Psychiatric Disorders From Childhood to Adulthood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 02/2014; 171(6). DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13070864
Source: PubMed


Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder associated with high rates of schizophrenia and other psychiatric conditions. The authors report what is to their knowledge the first large-scale collaborative study of rates and sex distributions of psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The associations among psychopathology, intellect, and functioning were examined in a subgroup of participants.

The 1,402 participants with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, ages 6–68 years, were assessed for psychiatric disorders with validated diagnostic instruments. Data on intelligence and adaptive functioning were available for 183 participants ages 6 to 24 years.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the most frequent disorder in children (37.10%) and was overrepresented in males. Anxiety disorders were more prevalent than mood disorders at all ages, but especially in children and adolescents. Anxiety and unipolar mood disorders were overrepresented in females. Psychotic disorders were present in 41% of adults over age 25. Males did not predominate in psychotic or autism spectrum disorders. Hierarchical regressions in the subgroup revealed that daily living skills were predicted by the presence of anxiety disorders. Psychopathology was not associated with communication or socialization skills.

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the largest study of psychiatric morbidity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. It validates previous findings that this condition is one of the strongest risk factors for psychosis. Anxiety and developmental disorders were also prevalent. These results highlight the need to monitor and reduce the long-term burden of psychopathology in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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    • "Physical phenotypes include cardiovascular malformations, palatal anomalies, immune deficiency, hypocalcemia, hyperprolinemia, and dysmorphic facial features [4]. Neuropsychiatric phenotypes include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, intellectual disabilities, and epilepsy [5]. Although psychosis and epilepsy may coexist in adult patients with 22q11.2DS, "
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports
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    • "Its prevalence is estimated to be 1:4000 (McDonald McGinn and Sullivan 2011). Besides a variety of physical symptoms, patients with 22q11DS frequently suffer from psychiatric disorders (Hiroi et al. 2013; Schneider et al. 2014). There has been a particular interest in schizophrenia because patients with 22q11DS have a 25–30 times higher risk of developing schizophrenia (Murphy et al. 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Haplo-insufficiency of genes in the deleted region may offer a partial explanation for the increased vulnerability for psychosis and intellectual disability. One gene of particular interest is the gene coding for proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of proline into glutamate. Because abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling are thought to be responsible for cognition and psychosis in the general population, we hypothesized that PRODH haplo-insufficiency may underlie some of the cognitive and psychotic features seen in 22q11DS. In this explorative study, we investigated the relation between plasma proline, glutamate, and glutamine and age, intelligence, and psychosis in 64 adults with 22q11DS. Hyperprolinemia was found in 31.3 % of subjects with 22q11DS. A relation between glutamine, glutamate, proline, and presence of psychosis was not observed. Regression analysis revealed a positive relation between plasma glutamate and age, a positive relation of glutamate with antipsychotic drugs, a relation of glutamine and gender, and a positive relation of glutamine and mood stabilizing drugs, and a negative relation of the ratio glutamine/glutamate and age. The group with relatively lower IQ had higher glutamate levels compared to the group with relatively higher IQ. Our results suggest that 22q11DS is accompanied by abnormalities in glutamatergic metabolism. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate the glutamatergic system in 22q11DS and how this affects the development of cognitive problems and psychopathology.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Psychopharmacology
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    • "Assessment may be further hindered by learning difficulties and psychiatric illness. For example, anxiety [Fung et al., 2010; Schneider et al., 2014] may color the clinical presentation. There is a potential for physical illnesses related to structural or neurodegenerative processes to be misdiagnosed as " functional " disorders (Patient 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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