New data on Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) endemic to Turkey

Phytotaxa 167 (1): 111–118
Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Hans-Joachim Esser: 6 Apr. 2014; published: 5 May 2014
New data on Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) endemic to Turkey
1Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Botany, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
2Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
*author for correspondence, e-mail:
The endemic Anatolian willow, Salix anatolica (Salicaceae), was described based on solely female individuals in 2008. It
was re-collected and the description was emended based on both male and female flower properties in the present study.
Additionally, the pollen morphology, wood anatomical features and conservation status of S. anatolica are presented for the
first time.
Key words: Anatolia, Salix, pollen, willow, wood anatomy
The genus Salix Linnaeus (1753: 1015) comprises deciduous and dioecious trees or shrubs. There are about 450 species
of Salix mainly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America (Argus 1997, 2010) but there is still disagreement
among authors regarding the number of species (Fang et al. 1999, Skvortsov 1999, Ohashi 2001, Heywood et al. 2007,
Mabberly 2008). The members of the genus are native or planted mostly in wetlands, marshes, river banks, and along
the sides of streams.
Including introduced ones, 27 Salix taxa are native to Turkey and four of them [Salix rizeensis Güner & Zielinski
(1993: 2), S. trabzonica Skvortsov (1971: 120), S. purpurea Linnaeus (1753: 1017) subsp. leucodermis Yaltırık (1989:
97) and S. anatolica Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008: 386)] are endemic (Güner et al. 2012). Willows are an important
group of plants because of their ecological, economical and medicinal properties (Skvortsov 1999). They also have
many traditional uses because of their role in ethnobotanical practices, such as basketry production and handcrafting
(Arıhan & Güvenç 2011).
Because of the phenetic plasticity and easy hybridisation in the wild the accurate identification and classification
of willows is difficult. Additionally, Salix taxa often have different time of development for flowers and leaves so it
is not always possible to observe all of the relevant characters on a single plant or specimen. Moreover, sometimes
morphological characters are not sufficient to discriminate related species of Salix. Therefore, in addition to morphological
characters, additional data, taken from palynological and anatomical studies provides valuable information for the
systematics of Salix (Arıhan & Güvenç 2011).
The purpose of the present study is to provide additional data on characters of male flowers of Salix anatolica,
verify the sectional placement of the species according to female flowers, provide information about pollen grains and
wood anatomy, and reassess the threat category of Salix anatolica.
Material and methods
Samples used for morphological, palynological and wood anatomical studies were collected from Southern Anatolia,
Turkey (C5 Adana, Pozantı) in the years of 2011 and 2012. Some samples including male and female flowers were
dried according to standard herbarium techniques and deposited in the herbarium of the Faculty of Forestry (KATO)
at Karadeniz Technical University as Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796, 8798, 8799). In the present study, the emended
112 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
description is based on both vegetative characters and characters of male flowers. Morphological features were
examined and photographed from herbarium specimens by using stereomicroscope Leica MZ9.5 combined with a
digital camera Leica DFC290.
Stem samples with a diameter of 5 cm and 30 cm long were selected for anatomical study. Standard techniques
were used in preparation of wood sections. All sections were stained with safranin and alcian blue (Ives 2001) and
macerations were done using Schultze’s method (Normand 1972). In general, quantitative features are based on 25
measurements or counts per character. However, lengths of axial elements are based on 50 measurements of each cell
type. Terminology is in accordance with the list of microscopic features for hardwood identification (IAWA Committee
1989). All wood anatomical features were examined and photographed by an Olympus BX 50 research microscope
Bs200Prop Image Processing and Analysis System.
