Article

Antiviral efficacy and mechanisms of action of oregano essential oil and its primary component carvacrol against murine norovirus

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

To investigate the antiviral efficacy of oregano oil and its primary active component, carvacrol, against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. Along with an observed loss in cell culture infectivity, the antiviral mechanisms of action were determined in side-by-side experiments including a cell-binding assay, an RNase I protection assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both antimicrobials produced statistically significant reductions (P ≤ 0·05) in virus infectivity within 15 min of exposure (c. 1·0-log10 ). Despite this, the MNV infectivity remained stable with increasing time exposure to oregano oil (1·07-log10 after 24 h), while carvacrol was far more effective, producing up to 3·87-log10 reductions within 1 h. Based on the RNase I protection assay, both antimicrobials appeared to act directly upon the virus capsid and subsequently the RNA. Under TEM, the capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm in diameter to up to 75 nm following treatment with oregano oil and up to 800 nm with carvacrol; with greater expansion, capsid disintegration could be observed. Virus adsorption to host cells did not appear to be affected by either antimicrobial. Our results demonstrate that carvacrol is effective in inactivating MNV within 1 h of exposure by acting directly on the viral capsid and subsequently the RNA. This study provides novel findings on the antiviral properties of oregano oil and carvacrol against MNV and demonstrates the potential of carvacrol as a natural food and surface (fomite) sanitizer to control human norovirus.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... isatidis granula have been proposed for use against COVID-19 in the PRC (Zhang et al. 2020a)-the latter two herbal drugs had also been used during the SARS outbreak in 2003 with effective results as anti-viral, and antiinflammatory compounds, as well as being an immune regulator (Cui et al., 2020;Huang et al., 2020aHuang et al., , 2020b. Table 2 summarizes all the potential herbal oils that may serve as a treatment for COVID-19 (Becker, 2020;Burja et al., 2019;Carson et al., 2006;Chambial et al., 2013;Cherayil, 2011;Gilling et al., 2014;Hemilä and Chalker, 2020;Marshall, 2018;Roller et al., 2009;United States Food and Drug Administration, 2020;Wińska et al., 2019). ...
... Eucalyptus oil has been shown in laboratory studies to inhibit certain viruses, including HSV-1, influenza A (H1N1), and the mumps virus (Gilling et al., 2014). Inhaling eucalyptus oil vapors is a common home remedy for colds and sinus infections. ...
... Lavender oil has been shown in laboratory studies to inhibit bacteria known to cause respiratory infections, and the virus HSV-1. However, there are no clinical studies showing lavender oil to prevent or treat respiratory infections (Carson et al., 2006;Gilling et al., 2014). Oregano oil has been shown in laboratory studies to have antibacterial and antiviral effects (Becker, 2020). ...
Article
Background In late December 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2, originated in Wuhan Province, the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The rapid and highly infectious virus quickly spread around the country and has become a global pandemic. Thousands of people have been infected, and have died. Scientists around the world are working on the vaccine; however, an effective cure is yet to be developed. Aims Search to be made on some alternative antiviral components from the rich sources of traditional herbal medicine in India as well as in the PRC. Here we discuss them with references. Methods The knowledge gained from the literature search of antiviral known herbal products or Ayurvedic medicines that used to be applied against any viral or bacterial infections in the past, may be considered for deployment against COVID-19, and may be rewarded. Results Many medicinal compounds are extracted from plants and have led to drug discovery. Similarly, plant products and their analogues have been employed as an early line of defense against COVID-19. Conclusion Research into ethnobotany, phytochemistry, plant physiology and ecology may be important in protecting the global population from current and future pandemics.
... In the studies conducted by Gilling et al. [53,54], the influence and mechanisms of the antiviral activity of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, citrus oil (specifically, citral), oregano oil and its main active metabolite, carvacrol, against murine norovirus (MNV) were analyzed. As part of the research, tests were carried out on the infectivity of cell cultures, protection against RNase I, binding to receptors within the host cells, and imaging in a TEM microscope was performed [53,54]. ...
... In the studies conducted by Gilling et al. [53,54], the influence and mechanisms of the antiviral activity of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, citrus oil (specifically, citral), oregano oil and its main active metabolite, carvacrol, against murine norovirus (MNV) were analyzed. As part of the research, tests were carried out on the infectivity of cell cultures, protection against RNase I, binding to receptors within the host cells, and imaging in a TEM microscope was performed [53,54]. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the effectiveness of active phytochemicals varies greatly depending on the type of virus. ...
... In the case of MNV, the results obtained by Gilling et al. [54] suggest that, as lemongrass oil and citral bind to the viral capsid, they most likely deactivate the virus by inducing conformational changes in the capsid proteins. The magnification of the viral particles, as seen in the TEM images, indicates that oregano oil and carvacrol affect the complete loss of the integrity of the capsid [53]. Various types of structural changes within the FCV capsid, and deformations of NoV (HuNoV GII.4) and MNV-1 particles, were also found after the application of cranberry juice and grape seed extract [55,60,61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human noroviruses, which belong to the enterovirus family, are one of the most common etiological agents of food-borne diseases. In recent years, intensive research has been carried out regarding the antiviral activity of plant metabolites that could be used for the preservation of fresh food, because they are safer for consumption when compared to synthetic chemicals. Plant preparations with proven antimicrobial activity differ in their chemical compositions, which significantly affects their biological activity. Our review aimed to present the results of research related to the characteristics, applicability, and mechanisms of the action of various plant-based preparations and metabolites against norovirus. New strategies to combat intestinal viruses are necessary, not only to ensure food safety and reduce infections in humans but also to lower the direct health costs associated with them.
... Murine norovirus type 1 MNV-1 infects mice and is virulent, especially in immunocompromised mice. MNV-1 is used as a surrogate to study the biological and physiological behavior of noroviruses [138][139][140]. In three different in vitro experiments, oregano oil, carvacrol [138], allspice oil, lemongrass oil-1, and citral [139] as well as Artemisia oil-2 (s. ...
... MNV-1 is used as a surrogate to study the biological and physiological behavior of noroviruses [138][139][140]. In three different in vitro experiments, oregano oil, carvacrol [138], allspice oil, lemongrass oil-1, and citral [139] as well as Artemisia oil-2 (s. Table 4S, Supporting Information) and α-thujone [140] were evaluated for their anti-MNV-1 effects in RAW 264.7 cells. ...
... RNase I protection assays and TEM analyses showed that carvacrol acted directly on the virion capsid and the RNA. Interestingly, after carvacrol treatment, the protein capsids enlarged from about 35 nm in diameter to 800 nm [138]. ...
Article
Essential oils and isolated essential oil compounds are known to exert various pharmacological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and wound healing effects. Based on selected articles, this review deals with the potential antiviral and virucidal activities of essential oils and essential oil compounds together with their mechanism of action as well as in silico studies involving viral and host cell-specific target molecules that are indispensable for virus cell adsorption, penetration, and replication. The reported in vitro and in vivo studies highlight the baseline data about the latest findings of essential oils and essential oil compounds antiviral and virucidal effects on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, taking into account available biochemical and molecular biological tests. The results of many in vitro studies revealed that several essential oils and essential oil compounds from different medicinal and aromatic plants are potent antiviral and virucidal agents that inhibit viral progeny by blocking different steps of the viral infection/replication cycle of DNA and RNA viruses in various host cell lines. Studies in mice infected with viruses causing respiratory diseases showed that different essential oils and essential oil compounds were able to prolong the life of infected animals, reduce virus titers in brain and lung tissues, and significantly inhibit the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, some in vitro studies on hydrophilic nano-delivery systems encapsulating essential oils/essential oil compounds exhibited a promising way to improve the chemical stability and enhance the water solubility, bioavailabilty, and antiviral efficacy of essential oils and essential oil compounds.
... As an alternative to more corrosive disinfectants, carvacrol was suggested as disinfectant of fomites (Gilling et al., 2014), and as virucidal agent in the decontamination of wash waters and vegetables in the vegetable industry . At an initial titer of 6-7 log 10 PFU/ml, a 3.85 log 10 reduction in feline calicivirus F9 was achieved when 0.5% carvacrol was used to decontaminate lettuce wash water, and this regardless of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) . ...
... Pilau et al. (2011) demonstrated that carvacrol was also effective against human rotavirus. Gilling et al. (2014) monitored the effect of carvacrol on MNV-1 under an electron microscope. The capsids of MNV-1 were substantially expanded in size, from ≤35 nm up to 800 nm in diameter. ...
... Inactivation of nonenveloped viruses is mainly due to essential oils (or an ingredient) affecting the viral capsid, but without irreversible binding to it. The antimicrobial might bind to the capsid or block epitopes required for virus adsorption to the host cells, or cause a conformational change in the capsid (Cliver, 2009;Gilling et al., 2014). ...
Article
Food‐ and waterborne viruses, such as human norovirus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, are major contributors to all foodborne illnesses. Their small size, structure, and ability to clump and attach to inanimate surfaces make viruses challenging to reduce or eliminate, especially in the presence of inorganic or organic soils. Besides traditional wet and dry methods of disinfection using chemicals and heat, emerging physical nonthermal decontamination techniques (irradiation, ultraviolet, pulsed light, high hydrostatic pressure, cold atmospheric plasma, and pulsed electric field), novel virucidal surfaces, and bioactive compounds are examined for their potential to inactivate viruses on the surfaces of foods or food contact surfaces (tools, equipment, hands, etc.). Every disinfection technique is discussed based on its efficiency against viruses, specific advantages and disadvantages, and limitations. Structure, genomic organization, and molecular biology of different virus strains are reviewed, as they are key in determining these techniques effectiveness in controlling all or specific foodborne viruses. Selecting suitable viral decontamination techniques requires that their antiviral mechanism of action and ability to reduce virus infectivity must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, details about critical treatments parameters essential to control foodborne viruses in a food production environment are discussed, as they are also determinative in defining best disinfection and hygiene practices preventing viral infection after consuming a food product.
... There have been studies on the possible use of natural products to treat or prevent infections by various virus species (for review [396][397][398][399]). For example, studies have shown the anti-viral effects of carvacrol on murine norovirus [400], the effects of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, terpinene-4-ol, α-terpineol, thymol, citral, and 1,8-cineole on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) [401,402] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [403]. As SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same coronavirus family as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, sharing almost 80% and 50% genomic homology with them, respectively [402], it is reasonable to focus on the results of the studies on SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV as well as in silico studies on SARS-CoV-2. ...
