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Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea

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Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

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... The levels of Pb in Chilean species were lower than the maximum levels reported for green (4.32 mg kg − 1 ), red (7.2 mg kg − 1 ) and brown seaweeds (10.0 mg kg − 1 ) from the North Atlantic (Olsson, Toth, & Albers, 2020), and for seaweed-based products from Europe and Asia (0.54-6.5 mg kg − 1 ) (Desideri et al., 2016;Hwang, Park, Park, Choi, & Kim, 2010). Regarding the EU legislation, the ML for Pb in food supplements is 3.0 mg kg 1 (EU, 2006), while for feed is 10 mg kg − 1 (Lähteenmäki-Uutela et al., 2021). ...
... Regarding Hg, its mean values were in the range of those reported for red (<LD to 0.132 mg kg − 1 ) and brown seaweeds (<LD to 0.391 mg kg − 1 ) from China (Chen, Pan, Huang, & Han, 2018), and for seaweedbased products sold in Korea (0.001-0.050 mg kg − 1 ) (Hwang, Park, Park, Choi, & Kim, 2010). The EU legislation for Hg has established a ML of 0.1 mg kg − 1 in both food supplements and feed (Lähteenmäki-Uutela et al., 2021). ...
... In the same way, the hazard index (HI) calculated including mean levels of elements in the seaweeds was less than the threshold values of 1.0, suggesting a minimal health risk due to the consumption of these species (considering a dry weight of 5.2 g, equivalent a 5 % of seaweed meal inclusion in a food product of 100 g DW). Previous studies on seaweeds from Europe and Asia have also estimated a low health risk due to seaweed consumption (Hwang, Park, Park, Choi, & Kim, 2010;Desideri et al., 2016;Rubio et al., 2017;Chen, Pan, Huang, & Han, 2018;Roleda et al., 2019). However, when maximum levels of elements were included in the analysis, a HI higher than 1.0 was observed in M. pyrifera, while values of 0.91 and 0.97 were registered for L. berteroana and L. spicata, respectively (Table 3). ...
Article
Seaweeds are a rich source of nutritional and functional compounds, but they also accumulate heavy metals. Here, the chemical composition (crude protein, total lipids, Nitrogen Free Extract and fiber) and the presence of minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se) and unwanted elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al) were determined in eleven seaweeds from Chile. Depending on the species, a good contribution to the Recommended Dietary Allowance for K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Se was observed, and low Na/K ratios (<1.0) as well. The health risk assessment indicated low hazard due to intake of seaweed meal. The mean values of As, Hg, and Pb were below the maximum limits set for food supplements and feed ingredients. The seaweeds studied have a suitable chemical composition for their uses as food and feed ingredients, although Cd levels should be monitoring especially in brown seaweeds.
... Similarly, Desideri et al. (2016) had many reports of seaweeds exceeding the ML for food supplements (factor a). Significant differences between seaweed types were not always observed (Desideri et al., 2016;Hwang et al., 2010). Furthermore, the effect that seasonal variation had on Pb uptake was reported in analyzed brown and green seaweeds (Pérez et al., 2007). ...
... Moreover, authors reported that the location of production, either the Atlantic Ocean or the Pacific Ocean, showed statistical differences for Hg concentrations, respectively, 0.021 mg/kg dw versus that of 0.012 mg/kg dw (Besada et al., 2009). These results are in a similar range to that reported by Hwang et al. (2010). These authors found that total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.050 mg/kg dw and averaged 0.011 mg/kg dw. ...
... Similarly, Chen et al. (2018) found that brown seaweeds (n = 153) had significantly higher concentrations of Hg than red seaweeds (n = 142). Moreover, the concentrations of Hg in laver and brown seaweed when comparing the interproduct coast (that is, regional differences) were significantly different (Hwang et al., 2010). Another study by Maehre, Malde, Eilertsen, and Elvevoll (2014) analyzed 10 Norwegian seaweeds (n = 2; per seaweed) for Hg, among other heavy metals. ...
Article
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in seaweed, including factors influencing their presence, and to prioritize the hazards that may pose a risk to human health. Given current knowledge from the literature, data from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and results from a stakeholder survey, 22 food safety hazards were ranked into major (4), moderate (5), and minor (13) hazards. Arsenic, cadmium, iodine, and Salmonella were identified as major hazards. Hazards, where data gaps exist, should be carefully assessed. These include pesticide residues, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, marine biotoxins, allergens, micro‐ and nanoplastics, other pathogenic bacteria, norovirus, and hepatitis E virus. It is recommended to collect more data on these hazards in future studies. Many factors can affect the presence of hazards including seaweed type, physiology, season, harvest and cultivation environment, geography including the location of cultivation, alongside further processing. Moreover, when seaweed is cultivated near industrialized or anthropogenic activities, these activities may negatively influence water quality, which can increase the likelihood of hazards in seaweed. Results of the ranking prioritized hazards can be used to prioritize monitoring programs and adjusted given future additional knowledge covering the data gaps.
... 219,220 Levels of arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium in 426 Korean dried seaweed products ranged from 0.2% to 6.7% of provisional tolerable weekly intakes when 8.5 g of seaweed was consumed per day. 176,218,221 In 1 study, the authors called for continuous monitoring of heavy metals in seaweed-based food products, owing to differences between species in the bioabsorption of metals. 221 An example of these between-species differences is evident in Laminaria spp. ...
... 176,218,221 In 1 study, the authors called for continuous monitoring of heavy metals in seaweed-based food products, owing to differences between species in the bioabsorption of metals. 221 An example of these between-species differences is evident in Laminaria spp. At an intake of 3.3 to 12.5 g/d, Laminaria digitata contains 24 to 90 mg of cadmium, 176 which corresponds to 40% to 150% of the tolerable daily intake, while Laminaria japonica contains 0.45 to 0.80 mg/kg, which exceeds the maximum limits for seaweed products according to legislation in France (0.5 mg/kg of dry weight) and Australia/New Zealand (0.2 mg/kg of dry weight), but not in China (1.0 mg/kg). ...
... 248 To reduce health risks, regular environmental assessment and analysis of the arsenic species present in seaweed-containing food products may be required to ascertain the exposure to and the potential toxicity of heavy metals. 221,242 Indirect exposure to arsenic could also be a concern if arsenic accumulates in the food chain following the use of seaweed either as feed for livestock 258 or as fertilizer. 259 The majority of edible seaweeds have been reported to contain heavy metals in safe amounts. ...
Article
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Recent interest in seaweeds as a source of macronutrients, micronutrients, and bioactive components has highlighted prospective applications within the functional food and nutraceutical industries, with impetus toward the alleviation of risk factors associated with noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This narrative review summarizes the nutritional composition of edible seaweeds; evaluates the evidence regarding the health benefits of whole seaweeds, extracted bioactive components, and seaweed-based food products in humans; and assesses the potential adverse effects of edible seaweeds, including those related to ingestion of excess iodine and arsenic. If the potential functional food and nutraceutical applications of seaweeds are to be realized, more evidence from human intervention studies is needed to evaluate the nutritional benefits of seaweeds and the efficacy of their purported bioactive components. Mechanistic evidence, in particular, is imperative to substantiate health claims.
... It is in this light that the researchers became interested on the ability of the macroalgae to uptake [2] heavy metals. Some researchers have reported chemical composition including heavy metal concentration in seaweeds from their countries (Brandon et al., 2014;Hwang et al., 2010;Ito & Hori, 2010;Polat & Ozogul, 2008;Smith et al., 2010). This study aims to show the level of concentration of heavy metals in seaweeds taken from Calatagan, Batangas in the Philippines. ...
... Comparing the Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations shown in Figure 6 indicates that all were generally low. Hwang et al. (2010) reported that total Hg, Pb, and Cd contents determined from 426 samples of average dry weight concentrations of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007 to 2008 were: Hg= 0.01 mg/kg (from 0.001 to 0.050), Pb= 0.7 mg/kg (less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 2.7), and Cd= 0.50 mg/kg (less than the LOD to 2.9). ...
... For example, for an 18-year-old person weighing 50 kg who has been eating seaweeds every day since he or she was 1 year old, the estimated daily intake (EDI) can be calculated as: Hwang et al. (2010) reported that the intakes of total Hg, Pb, and Cd from seaweed for a Korean were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg/kg body weight per week, respectively. The concentrations arrived at in this study are very low in comparison ( Table 1). ...
Article
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Eating seaweeds have many nutritional benefits to the body. Seaweeds also have many industrial uses such as bioremediation of polluted water. Batangas, Philippines is an industrial province located near the coast where seaweeds are abundant. This study is on the occurrence of heavy metals in seaweeds taken from Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines, and shows that all of the seaweeds tested are within the international food standard limitation except for one Caulerpa lentillifera sample. Moreover, estimated daily intake and health hazard calculation do not indicate potential health risks.
... For Pb, France limits the content of the metal to 5 μg/g dry wt. In our study, for calculating the exposure assessment, we assume 5.2 g/capita/day as the consumption of seaweeds in India (Arulkumar et al., 2019), which is higher than in Japan with 4 g/adult/day (Zava and Zava, 2011), lower than in South Korea with 8.5 g/adult/day (Hwang et al., 2010), and similar to the seaweed consumption rate in China (Chen et al., 2018). Table 5 represents the ED, THQ, and HI of seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar coast. ...
... The hazard index (HI) in the present study was calculated based on the concentration/dose addition of different metals, and the overall HI was <1, which confirmed that the exposure of heavy metals from the seaweeds in the present study will not pose any health risk to consumers. Various studies conducted in Italy (Desideri et al., 2016), South Korea (Hwang et al., 2010), Spain (Rubio et al., 2017), and China (Chen et al., 2018) claimed that total elemental intake does not pose any hazard to the consumers despite the fact that there are dissimilar safety reference values, such as recommended reference dose (RfD) from USEPA and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) from the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee, which have been used for the valuations. ...
Article
In the present study, we have assessed the degree of contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in ten species of red and brown seaweeds, the seasonal variations in the concentration of metals, and the health risk due to the seaweeds. Overall metal concentrations for red and brown seaweeds followed the order Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd and Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd, respectively. Cd and Pb levels were found to be elevated in both the red and brown seaweeds. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the sources of Cd and Pb are mainly anthropogenic. Despite the high concentrations of the non-essential metals (Cd and Pb) in the seaweeds, the health risk assessment revealed that they have a lower hazard index. Hence, consumption of edible red and brown seaweeds from the Tuticorin coast may not pose health hazards in humans for the time being.
... Seaweed intake is recommended for satisfying the dietary requirements of essential minerals and trace elements that are less available in other common edible plants [15]. More than 50 species of seaweeds are used for food [16]. The annual consumption of seaweed in South Korea is 8.5 kg per person, which is one of the highest consumption rates in the world [16]. ...
