Rectal Cancer.

Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN (Impact Factor: 4.18). 12/2012; 10(12):1528-1564.
Source: PubMed


These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology provide recommendations for the management of rectal cancer, beginning with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist through diagnosis, pathologic staging, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. This discussion focuses on localized disease. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel believes that a multidisciplinary approach, including representation from gastroenterology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, and radiology, is necessary for treating patients with rectal cancer.

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    • "Treatment of locally advanced rectal carcinoma (LARC, T3-4 or/and N1-2 lesions) remains to be a challenge [1]. No great improvement have been made over years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanism of radioresistance in rectal carcinoma remains largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) in locally advanced rectal carcinoma and explore possible molecular mechanisms by which ABCC4 confers the resistance to neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The expression of ABCC4 and P53 mutant in biopsy tissue specimens from 121 locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients was examined using immunohistochemistry. The factors contributing to 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. Lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA was applied to inhibit ABCC4 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO, and investigate the radiosensitivity in xenograft model. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration and cell cycle distribution following irradiation were detected. High expression of ABCC4 and p53 mutant in pretreated tumors, poor pathological response, and high final tumor staging were significant factors independently predicted an unfavorable prognosis of locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Down-regulation of ABCC4 expression significantly enhanced irradiation-induced suppression of tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, down-regulation of ABCC4 expression enhanced intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and noticeable deficiency of G1-S phase checkpoint in cell cycle following irradiation. Our study suggests that ABCC4 serves as a novel predictive biomarker that is responsible for the radioresistance and predicts a poor prognosis for locally advanced rectal carcinoma after neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore advanced rectal cancer patients' perceptions of quality of life (QoL) during participation in a pre-surgery structured exercise program. Patients (n = 10) participated in repeated semi-structured in-depth interviews which covered four broad QoL domains (i.e., physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being). Patients' personal accounts of QoL were explored prior to (0 weeks), midway (3 weeks), and at completion (6 weeks) of the program. Data were analyzed using strategies grounded in a phenomenological approach. Participation in the program facilitated positive changes in QoL over time by (1) fostering a greater sense of vitality, (2) cultivating a positive attitude, (3) enhancing social connections, and (4) fostering a strong sense of purpose in life for these patients. Based on these data, preoperative exercise programs can be effective in promoting QoL among patients diagnosed and treated for locally advanced rectal cancer during a particularly difficult time in the cancer trajectory. Additional research is needed to develop and evaluate implementation strategies to facilitate the delivery of preoperative exercise programs as part of routine care in this population.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Supportive Care in Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: High-level evidence supports adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer. We examined the influence of sociodemographic factors on patterns of adjuvant radiotherapy for resected Stage II/III rectal cancer. Methods. Patients undergoing surgical resection for stage II/III rectal cancer were identified in SEER registry. Results. A total of 21,683 patients were identified. Majority of patients were male (58.8%), white (83%), and with stage III (54.9%) and received radiotherapy (66%). On univariate analysis, male gender, stage III, younger age, year of diagnosis, and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered in 84.4% of patients <50; however, only 32.8% of those are >80 years. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant increase in the use of radiotherapy in younger patients who are <50 (OR, 10.3), with stage III (OR, 1.21), males (OR, 1.18), and with higher SES. Conclusions. There is a failure to conform to standard adjuvant radiotherapy in one-third of patients, and this is associated with older age, stage II, area-level of socioeconomic deprivation, and female sex.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
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