... Anti-viral: [411,423] Luteolin Anti-viral: COV2 by binding affinity to 3CL pro [421]; to 3pro and ACE2 [422] Cinnamon (Cinnamomum) Camphor: 60% in root bark [426] Anti-inflammation [278,296] Cinnamaldehyde: 65%-80% in bark [426] Anti-viral: [408] Z-Cinnamyl acetate: 42%-54% in fruit [426]; 11.85% in Cinnamomum verum oil [427] Anti-viral: [408] E-Cinnamyl acetate: 41.98% in flowers of Ceylon cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum [426]; 11.78% in Cinnamomum verum oil [427] Anti-viral: [408] Eugenol:70%~95% in leaves [428], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [426] Anti-inflammation [296,[346][347][348] Linalool: 16 Anti-inflammation [296,[346][347][348] Eugenyl acetate: 10.79% [433], 1.2% in leaf [429], 20.54% and 8.7% in bud from Java and Manado, Indonesia, respectively [431] Anti-inflammation [348] α -Humulene: 2.1% in leaf [429], 2.75% and 1.53% in bud from Java and Manado, Indonesia, respectively [431] Anti-inflammation [276,278,360] Copaiba (Copaifera) ß-Caryophyllene: 24.9% in oil [434], 21.7% in oil [435] Anti-inflammation [16,278,319] Anti-inflammation [11,238,241,261,262,265,267,291,400] p-Cymene: 42.1% in leaf and 30.0% in fruit [438] Anti-inflammation [322,328] Limonene: 5.5% in leaf and none in fruit [438], 1.33% in E. lehmani leaves and 3.32% in E. sideroxylon leaves [300], from 0% to 28% depending on the species and location [439] Anti-inflammation [275,278,297] α-Pheliandrene: from 0% to 20.1% depending on the species and location [439] Anti-inflammation [278] α-Pinene: 12.7% in leaf and 9.0% in fruit [438], from 1.27% to 26.35% in 7 Eucalyptus species' leaves with highest in E. lehmani [300], from 0% to 52.7% depending on the species and location [439] Anti-inflammation [278,337] Spathulenol: 3.2% in leaf and none in fruit [438], 1.15% in E. astrengens leaves [300], from 0% to 41.5% depending on the species and location [439] Anti-inflammation [387] γ -Terpinene: none in leaf and 5.1% in fruit [438], from 0% to 29.2% depending on the species and location [439] Anti-inflammation [278,360,386] Geranium (Pelargonium) ß -bourbonene: 2.7% in oil from Tajikistan [440] -Caryophyllene oxide: 3.7% in oil from Tajikistan [440] Allergen [441] Citronellol: 37.5% in oil from Tajikistan [440] Anti-inflammation [275,278,290,291] Anti-viral: Down-regulated expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, Geraniol: 6.0% in oil from Tajikistan [440] Anti-inflammation [275,278,290,291] Anti-viral: [408] Geranyl formate: 2.0% in oil from Tajikistan [440] Linalool: 3.0% in oil from Tajikistan [440] Anti-inflammation [19][20][21][22]275,278,290,296,297] Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) 6-Gingerol: (23%-25%) [442] Other chemical constituents: 10-gengerol, 6-shogaol, α-Terpinene, α-Terpineol, 4-Terpineol, Terpinolene, γ-Terpinolene, Cineole, Nerol, Borneol, Citronellol, Geraniol, Linalool, Camphor, Neral ...
Article
Full-text available
The year 2020 became the year of the outbreak of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which escalated into a worldwide pandemic and continued into 2021. One of the unique symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, is the loss of chemical senses, i.e., smell and taste. Smell training is one of the methods used in facilitating recovery of the olfactory sense, and it uses essential oils of lemon, rose, clove, and eucalyptus. These essential oils were not selected based on their chemical constituents. Although scientific studies have shown that they improve recovery, there may be better combinations for facilitating recovery. Many phytochemicals have bioactive properties with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. In this review, we describe the chemical compounds with anti- inflammatory and anti-viral effects, and we list the plants that contain these chemical compounds. We expand the review from terpenes to the less volatile flavonoids in order to propose a combination of essential oils and diets that can be used to develop a new taste training method, as there has been no taste training so far. Finally, we discuss the possible use of these in clinical settings.
... Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.): Oregano is a popular herb (Family Lamiaceae) with impressive medicinal qualities owing to the presence of carvacrol, is a potential candidate for antiviral therapy. In vitro studies demonstrated thatthe activity of murine norovirus (MNV: highly contagious being responsible to cause of human stomach flu) has been reduced by the application of oregano oil with carvacrol (Gilling, et al, 2014).MNV shows a molecular similarity to human noro-virus and has been used as alternate models to reportits mechanism of action and molecular structures because human norovirus is extremely difficult to culture in laboratories (www.cdc.gov). Oregano oil is of immense medicinal value and its active constituent, carvacrol is reported to exhibit antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1); rotavirus (a common causal organism of diarrhoea in infants and children); and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes respiratory infections (Pilau et al., 2011;Sharifi-Rad et al, 2017). ...
... These two compounds are powerful antibacterial and antifungal in mode of action. Carvacrol reduces infections from several viruses, as well as allergies, tumors, parasitic infections and has been an ant-inflammatory photochemical (Gilling et al, 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Curtain Raiser on Natural Supplements Being Targeted Choice of Surveillance As Potential Anti-Viral Drugs : Neutraceutical Supplementations Vis-à-Vis Immune Boosters
... Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.): Oregano is a popular herb (Family Lamiaceae) with impressive medicinal qualities owing to the presence of carvacrol, is a potential candidate for antiviral therapy. In vitro studies demonstrated thatthe activity of murine norovirus (MNV: highly contagious being responsible to cause of human stomach flu) has been reduced by the application of oregano oil with carvacrol (Gilling, et al, 2014).MNV shows a molecular similarity to human noro-virus and has been used as alternate models to reportits mechanism of action and molecular structures because human norovirus is extremely difficult to culture in laboratories (www.cdc.gov). Oregano oil is of immense medicinal value and its active constituent, carvacrol is reported to exhibit antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1); rotavirus (a common causal organism of diarrhoea in infants and children); and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes respiratory infections (Pilau et al., 2011;Sharifi-Rad et al, 2017). ...
... These two compounds are powerful antibacterial and antifungal in mode of action. Carvacrol reduces infections from several viruses, as well as allergies, tumors, parasitic infections and has been an ant-inflammatory photochemical (Gilling et al, 2014). ...
Book
Plants are a fascinating group of plants that have been dominating the earth for 400 million years. During evolution, they have undergone series of evolutionary changes to suit themselves with the surrounding environment. These evolutionary changes not only included morphological changes to suit varied climatic conditions but also armed with intricate physiological changes to synchronize with the former and fortify better adaptability. These physiological changes of the plant later proved to be of immense help to the humans who evolved much later somewhere between 6 million to 2 million years ago. The physiological and biochemical evolution of the plants with the synchronous origin of various taxa resulted in the formation of numerous biochemical pathways producing a large number of secondary metabolites whose one primary aim is to protect the plants from herbivores and insect which in the due course of evolution became an integral part of the food chain. However, the secondary metabolites also proved to be of immense use to humans since antiquity who unknowingly since prehistoric times used plants for their food and medicine. It is only in the past hundred years or so, people became aware of the chemical constituent of the plants and started exploring their various beneficial properties. The agricultural activities also coevolved with human civilization and with the increase in population, higher yield along with protection of crops from pathogen attack became a necessity. This lead to the formulation of fertilizers which consequently paved the way for biofertilizers with a fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. With the advent of industrialization the menace of pollution cropped up and presently this pollution is encroaching soil water and air. This is having a deleterious effect on the ecosystem concerning human and animal health and also agricultural productivity. Thus keeping this in mind the scientific community was determined to remediate the polluted sites with the help of biological agents in which the plants and microbes played an important role. This provided major protection to agriculture from contamination thereby sustaining productivity. Thus, an attempt is made to highlight the progress and advances in the field of agriculture and plant science. Thus A handbook of Agricultural and Plant Sciences is an attempt to compile information related to the field of agriculture and plant science. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into three sections namely agriculture and sustainable development, plants and microbes as nutraceutical agents, and medicinal potential of plants. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with various aspects through which crops can be fortified through bio fertilization and also decontamination of polluted lands. The world population is presently stressing upon consumption of foods from natural sources as consumption of fast food with artificial agents is leading to the onset of several diseases. This has led to a group of foods that confers nutrition as well as a medicinal benefit at the same time. They are presently termed and considered nutraceuticals. The second section of the book deals with the nutraceutical potential of plants and microbes which are symbiotically associated with plants. The third section is also related to the second one concerning the medicinal importance. This section encompasses the medicinal importance of plants. Plants as antiviral agents have been accommodated because of the current pandemic situation. The section also contains a chapter on the ant diabetic potential of plants and also the medicinal importance of gymnosperms and bioactive potentials of bryophytes which adds up to the variation in chapters focusing on the medicinal aspect. The book is also accompanied by several tables within each chapter which gives a clear and systematic description of the theme that is discussed upon. The book is an academic venture and would benefit the scientific community and readers who are interested in the field of plant sciences.
... Antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been previously evaluated for both bacteria and viruses (33). Despite this, the mechanism of action of essential oil inactivation or disinfection is not fully understood. ...
... Despite this, the mechanism of action of essential oil inactivation or disinfection is not fully understood. Although not the primary focus of our pilot study, previous research has suggested that potential mechanisms for viral inactivation with essential oils may be due to either damage to virus particles and the inhibition of virus adsorption to host cells (33). In work with influenza A, an enveloped virus, authors concluded that essential oils did not prevent adsorption of virus to host cells (23,34); however, in work with herpes simplex virus, a non-enveloped virus, other researchers proposed that the mechanism of action was direct binding to the virus and inhibition of virus adsorption to the host cells (35)(36)(37). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reports of COVID-19 cases potentially attributed to fomite transmission led to the extensive use of various disinfectants to control viral spread. Alternative disinfectants, such as essential oils, have emerged as a potential antimicrobial. Four essential oil blends were tested on three different surfaces inoculated with a coronavirus surrogate, bacteriophage Phi 6, and a bacterial indicator, Staphylococcus aureus. Log10 concentration reductions were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software. Data collected in this study show that the application of dilute essential oil disinfectants using a spray delivery device is an effective way to reduce concentrations of bacterial and viral microorganisms on ceramic, stainless steel, and laminate surfaces. Surrogate viruses were reduced up to 6 log10 PFU and bacterial were reduced up to 4 log10 CFU. Although surfaces are no longer considered a high risk fomite for COVID-19 transmission, the disinfection of microorganisms on surfaces remains an important consideration for high touch areas in hospitals, waiting rooms, etc. The application of spray disinfectants, based on essential oil blends, provides a rapid and effective means to reduce microbial contamination on high-touched surfaces.
... Various researches and systematic reviews reported that oregano essential oil and its main component, carvacrol, have antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant, nerve impulse modulation and immunological effects (Can Baser, 2008;Silva et al., 2018). It has also been notified to have antiviral activity against some human viruses in recent years, that is, enteric viruses (Rotavirus, norovirus and hepatitis A virus) (Gilling et al., 2014;Pilau et al., 2011;Sánchez et al., 2015), herpetic viruses (Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2) (Lai et al., 2012;Toujani et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2020), Influenza A virus (Zheng et al., 2021) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Mediouni et al., 2020). Carvacrol also has a binding affinity with high docking scores against RBD of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and was identified as potential antiviral compound for SARS-CoV-2 (Kulkarni et al., 2020). ...
... Plant essential extracts and oils are known to be one of the basic ingredients of alternative plant-based therapies. Carvacrol, one of the main components of oregano extract, have versatile biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal (Felici et al., 2020;Kiliç, 2006;Nakamura De Vasconcelos et al., 2018), antiviral (Gilling et al., 2014;Pilau et al., 2011;Sánchez et al., 2015), anticancer (Günes-Bayir et al., 2018), anti-inflammatory and antioxidant manners (Han & Parker, 2017;Ozturk et al., 2018). The leaves and flowers of T. spicata L. are used in Turkey as a traditional medicine to combat many disease symptoms (Khalil et al., 2019;Korkmaz et al., 2016). ...
