Article

New data on Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) endemic to Turkey

Phytotaxa 167 (1): 111–118
www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/
Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Hans-Joachim Esser: 6 Apr. 2014; published: 5 May 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.167.1.7
111
New data on Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) endemic to Turkey
SALİH TERZİOĞLU1*, BEDRİ SERDAR1, MUSTAFA KARAKÖSE1, KAMİL COŞKUNÇELEBİ2 & MUTLU
GÜLTEPE2
1Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Botany, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
2Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
*author for correspondence, e-mail: sterzi@ktu.edu.tr
Abstract
The endemic Anatolian willow, Salix anatolica (Salicaceae), was described based on solely female individuals in 2008. It
was re-collected and the description was emended based on both male and female flower properties in the present study.
Additionally, the pollen morphology, wood anatomical features and conservation status of S. anatolica are presented for the
first time.
Key words: Anatolia, Salix, pollen, willow, wood anatomy
Introduction
The genus Salix Linnaeus (1753: 1015) comprises deciduous and dioecious trees or shrubs. There are about 450 species
of Salix mainly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America (Argus 1997, 2010) but there is still disagreement
among authors regarding the number of species (Fang et al. 1999, Skvortsov 1999, Ohashi 2001, Heywood et al. 2007,
Mabberly 2008). The members of the genus are native or planted mostly in wetlands, marshes, river banks, and along
the sides of streams.
Including introduced ones, 27 Salix taxa are native to Turkey and four of them [Salix rizeensis Güner & Zielinski
(1993: 2), S. trabzonica Skvortsov (1971: 120), S. purpurea Linnaeus (1753: 1017) subsp. leucodermis Yaltırık (1989:
97) and S. anatolica Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008: 386)] are endemic (Güner et al. 2012). Willows are an important
group of plants because of their ecological, economical and medicinal properties (Skvortsov 1999). They also have
many traditional uses because of their role in ethnobotanical practices, such as basketry production and handcrafting
(Arıhan & Güvenç 2011).
Because of the phenetic plasticity and easy hybridisation in the wild the accurate identification and classification
of willows is difficult. Additionally, Salix taxa often have different time of development for flowers and leaves so it
is not always possible to observe all of the relevant characters on a single plant or specimen. Moreover, sometimes
morphological characters are not sufficient to discriminate related species of Salix. Therefore, in addition to morphological
characters, additional data, taken from palynological and anatomical studies provides valuable information for the
systematics of Salix (Arıhan & Güvenç 2011).
The purpose of the present study is to provide additional data on characters of male flowers of Salix anatolica,
verify the sectional placement of the species according to female flowers, provide information about pollen grains and
wood anatomy, and reassess the threat category of Salix anatolica.
Material and methods
Samples used for morphological, palynological and wood anatomical studies were collected from Southern Anatolia,
Turkey (C5 Adana, Pozantı) in the years of 2011 and 2012. Some samples including male and female flowers were
dried according to standard herbarium techniques and deposited in the herbarium of the Faculty of Forestry (KATO)
at Karadeniz Technical University as Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796, 8798, 8799). In the present study, the emended
TERZİOĞLU ET AL.
112 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
description is based on both vegetative characters and characters of male flowers. Morphological features were
examined and photographed from herbarium specimens by using stereomicroscope Leica MZ9.5 combined with a
digital camera Leica DFC290.
Stem samples with a diameter of 5 cm and 30 cm long were selected for anatomical study. Standard techniques
were used in preparation of wood sections. All sections were stained with safranin and alcian blue (Ives 2001) and
macerations were done using Schultze’s method (Normand 1972). In general, quantitative features are based on 25
measurements or counts per character. However, lengths of axial elements are based on 50 measurements of each cell
type. Terminology is in accordance with the list of microscopic features for hardwood identification (IAWA Committee
1989). All wood anatomical features were examined and photographed by an Olympus BX 50 research microscope
Bs200Prop Image Processing and Analysis System.