... More than 50 species of seaweeds are used for food [16]. The annual consumption of seaweed in South Korea is 8.5 kg per person, which is one of the highest consumption rates in the world [16]. In recent decades, seaweed has become increasingly consumed as food in Western countries because of its nutritional and health benefits [17]. ...
Article
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Seaweed, a popular seafood in South Korea, has abundant dietary fiber and minerals. The toxicity of arsenic compounds is known to be related to their chemical speciation, and inorganic arsenic (iAs) is more detrimental than other species. Due to the different toxicities of the various chemical forms, speciation analysis is important for evaluating arsenic exposure. In this study, total arsenic (tAs) and six arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine) were analyzed in 180 seaweed samples. Although there were differences between seaweed species, the concentration of tAs was detected at levels ranging from 1 to 100 µg/g, and the distribution of six arsenic species differed depending on the seaweed species. No correlation between the concentration of iAs and tAs was found in most seaweed species. Through statistical clustering, hijiki and gulfweed were seen to be the seaweeds with the highest ratios of iAs to tAs. Using the iAs concentration data from the arsenic speciation analysis, a risk assessment of seaweed intake in South Korea was conducted. The margin of exposure values showed no meaningful risk for the general population, but low levels of risk were identified for seaweed consumers, with high intakes of gulfweed and hijiki.
... Cd was also found in trace concentration in shellfish (17). Seaweeds are also one of the marine organisms that are susceptible to be contaminated with Cd (18). Based on the research done by Hwang and friends (18) in South Korea, they traced the presence of Cd in all 426 seaweed samples that they analysed. ...
... Seaweeds are also one of the marine organisms that are susceptible to be contaminated with Cd (18). Based on the research done by Hwang and friends (18) in South Korea, they traced the presence of Cd in all 426 seaweed samples that they analysed. These findings proved that besides animals and human, Cd also contaminated plant in the sea. ...
Article
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Introduction: Eating seafood has become a major health concern for many people due to the present of heavy metal especially cadmium (Cd). Cd can accumulate in the body and disrupt the normal cellular processes which will eventually lead to organ damage. This study aims to determine the seafood consumption pattern and blood cadmium (BCd) as well as the association between these two variables among respondents living along the coastal area of Melaka. Methods: Pretested questionnaires were used to collect background and food frequency intake from coastal villagers through convenient sampling method. Venous blood samples were analysed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for BCd determination. Results: A total of 63 respondents who 54% were female with median age of 34 years old provided complete data in this study. The most frequently consumed seafood and its product were shrimp paste (31.5%) followed by mackerel (13.6%), hardtail-scad (6.2%), flatfish (4.5%) and fish ball (4.0). All blood samples showed the present of Cd with median (IQR) = 0.076 (0.1) μg/L and ranged between 0.007 to 1.284 μg/L. The finding showed no association between frequently consumed seafood and low BCd of the respondents. On the other hand, gender was found to be significantly associated with the BCd. Conclusion: Seafood consumption pattern was not significantly associated with BCd which suggests that frequent seafood consumption may not contribute much to BCd level among the respondents as well as it may indicates safe consumption of these seafood available in the study location.
... It should be noted that the contents of heavy metals in laver have been reported as variable according to a range of factors including the cultivar, species, season, and processing conditions [100,101]. Most previous studies recorded acceptable levels of contaminants according to the hazard quotient (HQ) of heavy metals in laver products or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) [42,102]. Guidance values for tolerable intake [PTWI, provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI), provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI)] for major heavy metals detected from laver were set as follows: Al (PTWI 2.0 mg/kg bw/week), Cd (PTMI 25 µg/kg bw/month), Cu (PMTDI 0.5 mg/kg bw/day), and Hg (PTWI 4.0 µg/kg bw/week) [103]. ...
... mg/kg dry weight) were reported as indicators of food pollution [104]. In addition, arsenic is the major heavy metal contaminant in laver [42,102,105,106], and the potential risk of production of toxic metabolites by the human digestive process was also stressed [107,108]. [110] cadmium (Cd) 0.109 6 [110] lead (Pb) 0.063 6 [110] mercury (Hg) <LOD [110] Setting recommended-intake limits to prevent overconsumption of nutritional components (i.e., iodine, dietary fiber, sodium) that pose potential chemical risks is the primary strategy for risk management, and specific control methods for these factors are generally not required. ...
Article
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The growing interest in laver as a food product and as a source of substances beneficial to health has led to global consumer demand for laver produced in a limited area of northeastern Asia. Here we review research into the benefits of laver consumption and discuss future perspectives on the improvement of laver product quality. Variation in nutritional/functional values among product types (raw and processed (dried, roasted, or seasoned) laver) makes product-specific nutritional analysis a prerequisite for accurate prediction of health benefits. The effects of drying, roasting, and seasoning on the contents of both beneficial and harmful substances highlight the importance of managing laver processing conditions. Most research into health benefits has focused on substances present at high concentrations in laver (porphyran, Vitamin B12, taurine), with assessment of the expected effects of laver consumption. Mitigation of chemical/microbiological risks and the adoption of novel technologies to exploit under-reported biochemical characteristics of lavers are suggested as key strategies for the further improvement of laver product quality. Comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding laver as a food product and as a source of biomedical compounds highlights the possibilities and challenges for application of laver products.
... This was expected as the IM was obtained from larvae fed media containing 60% seaweed (the brown alga, A. nodosum). Seaweeds are known to accumulate heavy metals from the marine environment, especially brown algae species (Almela et al. 2006;Yamada et al. 2007;Hwang et al. 2010;Duinker et al. 2016;Biancarosa et al. 2018a), as applied in this study. It has previously been shown that BSF larvae fed seaweed-enriched media accumulate cadmium, lead and mercury from the feeding media ). ...
... mg kg −1 dw for cadmium, lead and mercury, respectively (data not shown). These levels are among the lowest concentrations found in brown algae species (Almela et al. 2006;Yamada et al. 2007;Hwang et al. 2010;Duinker et al. 2016;Biancarosa et al. 2018a). Previous studies have also shown that accumulation of heavy metals in BSF strongly depends on the concentrations of the metals in the feeding media (Diener et al. 2015;van der Fels-Klerx et al. 2016;Gao et al. 2017;Scheibelberger et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Insects are promising sources of protein and lipid in feeds for farmed animals. In the European Union, the use of insect meal (IM) and insect oil is permitted in fish feed. However, the European Food Safety Authority has highlighted the lack of data regarding the chemical safety of insects and products thereof. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets in which fish meal (FM) was partially or fully substituted with IM, resulting in four diets with an FM replacement of 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% by IM. The IM was produced from Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae fed media containing 60% seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum). After 16 weeks of feeding, fish fillet samples were collected. The concentrations of undesirable substances, e.g., heavy metals, arsenic, dioxins, mycotoxins, pesticides, in the IM, the diets and fillets were determined. The concentrations of the analysed compounds in the IM were all below EU maximum levels for feed ingredients, except for arsenic. However, for complete feeds the concentrations of these compounds in the feeds, including arsenic, were all below EU MLs. Arsenic was transferred from seaweed to IM, resulting in arsenic levels in IM similar to what has been documented for FM. Transfer of arsenic from feed to fillet was observed; however, total arsenic concentrations in the fillet significantly decreased when fish were fed diets with more IM and less FM. Arsenic speciation analysis of the diets showed that although total arsenic levels were similar, the arsenic species were different. Arsenobetaine was the major organoarsenic species in the diets containing FM, while in diets containing IM several unidentified arsenic species were detected. The results suggest that the lower feed-to-fillet transfer of arsenic when FM is replaced by IM may be due to the presence of arsenic species with low bioavailability in the IM.
... Seaweeds are readily available and easily harvested in the wild and require little to no processing post harvesting, mainly drying [197]. Their inclusion in Asian diets continues to play a basic role in household nutrition [198]. ...
... Seaweeds are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) for use as functional foods [198,235]. Many species of seaweed, including Laminaria, Saccharina, A. nodosum, C. crispus, Porphyra (Pyropia), Ulva, Sargassum, Gracilaria, P. palmata, and U. pinnatifida, are rich in bioactive compounds and therefore show potential to be exploited as products in the functional food market for both human and animal application [7,236]. ...
... Seaweed represent an important economic resource in Eastern Pacific countries intensively and largely employed in the human food industry, but in the last years has been an increase of seaweed consumption as food directly in western countries as we said because their nutritional and therapeutic benefits [48,56,57]. Common edible seaweeds are known to contain As in high levels; these seaweed are consumed throughout the world specially in Europe and Asia; in North America consumption is less common, but have become widely available including the most common like nori (red algae), kombu and watame, both brown algae [58]. ...
... Korea is one of the highest annual consumers of seaweed with an average of 8.5 kg per person, which could give a t-As intake up to 752.2 μg day À1 . Highest As content is ingested by eating seafood; however, there is no evidence that exposure of such levels of As resulted in harmful effects [57]. ...
Chapter
The objective of this chapter was to obtain information about arsenic speciation in algae studied in American Continent and Antarctic. This matter supposes deliver information with respect to accumulation, biotransformation and toxic effect on human health. Arsenic speciation in algae has become one of the most important issues to assess the risk to human health associated with algae consumption. This chapter also include the main analytical methods for the determination of different chemical arsenic-species used commonly in American Continent and Antarctic. Finally, some countries of America Continent such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil among others, have carried out important studies on arsenic content in algae, mainly brown macroalgae. It is concluded, that is necessary to increase and pursue more researches about arsenic speciation in algae in American Continent and its effects on human health attributed to it consumption.
... they may be the potential adverse effect on human health. Several studies also claimed that total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers in Italy, South Korea and Spain 13,14,22 , though different safety reference values, such recommended reference dose (RfD) from US EPA and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) from the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee were used for assessment. ...
... For calculating exposure dose, we adopted 5.2 g/capita/day as the consumption of seaweeds in China, which is higher than in Japan for 4 g/adult/day 23 and lower than in South Korea for 8.5 g/adult/day 22 . In addition, it should be noted that the risk assessment on arsenic was not performed because the arsenic species were not analyzed here. ...
Article
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Concern about metals and metalloids, especially heavy metals in seaweeds has risen due to potential health risk. This study investigated the distribution of 10 metals and metalloids in 295 dried seaweeds (brown and red) and estimated the possible health risk via hazard index (HI). Elements in seaweeds can be sequenced in descending order by mean values: Al > Mn > As > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > Se > Pb > Hg. The levels of Cd, Cu, Mn and Ni in red seaweeds were significantly higher than those in brown seaweeds (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed contents of Ni-Cr (r = 0.59, P < 0.01) in seaweeds had moderate positive correlations. Seaweeds from different geographical origins had diverse element distribution. Risk assessment showed that HI at mean level was less than the threshold of 1. It indicates that for the general people there is low health risk to these elements by the intake of seaweeds. Furthermore, in terms of the confirmative toxicity of some metals, such as Cd, Pb and Hg, surveillance of metals in seaweeds should be performed continuously.
