Rapid Spread and Diversification of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Genotype ON1, Kenya

Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 05/2014; 20(6). DOI: 10.3201/eid2006.131438
Source: PubMed


Respiratory syncytial virus genotype ON1, which is characterized by a 72-nt duplication in the attachment protein gene, has been detected in >10 countries since first identified in Ontario, Canada, in 2010. We describe 2 waves of genotype ON1 infections among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya during 2012. Phylogenetic analysis of attachment protein gene sequences showed multiple introductions of genotype ON1; variants distinct from the original Canadian viruses predominated in both infection waves. The genotype ON1 dominated over the other group A genotypes during the second wave, and some first wave ON1 variants reappeared in the second wave. An analysis of global genotype ON1 sequences determined that this genotype has become considerably diversified and has acquired signature coding mutations within immunogenic regions, and its most recent common ancestor dates to ≈2008–2009. Surveillance of genotype ON1 contributes to an understanding of the mechanisms of rapid emergence of respiratory viruses.

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Available from: Patricia Cane, Jun 10, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe respiratory disease in adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. RSV subgroups A and B have evolved into multiple genotypes. We report on a recently described RSV genotype (ON1) in a cohort of adult HCT recipients in Texas. Methods: Twenty adult HCT recipients were enrolled as a part of an efficacy trial of ribavirin therapy. RSV identification and genotyping was performed using molecular techniques. RSV-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were measured. Results: ON1 genotype was detected in 3 of 6 patients in the 2011-2012 season and in 8 of 14 patients in 2012-2013 season. Other genotypes detected were NA1 and BA. NAb levels were low at enrollment. Eight of 9 patients who cleared the RSV infection within 2 weeks mounted a ≥4-fold NAb response, compared with 2 of 8 who shed the virus for >2 weeks. The clinical course of those infected with ON1 was comparable to the course for individuals infected with other genotypes. Conclusion: This is the first report of RSV ON1 genotype in the United States, and ON1 genotype was dominant genotype in adult HCT recipients. Interestingly, faster viral clearance was associated with a ≥4-fold NAb response, likely indicating a reconstituted immune system.
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    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Infection Genetics and Evolution
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