Pollen grains were obtained from specimens including male catkins stored in the herbarium. For light microscopy
(LM) studies, the pollen grains were isolated according to the methods described by Wodehouse (1935) and some
palynological traits such as length of polar axis (P), equatorial diameter (E) and P/E ratio were determined under the
Olympus BX51 LM. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pollen grains from the catkins were directly mounted
on the prepared aluminium stabs and coated with gold. After pollen grains were coated with a thin layer of gold for 3
min with an EMITECH K550 sputter coater, they were examined with a Zeiss EVO LS10 SEM in Karadeniz Technical
University. SEM micrographs were taken using an acceleration voltage of 10 kV. Pollen terminology mainly followed
that of Punt et al. (2007).
Results and Discussion
Plant morphology
Salix anatolica Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008: 386) (Fig. 1)
Type:––TURKEY. Adana City: Çetinlik region, 21 July 1988, Boratynski, Tomlik & Zielinski 6531 (holotype KOR! Isotype E).
The following male flower traits are added to the original description by Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008).
Male buds glandular-pubescent, 1.9–4.3 × 2.8–6.7 mm, dorsally convex, not flattened. Male catkins 4–5 cm in
length and 0.57–1.4 cm in width, dense, ovoid to cylindrical, peduncles up to 3.65 mm long and to 2.6 mm thick,
cataphylls green, 3–4, narrowly oblong-ovate, entire, densely sericeous beneath, upper surface sparsely hairy, axis
densely sericeous, 1.8–1.9 × 2–7 mm, awn ca. 1.1 mm in length. Bracts 1.35 × 0.74 mm, greenish at base, dark purple
at apex, long hairy on both sides. Stamens 2 per flowers, filaments free, hairy at base, 2.21–6.27 mm in length, anthers
orange before dehiscence, 0.6–0.96 mm in length, nectary 1, 0.4–0.48 mm in length, adaxial.
Salix anatolica was reported as a new species by Zieliski & Tomaszewski (2008), but without giving any information
about male flowers. Salix specimens of both sexes together with mature leafy shoots are desirable for confident
identification (Skvortsov & Edmondson 1982). However, it is difficult to collect both male and female individuals of
rare and endemic dioecious species (Terzioğlu et al. 2007) such as S. anatolica. According to vegetative and female
flower characters S. anatolica shares character combinations with Salix sect. Cinerella Seringe (1815: 2) (syn. sect.
Vetrix Dumortier 1862: 141) (Zielinski & Tomaszewski 2008), and our studies confirm that the species should indeed
be treated under the sect. Cinerella.
As indicated by Zielinski & Tomaszewski (2008) S. anatolica is morphologically similar to S. pseudomedemii Wolf
(1909: 397) and S. pedicellata Desfontaines (1799: 362). Male flower traits of S. anatolica show that it differs from
S. pseudomedemii by having shorter filaments and from S. pedicellata by short yellow anthers. Additional differences
among these three species are given in Table 1.
Salix anatolica shows resemblance to S. pseudomedemii in respect to male generative organs with shorter filaments.
The key to male specimens for the Turkish Salix (Skvortsov & Edmondson 1982) is modified here as follows:
19a. Shrub to 2–3 m tall, filaments 2.21–6.27 mm in length, anthers 0.6–0.96 mm in length, catkins up to 5 cm in length and 1.4 cm in
width .................................................................................................................................................................................S. anatolica
19b. Shrub 1.5–6 m tall, filaments 7–12 mm in length, anthers 0.4–0.5 mm in length, catkins up to 2 cm in length and 1.8 cm in width
................................................................................................................................................................................S. pseudomedemii
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 113
TABLE 1. Comparison of male flowers features of S. anatolica with closely related taxa.