Pollen grains were obtained from specimens including male catkins stored in the herbarium. For light microscopy
(LM) studies, the pollen grains were isolated according to the methods described by Wodehouse (1935) and some
palynological traits such as length of polar axis (P), equatorial diameter (E) and P/E ratio were determined under the
Olympus BX51 LM. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pollen grains from the catkins were directly mounted
on the prepared aluminium stabs and coated with gold. After pollen grains were coated with a thin layer of gold for 3
min with an EMITECH K550 sputter coater, they were examined with a Zeiss EVO LS10 SEM in Karadeniz Technical
University. SEM micrographs were taken using an acceleration voltage of 10 kV. Pollen terminology mainly followed
that of Punt et al. (2007).
Results and Discussion
Plant morphology
Salix anatolica Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008: 386) (Fig. 1)
Type:––TURKEY. Adana City: Çetinlik region, 21 July 1988, Boratynski, Tomlik & Zielinski 6531 (holotype KOR! Isotype E).
The following male flower traits are added to the original description by Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008).
Male buds glandular-pubescent, 1.9–4.3 × 2.8–6.7 mm, dorsally convex, not flattened. Male catkins 4–5 cm in
length and 0.57–1.4 cm in width, dense, ovoid to cylindrical, peduncles up to 3.65 mm long and to 2.6 mm thick,
cataphylls green, 3–4, narrowly oblong-ovate, entire, densely sericeous beneath, upper surface sparsely hairy, axis
densely sericeous, 1.8–1.9 × 2–7 mm, awn ca. 1.1 mm in length. Bracts 1.35 × 0.74 mm, greenish at base, dark purple
at apex, long hairy on both sides. Stamens 2 per flowers, filaments free, hairy at base, 2.21–6.27 mm in length, anthers
orange before dehiscence, 0.6–0.96 mm in length, nectary 1, 0.4–0.48 mm in length, adaxial.
Salix anatolica was reported as a new species by Zieliski & Tomaszewski (2008), but without giving any information
about male flowers. Salix specimens of both sexes together with mature leafy shoots are desirable for confident
identification (Skvortsov & Edmondson 1982). However, it is difficult to collect both male and female individuals of
rare and endemic dioecious species (Terzioğlu et al. 2007) such as S. anatolica. According to vegetative and female
flower characters S. anatolica shares character combinations with Salix sect. Cinerella Seringe (1815: 2) (syn. sect.
Vetrix Dumortier 1862: 141) (Zielinski & Tomaszewski 2008), and our studies confirm that the species should indeed
be treated under the sect. Cinerella.
As indicated by Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008) S. anatolica is morphologically similar to S. pseudomedemii Wolf
(1909: 397) and S. pedicellata Desfontaines (1799: 362). Male flower traits of S. anatolica show that it differs from
S. pseudomedemii by having shorter filaments and from S. pedicellata by short yellow anthers. Additional differences
among these three species are given in Table 1.
Salix anatolica shows resemblance to S. pseudomedemii in respect to male generative organs with shorter filaments.
The key to male specimens for the Turkish Salix (Skvortsov & Edmondson 1982) is modified here as follows:
19a. Shrub to 2–3 m tall, filaments 2.21–6.27 mm in length, anthers 0.6–0.96 mm in length, catkins up to 5 cm in length and 1.4 cm in
width .................................................................................................................................................................................S. anatolica
19b. Shrub 1.5–6 m tall, filaments 7–12 mm in length, anthers 0.4–0.5 mm in length, catkins up to 2 cm in length and 1.8 cm in width
................................................................................................................................................................................S. pseudomedemii
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 113
TABLE 1. Comparison of male flowers features of S. anatolica with closely related taxa.
Characters S. anatolica S. pseudomedemii S. pedicellata
Catkin size (length × width cm) 4–5 × 0.57–1.4 2 × 1.8 3–6 × 1–1.5
Bract size (length × width mm) 0.74 × 1.35 1 × 0.8 1.4–3.2 × 0.8–1.5
Anther length (mm) 0.6–0.96 0.4–0.7 0.5–0.7
Filament hairiness hairy at base hairy at base glabrous
Filament length (mm) 2.21–6.27 9.5−11 4–8
Male nectary (length mm) 0.4–0.48 0.6 0.6
FIGURE 1. Female (a, c, e) [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8798)] and male (b, d, f) [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)] flowers of S. anatolica.
