present narrative review paper, we wanted to offer a way to re-read/re-think sleep medicine from a planetary health perspective. Climate change, through a complex series of either direct or indirect mechanisms, including (i) pollution- and poor air quality-induced oxygen saturation variability/hypoxia, (ii) changes in light conditions and increases in the nighttime, (iii) fluctuating temperatures, warmer values, and heat due to extreme weather, and (iv) psychological distress imposed by disasters (like floods, wildfires, droughts, hurricanes, and infectious outbreaks by emerging and reemerging pathogens) may contribute to inducing mismatches between internal time and external environment, and disrupting sleep, causing poor sleep quantity and quality and sleep disorders, such as insomnia, and sleep-related breathing issues, among others. Climate change will generate relevant costs and impact more vulnerable populations in underserved areas, thus widening already existing global geographic, age-, sex-, and gender-related inequalities.
... Sleep is an important physiological process that occupies at least one-third of human life [1]. There have been many reports in the literature that sleep is essential for not only energy conservation but also learning and memory consolidation, elimination of fatigue, enhancement of immunity, and individual growth and development [2]. ...
People of all ages could suffer from sleep disorders, which are increasingly recognized as common manifestations of neurologic disease. Acorus tatarinowii is a herb that has been used in traditional medicine to promote sleep. β-asarone, as the main component of volatile oil obtained from Acorus tatarinowii, may be the main contributor to the sleeping-promoting efficacy of Acorus tatarinowii. In the study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were administered β-asarone at 12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg. Behavioral experiments showed that β-asarone at 25 mg/kg could significantly improve sleep duration. It was also observed that the proportion of NREM (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) sleep increased considerably after administration of β-asarone. In the PVN (paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus) region of the hypothalamus, it was observed that the glutamate content decreased after β-asarone treatment. At the same time, the expression of VGLUT2 (vesicular glutamate transporters 2) decreased while the expression of GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65) and GABARAP (GABA Type A Receptor-Associated Protein) increased in the hypothalamus, suggesting that β-asarone may suppress arousal by reducing glutamate and promoting transformation of glutamate to the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid). This study is the first to focus on the association between β-asarone and sleep, shedding perspectives for pharmacological applications of β-asarone and providing a new direction for future research.
... Sleep is a fundamental human need essential for good health, good quality of life, and effective performance during the day. Sleep problems are becoming more common as a result of lifestyle and environmental factors (Aminoff et al., 2011). Sleep disorders (also known as sleep-wake disorders) are characterized by disturbed sleep quality, timing, and amount, which cause daytime disturbance and impairment in functioning. ...
Adequate sleep has been proven to be beneficial to one’s mental health and cognitive functions. Sleep disturbances can negatively affect an individual’s ability, function, and overall well-being. Insomnia, the most common sleep disorder, may be a symptom or a separate illness, but it is most often seen as a comorbid disease of another medical or mental disorder. According to the literature, sleep disorders are becoming more common and causing more morbidity in Middle Eastern countries, whereby patients with chronic diseases, mental illnesses, and students have been reported to have more sleep disturbances. In comparison with developed countries, many patients in the region have had their sleep problems under-recognized, which has resulted in less sleep interventions. Besides, sleep clinics and sleep medicine education have been inadequately established in Middle Eastern medical schools, and the status of sleep medicine service is unknown due to a lack of data or publication. Hence, this book chapter aims to review sleep disorders, and mainly insomnia, in the Middle East in terms of epidemiological studies, prevalence, risk factors, burden, management, and challenges.
... With humans sleeping for almost one-third of their life, sleep health has become an essential component of a healthy lifestyle (Aminoff et al., 2011;Perry et al., 2013). The timing, duration, and quality of sleep are important indicators of health, and this is further emphasized during the Covid-19 pandemic (Chaput et al., 2018;Xiao et al., 2020a, b). ...
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Sleep health has become an important healthy lifestyle. Research has shown that almost one-fifth of the Korean adult population does not have sufficient sleep. The lack of sleep is associated with significant medical, psychological, social, and economic issues. People are not only yearning for sufficient sleep but the quality of sleep as well. Usually, the obvious choice will be the use of pharmaceuticals however, these often have various side effects, and the lasting use of these medications could become a concern. Therefore, new non-drug alternatives are sought after. Audio brain entrainment is a procedure that modules neural activities by synchronizing brainwave frequency with pulse tones. By producing frequency tones for the deep sleep stage, it promotes a good night’s sleep. In this paper, we developed a pillow integrated with the audio speakers that produce alpha and theta beats that should help improve sleep. Sleep polysomnography was performed on 10 people to compare the effects of the audio stimulus. Initial results showed a positive effect on sleep onset latency, indicating that sleep induction happened. This noninvasive stimulation technique can be a promising candidate for wearable bioelectronics medicine and further neuroscience research.