Characters S. anatolica S. pseudomedemii S. pedicellata
Catkin size (length × width cm) 4–5 × 0.57–1.4 2 × 1.8 3–6 × 1–1.5
Bract size (length × width mm) 0.74 × 1.35 1 × 0.8 1.4–3.2 × 0.8–1.5
Anther length (mm) 0.6–0.96 0.4–0.7 0.5–0.7
Filament hairiness hairy at base hairy at base glabrous
Filament length (mm) 2.21–6.27 9.5−11 4–8
Male nectary (length mm) 0.4–0.48 0.6 0.6
FIGURE 1. Female (a, c, e) [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8798)] and male (b, d, f) [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)] flowers of S. anatolica.
Photographs by Mustafa Karaköse
Wood anatomy
Wood diffuse-porous; growth rings distinct and showing wavy ring form (Fig. 2). Vessels numerous, 109 (76–
137) per mm2, occasionally solitary, sometimes radial multiples of 2–4 and small clusters, tangential and radial vessel
diameter 48 (29–64) × 60 (36–75) μm respectively. Vessel elements 410 (232–864) μm long, with simple perforations
and alternate intervessel pits. Ligulate ends has helical thickening. Libriform fibres thin-walled, 772 (594–1044) μm
long, with simple pits mainly restricted to the radial walls, occasionally with gelatinous wall layers. Axial parenchyma
in narrow and discontinuous terminal bands and very scanty paratracheal. Rays uniseriate heterocellular Krebs type
III, 225 (116–420) μm tall and 13 (7–18) μm wide.
TERZİOĞLU ET AL.
114 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 2. Wood micrographs of Salix anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796)]. Wavy ring growth ring boundaries (a, b), Radial
longitudinal section (c), Tangential longitudinal section (d), ligulate end of vessel element (e). Photographs by Bedri Serdar.
In addition to the morphological comparison, S. anatolica was also compared with closely related taxa based on
anatomical features of the wood. According to Serdar (2003), S. pseudomedemii and S. pedicellata, like S. anatolica,
have terminal axial parenchyma, libriform fibres, vessels with simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits and
uniseriate heterocellular Krebs type III rays. However, some wood features vary among these taxa. For example, spiral
thickenings are restricted at the ligulate ends of vessel elements. This feature was observed only in S. anatolica. The
presence of a wavy ring is a very interesting feature for S. anatolica wood among the other Salix taxa in Turkey. The
wood of stems and young branches has long ridges which are related to the wavy ring (Fig. 3). The most distinctive
features are given in Table 2. This description is in full agreement with information on other Salix species, including
shrubby ones, as documented by previous authors (Fahn et al. 1986, Schweingruber & Baas 1990, Serdar 2003).
TABLE 2. Selected qualitative and quantitative data of wood anatomy (mean values) showing differences among three Salix
species
Anatomical Features S.anatolica S. pseudomedemii S. pedicellata
Growth ring boundaries distinct and wavy distinct distinct
Wood diffuse-porous diffuse-porous Semi-ring- porous
Number of vessels / mm2109 124 126
Tangential diameter of vessels (µm) 48 54 46
Radial diameter of vessels (µm) 60 75 66
Vessel elements length (µm) 410 494 370
Libriform fibres length (µm) 772 937 759
Fibre diameter (µm) 17 22 17
Fibre lumen diameter (µm) 9 15 11
Fibre wall thickness (µm) 4 4 3
Number of rays / mm 13 16 17
Ray height (µm) 225 325 266
Ray width (µm) 13 15 15
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 115
FIGURE 3. Ridges of wood of S. anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)]. Cross-section (a), Surface view (b). Photographs by Mustafa
Karaköse.