... The cadmium content ranged from 0.065 mg kg −1 DM in G. vermiculophylla to 1.649 mg kg −1 DM in S. Latissima, suggesting a low toxicological risk associated to seaweed consumption. Low cadmium content (average value of 0.5 mg kg −1 DM) was also observed in commercial edible seaweeds in Korea (Hwang et al. 2010), and in Gracilaria verrucosa collected in Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, during the summer (less than 1 mg kg −1 DM; Malea and Haritonidis 1999). ...
... In the present study, mercury content ranged from 0.024 mg kg −1 DM in Gigartina sp. to 0.161 mg kg −1 DM in F. spiralis, a wider range than that reported in Korea (0.01 to 0.05 mg kg −1 DM, Hwang et al. 2010), but lower than the maximum tolerable level for domestic animals (around 1 mg kg −1 body weight; NRC 2005). ...
Article
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This study characterized the mineral composition of 15 common Portuguese seaweed (green, brown, and red) species. Total measured mineral content ranged from 10.9 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) in Gracilaria vermiculophylla to 71.0 g kg−1 DM in Codium adhaerens, calcium being the mineral generally found in higher amounts. Overall, the results suggest that seaweeds have great potential as mineral sources for animal feeding, but a great variability between species was observed regarding their mineral profile. Compared to common animal feed ingredients, the studied seaweeds can be considered as good sources of calcium, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, and selenium but are poor sources of phosphorous and zinc. The maximum level of dietary inclusion will be strongly dependent on the mineral profile of the seaweeds. Depending on the seaweed, the upper level of inclusion in poultry and swine diets may reach more than 40 %. The high iodine content of studied seaweeds limits their use in diets for horses, and, to a lesser extent, for ruminants. This work constitutes a paramount contribution regarding the use of seaweeds as mineral sources in animal diets, allowing a more precise choice of the algae species and level of inclusion to be used, thus assuring animal health and strengthening the seaweed industry through this underexploited application field.
... This makes it very challenging to draw generalisations about the safety of edible seaweed. When seaweed is consumed in huge quantities all at once or in little amounts over an extended period, metal poisoning may result (Hwang, et al., 2010;Zaya and Zaya, 2011). Seaweed is so rich in natural vitamins, minerals, and plant-based protein, thus becoming one of the nutritional items that people are eating more and more of. ...
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The bioaccumulation of trace metals in 10 selected edible seaweeds was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Bioaccumulation of higher levels of manganese (4.94 ± 0.15 μg/g) and aluminium (4.21 ± 0.18 μg/g) and lower levels of arsenic (0.18 ± 0.02 μg/g) and vanadium (0.09 ± 0.02 μg/g) were observed in Chlorophyta. In Rhodophyta, bioaccumulation of iron (8.51 ± 0.19 μg/g) was high, while lower levels of magnesium (0.13 ± 0.02 μg/g) and strontium (0.21 ± 0.01 μg/g) were observed among the seaweeds studied. Health assessment studies were also conducted on seaweeds to understand their effects on human consumption. The findings imply that consuming macroalgae has no health risk due to these elements in the general population. Furthermore, the confirmative toxicity of specific metals, such as Cd, Pb, and Zn metals in macroalgae, should be monitored constantly.
... Although molluscs and fish accumulate heavy metals in their meat, higher values of these elements have been found in algae as a result of higher longevity of these and longer stay in the water. In order to protect the health of consumers, some states have set limits for trade in algae, considered "sea vegetables": for cadmium 0.5 mg/kg (dry weight), for mercury 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) and for lead 5 mg/kg (dry weight) (Hwang et al. 2010;Dawczynski et al. 2007). ...
Chapter
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Seaweed-based foods are gaining importance in the human diet due to the presence of proteins, minerals, vitamins, soluble dietary fbre, omega 3 fatty acids, favo�noids, which are considered preventive agents against diseases related to the mod�ern lifestyle. The health benefts attributed to algae-based diet related to antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties, as well as the ability to modulate intestinal health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes as evidenced by many research reports (
... Therefore, algae, as well as seafood, needs to strengthen the monitoring of heavy metal content. Hwang et al. and Smith et al. studied edible seaweeds in South Korea and New Zealand, respectively [88,89]. They aimed to detect mercury, lead, cadmium, and total arsenic contents in edible algae. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of the economy and productivity, an increasing number of citizens are not only concerned about the nutritional value of algae as a potential new food resource but are also, in particular, paying more attention to the safety of its consumption. Many studies and reports pointed out that analyzing and solving seaweed food safety issues requires holistic and systematic consideration. The three main factors that have been found to affect the food safety of algal are physical, chemical, and microbiological hazards. At the same time, although food safety awareness among food producers and consumers has increased, foodborne diseases caused by algal food safety incidents occur frequently. It threatens the health and lives of consumers and may cause irreversible harm if treatment is not done promptly. A series of studies have also proved the idea that microbial contamination of algae is the main cause of this problem. Therefore, the rapid and efficient detection of toxic and pathogenic microbial contamination in algal products is an urgent issue that needs to be addressed. At the same time, two other factors, such as physical and chemical hazards, cannot be ignored. Nowadays, the detection techniques are mainly focused on three major hazards in traditional methods. However, especially for food microorganisms, the use of traditional microbiological control techniques is time-consuming and has limitations in terms of accuracy. In recent years, these two evaluations of microbial foodborne pathogens monitoring in the farm-to-table chain have shown more importance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, there are also many new developments in the monitoring of heavy metals, algal toxins, and other pollutants. In the future, algal food safety risk assessment will not only focus on convenient, rapid, low-cost and high-accuracy detection but also be connected with some novel technologies, such as the Internet of Things (artificial intelligence, machine learning), biosensor, and molecular biology, to reach the purpose of simultaneous detection.
... We calculated two screening levels based on a consumption rate of 5 g dry weight (DW) of seaweed per day, which is the typical amount consumed in a meal [52]. This rate is comparable to values reported for South Korea at 8.5 g/adult/day [53], India and China at 5.2 g/capita/day [54][55][56], and Japan at 4 to 10.4 g/adult/day [57,58]. The RfD-based screening level (SL RfD ) for adults was based on RfDs (mg/kg body weight/ day) obtained from the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database provided by the USEPA and was calculated as: ...
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Despite growing interest in edible seaweeds, there is limited information on seaweed chemical contaminant levels in the Salish Sea. Without this knowledge, health-based consumption advisories can not be determined for consumers that include Tribes and First Nations, Asian and Pacific Islander community members, and recreational harvesters. We measured contaminant concentrations in edible seaweeds (Fucus distichus, F. spiralis, and Nereocystis luetkeana) from 43 locations in the Salish Sea. Metals were analyzed in all samples, and 94 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (i.e. 40 PCBs, 15 PBDEs, 17 PCDD/Fs, and 22 organ-ochlorine pesticides) and 51 PAHs were analyzed in Fucus spp. We compared concentrations of contaminants to human health-based screening levels calculated from the USEPA and to international limits. We then worked with six focal contaminants that either exceeded screening levels or international limits (Cd, total Hg, Pb, benzo[a]pyrene [BaP], and PCBs) or are of regional interest (total As). USEPA cancer-based screening levels were exceeded in 30 samples for the PCBs and two samples for BaP. Cadmium concentrations did not exceed the USEPA noncancer-based screening level but did exceed international limits at all sites. Lead exceeded international limits at three sites. Because there are no screening levels for total Hg and total As, and to be conservative, we made comparisons to methyl Hg and inorganic As screening levels. All samples were below the methyl Hg and above the inorganic As screening levels. Without knowledge of the As speciation, we cannot assess the health risk associated with the As. While seaweed was the focus, we did not consider PLOS ONE PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
... The total percentage of macroalgae incorporation on fish aquafeed fits within the percentages already tested to increase the nutritional value of fish to its final consumer, through the increase of algal phytocompounds (Dantagnan et al., 2009;Valente et al., 2015). Considering that an average adult ingests about 1800 g of food per day (FAOSTAT, n.d.), that East Asian populations consume between 4 and 8.5 g of dried macroalgae (Chen et al., 2018;Hwang et al., 2010;Zava & Zava, 2011) and that some macroalgae species may have a swelling capacity of nearly ten times their dry volume (Zava & Zava, 2011), it is realistic to evaluate 5% of macroalgae incorporation. Seabream (S. aurata) were purchased from a local fish farm (Nasharyba, Lda., Figueira da Foz, Portugal) as fingerlings (8-10 g) and maintained in 500-L cylindric PVC tanks, under a natural photoperiod, as open systems, from August 2017 to July 2018 (2 tanks per condition, 25 fish per tank). ...
Article
The consumption of marine macroalgae has been linked with health benefits, albeit some actions, including genoprotection, remain underexplored. Hence, we evaluated the genoprotective potential of a mixture of Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gracilaria gracilis, through direct consumption or via indirect intake using fish (Sparus aurata) as a vector of algal phytocompounds. Mice (Mus musculus) were subjected to a 1-month dietary supplementation with 5% of macroalgae mix or 10% of fillet of fish previously fed with an algae-supplemented aquafeed (for comparison purposes, 10% supplementation with fillet of fish standardly fed was also considered). Thereafter, mice were challenged by the genotoxicant methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and the genetic damage was evaluated through the micronuclei test. Complementarily, a wider evaluation was carried out encompassing the assessment of energy metabolism, haematological and histological parameters, as well as growth performance. Macroalgae unequivocally protected against MMS-induced genotoxicity. The activity profile of hepatic lactate and isocitrate dehydrogenases promoted by the supplemented diets reflected an improved energy balance. Genoprotection properties were not transferred via fish fed with the algae-supplemented aquafeed, though the transference of phytocomponents with beneficial properties (viz. energy balance improvement) should not be disregarded. Overall, these findings highlighted the genoprotection afforded by marine macroalgae, likely promoted by desmutagenic factors, reinforcing their definition as functional food. The possibility of using fish as an indirect source of algae-borne phytocomponents proved to be plausible and worthy of further investigations.
... In the Korean population, four papers reported Cd contents ranging from 50 to 4730 µg/Kg in seaweed. The author then recalculated a GM of 689.9 µg/Kg from these 31 representative seaweed-Cd-content data [19][20][21][22]. Seaweed was thus considered the highest-Cd-content food group consumed among the Korean population. ...