Article
Aims: Viral pathogens are the primary agents in bovine respiratory disease cases, and there is no direct effective antiviral drug application. Thymbra is a genus of oregano commonly found in Turkey. The primary component (34.9%) of the extract obtained from Thymbra spicata L. is the carvacrol which is used in traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential antiviral activity and inactivation efficiency of T. spicata L. extract against bovine respiratory viruses, including BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1. Methods and results: To evaluate its effect on viral replication, viral titres were taken from infected cells treated with non-cytotoxic T. spicata L. extract concentrations (0.75% and 1.5%, 1.32 and 2.64 µg/ml of carvacrol as active ingredient, respectively) and compared to non-treated infected cells. The viruses were treated directly with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract, and the viral titres were evaluated at certain time points to determine the efficiency of direct inactivation. The number of infectious virions for BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1 treated with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract were decreased by 99.44%, 100.0%, 94.38%, 99.97% and 99.87%, respectively.T. spicata L. extract strongly inhibits the replication of mentioned viruses in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, T. spicata L. extract shared direct inactivation efficiency on the mentioned viruses in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion: This study shows the antiviral efficiency of T. spicata L. on BRD-related viral agents for the first time. The oregano species T. spicata and its main component, carvacrol, may have a potential for antiviral activity in the alternative treatment of respiratory viral diseases in cattle. Significance and impact of the study: Given the similarity of replication strategies, obtained data suggest the possible efficiency of T. spicata L. on human respiratory viruses.
... Oregano belongs to the herb of mint family and has antiviral and medicinal activity due to the presence of eatable carvacrol and other bioactive compounds. Gilling et al. (2014) demonstrated the antiviral activity of carvacrol that was active against murine norovirus (NMV), so it can be used in foods as preservative and as antiviral agent for preventing infections. Another study was based on the investigation of antiviral action of Mexican oregano, and it was found that it has antiviral effects against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) [292][293][294]. ...
... Gilling et al. (2014) demonstrated the antiviral activity of carvacrol that was active against murine norovirus (NMV), so it can be used in foods as preservative and as antiviral agent for preventing infections. Another study was based on the investigation of antiviral action of Mexican oregano, and it was found that it has antiviral effects against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) [292][293][294]. ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections , such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review fo-cuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioa-vailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these Citation: Behl, T.; Rocchetti, G.; Chadha, S.; Zengin, G.; Bungau, S.; Kumar, A.; Mehta, V.; Uddin, M.S.; Khullar, G.; Setia, D.; et al. Phyto-chemicals from Plant Foods as Po
... For further insight into antiviral action, research on the morphological change in viruses must be conducted. Essential oils can destroy or mask the action of a virus, and electron microscopy has been used to study this aspect [78]. Earlier, it was reported that murine norovirus treated with oregano essential oils had slightly modified morphology, while treatment with carvacrol showed capsid disintegration [78]. ...
... Essential oils can destroy or mask the action of a virus, and electron microscopy has been used to study this aspect [78]. Earlier, it was reported that murine norovirus treated with oregano essential oils had slightly modified morphology, while treatment with carvacrol showed capsid disintegration [78]. Another key strategy of antiviral activity is protein inhibition. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, and the catastrophe faced by the world in 2020, the food industry was one of the most affected industries. On the one hand, the pandemic-induced fear and lockdown in several countries increased the online delivery of food products, resulting in a drastic increase in single-use plastic packaging waste. On the other hand, several reports revealed the spread of the viral infection through food products and packaging. This significantly affected consumer behavior, which directly influenced the market dynamics of the food industry. Still, a complete recovery from this situation seems a while away, and there is a need to focus on a potential solution that can address both of these issues. Several biomaterials that possess antiviral activities, in addition to being natural and biodegradable, are being studied for food packaging applications. However, the research community has been ignorant of this aspect, as the focus has mainly been on antibacterial and antifungal activities for the enhancement of food shelf life. This review aims to cover the different perspectives of antiviral food packaging materials using established technology. It focuses on the basic principles of antiviral activity and its mechanisms. Furthermore, the antiviral activities of several nanomaterials, biopolymers, natural oils and extracts, polyphenolic compounds, etc., are discussed.
... The mechanism of action and anti-viral activities of carvacrol derived from oregano oil has been explored against murine norovirus (MNV), a non-enveloped virus. Carvacrol was found to help deactivate MNV, a human NoV surrogate, within 1 h of exposure, directly affecting the viral capsid and thereafter RNA (Gilling et al., 2014). Carvacrol inhibits MNV binding to host cells via hiding the capsid, however, there was no altered structural morphology of the virus reported (Gilling et al., 2014). ...
... Carvacrol was found to help deactivate MNV, a human NoV surrogate, within 1 h of exposure, directly affecting the viral capsid and thereafter RNA (Gilling et al., 2014). Carvacrol inhibits MNV binding to host cells via hiding the capsid, however, there was no altered structural morphology of the virus reported (Gilling et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019, resulting in the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are solely accountable for rising mortality and socioeconomic saddles. Presently, there are few repurposed drugs such as remdesivir or favipiravir approved for the treatment of COVID-19, although vaccines and plasma therapy is also subject to emergency approval. However, some potential natural treatments and cures have also been proposed. Molecules of natural origin showed therapeutic importance such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, and could be useful drug candidates for treating COVID-19. In recent years, essential oils have shown promising therapeutic effects against many viral diseases. Carvacrol is one of the monoterpene phenol with abundant presence in essential oils of many aromatic plants, including thyme and oregano. It is being used as food flavoring, additive, and preservatives. Carvacrol is also used as a fragrance in cosmetic products. A number of research studies have shown biological actions of carvacrol with its therapeutic potential is of clinical significance. The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown multiple pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, and spasmolytic. This review highlights the various biological and pharmacological properties of carvacrol within the scope of COVID-19.
... The potential relationships between the novel coronavirus and "acerola", 27 "andrographis", 28 "astragalus", 29 "cinchona", 30 "echinacea", 31 "elderberry", 32 "goldenseal", 33 "mullein", 34 and "oregano oil" 35 are summarized in Table 2. Although, in general, the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of these plants have been described in the literature, 29,35,36 a limited number of studies have investigated the protective effects of these herbs & herbal supplements against COVID-19, and any protective role these plants may have is currently hypothetical. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Object The aim of this retrospective infodemiological study was to evaluate people’s interests in biologically-based (B-B) complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as herbs, foods, and supplements during the coronavirus pandemic via analysis of Google search engine statistics. Design & settings The category, period, and regions selected in the Google Trends were “health,” “15 January–15 May 2020,” in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Germany, Italy, and France, respectively. The most commonly searched herbs, foods and supplements (n = 32) during the pandemic were determined from a pool of keywords (n = 1286) based on the terms’ relative search volumes (RSVs) within the last five years. Correlation analyses were conducted to investigate associations between coronavirus-related parameters with each keyword’s RSV for each country. Selected keywords (n = 25) were analyzed using the gtrendsR package in the R programming language; the ggplot2 package was used to visualize the data, the Prophet package was used to estimate the time series, and the dplyr package was used to create the data frame. Results Significantly strong positive correlations were identified between daily RSVs of the terms “black seed,” “vitamin C,” “zinc,” and “quercetin,” and search queries for “coronavirus” and “COVID-19” in the USA (Spearman’s correlation coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.05), and between the RSVs of the terms “vitamin C” and “zinc,” and daily search queries for “coronavirus” and/or “COVID-19” in the UK (Spearman’s correlation coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.05). Conclusion Google Trends can be a beneficial tool for following public interest in identifying outbreak-related misinformation, and scientific studies and statements from authorities and the media play a potential role in driving internet searches.
... Oregano has been used in folk and medicine since time immemorial as an anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, anticancer, sedative, and in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including stomach and intestinal disorders, constipation, and inflation (Gilling et al., 2014;Husain et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
SARS‐CoV‐2 has been responsible for causing 6,218,308 deaths globally till date and has garnered worldwide attention. The lack of effective preventive and therapeutic drugs against SARS‐CoV‐2 has further worsened the scenario and has bolstered research in the area. The N‐terminal and C‐terminal RNA binding domains (NTD and CTD) of SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid protein represent attractive therapeutic drug targets. Naturally occurring compounds are an excellent source of novel drug candidates due to their structural diversity and safety. Ten major bioactive compounds were identified in ethanolic extract (s) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum tamala, Origanum vulgare, and Petroselinum crispum using HPLC and their cytotoxic potential was determined against cancer and normal cell lines by MTT assay to ascertain their biological activity in vitro. To evaluate their antiviral potential, the binding efficacy to NTD and CTD of SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid protein was determined using in silico biology tools. In silico assessment of the phytocomponents revealed that most of the phytoconstituents displayed a druglike character with no predicted toxicity. Binding affinities were in the order apigenin > catechin > apiin toward SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid NTD. Toward nucleocapsid CTD, the affinity decreased as apigenin > cinnamic acid > catechin. Remdesivir displayed lesser affinity with NTD and CTD of SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid proteins than any of the studied phytoconstituents. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results revealed that throughout the 100 ns simulation, SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid protein NTD‐apigenin complex displayed greater stability than SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid protein NTD‐cinnamic acid complex. Hence, apigenin, catechin, apiin and cinnamic acid might prove as effective prophylactic and therapeutic candidates against SARS‐CoV‐2, if examined further in vitro and in vivo. Practical applications Ten major bioactive compounds were identified in the extract(s) of four medicinally important plants viz. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum tamala, Origanum vulgare and Petroselinum crispum using HPLC and their biological activity was also evaluated against cancer and normal cell lines. Interestingly, while all extract(s) wielded significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, no significant toxicity was found against normal cells. The outcome of the results prompted evaluation of the antiviral potential of the ten bioactive compounds using in silico biology tools. The present study emphasizes on the application of computational approaches to understand the binding interaction and efficacy of the ten bioactive compounds from the above plants with SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleocapsid protein N‐terminal and C‐terminal RNA binding domains in preventing and/or treating COVID‐19 using in silico tools. Druglikeness and toxicity profiles of the compounds were carried out to check the therapeutic application of the components. Additionally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to check the stability of ligand‐protein complexes. The results provided useful insights into the structural binding interaction(s) that can be exploited for the further development of potential antiviral agents targeting SARS‐CoV‐2 especially since no specific therapy is still available to combat the rapidly evolving virus and the existing treatment is more or less symptomatic which makes search for novel antiviral agents all the more necessary and crucial.
... However, the authors have not established a relation between the binding of the antimicrobial agent to the viral envelope and the envelope dissolution itself. Using oregano essential oil (4%), Gilling et al. (2014) reported a reduction in the murine norovirus titer. After 1 hour of exposure the titer reduced by 0.98 ± 0.17 log10, and after 6 hours it reduced by 1.10 ± 0.12 log10. ...