Pollen morphology
Although palynological features of Salix taxa have not been investigated well, there are a few records about them
(Skvortsov 1999). According to Qureshi et al. (2007), morphological diversity in the pollen grains under LM and SEM
is very useful in identifying the Salix taxa from Pakistan. In the present study, the pollen type of S. anatolica is found
to be tricolporate and its shape suboblate (Fig. 4). The polar (P) and equatorial (E) axis are reported to vary from 20.28
to 22.07 μm and from 12.13 to 18.7 μm respectively in some Turkish Salix taxa (Çelemli 2012) but it was determined
now that P and E range from 13.94 to 16.62 μm and 16.01 to 18.38 μm in S. anatolica. Similar results were reported
for S. denticulata Andersson (1851: 481) and S. wilhelmsiana Bieberstein (1819: 627) from Pakistan (Qureshi et al.
2007). Although P/E range of some Iranian Salix taxa varied from 0.95–1.06 (see Babayi et al. 2012), the range of
S. anatolica is about 0.83−0.95. The exine ornamentation is reticulate in S. anatolica and Salix alba Linnaeus (1753:
1021), S. acmophylla Boissier (1846: 98), S. cinerea Linnaeus (1753: 1021), S. elbursensis Boissier (1853: 117), S.
excelsa Gmelin (1774: 308), S. issatissensis Maassoumi et al. (2008: 3) and S.× zygostemon Boissier (1853: 118) from
Iran (Babayi et al. 2012).
TERZİOĞLU ET AL.
116 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 4. SEM pollen micrographs of Salix anatolica [Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799)]. Equatorial view (a), polar view (c), exine
ornamentation (b, d). Photographs by Kamil Coşkunçelebi.
FIGURE 5. Distribution map of Salix anatolica (
), S. pseudomedemii () and S. pedicellata (▼)
NEW DATA ON SALIX ANATOLICA Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 117
Conservation status
Salix anatolica, endemic to the East Mediterranean of Turkey, is known from three close localities along the
Anatolian diagonal (Fig. 5). Currently it is under the detrimental effects of illegal cutting, road construction and
forestry practice such as clear cutting. Therefore its threat category has been assessed as vulnerable (VU) based on the
red list criteria of IUCN (2001).
Additional Specimens Examined
Salix anatolica:—TURKEY. Adana City: Pozantı–Çetinlik Region, stream valley within Lebanon Cedar–Black pine
mixed forest, 1540 m, 09 May 2012, Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8799); same locality, 09 May 2012, Karaköse s.n. (KATO
8798), same locality, 10 May 2011, Karaköse s.n. (KATO 8796).
Salix pedicellata:—TURKEY. Trabzon City: Of–Uzungöl region, open area within forest, 1550 m, 20 August 1996,
Terzioğlu s.n. (KATO 11916).
Salix pseudomedemii:—TURKEY. Ardahan City: Posof–Çatalsular region, stream valley, 1820 m, 17 May 2001,
Serdar s.n. (KATO 15872).
Acknowledgements
The authors want to express their special thanks to Forest Engineers Bekir Demir and Musa Bozkurt for their logistic
help supplying plant materials of S. anatolica and to Dr. Emin Zeki Başkent for his critically reading the manuscript.
References
Andersson, N.J. (1851) Ost-Indiens hittilis kända pilarter. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 1850: 463–502.
Argus, G.W. (1997) Infrageneric classification of Salix (Salicaceae) in the New World. Systematic Botany Monographs 52, 121 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25096638
Argus, G.W. (2010) Salix L. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.) Flora of North America North of Mexico 7. Oxford
University Press, New York and Oxford, pp. 4–157.
Arıhan, O. & Güvenç, A. (2011) Studies on the anatomical structure of stems of willow (Salix L.) species (Salicaceae) growing in Ankara
province, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 535–551.
Babayi, F., Pakravan, M., Maassoumi, A.A. & Tavasoli, A. (2012) Palynological study of Salix L. (Salicaceae) in Iran. Iranian Journal of
Botany 18: 119–126.
Bieberstein, F.A.M. von (1819) Flora Taurico-Caucasica 3. Supplementum. Typis Academicis, Charkoviae, 654 pp.