... Несмотря на то что сон -неотъемлемая часть существования (человек спит треть своей жизни [1]), до середины ХХ в. многие ученые считали, что сон не имеет смысла с точки зрения биологического феномена. Один из известных исследователей сна A. Rechtschaffen (1998) писал: «Сон сохранился в эволюции, хотя он явно неадекватен по отношению к другим функциям. ...
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Sleep deficit disrupts the normal function of systems and organs in humans and becomes epidemic in nature. Knowledge of the physiology of sleep and the impact of sleep deprivation on the body has expanded in recent years and allows a new assessment of the scale and depth of the problem. In the review summarizes current ideas about the effect of lack of sleep on chronic diseases and pathological processes, taking into account various body systems. Different reviews and studies over the past years have been analyzed, related to lack of sleep which contributes to the development of various diseases, have been analyzed. The use of new information about the impact of sleep on human health and the consequences of its lack opens up additional perspectives in understanding experimental and clinical work. This information can be actively used in diagnostics and therapy within the framework of integrative medicine.
... Insufficient sleep duration is associated with adverse cardiometabolic health (CMH) outcomes such as hypertension (Wang et al. 2015), coronary heart disease (Nagai et al. 2010), and type 2 diabetes (Cappuccio et al. 2010), which are among the leading causes of death worldwide (Roth et al. 2018) and are projected to rise in the coming years (Tsao et al. 2022;Ward et al. 2019). However, most American adults do not achieve the 7-9 hours of sleep that is recommended by the National Sleep Foundation (Aminoff et al. 2011;Hirshkowitz et al. 2015). Despite the established associations between insufficient sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk, there is limited data on the role of sleep on cardiometabolic risk in younger adults. ...
Sleep irregularity (i.e., highly variable sleep patterns) is an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Though irregular sleep patterns are common among young adults, the cardiometabolic health (CMH) repercussions of sleep irregularity in this population are unclear. We examined associations between sleep duration and irregularity with measures of CMH in 44 (24 M/20 F, 23 ± 5y, BMI 26 ± 4 kg/m², blood pressure (BP): 125/71 ± 14/9 mmHg) young adults. Participants wore actigraphy monitors for seven-days and sleep duration irregularity was operationalized as the standard deviation of nightly sleep duration (sleep SD). CMH variables of interest included brachial and aortic BP, arterial stiffness (cf-PWV), augmentation index (AIx75), and fasting blood glucose and lipids. Associations between sleep duration and sleep SD with CMH variables were assessed via correlations adjusted for sex and BMI. Sleep duration generally was not associated with CMH indices. However, sleep SD was associated with brachial systolic (r = 0.433, p = .027) and diastolic BP (r = 0.415, p = .035). Similarly, sleep duration SD was associated with aortic systolic BP (r = 0.447, p = .022). Our findings show that sleep irregularity, but not duration, is associated with higher brachial and central BP in young adults. Abbreviations: AIx75: augmentation index at a heart rate of 75 beats per minute; BP: blood pressure; CMH: cardiometabolic health; cf-PWV: carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; DXA: dual x-ray absorptiometry; mg/dl: milligrams per deciliter; PWA: pulse wave analysis; PWV: pulse wave velocity; sleep duration SD: standard deviation of nightly sleep duration
... Similarly, computer use was linked to sleep quality. Adolescents spend an average of 56 min each day on computers [18][19]. The responses to weariness, sleeping and waking issues, and liking school are all consistent with physiological and psychological development aspects. ...