Article
Full-text available
The search for natural resources with antiviral potential, as an alternative to synthetic drugs, has been growing and, in this sense, oregano presents itself as a potential candidate. However, the antiviral studies with oregano are still poorly explored. BoHV-1 stands out among veterinary pathogens, for its economic impact on cattle production. In this study, the antiviral and virucidal activity of polar extracts of Origanum vulgare was evaluated against BoHV-1. Infusion (INF10), decoction (DEC), and hydroalcoholic (HAE) extracts were tested to cytotoxic and antiviral assays on MDBK cells. Cytotoxic effects were analyzed through MTT assay and the antiviral activity was expressed as a percentage of inhibition (PI). BoHV-1 was incubated with O. vulgare extracts as virucidal assay. Concentrations ≤3.12 mg/ml (INF10) and ≤1.56 mg/ml (DEC/HAE) preserved the cell viability above 60%, and all extracts were safe (>96%) between 0.78 and 0.39 mg/ml. Regarding the antiviral activity, pre-treatment of all extracts highlighted in comparison to the post-treatment. The pre-treatment of infusion at 2 mg/ml highlighted due to the high cell viability (84.69%) and the elimination of the viral load. All extracts inactivated BoHV-1 from 2 hours of incubation (20 mg/ml), showing virucidal activity. These findings may be related to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as prevalent in all extracts. These findings showed the in vitro antiviral and virucidal activity of oregano polar extracts against BoHV-1 and may be promising for the therapeutic use against herpesviruses infections.
... The essential oil from oregano (Origanum vulgare) decreased FCV-F9 and MNV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, it has been shown that oregano essential oil and its primary component carvacrol caused the loss of viral capsid integrity of MNV-1 virions as determined by transmission electron microscopy experiments [140]. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) extracts containing persimmon tannin was found to reduce noroviral genome replication with no cytotoxicity effect [141]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Viral infections are responsible for several chronic and acute diseases in both humans and animals. Despite the incredible progress in human medicine, several viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, respiratory syndromes, and hepatitis, are still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in humans. Natural products from plants or other organisms are a rich source of structurally novel chemical compounds including antivirals. Indeed, in traditional medicine, many pathological conditions have been treated using plant-derived medicines. Thus, the identification of novel alternative antiviral agents is of critical importance. In this review, we summarize novel phytochemicals with antiviral activity against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing viral disease.
... In in-vitro studies, it has been stated that oleanolic acid and its analogs show antiviral effects against HIV, influenza and hepatitis viruses (Khwaza et al., 2018). Carvacrol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative and has antiviral and antimicrobial effects (Gilling et al., 2014). It is an important component of Labiatae family plants and is a molecule used for therapeutic purposes (Hyldgaard et al., 2012). ...
... Many EOs have been extracted and studied extensively, such as those from ginger, cinnamon, lemon, clove, thyme, oregano, lavender and mint, from which more than 50 individual aroma compounds were detected. Their chemical constituents are responsible for their medicinal and food preservation effects (Gilling, Kitajima, Torrey, & Bright, 2014). EOs were first investigated and commercialized for use as fragrances and flavorings followed by their current medicinal uses, although these were often based on traditional practices. ...
Article
Background Since time immemorial, natural active compounds including essential oils (EOs) and their components have been used due to their flavor and fragrance. Out of 3000 known varieties, 300 are commercially utilized for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Scope and approach In recent years, studies on EOs have enormously increased owing to their remarkable biological activities and health benefits. As a result, their pharmacological attributes have played an immense role to identify natural and safe alternative therapeutics to extend their industrial applications. Key findings and conclusions: This review covers the sources and composition of EOs, recent progress in their extraction methods, factors affecting their quality and yield, their most important activities, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as their mechanisms of action. Besides, the importance of EOs in food, biomedicine, and agricultural industries is also highlighted. For the food industrial applications, we mainly aimed at the incorporation of EOs as such or as nanoemulsions into active or smart packaging with a particular emphasis on the food preservation and shelf-life extension of food products.
... Not reported [20,80,93] 7. Capsid protein disintegration. [96][97][98] 9. Inhibits herpes virus replication, inhibits HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression, and inhibits transcription of HPV-18. ...
Article
Full-text available
All the plants and their secondary metabolites used in the present study were obtained from Ayurveda, with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. The selected secondary metabolites have been experimentally validated and reported as potent antiviral agents against genetically-close human viruses. The plants have also been used as a folk medicine to treat cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome in India and across the globe since time immemorial. The present study aimed to assess the repurposing possibility of potent antiviral compounds with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and also with host-specific receptor and activator protease that facilitates the viral entry into the host body. Molecular docking (MDc) was performed to study molecular affinities of antiviral compounds with aforesaid target proteins. The top-scoring conformations identified through docking analysis were further validated by 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation run. The stability of the conformation was studied in detail by investigating the binding free energy using MM-PBSA method. Finally, the binding affinities of all the compounds were also compared with a reference ligand, remdesivir, against the target protein RdRp. Additionally, pharmacophore features, 3D structure alignment of potent compounds and Bayesian machine learning model were also used to support the MDc and MD simulation. Overall, the study emphasized that curcumin possesses a strong binding ability with host-specific receptors, furin and ACE2. In contrast, gingerol has shown strong interactions with spike protein, and RdRp and quercetin with main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. In fact, all these target proteins play an essential role in mediating viral replication, and therefore, compounds targeting aforesaid target proteins are expected to block the viral replication and transcription. Overall, gingerol, curcumin and quercetin own multitarget binding ability that can be used alone or in combination to enhance therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19. The obtained results encourage further in vitro and in vivo investigations and also support the traditional use of antiviral plants preventively.
... The polymer chitosan which is created from the exoskeleton of crustaceans by deacetylation, more specifically reduced infectivity of FCV but showed no effect on MNV [22]. Oregano essential oil (4.0 %) and its primary component carvacrol reduced MNV by 0.95 log10 after treatment for 15 min [36]. ...
Thesis
Human norovirus is the dominating+ cause of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis across all age groups, with an estimated 684 million cases worldwide and 219,000 deaths per year. Outbreaks of human norovirus frequently occur in enclosed settings (e.g. cruise ships, hospitals, nursing homes). This is economically relevant, as it is estimated to cost 4.2 billion USD in direct health system and 60.3 billion USD in social costs. Although symptoms are self-limited to two to three days, the illness can be severe in young children, elderly, or immunocompromised people. The complete lack of treatment or vaccination limits counter measurements to easing symptoms. Additionally, spreading is limited by preventative measures, such as isolating infected individuals. An adequate treatment for patients as well as a possible early treatment (before symptoms appear) for people in the near environment of a beginning outbreak, including nurses and other staff, could prevent outbreaks from spreading. Therefore, inexpensive treatments with a minimum of side effects that can be delivered to patients and people in their surrounding are urgently needed. For more than four decades, antiviral research was hampered by the lack of cell culture systems for human norovirus propagation. Therefore, surrogate systems, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used. Human noroviruses typically require histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as co-factors for viral infection. Thus, the HBGA pocket is the main target region on the viral capsid for the development of antivirals. In this thesis, a panel of synthetic antivirals and natural extracts, including a set of 31 different honeys, were screened using various techniques (X-ray crystallography, ELISA, DLS, and EM) to identify potential norovirus capsid inhibitors. Several Nanobodies (Fab fragments of camelid derived heavy chain only antibodies) directed specifically against genotype GI.1 of human norovirus inhibited virus like particles (VLPs) in surrogate attachment inhibition ELISAs. However, inhibition by these Nanobodies was specifically directed against their respective genotype and showed limited cross-reactivity. The high specificity of the Nanobodies limits their use as broadly reactive antivirals. Of the Natural extracts, date syrup, wine, barley malt, coconut blossom syrup, apple sweetener, different types of honey and propolis inhibited the binding of VLPs to HBGAs. Treatment of VLPs with these compounds resulted in the disruption of VLP integrity and particle aggregation. Most natural extracts showed broad reactivity against VLPs of several genotypes. Preliminary structural analysis revealed the presence of small, unidentified ligand(s) for date syrup, coconut blossom syrup, apple sweetener, and honey. The strongest inhibition was observed with date syrup, wine, and propolis. Three flavonols, common to these natural extracts, were identified as inhibiting compounds. To address if a combinatorial approach could improve the performance of the individual inhibitors, special combinatorial ELISAs were designed to assess the interaction between two inhibitors. These assays revealed combinations of Nanobodies with the HMO 2’FL or natural extracts to have additive or synergistic inhibition. This demonstrated a combinatorial approach with natural extracts and Nanobodies could be a comparatively easy, safe, and affordable treatment that could be administered to people suffering from norovirus disease and healthy people in the surrounding of a beginning outbreak.
... After treatment with PEE, the capsid proteins of MNV-1 and MS2 were enlarged and some of them were denatured. Although the mechanisms of action for the antiviral effect of propolis are still not clearly understood, the morphological changes of MNV-1 and MS2 in our study were similar to those of HSV treated with flavonoids (C-glycosylflavonoids) (Coelho et al., 2015) and MNV-1 treated with oregano oil (Gyawali & Ibrahim, 2014;Gilling et al., 2014). Gyawali and Ibrahim (2014) reported that carvacrol (oregano oil) was effective in inactivating MNV by acting directly on the viral capsid. ...
Article
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) outbreaks have been linked to contaminated fresh-cut produce. Propolis has been used as a folk medicine because of its extensive bioactivity and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiviral properties of propolis water extracts (PWE) and propolis ethanol extracts (PEE) against noroviruses, and its application in fresh-cut produce. Extraction yields, total phenolic content, total flavonoid, and soluble carbohydrate content of the propolis extracts were measured to estimate their antiviral compounds. The HuNoV GII.4 and its surrogates (murine norovirus MNV-1 and bacteriophage MS2) were used to evaluate the anti-noroviral activities of propolis extracts. The polyphenol-rich extract (PEE) showed better antiviral activities than PWE. Time-of-addition experiments and TEM images suggested that PEE denatured the viral capsid protein and likely prevented adsorption and internalization of viruses into cells. The application of PEE for natural preservative in fresh juices was also analyzed. After 30 min of treatment of the four different juices, 500 μg/mL PEE reduced MNV-1 and MS2 titers by > 3.0 log10. Therefore, the PEE containing high amounts of polyphenol improved the safety of fresh juices and could be potential candidates for the development of novel natural antiviral preservative for fresh juices.
... Treatment of RSV with 1053 µg ml -1 reduced infectivity by 36 % after 2 h and almost completely after 24 h (Fig. 1C). Furthermore, if the capsid integrity is affected, viral genomes can be damaged as observed for the norovirus, a RNA-virus (Gilling et al. 2014). This hypothesis is supported by the much higher sensitivity of the three RNA viruses to the HMP in comparison to the DNA virus AV, as RNA in general is less stable than DNA. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background : The herbal medicinal product (HMP) ELOM-080 has a proven efficacy in the treatment of acute respiratory tract (ART) infections, which typically are of viral etiology. However, whether the HMP exerts an antiviral activity against viral pathogens was unknown and therefore tested in this in vitro study. Purpose : This study was performed in order to test antiviral effects of the HMP against four viral pathogens of ART infections: Influenza A (FluA), Rhinovirus (RV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Adenovirus (AV). Methods : Infectivity of the viruses was tested after their 2 or 24 h incubation with HMP at final concentrations between 89 and 2673 µg ml⁻¹ in order to investigate virucidal activity. Virostatic effects were assessed by application of physiologically tolerated concentrations up to 268 µg ml⁻¹ in cell cultures 1 h after infection with each virus and quantification of plaque formation or cytopathogenic effect. Results : HMP inhibited infectivity of FluA, RV and RSV by more than 50 %, and of AV by about 20 %. In the virostatic tests, mean half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for RNA viruses were almost 15 times lower compared to virucidal results, AV was not significantly affected. Discussions : The in vitro antiviral effects of ELOM-080 on the enveloped viruses FluA and RSV suggest that this HMP exerts permanent and/or transient viral envelope changes, thereby potentially lowering the attachment to the host cell membrane. Furthermore, the rather high sensitivity of RNA viruses for the HMP suggests an effect on integrity and functionality of viral RNA which may interfere with viral replication causing the observed virostatic effects.