Boissier, P.E. (1853) Diagnoses Plantarum Orientalium Novarum series 1, 1(7). B. Herrmann, Lipsia [Leipzig], pp. 1–130.
Çelemli, Ö.G. (2012) Pollen morphology of some Salix L. (Salicaceae) taxa used by honey bees as a source of pollen and nectar. Mellifera
12: 30–36.
Desfontaines, R.L. (1799) Flora Atlantica 2. L.G. Desgranges, Paris, 458 pp.
Dumortier, B.C. (1862) Monographie des saules de la flore Belge. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 1: 130–147.
Fahn, A., Werker, E. & Baas, P. (1986) Wood anatomy and identification of trees and shrubs from Israel and adjacent regions. The Israel
Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jeruselam, 221 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1221471
Fang, Z., Zhao, S. & Skvortsov, A.K. (1999) Salicaceae In: Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) Flora of China 4. Science Press, Beijing and
Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 139–274.
Gmelin, S.G. (1774) Reise durch Russland 3. Kayserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, 508 pp.
Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. (2012) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). NGBB ve Flora Araştırmaları
Derneği Yayını, İstanbul, 1290 pp.
Güner, A. & Zielinski, J. (1993) Salix rizeensis (Salicaceae): a new willow from NE Turkey. Karaca Arboretum Magazine 1: 1–5.
Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (2007) Flowering plant families of the world. Firefly Books Ltd., Ontario, 424
pp.
IAWA Committee (1989) IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bulletin 10: 221–332.
IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List Categories: Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland and
TERZİOĞLU ET AL.
118 Phytotaxa 167 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
Cambridge, 70 pp.
Ives, E. (2001) A guide to wood microtomy: making quality microslides of wood sections. Ernie Ives, Suffolk, 124 pp.
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm, 1200 pp.
Maassoumi, A.A., Moeeni, F. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2008) New species and new records of the genus Salix (Salicaceae) from Iran. Iran
Journal of Botany 14: 1–6.
Normand, D. (1972) Manuel D’Identification des Bois Commerciaux 1. Nogent Sur / Marne, Paris, 171 pp.
Ohashi, H. (2001) Salicaceae of Japan. Science Reports of Tohoku University 4th Series 40: 269–396.
Qureshi, R.A., Gilani, L., Gilani, S.J., Sultana, K.N. & Ghufran, M.A. (2007) Palynological study of the genus Salix L. (Salicaceae) from
Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39: 2257–2263.
Punt, W., Hoen, P.P., Blackmore, S., Nilsson, S. & Le Thomas, A. (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany
and Palynology 143: 1–81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.06.008
Schweingruber, F.H. & Baas, P. (1990) Anatomy of European woods: An atlas for the identification of European trees, shrubs and dwarf
shrubs. Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern, 800 pp.
Serdar, B. (2003) Türkiye’de Doğal Olarak Yetişen Salicaceae Familyası Taksonlarının Ekolojik Odun Anatomisi. PhD Thesis, Karadeniz
Technical University, Trabzon, 154 pp. [in Turkish].
Seringe, N.C. (1815) Essai d’une monographie des Saules de la Suisse. Chez la Société typographique, Berne, 110 pp.
Skvortsov, A.K. (1971) Salix L. In: Vasilchenko I. T. (ed.) Novitates systematicae plantarum vascularium 8. Amerind Publishing, New
Delhi, 342 p.
Skvortsov, A.K. (1999) Willows of Russia and adjacent countries: taxonomical and geographical revision. University of Joensuu, Joensuu,
307 pp.
Skvortsov, A.K. & Edmondson, J.D. (1982) Salix L. In: Davis P.H. (ed.) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7. Edinburgh
University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 694–716.
Terzioğlu, S., Coşkunçelebi, K. & Serdar, B. (2007) Contribution to the description of an endemic Turkish Salix species. Plant Biosystems
141: 82–85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11263500601154055
Wodehouse, R.P. (1935) Pollen grains: Their structure, identification, and significance in science and medicine. McGraw-Hill Book
Company Inc, New York, 574 pp.