Photographs by Mustafa Karaköse
Wood anatomy
Wood diffuse-porous; growth rings distinct and showing wavy ring form (Fig. 2). Vessels numerous, 109 (76–
137) per mm2, occasionally solitary, sometimes radial multiples of 2–4 and small clusters, tangential and radial vessel
diameter 48 (29–64) × 60 (36–75) μm respectively. Vessel elements 410 (232–864) μm long, with simple perforations
and alternate intervessel pits. Ligulate ends has helical thickening. Libriform fibres thin-walled, 772 (594–1044) μm
long, with simple pits mainly restricted to the radial walls, occasionally with gelatinous wall layers. Axial parenchyma
in narrow and discontinuous terminal bands and very scanty paratracheal. Rays uniseriate heterocellular Krebs type
III, 225 (116–420) μm tall and 13 (7–18) μm wide.
114 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 2. Wood micrographs of Salix anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796)]. Wavy ring growth ring boundaries (a, b), Radial
longitudinal section (c), Tangential longitudinal section (d), ligulate end of vessel element (e). Photographs by Bedri Serdar.
In addition to the morphological comparison, S. anatolica was also compared with closely related taxa based on
anatomical features of the wood. According to Serdar (2003), S. pseudomedemii and S. pedicellata, like S. anatolica,
have terminal axial parenchyma, libriform fibres, vessels with simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits and
uniseriate heterocellular Krebs type III rays. However, some wood features vary among these taxa. For example, spiral
thickenings are restricted at the ligulate ends of vessel elements. This feature was observed only in S. anatolica. The
presence of a wavy ring is a very interesting feature for S. anatolica wood among the other Salix taxa in Turkey. The
wood of stems and young branches has long ridges which are related to the wavy ring (Fig. 3). The most distinctive
features are given in Table 2. This description is in full agreement with information on other Salix species, including
shrubby ones, as documented by previous authors (Fahn et al. 1986, Schweingruber & Baas 1990, Serdar 2003).
TABLE 2. Selected qualitative and quantitative data of wood anatomy (mean values) showing differences among three Salix
Anatomical Features S.anatolica S. pseudomedemii S. pedicellata
Growth ring boundaries distinct and wavy distinct distinct
Wood diffuse-porous diffuse-porous Semi-ring- porous
Number of vessels / mm2109 124 126
Tangential diameter of vessels (µm) 48 54 46
Radial diameter of vessels (µm) 60 75 66
Vessel elements length (µm) 410 494 370
Libriform fibres length (µm) 772 937 759
Fibre diameter (µm) 17 22 17
Fibre lumen diameter (µm) 9 15 11
Fibre wall thickness (µm) 4 4 3
Number of rays / mm 13 16 17
Ray height (µm) 225 325 266
Ray width (µm) 13 15 15
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 115
FIGURE 3. Ridges of wood of S. anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)]. Cross-section (a), Surface view (b). Photographs by Mustafa
Pollen morphology
Although palynological features of Salix taxa have not been investigated well, there are a few records about them
(Skvortsov 1999). According to Qureshi et al. (2007), morphological diversity in the pollen grains under LM and SEM
is very useful in identifying the Salix taxa from Pakistan. In the present study, the pollen type of S. anatolica is found
to be tricolporate and its shape suboblate (Fig. 4). The polar (P) and equatorial (E) axis are reported to vary from 20.28
to 22.07 μm and from 12.13 to 18.7 μm respectively in some Turkish Salix taxa (Çelemli 2012) but it was determined
now that P and E range from 13.94 to 16.62 μm and 16.01 to 18.38 μm in S. anatolica. Similar results were reported
for S. denticulata Andersson (1851: 481) and S. wilhelmsiana Bieberstein (1819: 627) from Pakistan (Qureshi et al.