... In an in vitro analysis, oregano oil and isolated carvacrol both decreased murine norovirus activity within 15 min of exposure. 152 'Lippia graveolens' (Mexican oregano oil) and carvacrol also demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, viral gastroenteritis due to rotavirus infection, and RSV. [153][154] Salvia rosmarinus (rosemary) herb is mostly used in cooking; however, it also has therapeutic applications due to its multiple plant compounds, including oleanolic acid. ...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerged pandemic caused by a novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease is communicable and mainly affects the respiratory tract. The outbreak of this disease has greatly influenced human health and economic activities worldwide. The absence of any medication for this infection highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative methods for managing the spread of the disease. Our immune system operates based on a complex array of cells, processes, and chemicals that continuously protect our body from invading pathogens, including viruses, toxins, and bacteria. The present study was conducted to perform a comprehensive review of all dietary treatments for boosting immunity against viral infections. No study was found to explicitly support the use of any healthy foods or supplements to protect against COVID-19. However, this study offers details on well-researched functional foods and supplements that typically improve the immune response, which could be helpful against this newly emerged pandemic.
... Carvacrol combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, tapioca starch, glycerol, and potassium sorbate showed significant microbial effects for Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum as compared to films only containing KS., L. plantarum, and P. fluorescens in comparison with films containing only KS (Alzate et al., 2017).Carvacrol also showed antimicrobial potential on S. aureus, whereas carvacrol has also higher antivirulence and antibiofilm actions against uropathogenic E. coli(Lee et al., 2017;Monzote et al., 2018). Carvacrol also inhibits virus growth such as human rotavirus (RV), especially of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVRHHV-1), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), and pandemic H1N1 virus documented by different scientific researches(Gilling et al., 2014;Pilau et al., 2011;Vimalanathan & Hudson, 2012).In another piece of evidence,Wei et al. (2017) supplemented animal feed with 100 mg/kg of carvacrol and thymol in (1:1) for 14 days reduced intestinal oxidative stress and inflammation in piglets, which significantly reduced TNF α, level of IL1 β, IL-6 via decreasing mRNA levels as piglets suffer intestinal dysfunctioning that effects and compromises their performance(Wei et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Carvacrol is a major natural constituent and is significantly present as an essential oil in aromatic plants and is well known for its numerous biological activities. Therapeutic properties of carvacrol have been demonstrated as anti‐oxidant, anticancer, diabetes prevention, cardioprotective, anti‐obesity, hepatoprotective and reproductive role, antiaging, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory properties. The carvacrol biosynthesis has been mediated through mevalonate pathway. Carvacrol has the anticancer ability against malignant cells via decreasing the expressions of matrix metalloprotease 2 and 9, inducing apoptosis, enhancing the expression of pro‐apoptotic proteins, disrupting mitochondrial membrane, suppressing extracellular signal‐regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen‐activated protein kinase signal transduction, and also decreasing the phosphoinositide 3‐kinase/protein kinase B. It also decreased the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase as well as also restored liver function, insulin level, and plasma glucose level. Carvacrol also has been found to exert antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Coagulase‐negative staphylococcus, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus sp. Shigella, and Escherichia coli. The current review article summarizes the health‐promoting perspectives of carvacrol through various pathways. Carvacrol is a major natural constituent in applauded for their nutraceutical potential ranging from antioxidant to anticancer
... Carvacrol has been reported to be active against HSV-1 by direct inhibition of virus particle. This compound possessed anti-murine norovirus activity too [46,47]. The a and b-pinene detected are naturally found in black cumin and clove, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Viruses cause many life threatening human diseases. Recently, COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the health care systems worldwide. As a disease preventive approach and to bring relief to the severity of the symptoms, a infusion termed as Bhabha Anti-Viral Infusion-23 (‘BhAVI-23’) was conceptualized and formulated which comprised of 23 selected spices and herbals. Objective The present study was conducted to assess the in vitro antiviral potential of the formulation, BhaAVI-23. Material and Methods The in-vitro anti-viral potential of BhAVI-23 was assessed through inhibition of HIV1 reverse transcriptase (RT) as well as through a novel P1 (virulent) bacteriphage based screening assay system. Anti-diabetic potential was assessed by non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin and the bioactive volatile components were detected through headspace gas chromatography followed by molecular docking analysis. Results The infusion displayed prominent anti-viral activity as evident from significant (57%) inhibition of the HIV1-RT as well as through reduction in the infectivity of P1 (virulent) bacteriophage. The infusion also exerted profound protection (∼64%) to non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin. Headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the presence of at least 47 major compounds. Docking analysis indicated possible interaction of α-pinene and eugenol with SARS-CoV spike protein. Conclusion This ‘BhAVI-23’ infusion displayed prominent in-vitro anti-viral and anti-diabetic potential in different model systems. These attributes have relevance as diabetic patients are more prone to COVID-19 morbidity. ‘BhAVI-23’ opens the avenue for its potential inclusion as a supportive health care system upon due regulatory approval during the current pandemic.
... EOs are mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic alcohols and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In recent years, EOs have been found to show extensive biological activities, such as antidepressive [1], anti-inflammatory [2], anti-oxidant [3], antiviral [4] and antimicrobial activity [5][6][7]. However, the application of EOs is limited due to their volatility and poor water solubility. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) have been used in cosmetics and food due to their antimicrobial and antiviral effects. However, the applications of EOs are compromised because of their poor aqueous solubility and high volatility. Qiai (Artemisia argyi Levl. et Van. var. argyi cv. Qiai) is a traditional Chinese herb and possesses strong antibacterial activity. Herein, we report an innovative formulation of EO as nanohydrogels, which were prepared through co-assembly of Qiai EO (QEO) and Pluronic F108 (PEG-b-PPG-b-PEG, or PF108) in aqueous solution. QEO was efficiently loaded in the PF108 micelles and formed nanohydrogels by heating the QEO/PF108 mixture solution to 37 °C, by the innate thermo-responsive property of PF108. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of QEO reached 80.2% and 6.8%, respectively. QEO nanohydrogels were more stable than the free QEO with respect to volatilization. Sustained QEO release was achieved at body temperature using the QEO nanohydrogels, with the cumulative release rate reaching 95% in 35 h. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that the QEO nanohydrogels showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli than the free QEO due to the enhanced stability and sustained-release characteristics. It has been attested that thermo-responsive QEO nanohydrogels have good potential as antibacterial cosmetics.
... Ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro studies suggested that antiviral activity of EOs can be indirect, through promoting the immunity of human or synergistic effects on conventional drugs, or maybe a direct effect at which EO components target the outer structures of viruses (primarily viral envelop), disabling the attachment ability of virus when it is close to the target cell (Astani et al., 2011;Bekut et al., 2018;Gilling et al., 2014). Moreover, based on time-of-addition studies dealing with antiviral activities of EOs extracted from ginger, hyssop, anise, thyme, sandalwood, chamomile (Koch et al., 2008), Santolina insularis (De Logu et al., 2000), and data presented in Table 4, it is claimed that the activity of the EOs is mostly noticeable when cells or viruses are treated before the challenge. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging viruses are known to pose a threat to humans in the world. COVID-19, a newly emerging viral respiratory disease, can spread quickly from people to people via respiratory droplets, cough, sneeze, or exhale. Up to now, there are no specific therapies found for the treatment of COVID-19. In this sense, the rising demand for effective antiviral drugs is stressed. The main goal of the present study is to cover the current literature about bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, minerals, vitamins, oligosaccharides, bioactive peptides, essential oils, and probiotics) with potential efficiency against COVID-19, showing antiviral activities via the inhibition of coronavirus entry into the host cell, coronavirus enzymes, as well as the virus replication in human cells. In turn, these compounds can boost the immune system, helping fight against COVID-19. Overall, it can be concluded that bioactives and the functional foods containing these compounds can be natural alternatives for boosting the immune system and defeating coronavirus.
... Oregano has powerful antiviral properties. In high concentrations, it could inactivate viral agents within one hour of exposure [60]. Lemon balm and green tea have antiviral properties and effectively against various viruses, including influenza, herpes, adenovirus, and HIV [61,62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Drug delivery approaches with the shortest therapeutic period and the lowest side effects have always been considered a sublime target in the medical sciences. Among many delivery methods, chewing gum could be perceived as a promising drug carrier that can carry several types of drugs for oral health. These drug carriers could represent optimal therapeutic time and lower side effects due to their sustained release capability and lower required thresholds for the drug compared with other delivery approaches. The convenient use in the oral cavity's local environment and the ability to locally carry multiple drugs are considered the main advantages of this delivery approach. Aim: This review aimed to explore chewing gum as a promising drug carrier that can carry several types of drugs for oral health. Materials and methods: Articles were searched for on PubMed, ISI, SCOPUS, Google Patents, the Royal Society of Chemistry website, and electronic databases using MESH terms and the following keywords: ("Gum" OR "Chewing gum") and ("Drug delivery OR Drug delivery systems") in the English language. No time limit was applied, and all documents as of August 30th, 2020 were retrieved. Results: Gum-drug interactions, mechanisms of release, and formulations of the drugs might all play a role in this versatile delivery method. Accordingly, chewing gum-based carriers may be presented as a plausible candidate for drug delivery in oral diseases. Conclusion: Gum-driven drugs could be introduced as promising candidates for treating oral diseases due to their ability to deliver the proper local dosages of active ingredients, short contact time, biocompatibility, and biodegradable chemical structures.
... Many biological and pharmaceutical potentialities were documented for CV like antimicrobial, including antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral [18,19,20,21,22], anticancer [23,24,25], free radical scavenging activity [26,27,28], hepatoprotective [29], antinociceptive [27], antiplatelet [30], and antimutagenic [31]. CV is a potent inhibitor of food-borne pathogens as Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cisplatin (Cisp) is a widely distributed chemotherapeutic drug for cancers. Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common side effects of the use of this drug. Carvacrol (CV) is a common natural compound in essential oils and extracts of medicinal plants with potent in vivo and in vitro bioactivities. The work was extended to achieve the target of investigation of the protective potentialities of CV and its nanoemulsion as a cytoprotective drug against Cisp-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. CV-nanoemulsion was prepared by a hydrophilic surfactant polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) and deionized water. The TEM image of the particle distribution prepared nanoemulsion is mainly spherical in shape with particle size varying between 14 and 30 nm. Additionally, the Cisp administration caused the increasing of the levels of urea and creatinine in the blood and serum. These increasing of urea and creatinine levels caused consequently the turbulence of the oxidative stress as well as the rising of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the serum. Also, histopathological changes of the kidney tissue were observed. These changes back to normal by treatment with CV-nanoemulsion. Expression levels of nephrotoxicity-related genes including LGALS3, VEGF, and CAV1 in kidney tissue using qRT-PCR were measured. The results revealed that the expression of LGALS3, VEGF and CAV1 genes was highly significantly increased in only Cisp treated group when compared with other treated groups. While, these genes expressions were significantly decreased in Cisp+CV treated group when compared with Cisp treated rats (P<0.001). In addition, there were no significant differences between Cisp+nano-CV treated group and both negative control and nanoemulsion alone groups but it was not significant. In addition, the western blot of protein analysis results showed that the LGALS3 and CAV1 are highly expressed only in Cisp+CV treated group compared with other groups. There was no significant difference between Cisp+nano-CV treated animals and negative control for both mRNA and protein expression. Based on these results, CV was combined with calcium alginate; a more stable capsule is formed, allowing for the formation of a double wall in the microcapsule. These results supported the therapeutic effect of CV and its nano-emulsion as cytoprotective agents against Cisp nephrotoxicity.