Wolf, E.L. (1909) Salices rossicae novae. Trudy Imperatorskago S. Peterburgskago Botaniceskago Sada 28: 395–406.
Yaltırık, F. (1988) A new willow taxon for the flora of Turkey: Salix purpurea L. subsp. leucodermis Yalt. subsp. nova. İstanbul Üniversitesi
Orman Fakültesi Dergisi ser. A 38: 92–98.
Zielinsky, J. & Tomaszewski, D. (2008) Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) a new species from Turkey. Annales Botanici Fennici 45: 386–388
http://dx.doi.org/10.5735/085.045.0506
... One of these species, Salix alba L. (White willow), is an important pioneer tree species of floodplain ecosystems. Along with Populus nigra L. (Black poplar), S. alba occurs as an early successional riparian tree species often in small groups or as individuals widely distributed in river basins across a wide range of different climatic and ecological zones in Turkey and worldwide (Avcı 1999;Barsoum 2002;Terzioğlu et al. 2014). The species is broadleaved, deciduous and dioecious, and in addition to sexual reproduction, reproduces clonally forming small colonies through rhizome development and broken branches that root (Kuzovkina et al. 2008). ...
... The morphological study on the new species was carried out on living plants (20 individuals), coming from Chalaris river near the Pezi plateau. The morphological comparison with the related species was made by using herbarium material preserved at CAT for Salix kaptarae, S. tyrrhenica and S. nebrodensis (the examined number of specimens is quoted in Brullo et al. 2015 andCambria et al. 2019), while literature data have been used for S. apennina (Skvortsov 1965;Martini & Paiero 1988) and S. anatolica (Zielinski & Tomaszewski 2008;Terzioðlu et al. 2014). The micromorphology of the leaf indumentum and the wax layer have been studied on dried material with the support of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) Zeiss EVO LS10, according to the Huttunen & Laine (1983) protocol. ...
Article
A new species of willow from Ikaria Island (Greece), named Salix aegaea, is described and illustrated. For the leaf shape, as well as for the hairy ovary, capsule and base of stamina filaments, it shows close relationships with the species belonging to S. apennina group. It is morphologically well differentiated in several features regarding the shape and size of branches, leaves, inflorescences, floral bracts, ovaries, stamens and capsules, as well as the structure of leaf epicuticular waxes and hairs. Considerations on its ecology, chorology, leaf micro-morphology, conservation status and the identification keys including the allied species are also provided.
... Though disagreement on the number of Salix L. (willow) species, the genus consists of approximately 450 species mainly distributed in Northern hemisphere (Argus, 2010) and 27 of them are native to Turkey (Güner et al., 2012;Terzioğlu et al., 2014). Willows are ordinarily known as dioecious plants including some extreme abnormalities. ...
Article
Aim of the study: In the present paper, male or female catkins composed of several intersexes florets in four individuals (all in the same population) of Salix caprea are reported from Turkey for the first time. Study area: Roadsides at Köse Mountain in Gümüşhane (NE Anatolia) wherein Scots pine forest is dominant. Material and method: Plant materials were collected from the same population belong to goat willow during the excursion around Köse Mountain in 2017 and 2018. All materials consisting male, female and metamorfosans flowered shoots were first processed according to standard herbarium techniques. Main results: Metamorphosans or intersexes florets in Salix caprea were recorded for the first time from Turkey. Research highlights: In extremely rare cases, metamorphosans florets have been reported in several willow species distributed outside of Turkey. However, native goat willow individuals, in which these florets appear, were recorded here for the Turkish flora. Beside its possible reasons were discussed at local scale.