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Objectives: To ascertain the relationship between electronic media use and sleep patterns among secondary school students in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from July 2021 to December 2021. This study examined eight female secondary high schools, in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The sampling technique used was the stratification of governmental schools according to their location in the north, south, east, and west. According to the WHO sample size calculator, the sample size was 375. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 26 (SPSS version 26) (SPSS Incl., Chicago, IL) was used for the analysis of data. Results: A total of 388 female students were recruited, from the age group 12 to 40 years, with a mean age group of 16.45 ± 4.25 years. The majority of participants in our research utilized various types of electronic devices before going to bed. Some 335 individuals reported using electronic devices on a daily basis while at school, while 357 reported using electronic devices prior to sleeping on weekends. The more time spent on electronic gadgets, the more sleep is interrupted (p-value = 0.005). This condition was more prevalent among older children: 55% of third-year children and 41% of second-year children reported having it (p = 0.01). More than 20% had difficulty sleeping. Around 5% of respondents reported experiencing frequent nightly awakenings, whereas 23% reported feeling drowsy/sleepy feeling at school. After 10:00 p.m., 43% of the population (mostly the young) headed to bed, while older children remained awake (p = 0.001). Having a mobile phone (odds ratio, OR = 2.5; p = 0.01) or tablet (OR = 2.5; p = 0.05) was a significant predictor of sleep issues in the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The use of electronic media and the amount of time secondary school children spend on it can significantly alter sleep quality, through interrupted rest, and time, from a reduced duration of sleep. Parents and care providers can help by creating awareness about the negative effects of using electronic media on sleep and health among children.
... Also, the risk for developing musculoskeletal pain from poor sleep is well established among adults than adolescents (Andreucci, et al., 2020a), however, emerging evidence suggests an association between sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain in adolescents (Andreucci, et al., 2020a;Andreucci, et al., 2020b). While about one-third of an average individual's life is spent sleeping, a prevalence of 4% to 40% musculoskeletal pain accounts for the period of adolescents in a life time (Aminoff, et al., 2011;Harrison, et al., 2014). Hence, the increasing research on measures to reduce musculoskeletal pain derived from sleep disturbance (Mork, et al., 2014;Low, et al., 2017;Babiloni, et al., 2020). ...
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Certain sleep surfaces may trigger complaints of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort among otherwise healthy individuals. Thus, studies investigating the association between sleep surfaces and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort are imperative. This study investigated the influence of sleep surfaces on musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students in Lagos, Nigeria. Five hundred undergraduate students of the College of Medicine University of Lagos from 300 to 600 level participated in this cross-sectional survey. They completed a 47-item modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Information sought included respondent's demographics, mattress characteristics, sleeping pattern, prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, location, predisposing factors, treatment approaches adopted and knowledge of ergonomics. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentages, and inferential statistics of chi-square to test for association among variables. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. A 12-month 79.7% prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was observed with females significantly (p<0.05) higher than males (57.9% vs 42.1%). The highest 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was on the low back (17.6%), while the highest point prevalence was on the neck (54.6%). Mattress type, size and duration of use were not significantly (p>0.05) associated with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students was high, more in females than males. Mattress type were not significantly associated with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among undergraduate students.
Background: In Korea, little research has focused on the relationship between discrimination in the workplace and sleep health. Thus, this study aims to investigate the association between such discriminatory experiences and insomnia, a common sleep disorder, using Korean employees' data. Methods: This study used data from the 6th Korea Working Conditions Survey. Discrimination experiences due to age, ethnic background, nationality, race, sex, religion, disability, sexual orientation, educational level, hometown, and employment status were investigated. The Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale estimated insomnia symptoms. The association between discrimination experience and insomnia symptoms were analyzed using survey-weighted logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on experiences of discrimination over the past 12 months, insomnia symptoms were associated with discrimination experience due to religion (odds ratio [OR]: 3.70; 95% confidential interval [CI]: 1.58-8.69), sex (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.87-3.37), age (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.88-2.81), hometown (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.44-2.97), employment status (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.37-2.10), and educational level (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.31-2.14). Furthermore, the prevalence of insomnia symptoms increased with the number of discrimination experiences. Conclusions: In this study, discrimination experiences due to religion, sex, age, hometown, employment status, and educational level were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Furthermore, as the number of discrimination experiences increased, so did the prevalence of insomnia. Preventing workplace discrimination may improve workers' sleep health.
It is not enough for the creatively gifted children in the school systems to simply wonder about the world around them. It is the responsibility of educators to promote and encourage those wonderings so that gifted children can develop their creativity to their fullest potential. The objective of this chapter is to examine the various viewpoints of the nature of creativity. This chapter seeks to explore the following questions: (a) What is creativity? (b) Are academic giftedness and creative giftedness distinct concepts? (c) Can creativity be assessed? (d) What instructional strategies can be used within classrooms to enhance the creativity of gifted students? (e) How does one build a culture of creativity within the classroom?
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