... These derived compounds appear to cause the viral capsid to lose its integrity by binding to the capsid or by preventing adsorption of the virus to host cells, thus true virus inactivation occurs. The antibacterial activity is slightly different due to the complexity of bacterial cell wall components and its structures; even so, there are some evidences that carvacrol acts directly upon bacterial membranes/cell wall components as well (90,93). ...
... Many other familiar herbs widely used in folk medicine have been subjected to scientific studies. For example, oregano from the mint family was studied by [6] as the oregano oil and its primary active molecule, carvacrol, showed antiviral activities against Murine Norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. Furthermore, the study indicated that the oil and carvacrol exhibited potential sanitising properties for natural food to control Human Norovirus. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of superbugs and resistant pathogens poses a challenge in scientific and medical research as they threaten public health worldwide. Many herbal natural products currently used in therapies have been suggested to exert antimicrobial, antiviral and even virucidal activities against a vast majority of impervious pathogens. Rhazya stricta, a folk medicinal desert plant from Saudi Arabia was recently revealed to exhibit bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a threat to public health worldwide. Hence, we examined the antiviral activity of R. stricta against the virus. The R. stricta water extract was prepared at the traditional dose. The antagonistic effects of this extract against pathogens have been proven in previous studies, and those against SARS-CoV-2 were shown in the present study. Therefore, we explored the effects of the plant extracts and fractions against the virus for future drug development. All plant extracts showed antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero E6 cell lines. Non-alkaloids showed the strongest effect against the virus, followed by weak base alkaloids and finally strong base alkaloids. A cytotoxicity assay was performed to explore the safest dose with the strongest antiviral effects. The non-alkaloid extract derived from R. stricta leaves is a promising antiviral candidate for the development of potential drugs with appropriate activity against COVID-19 and other life-threatening diseases.
... Another study (Saderi and Abbasi 2011) reported that adenoviruses can be controlled by the used of thyme oil. Oregano oil along with its component "carvacrol" have been proved to be advantageous against Rotavirus (Pilau et al. 2011;Gilling et al. 2014) and enteroviruses (Sánchez et al. 2015). Ma and Yao (2020) have reviewed possible action of essential oils on the viral lifecycle (Fig. 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Now-a-days poultry production has high demand all over the world and for this purpose performance parameters are maximized for example fast growing of chicken with low usage of feed and with better health status of the flock. This increasing demand has led to use of many antibiotic free products. There is an increased pressure to decrease the amount of antibiotics which is used as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents for poultry so there is an utmost need for unconventional resolutions to sustain the productivity and efficacy of poultry. Amongst the substitutions, essential oils (EOs) have a prodigious potential and are usually thought to be natural, also free from hazardous deposits and chemicals and less toxic. EOs are plant-based extracts and there are about 3,000 known Eos out of which 300 are identified as useful and commercially important. It is proven that EOs have abundant in vitro and in vivo research to yield special effects on numerous pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The current review provides information on the fundamentals of EOs, the anti-oxidation and immunomodulatory characteristics, the growth-promoting effects, and the activities of EOs against variety of pathogens in animals/poultry.
... Carvacrol, the major component offers antiviral properties. In a study, both oregano oil and isolated carvacrol reduced the activity of murine norovirus (MNV) within 15 minutes of exposure [4]. MNV is highly contagious and the primary cause of stomach flu in humans. ...
Article
In the wake of COVID-19 pandemic, there’s been a lot of interest in ways to strengthen one’s immune system, and thus build a first line of defense against the deadly virus. Immunity cannot be built up in a day, but the good news is that eating a well-balanced diet and being physically and mentally active is usually enough to keep our immune system in good health. There are however, many natural ingredients are well known in boostingour immunity. Since ancient times, herbs and spices were well known for their medicinal properties, with over 80 spices grown in different parts of the world, particularly in Asia. India is home to several spices that are used extensively in traditional medicine. Since time immemorial, several Ayurvedic potions have been created using a combination of ingredients including spices. Some natural immunity supplements include ginger, gooseberries (amla) and turmeric. Some of these superfoods are common ingredients in Indian dishes and snacks. There are several herbs that help in boosting immunity like garlic, Basil leaves and Black cumin. The health enhancing qualities of spices are endless and so are their applications. Consumption patterns and lifestyles have also changed, thereby encouraging players to rev up their R&D engines and develop a range of nutraceutical products that leverage the manifold benefits of Indian spices.
... On the contrary, Sökmen et al. (2004) noted that anti-influenza virus activity was not affected by the supplementation of oils or extracts derived from oregano. Gilling et al. (2014) reported that carvacrol as a natural compound is very effective in inhibiting human norovirus within 4 h of exposure by acting directly on the viral capsid. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Thymol and carvacrol as natural essential oils and phenol compounds are components derived from some medicinal plants, such as thyme and oregano species. Objectives The increasing demands in organic and healthy meat and egg consumption in human society have made it necessary to consider alternative natural compounds for the replacement of chemical compounds in poultry production. The chemical compounds can remain in meat and eggs and cause complications in human health. Therefore, these natural compounds can be fed with a higher safety in poultry production with specific effects. In this regard, the role of thymol and carvacrol as natural compounds in the poultry production has been discussed in the review. Methods In this study, by searching for keywords related to thymol and carvacrol in poultry production in Google Scholar database, the articles related to different aspects of the biological effects of these two phytogenes in poultry production were selected and analyzed. Results A review of previous studies has shown that thymol and carvacrol possess a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, modulating of immunity response and regulating of the gut microbial population. Also, in meat type chickens can promote growth and influence feed utilization. The beneficial effect of this compound was evaluated in hepatic toxicity and demonstrated as a hepatoprotective compound in chickens. Furthermore, these compounds can affect the behavior of layers and influence egg composition, eggshell thickness, and the sensory quality of eggs. Conclusion It seems that with the increasing demand for healthy protein products, these compounds can be used to improve performance as a substitute alternative for chemical compounds in healthy poultry farms.
Article
Full-text available
More than 199 countries worldwide are affected by a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2gh21. The transition from early symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is most likely due to uncontrolled cytokine release. There is an urgent need to identify safe and effective drugs for treatment. Many drugs exhibit a promising inhibitory effect. However, the clinical use of some medications can cause serious side effects. We proposed that natural herbs could serve as a better therapeutic approach.
Article
Objective: Neurodegenerative diseases are considered an important cause of cognitive deficit and morbidity in old ages. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of these disorders affecting about 40 million people in the world at the present time. Available drug therapy is mostly symptomatic and does not modify or stop disease progression. Recently, biologically active chemicals from herbs have been studied to develop new therapeutic drugs. Carvacrol has shown positive properties on many neurological diseases. This compound is expected to have the ability to affect AD pathogenesis and therefore, it is considered an anti-AD agent. Materials and methods: This review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct bibliographic databases until November 2021. For data collection, the following keywords were used: carvacrol, neuroprotective, cognition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, Acetylcolinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, epilepsy, stroke, ischemic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Results: This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies on protective potential of carvacrol in neurodegenerative disorders and various underlying mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase effects. Conclusion: We gave an overview of available literature concerning neuroprotective effects of carvacrol in ameliorating the neurodegenerative diseases symptoms in vivo and in vitro. Particular attention is given to AD. Several neuro-pharmacological actions of carvacrol have been summarized in the current review article including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and AChEI properties.
Article
Context: Consuming a balanced and varied diet is beneficial for health, especially when individuals feel stressed, scared, insecure, unequipped, or disempowered from maintaining their health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nutrient deficiencies from inadequate intake of healthful foods can contribute to a weakened immune system and greater susceptibility to infection. Including herbs and spices in a balanced and diverse diet is one of the highlights of nutritious eating that supports health and immunity. Objective: The review intended to examine ways to integrate specific herbs and spices into people's diets and to use them therapeutically in holistic, integrated health promotion. Design: The research team performed a narrative review by searching PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases. The team developed a search strategy focused on specific common names of spices and herbs in combination with other terms, such as health benefits, health promotion, immunity, inflammation. Setting: This review was conducted in Muncie and Columbus, Indiana. Results: This review uncovered studies documenting the many therapeutic properties of herbs within the lamiaceae family, particularly basil and spearmint, and spices, including cloves, ginger, and turmeric. Substantial evidence suggests that consumption of a healthful diet, inclusive of herbs and spices, may strengthen the body's immune system against diseases including highly contagious viruses. Conclusions: With respect to herbs and spices, the current review's findings can help to inform and support future recommendations for a standard within the professions of health to provide an improved, healthier, and well-educated dietary guidance for individuals. More studies are needed on the consumption of herbs and spices in human trials to elicit evidence beyond preclinical and animal studies.
Chapter
Herbs are commonly used in traditional medicine and as spice around the world. They consist of a number minerals essential to human health and nutrition. Many of these microelements are crucial for various metabolic processes and needed for normal physiological functions. The concentration of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cr) and heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cd) were analyzed in selected samples of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) collected from different locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Preparation of samples was done using wet digestion with acids, in triplicate and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentration (mg kg−1) of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Ni ranged from 68.79–152.6; 17.48–27.30; 4.63–6.96; 16.81–51.28; 0.023–0.036; 0.0020–0.0204; and 0.39–2.37, respectively. Cadmium was not detected in any analyzed samples of oregano. These results were in agreement with other published data except in the case of Pb which content was lower and within the permissible limit; and for Cd which do not detected during analysis. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that oregano collected from various locations from BiH are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metals toxicity during their applications as spices as well as in different pharmaceutical formulations.
Chapter
Since time immemorable, spices have been known to combat the onslaught of various microbes like bacteria, fungi and viruses, responsible for various diseases. These microbes also led to food spoilage, which in turn reduced its shelf life. Spices can be used as food preservatives instead of chemical preservatives that are harmful to our health. Studies have proven that the spices commonly used in the kitchen like pepper, clove, ginger, coriander, garlic, cinnamon, etc., are highly potent anti-microbial agents. Moreover, they are also eminent anti-inflammatory and carminative agents. The essential oils in spices are also used for protection against various pathogens in plants. These properties are due to the various chemical compounds like eugenol, gingerol, flavonoids, terpenes, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids and various organosulphur compounds among others present in spices. Hence, spices can be exploited for food preservation and in the pharmaceutical industries. They can also be used as biopesticides, insecticidal agents, antioxidants and natural colorants. This chapter highlights the effect of various spices on various micro-organisms, the various metabolites in spices that lend this ability, and also reviews the various works undertaken to understand the antimicrobial activity of spices.