Article
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This study aimed to identify the time trends of blood Cd concentrations and their correlation with the Cd-B and the intakes of food groups as an influencing factor for Cd exposure among the general population in South Korea. During seven Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2005 to 2017, a total of 9578 individuals (4317 men and 5261 women) participated in a 24 h recall test for a dietary survey and a blood-metal survey using physical examinations performed in the same survey year. The blood Cd concentration was observed to decrease significantly (p < 0.05) from 1.51 µg/L in 2005 to 0.76 µg/L in 2017. In terms of the food groups, grains and cereals, potatoes and starch, and fruits were significantly correlated with the corresponding Cd concentrations and also showed decreased intakes. For Koreans, the observed decrease in blood Cd concentrations was probably caused by a decrease in the intake of food groups of plant origin.
... Microwave digestion under relatively high temperatures and pressures often allow the single use of nitric acid for complete digestion of sample matrix and consequently eliminate the requirement of more dangerous acid mixtures. The Teflon reactor along with nitric acid is widely used method in the microwave assisted digestion for the As analysis of macroalgae(Thodhal Yoganandham et al., 2019;Hwang et al., 2010;Dominguez-Gonzalez et al., 2010). ...
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The metalloid arsenic (As) has no well-known biological function, but it is a widely distributed food chain contaminants and ranked a number one of the top priority hazardous substances in the environment. Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are the primary bioavailable inorganic forms in aquatic systems and are actively subjected to biotransform upon their exposure. Marine microalgae and macroalgae have shown enormous As accumulation and transformation capacity, and are the chief contributor of reduced, methylated, and/or other organic As species in seawater, hence play a critical link between cycling of As in the water column and other marine organisms. The recent discoveries of more than 50 arsenicals in marine organisms have extended the research field on As speciation. The information on the formation processes of As species, as well as their nature and distribution, is essential because of their complex chemistry and variable ecotoxicological effects on the marine ecosystems. As detoxification and/or biotransformation processes by the algae are habitat and species-specific, and it is necessary to investigate how marine macroalgae species interact, accumulate, detoxify, and produce As species in seawater and redistributed in marine food web with respect to their importance in As cycling. A series of laboratory culture experiments were designed with different macroalgal species namely Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum horneri, Sargassum patens, and Pyropia yezoensis in seawater, and the following issues have been reported: (a) examination of the bioavailability of As species in terms of algal growth and photosynthetic activity; (b) observation of the accumulation, biotransformation, and extrusion behavior of As under different molar ratios of As and P; (c) investigation of the formation of Fe-plaque with or without coexisting Fe in the algal culture system; (d) demonstration of the modelling of As uptake rate; and (e) elucidation and comparison of the tolerance and metabolism diversity among macroalgae. The results of the proposed experiments are helpful in the understanding of the roles of macroalgae on As biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment.
... Most of the non-essential microelement concentrations decreased in extracts in comparison with fresh macroalgae samples (except that of aluminum (Al), which increased by a factor of 7.6 in F. lumbricalis extracts): arsenic (As) decreased by factors of 11.0, 9.9, and 22.0 in C. rupestris, U. intestinalis, and F. lumbricalis extracts, respectively; V decreased by factors of 291.7, 557.5, and 297. 5 The average consumption of the microelement V with food is 10-20 μg day −1 [140]. One of the main challenges associated with the safety of macroalgae consumption is its contamination with heavy metals, such as Al, Cd, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, and Sn [142], which can lead to a public health risk [143]. Heavy metal control in macroalgae-based products must be included, and the different bio-absorption capacities of heavy metals should be taken into consideration [144]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of macroalgae (Cladophora rupestris, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Ulva intestinalis) and microalgae (Arthrospira platensis (Sp1, Sp2), Chlorella vulgaris) extracts, including micro-and macroelement transition to extract, antioxidant, an-timicrobial properties, the concentrations of chlorophyll (-a,-b), and the total carotenoid concentration (TCC). In macroalgae, the highest TCC and chlorophyll content were found in C. rupestris. In microalgae, the TCC was 10.1-times higher in C. vulgaris than in Sp1, Sp2; however, the chlorophyll contents in C. vulgaris samples were lower. A moderate negative correlation was found between the chlorophyll-a and TCC contents (r = −0.4644). In macroalgae extract samples, C. rupestris and F. lum-bricalis showed the highest total phenolic compound content (TPCC). DPPH antioxidant activity and TPCC in microalgae was related to the TCC (r = 0.6191, r = 0.6439, respectively). Sp2 extracts inhibited Staphylococcus haemolyticus; C. rupestris, F. lumbricalis, U. intestinalis, and Sp2 extracts inhibited Bacillus subtilis; and U. intestinalis extracts inhibited Streptococcus mutans strains. This study showed that extraction is a suitable technology for toxic metal decontamination in algae; however, some of the desirable microelements are reduced during the extraction, and only the final products, could be applied in food, feed, and others.
... That makes drawing generalities about eatable seaweed safety exceedingly difficult. Overall, metal toxicity can ensue when large amounts of seaweed are consumed at once or small amounts of seaweed is consumed during a prolonged period [56,57]. Heavy metal levels in sediment and seaweed from Chabahar (station # 6) was highest among study sites. ...
Article
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Oman Sea region is a major gateway for international and local shipping. Metal pollution of aquatic environment is primarily caused by such shipping and industrial activities. Agricultural runoffs are also of concern. Seaweed contamination with heavy metals in this area is therefore a distinct possibility. We examined seaweed of Oman Sea for heavy metal content and potential risk of its consumption to the public. During winter of 2019, water, sediment, and seaweed were collected along twelve stations on the coast of Oman Sea. Triplicates of each sample were analyzed for metal content by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biomarkers of metals in seaweed (metallothionein and phytochelatin) were also analyzed. A significant positive correlation exists among levels of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Fe in water, sediment, and seaweed (P < 0.05). Cadmium correlations were weak. The highest levels of metallothionein and phytochelatin were found in brown and red seaweed (118.6 µg/g wet weight, 16.4 amol/cell; 111.4 µg/g ww, 12.1 amol/cell), respectively. For nickel and lead, human consumption of red, brown, and green seaweed was associated with “some health hazard,” with a target hazard quotient of > 1. We conclude that concerns over heavy metal contamination of some parts of Oman Sea are valid, and we invite policy makers to implement measures for protection of public and environment from metal toxic effects in the region.
... Martin's Island, Cox's Bazar and Kuakata beach, Patuakhali. Korean people consume seaweeds on an average 8.5 g/adult/day, whereas Chinese people consume 5.2 g and Japanese people consume 4 g/adult/day (Hwang et al. 2010). The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of red seaweed (Hypnea musciformis) incorporated vegetable salad against the traditional one. ...
Article
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Nutritional properties of vegetable salad incorporated with red seaweed (Hypnea musciformis) wasevaluated. Two lots of vegetable salad were prepared viz., control salad without adding seaweed and seaweedsalad with inclusion of 20% seaweed along with cucumber, tomato, carrot, cloves, garlic, lemon and salt.Micronutrient composition indicated that addition of seaweed increased the Ca, Na, Fe and Zn content ofvegetable salad. Calcium and iron content was substantially higher in seaweed mixed salad. The resultsindicate that incorporation of seaweed in vegetable salad improves the nutritional content and hence can beused to enrich nutritional quality of food salad.
... However, regular consumption of algae may lead to a risk of heavy metal toxicity in humans due to accumulation of these pollutants in the body (Burger, Gochfeld, Jeitner, Donio, & Pittfield, 2012;Caliceti, Argese, Sfriso, & Pavoni, 2002). Monitoring of the heavy metal concentrations in macroalgae-based products is recommended, because of the different bio-absorption capacity of metals (Hwang, Park, Park, Choi, & Kim, 2010). One of the major considerations for the use of algae as food/feed is the need to quantify the levels of As. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fermenting Baltic Sea macroalgae (Ulva intestinalis, Cladophora rupestris, and Furcellaria lumbricalis) using Lactobacillus plantarum strain LUHS135, which possesses antimicrobial properties, without additional pre-treatment with a fermentable substrate. To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, analysis of the microbial profile, antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics, and trace element concentrations was performed. Fermentation with strain LUHS135 reduced the pH of C. rupestris < 4.5; however, that of U. intestinalis and F. lumbricalis remained unchanged after 12 h of fermentation. Metagenomic analysis showed that the algae can be contaminated with potentially harmful microorganisms which remain after fermentation despite the use of a technological microorganism possessing antimicrobial properties. However, the synergic mechanism of the algae and LUHS135 combination showed a broader spectrum of pathogen inhibition. Also, the health claims associated with algal products must be based on sufficient evidence of algal chemical safety indicators, for which heavy metals (especially lead and arsenic) are very important. Finally, the use of fermentable sugars (to reduce the pH of fermented samples and to prolong shelf life) and application of ultrasound treatment before fermentation could be further tested as a pre-pre-treatment method to control the fermentation process. Also, preparation of extracts of the antimicrobial compounds could be a possible way of reducing heavy metal concentrations and of using this prospective raw material at industrial scale.
... Despite the content of Hg being below the IPC-MS detection limit, the levels determined for the remaining compounds fall within the concentration ranges reported in the literature for L. hyperborea and other brown macroalgae [16,23,[48][49][50][51]. Variability in the content of As, Cd, Hg, and I in L. hyperborea and, in general, seaweeds, has been substantially reported. Geographical location, seasonality, salinity, and temperature of the surrounding water, depth, and developmental determinants, such as maturity and blade morphology and size, among others, account for such variability [23,48,[51][52][53][54][55]. Thus, in preliminary experiments, up to 56% variability in the content of Cd (data not shown) was found in L. hyperborea samples collected within a one-month span across the harvesting season. ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of ultrasound (US), alone or in combination with mild heating and/or EDTA towards reduction of As, Cd, I, and Hg content of Laminaria hyperborea. Concentrations of As, Cd, I, and Hg of 56.29, 0.596, 7340, and <0.01 mg kg−1 of dry weight, respectively, were found in L. hyperborea blades. Treatment with US at 50 °C increased approx. 2-fold the amount of As released, although did not affect significantly the content of Cd or I, as compared to control (no US) samples. Reducing the temperature to 8 °C significantly decreased the effect of US, but heating at 80 °C did not cause a significant effect as compared to treatments at 50 °C. On the other hand, treatment with 0.1 N EDTA at 50 °C enhanced the percentage of Cd released by approximately 7-fold, regardless of sonication. In the present work, the combination of US and EDTA at 50 °C for 5 min led to a significant reduction of the As (32%), Cd (52%) and I (31%) content in L. hyperborea, thus improving the product’s safety for consumers.