... Salix apennina is well differentiated from S. kaptarae in having leaf blade obovate to lanceolate, 7-10-nerved,with abaxial surface glabrous but pubescent on the nerves, petiole 5-15 mm long, female catkins 25-70 mm long, floral bracts pale brown at the base and blackish at apex, three times longer than the ovary peduncle, ovary 2.5 mm long with peduncle 0.5 mm long, capsule 6.5-8 mm long, with capsule lobes markedly curved at the top at maturity. Another species showing some similarity with S. kaptarae is S. anatolica, recently described from the Anatolian Peninsula by Zieliński and Tomaszewski (2008) and later investigated also by Terzioğlu et al. (2014). Both species share pubescent old branchlets, elongated wood ridges, green and tomentose annotinous branchlets, leaf blade of similar size with abaxial surface glaucous-tomentose, up to 20-nerved, hairy ovary and staminal filaments hairy at the base. ...
Article
A new species of willow from Crete, named Salix kaptarae Cambria, C. Brullo & Brullo, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, it shows close relationships with species belonging to the S. apennina group, mainly with respect to the leaf shape, and the hairy ovary, capsule and base of stamina filaments. Considerations on its ecology, leaf micro‐morphology and conservation status are also provided.
... There are 27 species of willow with wide-ranging natural distributions in Turkey (Terzioğlu et al. 2014). White willow, ranging from shrubs to large trees (Velioğlu and Akgül 2016), is widely distributed in almost all river basins of Turkey (Davis 1965;Avcı 1999), but willow habitats in river systems have been highly fragmented or eroded due to the construction of dams for irrigation and electricity production. ...
Article
Full-text available
Salix alba L. (white willow) is an indicator species of a healthy riparian ecosystem with great renewable energy potential in Turkey though habitats of the species in many river ecosystems are highly degraded or fragmented. Impacts of this degradation of river ecosystems on the magnitude and pattern of genetic diversity are not known. This study was aimed at assessing the genetic structure of S. alba populations in two highly degraded and fragmented river systems (the Göksu and Kızılırmak rivers) in Turkey with the use of 20 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Fifteen of them were used for the first time in this study. Out of the 20 SSR loci, 10 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium frequencies and five of them contributed greatly to the differentiation of populations. Generally, high levels of genetic diversity were found in populations of both Göksu and Kızılırmak river systems and moderate genetic differentiation (FST = 0.07) between the river systems. On the contrary to expectations, genetic diversity was higher in middle populations of the rivers (Ho = 0.67 of GRMID (Göksu river middle population), Ho = 0.68 in KRMID1 (Kızılırmak river middle population 1), and 0.65 in KRMID2 (Kızılırmak river middle population 2)) than in downstream populations (Ho = 0.65 in GRDOWN (Göksu river downstream population), Ho = 0.62 in KRDOWN1, 2 (Kızılırmak downstream populations 1, 2)). These could be due to experienced past bottlenecks, extensive vegetative material movements, and habitat fragmentation by constructed dams in the natural ecosystems of the two river systems. The genetic structure results revealed that the white willow populations in the two different river systems may have evolved from two different founder populations. A low level of genetic admixture between the river systems but high admixture within the river systems were observed due to extensive human-mediated vegetative material movements. The current study has provided valuable genetic data and information that could contribute insights to efficient conservation, management, utilization, and breeding of genetic resources of the species.
... Many researchers consider Salix as one of the most difficult genus for identification; there is still disagreement regarding the identity, number and distribution of species (Heywood et al. 2007;Mabberly 2008). The easy process of hybridization between species in the wild, together with their phenetic plasticity and different time of flowers and leaves development, made it difficult to observe all of these relevant characters on a single plant or specimen (Salih, T. et al. 2014). In many instances morphological characters are not sufficient to delimit closely related species of Salix. ...