Chapter
Spices have been used since ancient times as a flavoring agent as well as an important medicinal resource. Biotechnology, using strategies such as cell, organ, and tissue culture, genetic engineering, and the application of nucleic acid markers can escalate the productivity and efficiency of spices. Cell, tissue, and plant organ culture have enabled the rapid and mass reproduction of many disease-free spice plants, which are uniform genetically and qualitatively. In recent years, cell and limb suspension (stem and hair roots) have been considered for producing secondary metabolites and for studying the biosynthesis pathway of metabolites. Plant genetic engineering has helped in the genetic identification and manipulation of enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. Gene transformation has improved the production of secondary metabolites that have yield limitations. Molecular markers are powerful tools for accurately identifying important medicinal species, examining genetic diversity, classifying hereditary reserves, and determining their genetic map irrespective of their age, physiological, and environmental conditions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods like restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) have revolutionized the study of genetic diversity, and the enzymes and genes implied in the secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways can be studded by transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq). The ground-breaking genome editing techniques like Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), sequence-specific nucleases of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases could help in customizing the plants according to the requirements. This article provides an overview of various biotechnology solutions that increase the quality and productivity of spice plants.
Article
Full-text available
The Upper respiratory tract infection is mainly attributed to viral infections so focus should be given to inhibition of viral-host interaction, their entry and replication in the host cells and release of inammatory st cytokines, resulting physiological disturbances. The host's immune system is the 1 line of defence against such threats so multitargeted herbal immune-boosters, with antioxidant, anti-inammatory and tissue repair potential would be preferred. The natural cocktail of medicinal plants has shown promising results both by using bioinformatics based drug docking studies, in animal experiments and in clinical trials. Here we have reviewed the 6-medicinal plants, used in making “Immuhelp”, towards their established role in management of viral-host interaction, activation of innate and adaptive immunity, inhibition-potential against release of inammatory cytokines, immunosuppressive and chemoattractant agents and antioxidant potentials.
Article
Full-text available
Bioinsecticides are regarded as important alternatives for controlling agricultural pests. However, few studies have determined the persistence of these compounds in stored grains. This study aimed at optimizing and validating a fast and effective method for extraction and quantification of residues of safrole (the main component of Piper hispidinervum essential oil) in cowpea beans. It also sought to assess the persistence of this substance in the grains treated by contact and fumigation. The proposed method used headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Factors such as temperature, extraction time and type of fiber were assessed to maximize the performance of the extraction technique. The performance of the method was appraised via the parameters selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ of safrole were 0.0057 and 0.019 μg kg−1, respectively and the determination coefficient (R2) was >0.99. The relative recovery ranged from 99.26 to 104.85, with a coefficient of variation <15%. The validated method was applied to assess the persistence of safrole residue in grains, where concentrations ranged from 1.095 to 0.052 µg kg−1 (contact) and from 2.16 to 0.12 µg kg −1 (fumigation). The levels measured up from the fifth day represented less than 1% of the initial concentration, proving that safrole have low persistence in cowpea beans, thus being safe for bioinsecticide use. Thus, this work is relevant not only for the extraction method developed, but also for the possible use of a natural insecticide in pest management in stored grains.
Article
We present the development of surfactant‐free, silica‐free and fully biobased oil‐in‐water antimicrobial Pickering emulsions, based on the self‐assembly of b ‐cyclodextrin and phytoantimicrobial oils (terpinen‐4‐ol or carvacrol). Undecylenic acid (UA), derived from castor oil, can be used as bio‐based drug to treat fungal infection, but is less effective than petroleum‐based drugs as azole derivatives. To maximize its antifungal potential, we have incorporated UA in fully biobased Pickering emulsions. These emulsions are effective against fungi, Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria. The carvacrol emulsion charged with UA is +390 % and +165 % more potent against methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA), compared to UA and azole‐based commercial formulations. Moreover, this emulsion is up to +480 % more efficient that UA ointment against C. albicans . Finally, remarkable eradication of E. coli and MRSA biofilms was obtained with this environmental‐friendly emulsion.
Article
Full-text available
Oregano oil (OrO) possesses well-pronounced antimicrobial properties but its application is limited due to low water solubility and possible instability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to incorporate OrO in an aqueous dispersion of chitosan–alginate nanoparticles and how this will affect its antimicrobial activity. The encapsulation of OrO was performed by emulsification and consequent electrostatic gelation of both polysaccharides. OrO-loaded nanoparticles (OrO-NP) have small size (320 nm) and negative charge (−25 mV). The data from FTIR spectroscopy and XRD analyses reveal successful encapsulation of the oil into the nanoparticles. The results of thermogravimetry suggest improved thermal stability of the encapsulated oil. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of OrO-NP determined on a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens (ISO 20776-1:2006) are 4–32-fold lower than those of OrO. OrO-NP inhibit the respiratory activity of the bacteria (MTT assay) to a lower extent than OrO; however, the minimal bactericidal concentrations still remain significantly lower. OrO-NP exhibit significantly lower in vitro cytotoxicity than pure OrO on the HaCaT cell line as determined by ISO 10993-5:2009. The irritation test (ISO 10993-10) shows no signs of irritation or edema on the application site. In conclusion, the nanodelivery system of oregano oil possesses strong antimicrobial activity and is promising for development of food additives.
Article
Full-text available
Background There is an increased consumer demand for products derived from natural sources or containing natural compounds used to preserve or improve food quality and/or human health. Carvacrol and thymol, two phenolic, monoterpene isomers, extracted from natural sources such as oregano and thyme, showed antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. They have also had applications in functional food formulations, influenced food quality and positively affected human health. Scope and approach This review aims to cover the most recent findings related to bioactivities of carvacrol and thymol along with their mode of impact on human health and food systems. It also covers the recent applications of carvacrol and thymol with food products, and as nutraceuticals. Their possible use against SARS-CoV-2 virus and on human health are also reviewed. Key findings and conclusions Recently, carvacrol and thymol have been successfully used in products, showing the potential to extend the shelf-life of various foods. Moreover, both compounds showed a positive impact on human health and are considered safe for consumption. Carvacrol has also been reported to have antiviral properties, while in silico analyses suggested they can be used as supportive drugs for combating the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part I focuses on the general aspects of spice biotechnology, structure activity relationships and the natural products that can be used to treat different diseases - such as neurological diseases, inflammation, pain and infections. This part also covers information about phenolic compounds, flavonoids and turmeric supplements. This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
Article
Full-text available
The unavailability of a proper drug against SARS-CoV-2 infections and the emergence of various variants created a global crisis. In the present work, we have studied the antiviral behavior of feverfew plant in treating COVID-19. We have reported a systematic in silico study with the antiviral effects of various phytoconstituents Borneol (C10H18O), Camphene (C10H16), Camphor (C10H16O), Alpha-thujene (C10H16), Eugenol (C10H14O), Carvacrol (C10H14O) and Parthenolide (C15H20O3) of feverfew on the viral protein of SARS-CoV-2. Parthenolide shows the best binding affinity with both main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). The molecular electrostatic potential and Mulliken atomic charges of the Parthenolide molecule shows the high chemical reactivity of the molecule. The docking of Parthenolide with PLpro give score of -8.0 kcal/mol that validates the good binding of Parthenolide molecule with PLpro. This complex was further considered for molecular dynamics simulations. The binding energy of the complex seems to range in between -3.85 to -11.07 kcal/mol that is high enough to validate the stability of the complex. Free energy decomposition analysis have been also performed to understand the contribution of residues that reside into the binding site. Good binding affinity and reactivity response suggested that Parthenolide can be used as a promising drug against the COVID-19. Graphical abstract: Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-022-02067-6.
Article
The presence of fungi and contaminating bacteria in ripened cheeses is a major concern for the dairy industry worldwide. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.) (OEO) against bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and filamentous fungi on cheeses during ripening. For this purpose, Minas cheeses were produced and artificially contaminated with strains of enteropathogenic E. coli, multidrug-resistant S. aureus, and the fungi Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium citrinum. The experiments were performed with Minas cheeses containing OEO, natamycin and nisin, in challenge tests against bacteria and fungi. OEO at a concentration of 0.02% (v/v) demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity, with total elimination of all the tested strains until the sixth day of ripening, besides inhibiting the germination of fungal spores. The pH and moisture of the samples were not significantly affected by the addition of OEO at the tested concentration. Thus, OEO at a concentration of 0.02% (v/v) used in the production of Minas cheese was efficient in controlling pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms and toxigenic fungi during ripening, and its use presents a potential alternative for microbial control.
Article
Full-text available
Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI) of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1), acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2), and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), respectively. The human rotavirus (RV) and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.
Article
Full-text available
Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI) of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1), acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2), and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), respectively. The human rotavirus (RV) and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.
Article
Full-text available
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world.So far,in vitro growth of these viruses has not been achieved in human origin cell lines and limited efforts have been made to evaluate the susceptibility of animal origin cell cul- tures.The main objective of this study was to evaluate primary and established cell cultures from a variety of animal species for in vitro growth of human noroviruses.A total of 19 cell cultures from 11 different animal species were evaluated.Cell monolayers were inocu- lated with one of the two fecal samples known to contain noroviruses.The infected cell monolayers were observed daily for up to 5 days for any cytopatho- logical effects (CPE) after which the infected cell suspension was inoculated in their respective fresh cells for a total of five blind passages.At fifth blind pas- sage RT-PCR assay was used to detect the presence of norovirus RNA.None of the blind passage in any cell culture
Article
Full-text available
The anti-norovirus (anti-NoV) effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was examined by plaque assay for murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), cell-binding reverse transcription-PCR for human NoV GII.4, and saliva-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human NoV GII.4 P particles, with or without the presence of interfering substances (dried milk and lettuce extract). GSE at 0.2 and 2 mg/ml was shown to reduce the infectivity of MNV-1 (>3-log PFU/ml) and the specific binding ability of NoV GII.4 to Caco-2 cells (>1-log genomic copies/ml), as well as of its P particles to salivary human histo-blood group antigen receptors (optical density at 450 nm of >0.8). These effects were decreased as increasing concentrations of dried milk (0.02 and 0.2%) or lettuce extract were added. Under an electron microscope, human NoV GII.4 virus-like particles showed inflation and deformation after treatment with GSE. Under conditions that simulated applications in the food industry, the anti-NoV effect of GSE using MNV-1 as a target organism was shown to be limited in surface disinfection (<1-log PFU/ml, analyzed in accordance with EN 13697:2001). However, a 1.5- to 2-log PFU/ml reduction in MNV-1 infectivity was noted when 2 mg of GSE/ml was used to sanitize water in the washing bath of fresh-cut lettuce, and this occurred regardless of the chemical oxygen demand (0 to 1,500 mg/ml) of the processing water.
Article
Full-text available
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve lettuce. The culturable porcine sapovirus (SaV) was used as a norovirus surrogate to study the persistence and the potential transfer of the virus from roots to leaves and from outer to inner leaves of lettuce plants. Treatment of lettuce with SaV was done through the roots of young plants, the soil, or the outer leaves of mature plants. Sampling of roots, xylem sap, and inner and outer leaves followed by RNA extraction and SaV-specific real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed at 2 h and on postinoculation days (PID) 2, 5, 7, 14, and/or 28. When SaV was inoculated through the roots, viral RNA persisted on the roots and in the leaves until PID 28. When the virus was inoculated through the soil, viral RNA was detected on the roots and in the xylem sap until PID 14; viral RNA was detected in the leaves only until PID 2. No infectious virus was detected inside the leaves for either treatment. When SaV was inoculated through the outer leaves, viral RNA persisted on the leaves until PID 14; however, the virus did not transfer to inner leaves. Infectious viral particles on leaves were detected only at 2 h postinoculation. The milky sap (latex) of leaves, but not the roots' xylem sap, significantly decreased virus infectivity when tested in vitro. Collectively, our results showed the transfer of SaV from roots to leaves through the xylem system and the capacity of the sap of lettuce leaves to decrease virus infectivity in leaves.