2007). Although P/E range of some Iranian Salix taxa varied from 0.95–1.06 (see Babayi et al. 2012), the range of
S. anatolica is about 0.83−0.95. The exine ornamentation is reticulate in S. anatolica and Salix alba Linnaeus (1753:
1021), S. acmophylla Boissier (1846: 98), S. cinerea Linnaeus (1753: 1021), S. elbursensis Boissier (1853: 117), S.
excelsa Gmelin (1774: 308), S. issatissensis Maassoumi et al. (2008: 3) and S.× zygostemon Boissier (1853: 118) from
Iran (Babayi et al. 2012).
116 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 4. SEM pollen micrographs of Salix anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)]. Equatorial view (a), polar view (c), exine
ornamentation (b, d). Photographs by Kamil Coşkunçelebi.
FIGURE 5. Distribution map of Salix anatolica (
), S. pseudomedemii () and S. pedicellata (▼)
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 117
Conservation status
Salix anatolica, endemic to the East Mediterranean of Turkey, is known from three close localities along the
Anatolian diagonal (Fig. 5). Currently it is under the detrimental effects of illegal cutting, road construction and
forestry practice such as clear cutting. Therefore its threat category has been assessed as vulnerable (VU) based on the
red list criteria of IUCN (2001).
Additional Specimens Examined
Salix anatolica:—TURKEY. Adana City: Pozantı–Çetinlik Region, stream valley within Lebanon Cedar–Black pine
mixed forest, 1540 m, 09 May 2012, Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799); same locality, 09 May 2012, Karaköse s.n. (KATO
8798), same locality, 10 May 2011, Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796).
Salix pedicellata:—TURKEY. Trabzon City: Of–Uzungöl region, open area within forest, 1550 m, 20 August 1996,
Terzioğlu s.n. (KATO 11916).
Salix pseudomedemii:—TURKEY. Ardahan City: Posof–Çatalsular region, stream valley, 1820 m, 17 May 2001,
Serdar s.n. (KATO 15872).
The authors want to express their special thanks to Forest Engineers Bekir Demir and Musa Bozkurt for their logistic
help supplying plant materials of S. anatolica and to Dr. Emin Zeki Başkent for his critically reading the manuscript.
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... The morphological study on the new species was carried out on living plants (20 individuals), coming from Chalaris river near the Pezi plateau. The morphological comparison with the related species was made by using herbarium material preserved at CAT for Salix kaptarae, S. tyrrhenica and S. nebrodensis (the examined number of specimens is quoted in Brullo et al. 2015 andCambria et al. 2019), while literature data have been used for S. apennina (Skvortsov 1965;Martini & Paiero 1988) and S. anatolica (Zielinski & Tomaszewski 2008;Terzioðlu et al. 2014). The micromorphology of the leaf indumentum and the wax layer have been studied on dried material with the support of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) Zeiss EVO LS10, according to the Huttunen & Laine (1983) protocol. ...
A new species of willow from Ikaria Island (Greece), named Salix aegaea, is described and illustrated. For the leaf shape, as well as for the hairy ovary, capsule and base of stamina filaments, it shows close relationships with the species belonging to S. apennina group. It is morphologically well differentiated in several features regarding the shape and size of branches, leaves, inflorescences, floral bracts, ovaries, stamens and capsules, as well as the structure of leaf epicuticular waxes and hairs. Considerations on its ecology, chorology, leaf micro-morphology, conservation status and the identification keys including the allied species are also provided.
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... Many researchers consider Salix as one of the most difficult genus for identification; there is still disagreement regarding the identity, number and distribution of species (Heywood et al. 2007;Mabberly 2008). The easy process of hybridization between species in the wild, together with their phenetic plasticity and different time of flowers and leaves development, made it difficult to observe all of these relevant characters on a single plant or specimen (Salih, T. et al. 2014). In many instances morphological characters are not sufficient to delimit closely related species of Salix. ...