Article
Full-text available
Eigenvalues of a graph are the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. The energy of a graph is the sum of the absolute values of its eigenvalues, was studied by (Gutman 1978 ). This paper divided in to three parts, in part one spectra and nullity of graphs are defined ( Brouwer and Haemers, 2012) and (Harary, 1969). In the second part graph products an their spectra is studied (Shibata and Kikuchi 2000) and (Balakrishnan and Ranganathan , 2012). In the last part, we proves the energy of some graph products including Cartesian, tensor, strong, skew and inverse skew which are applied of some graphs.
Article
Full-text available
Salix anatolica Ziel. & D. Tomasz., belonging to Salicaceae family, is endemic to the East Mediterranean in Turkey. Its threat category has been assessed as vulnerable based on the red list criteria of IUCN. Therefore, it is necessary to protect and reproduce. Within the scope of this study, propagation of the species is carried out by cutting which is one of the vegetative propagation methods. Under greenhouse media conditions, effects of different concentrated doses of auxins were examined on rooting percentage (RP), number of roots (RN) per rooted cuttings, and root length (RL) related to male and female stem cuttings. At the end of this study, the highest RP in the cuttings taken from the female individuals was 100% in Control and IAA 1000 ppm treatments, this value was also obtained as 100% in Control + Wounding and IAA 1000 ppm treatments in the cuttings taken from the male individuals. While hormone applications were effective on the RP in male individuals, they were effective on the RN and RL in female individuals. In addition, wounding has had a positive effect on both male and female individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Salix rizeensis A. Güner et J. Zieliński is an endemic species and was recorded from NE Turkey in 1993. Since the generative organs could not be collected, its description was based only on sterile shoots. In this study, specimens of both sexes were collected for the first time and their description, new to science, is given together with the line drawings. The species shows most resemblance to Salix caesia Vill. as regard to both generative and vegetative characters, and belongs to section Helix Dumort. Subsection Ceasiae A. Skvortsov.
Article
Full-text available
Salix anatolica J. Zielinski & D. Tomaszewski sp. nova (Salicaceae) from central Turkey is described and illustrated. It is compared with the two morphologically closest species, S. pedicellata and S. pseudomedemii.
Article
The present study is confined to the plynological study of the Salix L., of Pakistan. In this study the genus Salix L., has shown the different shapes of the pollen grains. Such as the circular, elliptic, broadly and narrowly elliptic and trianglular. Similarly the general outline was oblate to circular in the polar view and triangular to circular in equatorial view that ranged between 14 - 28 mu in polar axis (P) and 15 - 25 mu in equatorial axis (E). Considerable morphological variations have been observed in two species, viz., S. persica and S. australior in which the pollen grains were broadly elliptic in equatorial view whereas in the other species they were elliptic-obtuse in the equatorial view.
Article
Among the rich materials of the genus Salix collected from different localities of Iran and also based on the identification of unknown herbarium specimens in TARI, two new species namely Salix baladehensis and S. issatissensis are described. S. baladehensis is close to S. aegyptiaca but with shorter male catkin up to 2 cm and sparsely hairy bracts. S. issatissensis is an affinity of S. excelsa formerly described as S. excelsa var, rodonii. S. denticulata and S.fedtschenkoi are respectively recorded from Khorassan and Semnan provinces as new to Iran.
Article
This study was conducted on the anatomical structure of the stems of 9 Salix L. (willow) species (9 taxa) growing in Ankara, Turkey. These taxa are S. triandra L. subsp. triandra, S. alba L., S. excelsa J.F.Gmel., S. fragilis L., S. babylonica L., S. caprea L., S. cinerea L., S. pseudomedemii E.Wolf, and S. amplexicaulis Bory & Chaub. Illustrations and photographs were obtained of microscopic views of cross sections from the stems of each taxon. The differing anatomical structures of stems of the Salix species are suitable for use as an additional tool in identification. Our aim was to contribute information on anatomy for the taxonomy of this highly variable genus. The anatomical study of these 9 species does not indicate signifi cant separations in morphological observations but instead yields data that can be used in taxonomy.