... In this regard, in order to protect the consumer, regular surveys of toxic metals in seaweeds and estimation of health risk need to be considered. Considering that consumption of food is the major source of heavy metals exposure/bio-accumulation in the body, this study has sought to assess the levels in seaweed of the metals 19 K, 20 Ca, 12 Mg, 82 Pb, 48 Cd, 34 Se, 13 Al, 25 Mn, 29 Cu, 30 Zn, 26 Fe, 33 As, 11 Na, 28 Ni, 24 Cr, 47 Ag, and 14 Si, with use being made of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). An additional aim was to estimate the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks of metals exposures to the Malaysian population/consumers. ...
Article
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While the consumption of seaweed and seaweed-based products is very common amongst East Asian nations, forming a notable component of the daily diet, relatively very few studies have concerned the concentrations of heavy metals in these together with potential effects on human health. The present study analyses the concentrations of 17 elements in locally resourced seaweed, also assessing potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The samples were ground, homogenized, and quantified using the ICP-OES technique. It has been found that the essential elements K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na typically show concentrations somewhat greater than a number of potentially toxic metals, in particular, Cd, Pb, Ag, and As, with exceptions being Ni, Cr-VI, and Si. Statistical analysis indicates all of the latter to have similar origin, with increased concentration of these metals within the marine ecosystem. While the daily estimated intake of most metals is seen to be within the daily dietary allowance level recommended by various international organizations, the noncarcinogenic risk shows a value greater than unity, estimated via the hazard quotient. This indicates a potential for adverse effects to health arising from consumption of the sampled seaweed. The carcinogenic risk resulting from nonessential elements shows values greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reference limit of 10−4. Considering the nonbiodegradability of heavy metals and metalloids and their potential accumulation in seaweed, there is need for critical examination of metal levels in the seaweeds obtained from the present study locations, together with the introduction of practices of removal of heavy metals via bio-adsorbent techniques.
... for consumption and it does not pose a significant health risk to humans. Our results are similar to the finds of several studies conducted in Italy, South Korea and Spain, where total trace elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers (Hwang et al., 2010;Desideri et al., 2016;Rubio et al., 2017). In addition, previous studies have reported that deaths and illnesses resulting from eating seaweed were not a result of trace element contamination, but due to the presence of other materials, like prostaglandin E−2 (Cheney, 2016;Hsu et al., 2007) and lethal toxins (Cheney, 2016;Haddock and Cruz, 1991;Yotsu-Yamashita et al., 2004). ...
Article
China is the largest kelp (Saccharina japonica) producing country in the world. Kelp consumption is a tradition in many Asian countries. However, S. japonica accumulates trace elements that exhibit potential health risks upon ingestion. Here, we selected six sampling sites, from the shelf to offshore waters, in a maricultural area of Ailian Bay in Rongcheng City, northern China and investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of trace elements in kelp and seawater from 2016–2018. We then evaluated the bioremediation potential and food safety of S. japonica. Most trace elements demonstrated no marked spatial variations, and their seasonal variations were minimal. The trace element concentrations in the tested kelp did not exceed the food safety standards, indicating that it is safe for human consumption. Moreover, S. japonica has a high bioremediation capability for trace elements, and the kelp in the coastal waters of Rongcheng (with annual yield of ~5 × 10⁵ t) removed 28.60 kg Cr, 165.51 kg Cu, 682.54 kg Zn, 34.00 kg Cd, 52.53 kg Pb, 3.60 kg Hg, and 1,305.53 kg As from the seawater per year. Our results will be useful for evaluating the bioremediation potential of S. japonica and for food safety management.
... As with the proposed health benefits of PBMAs, consumer beliefs about food safety for insects are not always based on fact. Consumer safety concerns about the consumption of algal protein relate to exposure to marine heavy metals and contaminants (Table 7), though the levels identified in algal products have not been shown to be sufficient to pose a significant threat [154,155]. Algae is currently consumed mostly as a condiment or supplemental product that is unlikely to be eaten in quantities sufficient to cause adverse effects. The long-term effect of consuming cultured meats is currently unknown as these products have yet to reach market, but consumer surveys have expressed concern and uncertainty about their safety [26]. ...
Article
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Alternative proteins are receiving increased global attention. This burgeoning interest in plants (especially plant-based meat alternatives), insects, algae, and cultured meat has been attributed to their reported health benefits, lower environmental impact and improved animal welfare compared to conventional animal-based meat. Food producers and the media are promoting acceptance of these products, claiming superior nutritional, environmental and ethical credentials and a desirable novel sensory experience. However, the evidence supporting these claims remains unclear. In this review, we summarise the main evidence underlying the nutritional, sensorial, economical, ethical, and environmental reasons reported for the rise in consumer demand for alternative proteins. We found many of these reasons to lack a strong evidence base. For instance, evidence is emerging for the nutritional benefits of plant-based meat alternatives, but present claims are largely based on established evidence for plant-based diets. Significant research gaps remain, especially longitudinal evidence on the sustained effects of replacing conventional animal-based proteins with alternative sources. For many alternative proteins, challenges exist in achieving desirable sensory properties akin to animal-based meat to promote their acceptance by consumers. Overall, fundamental shifts in the food system are required to create a culture in which healthful and sustainable food choices are the norm.
... For example, the seaweed kelp is widely used as a source of iodine (I) in various dietary supplements, and different types of algae (e.g., Spirulina and Dunaliella salina) are also incorporated into supplements due to high concentrations of pro-vitamin A carotenoids endpoints, it is important to consider that algal organisms can also accumulate metal contaminants (Banach, Hoek-van den Hil, and van der Fels-Klerx 2020). The most prominent of these potential contaminants are the toxic heavy metals, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) (Brandon, Janssen, and de Wit-Bos 2014;Hwang et al. 2010). Therefore, such products need to be viewed in its totality to fully characterize both the target nutrients of interest, in addition to any possible contaminants. ...
Article
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Edible algae products have increasingly become a larger component of diets worldwide. Algae can be a source of essential micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals, although select varieties also often contain elevated concentrations of heavy metal contaminants. Due to the effects thermal processing of foodstuffs can have on levels of nutrients, phytochemicals, and contaminants, it is important to consider the role processing has on the levels of these components in algae food products. Here, we evaluate the literature covering how different types of processing, including commercial thermal application and in-home preparation, affect constituents such as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, pigment compounds, and metal contaminants. Overall, the literature suggests that there are optimum processing conditions and specific cooking techniques that can be used to increase retention of important nutritional components while also reducing concentrations of metal contaminants. Although further research is needed on how thermal processing affects individual compounds in algae and their ultimate bioavailability, these data should be taken into consideration in order to inform design of product processing to both increase retention of nutritional components and limit metal contaminants.
... Arsenic was highest at 17.4 mg/kg dry weight, and assuming 8.5 g per day seaweed consumption, the intake was falling in the WHO recommended weekly limit (0.2-6.7%). This study verified very low chances of health risks from the metals consumed via seaweed [196]. However, other works revealed that the consumption of inorganic arsenic increases the incidence of cancers and has also been linked to skin lesions, cardiovascular disease, neurological effects, and diabetes [84,197,198]. ...
Article
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The world population is continuously growing, so it is important to keep producing food in a sustainable way, especially in a way that is nutritious and in a sufficient quantity to overcome global needs. Seaweed grows, and can be cultivated, in seawater and generally does not compete for arable land and freshwater. Thus, the coastal areas of the planet are the most suitable for seaweed production, which can be an alternative to traditional agriculture and can thus contribute to a reduced carbon footprint. There are evolving studies that characterize seaweed's nutritional value and policies that recognize them as food, and identify the potential benefits and negative factors that may be produced or accumulated by seaweed, which are, or can be, dangerous for human health. Seaweeds have a high nutritional value along with a low caloric input and with the presence of fibers, proteins, omega 3 and 6 unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Moreover, several seaweed sub-products have interesting features to the food industry. Therefore, the focus of this review is in the performance of seaweed as a potential alternative and as a safe food source. Here described is the nutritional value and concerns relating to seaweed consumption, and also how seaweed-derived compounds are already commercially explored and available in the food industry and the usage restrictions to safeguard them as safe food additives for human consumption.
... So even though concentrations found in fish and fish products are within the recommended tolerable intake they will add up to the amounts found in the other ingredients. For instance, seaweed also accumulates potential toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg, and concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg Cr are also found in rice (Cao et al. 2010;Perryman et al. 2017;Yo et al. 2010). Spores of B. cereus, a bacterium found in raw fish can also be present in sushi rice due to poor acidification of the rice, cross-contamination or poor storage temperature (Brighton and Hove City Council 2008;Koo 2018;New South Wales Food Authority 2007). ...
Article
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It is undeniable that with the popularity of sushi and sashimi over the last decade the consumption of raw fish has extremely increased. Raw fish is very appreciated worldwide and has become a major component of human diet because of its fine taste and nutritional properties. Possible hazards concerning fish safety and quality are classified as biological and chemical hazards. They are contaminants that often accumulate in edible tissue of fish and transmit to humans via the food chain affecting the consumer’s health. Although their concentration in fish and fishery products are found at non-alarming level of a daily basis period, they induce hazardous outcome on human health due to long and continuous consumption of raw fish. Regular sushi and sashimi eaters have to be aware of the contaminants found in the other components of their dish that often add up to acceptable residue limits found in fish. Hence, there is the urge for effective analytical methods to be developed as well as stricter regulations to be put in force between countries to monitor the safety and quality of fish for the interest of public health.
... Arsenic was highest at 17.4 mg/kg dry weight, and assuming 8.5 g per day seaweed consumption, the intake was falling in the WHO recommended weekly limit (0.2-6.7%). The study confirmed minimum chances of health risks from the metals consumed via seaweed (Hwang et al. 2010). ...
Article
Marine environment is a rich and diverse source for many biologically active substances including functional foods and nutraceuticals. It is well exploited for useful compounds, natural products and aquaculture industry; and seaweeds is one of the major contributors in terms of both food security and healthy nutrition. They are well-known due to their enormous benefits and is consumed globally in many countries. However, there is lack of attention toward their toxicity reports which might be due toxic chemical compounds from seaweed, epiphytic bacteria or harmful algal bloom and absorbed heavy metals from seawater. The excess of these components might lead to harmful interactions with drugs and hormone levels in the human body. Due to their global consumption and to meet increasing demands, it is necessary to address their hazardous and toxic aspects. In this review, we have done extensive literature for healthy seaweeds, their nutritional composition while summarizing the toxic effects of selected seaweeds from red, brown and green group which includes- Gracilaria, Acanthophora, Caulerpa, Cladosiphon, and Laminaria sp. Spirulina, a microalgae (cyanobacteria) biomass is also included in toxicity discussion as it an important food supplement and many times shows adverse reactions and drug interactions. The identified compounds from seaweeds were concluded to be toxic to humans, though they exhibited certain beneficial effects too. They have an easy access in food chain and thus invade the higher trophic level organisms. This review will create an awareness among scientific and nonscientific community, as well as government organization to regulate edible seaweed consumption and keep them under surveillance for their beneficial and safe consumption.