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Eigenvalues of a graph are the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. The energy of a graph is the sum of the absolute values of its eigenvalues, was studied by (Gutman 1978 ). This paper divided in to three parts, in part one spectra and nullity of graphs are defined ( Brouwer and Haemers, 2012) and (Harary, 1969). In the second part graph products an their spectra is studied (Shibata and Kikuchi 2000) and (Balakrishnan and Ranganathan , 2012). In the last part, we proves the energy of some graph products including Cartesian, tensor, strong, skew and inverse skew which are applied of some graphs.
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Salix anatolica Ziel. & D. Tomasz., belonging to Salicaceae family, is endemic to the East Mediterranean in Turkey. Its threat category has been assessed as vulnerable based on the red list criteria of IUCN. Therefore, it is necessary to protect and reproduce. Within the scope of this study, propagation of the species is carried out by cutting which is one of the vegetative propagation methods. Under greenhouse media conditions, effects of different concentrated doses of auxins were examined on rooting percentage (RP), number of roots (RN) per rooted cuttings, and root length (RL) related to male and female stem cuttings. At the end of this study, the highest RP in the cuttings taken from the female individuals was 100% in Control and IAA 1000 ppm treatments, this value was also obtained as 100% in Control + Wounding and IAA 1000 ppm treatments in the cuttings taken from the male individuals. While hormone applications were effective on the RP in male individuals, they were effective on the RN and RL in female individuals. In addition, wounding has had a positive effect on both male and female individuals.
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Salix rizeensis A. Güner et J. Zieliński is an endemic species and was recorded from NE Turkey in 1993. Since the generative organs could not be collected, its description was based only on sterile shoots. In this study, specimens of both sexes were collected for the first time and their description, new to science, is given together with the line drawings. The species shows most resemblance to Salix caesia Vill. as regard to both generative and vegetative characters, and belongs to section Helix Dumort. Subsection Ceasiae A. Skvortsov.
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Salix anatolica J. Zielinski & D. Tomaszewski sp. nova (Salicaceae) from central Turkey is described and illustrated. It is compared with the two morphologically closest species, S. pedicellata and S. pseudomedemii.
The present study is confined to the plynological study of the Salix L., of Pakistan. In this study the genus Salix L., has shown the different shapes of the pollen grains. Such as the circular, elliptic, broadly and narrowly elliptic and trianglular. Similarly the general outline was oblate to circular in the polar view and triangular to circular in equatorial view that ranged between 14 - 28 mu in polar axis (P) and 15 - 25 mu in equatorial axis (E). Considerable morphological variations have been observed in two species, viz., S. persica and S. australior in which the pollen grains were broadly elliptic in equatorial view whereas in the other species they were elliptic-obtuse in the equatorial view.
Among the rich materials of the genus Salix collected from different localities of Iran and also based on the identification of unknown herbarium specimens in TARI, two new species namely Salix baladehensis and S. issatissensis are described. S. baladehensis is close to S. aegyptiaca but with shorter male catkin up to 2 cm and sparsely hairy bracts. S. issatissensis is an affinity of S. excelsa formerly described as S. excelsa var, rodonii. S. denticulata and S.fedtschenkoi are respectively recorded from Khorassan and Semnan provinces as new to Iran.
This study was conducted on the anatomical structure of the stems of 9 Salix L. (willow) species (9 taxa) growing in Ankara, Turkey. These taxa are S. triandra L. subsp. triandra, S. alba L., S. excelsa J.F.Gmel., S. fragilis L., S. babylonica L., S. caprea L., S. cinerea L., S. pseudomedemii E.Wolf, and S. amplexicaulis Bory & Chaub. Illustrations and photographs were obtained of microscopic views of cross sections from the stems of each taxon. The differing anatomical structures of stems of the Salix species are suitable for use as an additional tool in identification. Our aim was to contribute information on anatomy for the taxonomy of this highly variable genus. The anatomical study of these 9 species does not indicate signifi cant separations in morphological observations but instead yields data that can be used in taxonomy.