... In the absence of European seaweed consumption data, we used a very conservative approach to calculate exposure dose by assuming that Europeans would ingest similar quantities of seaweed as a Chinese consume on average (5.2 g/adult/day), which is higher than that Japanese consume (4 g/adult/day; Zava & Zava, 2011) and lower than average seaweed consumption in South Korean (8.5 g/adult/day; Hwang, Park, Park, Choi, & Kim, 2010). The daily seaweed consumption of Europeans are probably significantly (> 50%) lower than the daily seaweed consumption in China. ...
Article
Seaweeds are increasingly used in European cuisines due to their nutritional value. Many algal constituents, such as polyphenols, are important antioxidants and thus considered beneficial to humans. However, many seaweed species can accumulate heavy metals and exhibit potential health risks upon ingestion. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in polyphenol and heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) concentrations of three edible seaweed species. The brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata were sourced from natural populations and aquaculture in the NE Atlantic and processed as bulk biomass mimicking industrial scales. The mean polyphenol content was species-specific (Alaria > Saccharina > Palmaria), and highest in winter (for Alaria and Saccharina) and spring (for Palmaria); inter-annual and spatial variations were marginal. Heavy metal concentrations varied between species and depended on collection site, but seasonal variations were minimal. Our data suggest that all three species are good sources of antioxidants, and the heavy metal concentrations are below the upper limits set by the French recommendation and the EU Commission Regulation on contaminants in foodstuffs. A health risk assessment indicated that consumption of these seaweed species poses a low risk for humans with regard to heavy metals. However, an EU-wide regulation on maximal concentration of heavy metals in seaweeds should be established.
... Inorganic arsenic is categorised as a Group A human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and a Class 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (Straif et al., 2009). The strong affinity for As uptake, coupled with the perennial growth of fucoids may result in its accumulation at elevated concentrations proving potentially hazardous to human health (Hwang et al., 2010). Limits on As Inorg in seaweeds for human consumption vary globally. ...
Article
Seaweed has a long-associated history of use as a supplemented livestock feed, providing nutrients and vitamins essential to maintaining animal health. Some species of seaweed, particularly the fucoids, are well-known accumulators of the metalloid arsenic (As). Arsenic toxicity to humans is well established even at low exposure levels and is considered a class 1 human carcinogen. As mankind's appetite for livestock produce continues to grow unabated, there is a concern that consumption of livestock produce reared on a diet supplemented with seaweed animal feed (SAF) may pose a threat to the human population due to potentially high levels of As present in seaweed. To address this concern and provide end users, including industry, consumers, policymakers and regulators with information on the exposure associated with As in commercial seaweed animal feed, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of As was calculated to evaluate potential human exposure levels. Using As data from a commercially available seaweed meal over a five-year period (2012–2017) a population exposure assessment was carried out. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to characterise the feed to food transfer of As from animal feed to animal produce such as beef, milk, chicken, and eggs. The model examined initial levels in seaweed, inclusion rate in animal feed, animal feeding rates and potential transfer to food produced from a supplemented diet of SAF. The analysis of seaweed animal feed showed that inorganic As was a small fraction of the total As found in seaweed meal (80:1). Statistical analysis found significant differences in the concentration of As in seaweed animal feed depending on the grain size (p
... This gradation of total As in relation to the group of algae (brown > red > green) has been previously shown in studies conducted on macroalgae from Norwegian waters 6,16,40 as well as on macroalgae collected worldwide. 14,41,42 Levels of iAs in the species studied comprised overall <7% of total As; that is, As present in these macroalgae was found to be mainly in organic forms. Previous studies on As speciation have shown that the most abundant form of this metalloid in macroalgae is organic. ...
Article
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Background: In the past few years, much effort has been invested into developing a new blue economy based on harvesting, cultivating and processing marine macroalgae in Norway. Macroalgae have a high potential for a wide range of applications, e.g. as source of pharmaceuticals, production of biofuels or as food and feed. However, data on the chemical composition of macroalgae from Norwegian waters are scant. This study was designed to characterize the chemical composition of 21 algae species. We analyzed both macro- and micronutrients. We also quantified concentrations of the heavy metals and the metalloid arsenic in the algae. Results: The results confirm that marine macroalgae contain nutrients which are relevant for both human and animal nutrition, the concentrations whereof are highly depending on species. Although heavy metals and arsenic were detected in the algae studied, concentrations were mostly below maximum allowed levels set by the food and feed legislation in the EU. Conclusion: This study provides chemical data on a wide range of algae species covering the three taxonomic groups (brown, red and green algae) and discusses both benefits of and potential limitations to their use for food and feed purposes.
... Dietary exposure to a given chemical from an individual food can be determined by multiplying the concentration of the chemical in the food by the amount of intake. Considering the seaweed consump tion, the percentage of the Zn from the provisional tol erable weekly intake (PTWI) can be calculated based on the information provided by Lee et al. 18 and Hwang et al. 19 . The weekly intake of zinc per body weight for hydrozoans was 1,599 μg/kg body weight, namely 23% against the PTWI value. ...
Article
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The stoloniferous hydrozoan Obelia geniculata frequently colonizes late harvested blade of the aqua-cultured brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. To understand harmful effects of the hydrozoans, we measured the tissue viability, proximate compositions , amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and metal contents of healthy blades, colonized blades, and hydrozoans isolated from the seaweed. Hydrozoans contained high amount of zinc (1.7 g/kg dry weight), which is 23% against the provisional tolerable weekly intake, at levels higher than the recommended range in food. In seaweed blades beneath the colony , after the removal of hydrozoans, levels of seleni-um, iodine, and docosahexaenoic acid increased, while copper, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and eru-cic acid levels decreased compared to healthy tissues. As evaluated for food or fodder, hydrozoans deteriorate the quality of seaweed, thus the epiphyt-ic hydrozoans must be removed from the seaweed blade prior to its use.
... Dietary exposure to a given chemical from an individual food can be determined by multiplying the concentration of the chemical in the food by intake rate. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of As can be calculated using the information provided by Lee et al. (2006) and Hwang et al. (2010). For example, the weekly intake of As from bryozoans per unit body weight = {∑[As concentration in each sample × mean seaweed intake (g person -1 day -1 )] × 7 days}÷reference body weight = [∑(49 mg kg -1 dry weight × 8.5 g person -1 day -1 ) × 7 days]÷(63.3 ...
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The encrusting bryozoan Membranipora mem-branacea frequently colonizes late-harvested blades of the cultured Saccharina japonica. We measured the proxi-mate compositions, amino acid and fatty acid profiles and metal contents of bryozoans, colonized blades and healthy blades. Bryozoans contained high levels of crude ash (657 g kg-1 dry weight) and arsenic (As; 49 mg kg-1 dry weight) contents, exceeding the recommended range for human food, and had relatively low levels of essential amino acids. The content of inorganic As in bryozoans was 31% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for inorganic As established by the World Health Organization. Hence, bryozoans decrease the food and fodder quality of the seaweed product. After removing the bryozoans, we found that the seaweed blade tissues beneath the colonies had elevated levels of potassium, iodine and docosahex-aenoic acid and reduced levels of copper, chromium and cadmium compared to healthy tissues. Thus, lacy crust bryozoans must be removed from the surface of seaweed prior to its use as food or fodder.
... Traditional Medicine has played a key role in meeting the demands of health care in many developing countries and its use has increased worldwide 1 .The terms complementary/alternative/non-conventional medicine are used interchangeably with traditional medicine in some countries" (WHO, 2002) 2 Especially in Tamil Nadu Traditional Siddha System of Medicine played a important role in the health care scenario of the people. Acceptance and awareness of traditional system highly increased 3 . Siddha is an idol health care structure which was given by supernatural beings to the society. ...
... The robust relationships between Hg, As, Cd and Se clearly reflect seafood as a common source (Al-Abed et al., 2008). Intake of fish and coal combustion of a coal-fired power plant in the reference area could be the reason for increased blood As, Cd and Se observed in residents of the reference area (Hwang et al., 2010;Myers et al., 2003;Tang et al., 2013). ...
... The paper by Kang et al., suggests that a new nutraceutical should enter our daily diet, although toxicity of seaweed products has yet to be elucidated (Yokoi and Konomi, 2012;Almela et al., 2006;Hwang et al., 2010). A thorough description of the components with bio-active potential in edible seaweeds, may allow next research to highlight the possible application of edible seaweeds as a source of nutraceutic supplementation for human diet, in order to prevent metabolic syndrome. ...
Article
Iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) exhibited potential health risk owing to the high toxicity. Our recent study demonstrated that I-DBPs from Laminaria japonica (Haidai), the commonly edible seaweed, upon simulated household cooking condition were several hundred times more than the concentration of drinking water. Here, the characterization of Haidai and its leachate tandem with the formation, identification and toxicity of I-DBPs from the cooking of Haidai were systemically investigated. The dominant organic matter in Haidai leachate were polysaccharides, while the highest iodine specie was iodide (∼90% of total iodine). Several unknown I-DBPs generated from the cooking of Haidai were tentatively proposed, of which 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was dominant specie. Following a simulated household cooking with real chloraminated tap water, the presence of Haidai sharply increased aggregate iodinated trihalomethanes, iodinated haloacetic acids, and total organic iodine concentrations to 97.4 ± 7.6 μg/L,16.4 ± 2.1 μg/L, and 0.53 ± 0.06 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the acute toxicity of Haidai soup to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 was around 7.3 times higher than that of tap water in terms of EC50. These results demonstrated that the yield of I-DBPs from the cooking of Haidai and other seaweed should be carefully considered.
Article
Seaweed is an important food source, especially in many Asian countries, because of its high nutritional value; however, increasing arsenic (As) accumulation may pose serious hazards to human health. The influence of food components on As bioaccessibility and transformation in the high As-containing seaweed Hizikia fusiforme was determined using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method. The results showed that co-digestion with several daily foods (such as celery, broccoli, onion, green chili, tomato) produced a higher As bioaccessibility (approximately 6-11 % increase) compared with that of seaweed alone. Vegetables such as fennel (Foeniculum valgare Mill.), celery (Apium grareolens L.), blanched garlic leaves (Allium sativum L.), scallions (Allium fistulosum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), and green pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. vat. grussum Bailey) decreased bioaccessible inorganic As (18-35 %) in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. Meanwhile, the process of reducing As(V) to As(III) also occurred during co-digestion with some food matrices. Egg white and other animal proteins were the most effective reducing agents, transforming >70 % As(V) into As(III) in the solution system. These results may have important implications for health risk assessment via co-consumption. The present study provides the first evidence showing that the co-consumption of some vegetables and proteins leads to a higher toxicity of inorganic arsenic-containing food. In addition, the positive and negative effects of co-digestion on the bioaccessibility of essential metals (iron, manganese) compared to single digestion were evaluated in this study.
Thesis
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In the last 20 years, seaweed production has been increased due to increasing interest in healthier diets as well as the preference for more sustainable food sources. Besides, intensive agriculture requires over exploitation of arable land, over uses of fresh water (also hydroponic cultures) and causes a negative environmental impact through exacerbating climate change. In this context, seaweed cultivation only depends on low economic profile factors that making this more feasible. Many studies has been already reported that algal extracts showed different bioactivity and plenty of biological properties. Nutritional components of these seaweeds may vary according to the species varieties, environmental conditions, geographical place, seasonality and characteristics of the growth medium as well as by the developmental stage. The purpose of this mini review was to assess microbiological and chemical risks associated with edible seaweed uses for human consumption. Few research strings have been used here to search for these risks and preferred reporting items were applied. Finally, 29 articles met the selected criteria. Regarding chemical risks, seaweeds, when cultivated in the polluted area, accumulate heavy metals and trace minerals. For example, after consumption of Iodine (I)-rich products (e.g. dried seaweed), excessive uptake of I has been recognized as a concern for risk groups. Microbial risk depends on various factors (chemical, enzymatic and microbiological alterations) for the quality degradation of seaweed spoilage. Cultivating seaweeds in a controlled environment might minimize such types of risks and periodic checks would be necessary on the finished products to monitor the level of health hazards. Therefore, seaweed quality assessment is the main focus of recent studies. It seems to be urgent that food control authorities should establish the safety levels to edible seaweed products in order to avoid any kind of health hazards after consumption.
Chapter
Edible algae, including seaweeds, are a source of functional food, dietary supplements, metabolites and bioactive compounds. Algal-based functional foods have potential health benefits, and their commercial value depends on their applications in the food and nutraceutical industries. This book covers several aspects of algal-based functional foods. It informs the reader about algal cultivation techniques, environmental impact, habitat, nutraceutical potential, extraction of bioactive metabolites, functional-food composition, bio-prospection, culture-induced nutraceutical compounds, algae-based bio-packaging, algal-biorefinery, toxicity, trends and future prospects. The editors present the topics in a research-oriented format while citing scholarly references. This book is a comprehensive resource for anyone interested in the nutritional benefits and industrial utilization of algae as a sustainable food source.
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The use of seaweed and algal derived products in the food industry has grown rapidly in recent times. Major areas of expansion have been in Western countries where algae derived commodities are being utilised as edible foods or sources of high value ingredients. However, studies focused on potential allergenicity attributed to these food items, prevalence of allergenicity, and public health awareness are limited. Therefore, the current research summarises the existing literature focused on algal induced allergy in humans. Of the available literature, a total of 937 titles were identified, and 33 articles underwent subsequent full-text screening. Most research focused on prevalence and were derived from studies conducted in Europe (58%), North America and Canada (33%), and the remainder Australia and South Korea (9%). No studies addressed the need for public education or labelling of algal products. Our review reports that the available evidence identified points to algal derived products as being potential sources of allergens in the human food chain. Several components have been characterised that are shown to induce allergic responses in humans. Few studies have assessed the prevalence of algal allergenicity in the general population and as such further research is warranted given the increased usage of these products in the food industry.
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The stoloniferous hydrozoan Obelia geniculata frequently colonizes late harvested blade of the aqua-cultured brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. To understand harmful effects of the hydrozoans, we measured the tissue viability, proximate compositions , amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and metal contents of healthy blades, colonized blades, and hydrozoans isolated from the seaweed. Hydrozoans contained high amount of zinc (1.7 g/kg dry weight), which is 23% against the provisional tolerable weekly intake, at levels higher than the recommended range in food. In seaweed blades beneath the colony , after the removal of hydrozoans, levels of seleni-um, iodine, and docosahexaenoic acid increased, while copper, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and eru-cic acid levels decreased compared to healthy tissues. As evaluated for food or fodder, hydrozoans deteriorate the quality of seaweed, thus the epiphyt-ic hydrozoans must be removed from the seaweed blade prior to its use.
Chapter
Some recent studies indicate that seaweeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may have significant roles in health promotion, especially for disease prevention and treatment. Seaweeds remain a relatively untapped resource with a huge potential as edible foods, food ingredients, cosmetics, agrichemicals, fishmeal, biomaterials and bioenergy molecules while having a significant role in the ecosystem and economic revenues. The global production of seaweed has been increasing annually following the demand by the hydrocolloid industry as well as for consumer food products. There must be continuous efforts to increase the productivity, quality and constant supply of seaweeds using the latest eco-friendly farming practices and technology. In addition, seaweeds are also useful in the production of biofuel, owing to their high carbohydrate, nitrogen and sulfur content, which can be converted into biogas, biobutanol or bioethanol. The anti-inflammation property of seaweeds has made them a candidate to treat inflammation-related conditions such as allergy and asthma.
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The Todos os Santos bay (TSB) is the second largest Brazilian bay. Despite the large number of potential anthropogenic sources of mercury (Hg) in the bay, data on this element in this marine environment are very scarce. Total Hg concentrations were therefore determined in sediment, macroalgae, and seagrass species collected during dry and rainy seasons, from eight locations. In ~45 % of the sediment samples, Hg concentration was two to four times higher than the upper value considered the regional Hg background (15 μg kg−1). Geoaccumulation index indicated that Hg contamination was at none to heavily contaminated. In Padina sp., Caulerpa sp., Hypnea sp., and Halodule wrigthii, Hg concentrations ranged from 10.61–297.61, 15.59–74.50, 12.84–158.03, and 4.02–67.25 μg kg−1, respectively.
Article
Efforts have been made to prove the safety of the traditional Siddha medicine, Kasha Gulanthaga Mathirai. Effects of Kasha Gulanthaga Mathirai in model organisms were not reported till date. This paper appraises a detail study of physio-chemical properties, phytochemical constituents and heavy metal contents of the selected drug [KGM]. The ICPOES reveals that the main metals present in the tablet are Mercury and Arsenic. HRSEM analysis has been used to study particle size shape and distribution. The acute and long term toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss albino mice and Wister albino rats as per WHO guidelines. Histo pathological studies, hematological and biochemical parameters were done to find out any metal toxicity. Toxicity studies reveal the dose mentioned in siddha text kundriyalavu (130mg) is the safety dose for human consumption.
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Traditional food resources of indigenous peoples are now recognized as containing a variety of environmental contaminants which reach food species through local or long-range transport avenues. In this chapter we review the published reports of contaminants contained in traditional food in northern North America and Europe as organochlorines, heavy metals, and radionuclides. Usually, multiple contaminants are contained in the same food species. Measurement of dietary exposure to these environmental contaminants is reviewed, as are major issues of risk assessment, evaluation, and management. The dilemma faced by indigenous peoples in weighing the multiple nutritional and socioeconomic benefits of traditional food use against risk of contaminants in culturally important food resources is described.
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The elemental uptake by edible seaweed Caulerpa racemosa (Sea grapes), a marine macroalgae (chlorophyta, green alga) grown richly along KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The total concentrations of seven elements, namely Mn, Fe, As, B, Ti, Zn and Hg in Caulerpa racemosa were monitored for a one-year cycle (June 2002 to May 2003) at four selected sampling sites spread over 150 km wide from North to South. The C. racemosa possess high arsenic, boron and titanium accumulating ability, but low iron uptake. A typical C. racemosa sample at Treasure Beach in the vicinity of Durban Metropolis in autumn contained Mn (5.2+/-ppm), Fe (0.21+/-0.01 ppm), As (8.5+/-0. ppm), B (1090+/-ppb), Ti (159+/-ppb), Zn (3.8+/-0.1 ppb), and Hg (189+/-ppb). The general trend found at all sites was high elemental concentrations in winter and a decrease in concentrations from winter to spring and summer. C. racemosa recorded highest mercury levels (>205 ppb) during the summer season at the Zinkwasi site. The arsenic speciation in four abundant seaweeds from the beaches of Indian Ocean in the KwaZulu-Natal coast is investigated. The speciation of arsenic in two rhodophyta seaweeds, Plocamium corallorhiza and Gelidium abbottiorum, and two chlorophyta seaweeds, Ulva lactuca and Caulerpa racemosa at four sampling sites during the summer of 2003, is elucidated. Caulerpa racemosa had highest total arsenic (in ppb) reaching (8850+/-200) at Zinkwasi, and the concentrations of the other arsenic species analysed are As (III) (194+/-10), As(V) (568+/-27), methylarsonic acid (494+/-22) and dimethylarsinic acid (373+/-12). In an indirect estimation, C. racemosa had 81+/-2% aresenosugars.
Article
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This study has measured the content of total and inorganic forms of arsenic in seaweed available on retail sale for consumption, to provide data for dietary exposure estimates and to support advice to consumers. A total of 31 samples covering five varieties of seaweed were collected from various retail outlets across London and the internet. All of the samples were purchased as dried product. For four of the five varieties, soaking was advised prior to consumption. The recommended method of preparation for each individual sample was followed, and total and inorganic arsenic were analysed both before and after preparation. The arsenic remaining in the water used for soaking was also measured. Arsenic was detected in all samples with total arsenic at concentrations ranging from 18 to 124 mg/kg. Inorganic arsenic, which can cause liver cancer, was only found in the nine samples of hijiki seaweed that were analysed, at concentrations in the range 67-96 mg/kg. Other types of seaweed were all found to contain less than 0.3mg/kg inorganic arsenic, which was the limit of detection for the method used. Since consumption of hijiki seaweed could significantly increase dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic, the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued advice to consumers to avoid eating it.
Article
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Samples of four different species of seaweed were collected monthly between October 2000 and March 2001 from the coast of the Strait of Magellan, Chile to establish baseline levels of trace metals (silver, total mercury, nickel, lead, antimony, vanadium and zinc) and to compare the accumulation capacity among species. The algae included in the study were Adenocystis utricularis (n=15); Enteromorpha sp. (n=11), Mazzaella laminarioides (n=12) and Porphyra columbina (n=6). The concentration range of each metal in microg g(-1) dry weight varied as follows: Ag=ND-0.3, Hg=ND-0.02, Ni=ND-12.6, Pb = ND-11.2, Sb=ND-1.97, V=ND-11.34 and Zn=14.10-79. Results showed that levels of Ag, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn for all species were similar to those found in other studies for non-contaminated areas with very little influence from anthropogenic activity. Also among the four species studied macroalgae Enteromorpha sp. had the highest capacity for metal accumulation and could therefore be considered as a biomonitor for future studies in the area.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the inorganic elements in 8 commercial algae foods using INAA and ICP-AES methods. The results showed that the Na, Cl, and Al concentrations in green algae food are 1.5∼7 times less than those in Spirulina food. Other heavy metal contents, including As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Ni, were all within the allowed daily intake levels. The Spirulina food samples were found to contain more than 1 μg/g of As, which is the limitation level for green algae food samples, and one contained 15 μg/g of Pb. Since the concentrations of the inorganic elements in this study were not found to exceed the present regulation levels, they can be considered as safe food.
Article
This paper reports that the heavy metal accumulation in marine seaweeds. Algal samples collected from Korean coast were analyzed to determine the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Pb. In general, heavy metals were found to be concentrated in many kinds of Korean seaweeds. The concentration levels of accumulated heavy metals in the marine seaweeds was in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the seawater were the highest in Iyajin harbor. Sargassum horneri, a brown alga accumulated high concentrations of Cu (80.66 dw) and Cr (31.54 dw). The high concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the brown algae.
Article
To assure the safety of the major edible seaweeds, we collected the 176 samples of seaweeds such as laver(Porphyra sp.), sea mustard (Undaria pinnatifida), sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) and sea lettuce (Enter-omorph sp.) from Korean coast. We investigated the contents of the trace metals in the edible seaweeds, and the values were expressed as the dry weight of sea weeds. The mean levels of the trace metals were high in the oder of Zn (), Mn (), and Cu (), which are necessary metals in the human body, and then followed by Cr (), Ni (), Pb (), Cd () and Hg (). The contents of Cd and Zn were high in the laver, Cr, Ni and Pb were detected highly in sea lettuce, and Hg was detected highly in sea tangle. Significant linear correlations were obtained among 28 different pairs of metals, some of them highly correlated (r>0.5, p
Article
Seaweeds, which have traditionally been used by the Western food industry for their polysaccharide extractives — alginate, carrageenan and agar — also contain compounds with potential nutritional benefits. Seaweeds have recently been approved in France for human consumption (as vegetables and condiments), thus opening new opportunities for the food industry. These seaweed ingredients must meet industrial and technical specifications and consumer safety regulations. This paper is a short review of biochemical and nutritional aspects associated with the use of seaweeds in food products.
Article
ThreeSpirulina and five eukaryotic algal food products available in the Spanish market have been extensively studied. Results are given for their gross chemical composition (water content, crude protein, total carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids etc.) and contents of macrominerals, trace elements, fatty acids, amino acids and neutral sugars. The results are compared to those from other studies on natural or laboratory-produced populations. An overall nutritional and toxicological evaluation of these products is included.
Article
Concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum are examined in brown algae, Fucus serratus and F. vesiculosus, from Cardigan Bay, Irish Sea, Great Britain. In both species a seasonal variation in metal content was observed. Zinc, cadmium, copper, iron nickel and cobalt concentrations were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn, probably reflecting levels of metabolic activity and climatic factors. All the studied elements, except nickel, reached highest concentrations in harbour specimens from Aberystwyth and Aberaeron where rivers draining mineralized areas enter the sea. Outside harbours, marked regional variations were observed in most of the studied elements. Zinc values were highest in the Aberystwyth area while copper and manganese were highest in the northeast part of the bay.Trace-element concentrations varied among different species from the same locality and also varied according to position on the shore.Marine algae may be used to monitor coastal-water trace-metal concentrations, provided a careful sampling procedure is adopted.
Article
Element levels in three seaweed species (Fucus vesiculosus, F. distichus and Ascophyllum nodosum) from different sampling sites in a West Greenland fjord system were determined during a three year period. The elements studied were Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Na, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cs and Ce. The variability of element concentrations showed a complicated pattern. Differences between both species and localities were found for most elements. Species differences were found to depend on the locality. In most cases where differences between seaweed species were found, concentrations were lower in A. nodosum than in F. vesiculosus which in turn were lower than in F. distichus. At the outer part of the fjord system concentrations of Na, Br and Cd were considerably higher than in the inner part while concentrations of Ca, Fe, Co, Ce, Sr, Sc and Cu were lower. Pb and Zn concentrations show no consistent geographical pattern. The results from a principal component analysis were difficult to interpret. The possible underlying factors controlling the variability of element concentrations are poorly understood. The influence of seawater on the fjord system and variations in run-off from rivers may account for a significant part of the variability seen for many elements. The concentrations of most of the elements, especially the heavy metals, were relatively low compared to other areas in Europe and North America.
Article
2nd Ed Bibliogr. na konci kapitol
Article
The concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Ag were determined in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and intertidal surface sediments from coastal locations of northeast England. Levels of heavy metals similar to those of polluted areas of the British coastline were detected. There is evidence of contamination (especially with Zn and Pb) in sediments from sites affected by colliery spoil and from the Wear estuary. The pelitic fraction ( < 63 microm) is usually more enriched in heavy metals, but it represents a very small percentage of the bulk samples. The fine-grained sand is a very important repository of contaminants especially where particles of colliery spoil, secondary mineral, and amorphous phases are present. Aqua regia-extracted Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments are significantly correlated with those in seaweed. Despite the closure of all base metal and coal mines, and the cessation of many industrial activities in the region, sediments and brown algae are contaminated with heavy metals. The control site (Holy Island) and the Tees estuary appear to be the least affected.
Article
The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, < 0.05-1.33; cadmium, 0.03-1.9; and mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.
Article
The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea.
Article
The estimation of the risk associated with dietary intakes of heavy metals and pesticide residues by the consumer is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The exposure of the consumer is compared directly to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pesticides and to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for heavy metals. The exposure is obtained using the basic equation: Exposure (mg/kg b.w./day)=Consumption (mg/kg b.w./day) x Residue (mg/kg). The establishment of the ADI and the TDI is based on the results of toxicological studies that involve the determination of the lowest-no-observed-adverse-effect level/10 (SF1) x10 (SF2), where SF corresponds to 'Safety Factor'. SF1 and SF2 account for interspecies and intraspecies variability, respectively. In order to evaluate the risk for the consumer, that is associated to the presence of heavy metals and pesticides in food, a review of the level of contamination in European countries has been made. The exposure of European consumers to lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury is superior to the TDI. For pesticides, the first step is to compare the detected amount of residues of a specific pesticide to the maximum residue level (MRL) authorized in foodstuffs. If the residue level in food exceeds the MRL, the theoretical maximum daily intakes and the ADI have to be taken into account in order to assess the risk for the consumer.
Article
Three common Chinese edible seaweeds, one brown (Laminaria japonica) and two red (Porphyra crispata and Eucheuma denticulatum), were examined for their total arsenic content. The As species were extracted with yields of 76.4, 69.8 and 25.0%, respectively. Anion-exchange and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the separation of the different arsenic species in two of the three seaweed extracts (Laminaria and Porphyra). The main arsenic species in the algal extracts are arseno sugars, although it has been shown that the Laminaria seaweed contains significant amounts of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). HPLC was coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for structural confirmation of the arsenic species. The mass spectrometer settings for the arseno sugars were optimised using standards. The conclusions drawn on the basis of HPLC-ICP-MS were confirmed by the HPLC-ES-MS data. The HPLC-ES-MS method is capable of determining both arseno sugars and DMA in the seaweeds. The unknown compounds seen in the HPLC-ICP-MS chromatogram of Laminaria could not be ascribed to trimethylarsenic oxide or tetramethylarsonium ion.
Article
Total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead and cadmium contents were determined in 112 samples of seaweed preparations sold in Spain (seaweed packed in plastic or cardboard box, seaweed in the form of tablets and concentrates, foods containing seaweed, and canned seaweed). The concentration ranges found, expressed in mg/kg, dry weight, were: total As (0.031-149), inorganic As (<0.014-117), Pb (<0.050-12.1) and Cd (<0.003-3.55). For all the contaminants there were failures to comply with legislated values. In particular, all the samples of Hizikia fusiforme exceeded the inorganic As limit established in some countries, and a considerable number of species exceeded the Cd limit set by international regulations. With respect to food safety, consumption of 3 g/day of the samples analysed could represent up to 15% of the respective Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI) established by the WHO. The situation is especially alarming for intake of inorganic As from H. fusiforme, which can be three times the TDI established.
Article
A new, simple, fast and automated method based on acetic acid-pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of major and trace elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn) from edible seaweeds. The target elements have been simultaneously determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The influence of several extraction parameters (e.g. acetic acid concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time, pressure, number of cycles, particle size and diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio) on the efficiency of metal leaching has been evaluated. The results showed that metal extraction efficiency depends on the mass ratio of the dispersing agent mass and the sample. The optimized procedure consisted of the following conditions: acetic acid (0.75 M) as an extracting solution, 5 min of extraction time, one extraction cycle at room temperature at a pressure of 10.3 MPa and addition of a dispersing agent (at a ratio of 5:1 over the sample mass). The leaching procedure was completed after 7 min (5 min extraction time plus 1 min purge time plus 1 min end relief time). Limits of detection and quantification and repeatability of the over all procedure have been assessed. Method validation was performed analysing two seaweed reference materials (NIES-03 Chlorella Kessleri and NIES-09 Sargasso). The developed extraction method has been applied to red (Dulse and Nori), green (Sea Lettuce) and brown (Kombu, Wakame and Sea Spaghetti) edible seaweeds.
Article
The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).
Article
The concentrations of three heavy metals chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were examined in water, sediment and green algae (Ulva lactuca); collected from six different stations at Pulicat Lake, which receives effluents from industries located in North Chennai Coastal region. Concentrations of Cd (64.21 microg g(-1)) and Cr (28.51 microg g(-1)) were found to be high in sediment, whereas in green algae concentration of Pb (8.32 microg g(-1)) was higher than water and sediment samples. The relative abundance of these heavy metals in U. lactuca and sediment were found to be in the order Cd>Cr>Pb, whereas in water the ratio was found to be Cr>Pb>Cd. The seasonal variations in Cd and Pb followed a similar pattern in both seaweeds and sediments, but not in water samples. Spearman correlation coefficient study showed no significant correlation in the concentration of metals in U. lactuca, water and sediment samples.
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Contents of lead, mercury, and cadmium in seaweeds collected in coastal area of Korea
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Hwang YO, Kim MS, Park SG, Kim SJ. 2007. Contents of lead, mercury, and cadmium in seaweeds collected in coastal area of Korea. Anal Sci Tech. 20:227–236.
The monitoring of heavy metals in food – heavy metal contents in fishes
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Urgent COT opinion on arsenic in seaweed Available from: http://www.food.gov.uk/ multimedia/pdfs/TOX-2004-35 Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products
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Studies on the contents of mercury, cadmium, lead, and copper in edible seaweeds in Korea
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Heavy metal concentration of marine algae in Su-Young bay
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