Article
Full-text available
The antiviral properties of zeolite (sodium aluminosilicate) powders amended with metal ions were assessed using human coronavirus 229E, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and feline calicivirus F-9. Zeolites containing silver and silver/copper caused significant reductions of coronavirus 229E after 1h in suspension. The silver/copper combination yielded a >5.13-log10 reduction within 24h. It was also the most effective (>3.18-log10) against FIPV after 4 h. Other formulations were ineffective against FIPV. On plastic coupons with incorporated silver/copper-zeolites, >1.7-log10 and >3.8-log10 reductions were achieved for coronavirus 229E and feline calicivirus within 24h, respectively. Silver/copper zeolite reduced titers of all viruses tested, suggesting that it may be effective against related pathogens of interest [i.e., SARS coronavirus, other coronaviruses, human norovirus (calicivirus)]. Of note, it was effective against both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Metal-zeolites could therefore possibly be used in applications to reduce virus contamination of fomites and thus the spread of viral diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of food-borne illness, accounting for 58% of U.S. cases. Because HuNoVs are unculturable, surrogates are needed to investigate transmission routes and evaluate disinfection methods. However, the current surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine NoV (MNV), are less tolerant than HuNoVs to acid and chlorine, respectively. Porcine sapovirus (SaV) is the only culturable enteropathogenic calicivirus. In this study, the resistance of SaV to physicochemical treatments was compared to that of HuNoVs (by reverse transcription-PCR), FCV, and MNV (by infectivity assays). Sapovirus and HuNoV (viral RNA) showed similar resistances to heat (56°C) and to different concentrations of chlorine. However, SaV was more resistant than HuNoVs to ethanol treatment (60% and 70%). Like HuNoVs, SaV was stable at pH 3.0 to 8.0, with a <1.0 log(10) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) reduction at pH 3.0 compared to the value for pH 4.0 to 8.0. SaV and MNV showed similar resistances, and both were more resistant than FCV to heat inactivation (56°C). FCV was more resistant than MNV and SaV to ethanol, and all three viruses showed similar resistances to treatment with low concentrations of chlorine for 1 min. Those results indicate that SaV is a promising surrogate for HuNoVs. Next, we used SaV as a surrogate to examine virus attachment to lettuce at different pHs. Sapovirus attached to lettuce leaves significantly at its capsid isoelectric point (pH 5.0), and the attached viral particles remained infectious on lettuce after 1 week of storage at 4°C. The culturable SaV is a good surrogate for studying HuNoV contamination and transmission in leafy greens and potential disinfectants.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the concentration and optimal treatment time of chlorine for reducing feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates of norovirus (NoV) on stainless steel surfaces and to develop a predictive inactivation method using a response surface methodology. The reduction levels of FCV VR-782 and MNV on stainless steel surfaces after treatment with various concentrations of chlorine (0 to 5,000 ppm) for various times (0 to 5 min) were measured. The reduction values of both FCV and MNV on stainless steel surfaces after 5,000 ppm of chlorine treatment for 5 min were 5.20 TCID(50) per coupon. The predictive results obtained by central composite design were analyzed by standard analysis of variance. The application of multiple regression analysis was related to the following polynomial equations: (i) FCV (log TCID(50) per coupon) = -0.3714 + 0.8362x(1) + 0.0011x(2) + 0.0001x(1)x(2) - 0.1143x(2)(1) -0.0001x(2)(2) (x(1), time; x(2), concentration) and (ii) MNV (log TCID(50) per coupon) = + 0.0471 + 0.0807x(1) + 0.0011x(2) + 0.0001x(1)x(2) -0.0910x(2)(1) -0.0001x(2)(2) (x(1), time; x(2), concentration). It was concluded that these polynomial equation models of reduction of FCV and MNV could be used to determine the minimum concentration of chlorine and exposure times to control human NoV on food contact surfaces.
Article
Full-text available
Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent pandemic of a novel H1N1 influenza virus has stressed the importance of the search for effective treatments for this disease. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been used for a wide variety of applications, such as personal hygiene, therapeutic massage and even medical practice. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of an essential oil in antiviral activity. We studied a commercial essential oil blend, On Guard™, and evaluated its ability in modulating influenza virus, A/PR8/34 (PR8), infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Influenza virus was first incubated with the essential oil and infectivity in MDCK cells was quantified by fluorescent focus assay (FFA). In order to determine the mechanism of effects of essential oil in viral infection inhibition, we measured hemagglutination (HA) activity, binding and internalization of untreated and oil-treated virus in MDCK cells by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of oil treatment on viral transcription and translation were assayed by relative end-point RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Influenza virus infectivity was suppressed by essential oil treatment in a dose-dependent manner; the number of nascent viral particles released from MDCK cells was reduced by 90% and by 40% when virus was treated with 1:4,000 and 1:6,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. Oil treatment of the virus also decreased direct infection of the cells as the number of infected MDCK cells decreased by 90% and 45% when virus was treated with 1:2,000 and 1:3,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. This was not due to a decrease in HA activity, as HA was preserved despite oil treatment. In addition, oil treatment did not affect virus binding or internalization in MDCK cells. These effects did not appear to be due to cytotoxicity of the oil as MDCK cell viability was only seen with concentrations of oil that were 2 to 6 times greater than the doses that inhibited viral infectivity. RT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated that oil treatment of the virus inhibited viral NP and NS1 protein, but not mRNA expression. An essential oil blend significantly attenuates influenza virus PR8 infectivity in vitro without affecting viral binding or cellular internalization in MDCK cells. Oil treated virus continued to express viral mRNAs but had minimal expression of viral proteins, suggesting that the antiviral effect may be due to inhibition of viral protein translation.
Article
Full-text available
Human noroviruses are difficult to study due to the lack of an efficient in vitro cell culture system or small animal model. Murine norovirus replicates in murine macrophages (MPhi) and dendritic cells (DCs), raising the possibility that human NoVs might replicate in such human cell types. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated DCs and MPhi derived from monocyte subsets and CD11c(+) DCs isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals susceptible to Norwalk virus (NV) infection. These cells were exposed to NV and replication was evaluated by immunofluorescence and by quantitative RT-PCR. A few PBMC-derived DCs expressed NV proteins. However, NV RNA did not increase in any of the cells tested. These results demonstrate that NV does not replicate in human CD11c(+) DCs, monocyte-derived DCs and MPhi, but abortive infection may occur in a few DCs. These results suggest that NV tropism is distinct from that of murine noroviruses.
Article
Full-text available
The inhibitory effect of Lippia alba and Lippia citriodora essential oils on dengue virus serotypes replication in vitro was investigated. The cytotoxicity (CC50) was evaluated by the MTT assay and the mode of viral inhibitory effect was investigated with a plaque reduction assay. The virus was treated with the essential oil for 2 h at 37 masculineC before cell adsorption and experiments were conducted to evaluate inhibition of untreated-virus replication in the presence of oil. Antiviral activity was defined as the concentration of essential oil that caused 50% reduction of the virus plaque number (IC50). L. alba oil resulted in less cytotoxicity than L. citriodora oil (CC50: 139.5 vs. 57.6 microg/mL). Virus plaque reduction for all four dengue serotypes was observed by treatment of the virus before adsorption on cell. The IC50 values for L. alba oil were between 0.4-32.6 microg/mL and between 1.9-33.7 microg/mL for L. citriodora oil. No viral inhibitory effect was observed by addition of the essential oil after virus adsorption. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil seems to cause direct virus inactivation before adsorption on host cell.
Article
Full-text available
Anti-coronaviral activity of a mixture of oleoresins and essential oils from botanicals, designated QR448(a), was examined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with QR448(a) reduced the virus titer as measured in two laboratory host systems, Vero E6 cells and embryonating eggs. The effect of QR448(a) on IBV in chickens was also investigated. Administering QR448(a) to chickens at a 1:20 dilution by spray, 2h before challenge with IBV was determined to be the most effective treatment. Treatment decreased the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the birds, and lowered the amount of viral RNA in the trachea. Treatment with QR448(a) protected chickens for up to 4 days post-treatment from clinical signs of disease (but not from infection) and decreased transmission of IBV over a 14-day period. Anti-IBV activity of QR448(a) was greater prior to virus attachment and entry indicating that the effect is virucidal. In addition, QR448(a) had activity against both Massachusetts and Arkansas type IB viruses, indicating that it can be expected to be effective against IBV regardless of serotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the in vivo use of a virucidal mixture of compounds effective against the coronavirus IBV.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.
Article
Full-text available
Norovirus infection outbreaks (NoVOs) occur frequently in closed populations, such as cruise ship passengers. Environmental contamination is believed to play an important role in NoVO propagation. Trained health care professionals covertly evaluated the thoroughness of disinfection cleaning (TDC) of 6 standardized objects (toilet seat, flush handle or button, toilet stall inner handhold, stall inner door handle, restroom inner door handle, and baby changing table surfaces) with high potential for fecal contamination in cruise ship public restrooms, by means of a previously validated novel targeting method. Fifty-six cruise ships (approximately 30% of 180 vessels operated by 9 large cruise lines) were evaluated from July 2005 through August 2008. Overall, 37% (range, 4%-100%; 95% confidence interval, 29.2%-45.4%) of 8344 objects in 273 randomly selected public restrooms were cleaned daily. The TDC did not differ by cruise line and did not correlate with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vessel Sanitation Program inspection scores (r(2), .002; P = .75). More than half the vessels had overall TDC scores <30%, although several of these low-scoring ships had near-perfect CDC sanitation scores. The mean TDC of the 3 ships evaluated within 4 months before a NoVO (10.3%) was substantially less than the mean TDC of the 40 ships that did not experience NoVOs (40.4%) (P < .004). An objective evaluation of public restroom environmental hygiene on 56 cruise ships found that only 37% of selected toilet area objects were cleaned on a daily basis. Low TDC scores may predict subsequent NoVO-prone vessels. Enhanced public restroom cleaning may prevent or moderate NoVOs on cruise ships.
Article
Full-text available
An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV) replication was investigated. The cytotoxicity (CC(50)) on Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The minimum concentration of the essential oil that inhibited virus titer by more than 50% (MIC) was determined by virus yield reduction assay. YFV was incubated 24 h at 4 degrees C with essential oil before adsorption on Vero cell, and viral replication was carried out in the absence or presence of essential oil. Vero cells were exposed to essential oil 24 h at 37 degrees C before the adsorption of untreated-virus. The CC(50) values were less than 100 microg/mL and the MIC values were 3.7 and 11.1 microg/mL. The CC(50)/MIC ratio was of 22.9, 26.4, 26.5 and 8.8 for L. alba, L origanoides, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris, respectively. The presence of essential oil in the culture medium enhances the antiviral effect: L. origanoides oil at 11.1 microg/mL produced a 100% reduction of virus yield, and the same result was observed with L. alba, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris oils at 100 microg/mL. No reduction of virus yield was observed when Vero cells were treated with essential oil before the adsorption of untreated-virus. The essential oils evaluated in the study showed antiviral activities against YFV. The mode of action seems to be direct virus inactivation.
Article
Full-text available
Tulane virus (TV) is a newly reported calicivirus that was isolated from stool samples of captive rhesus macaques from the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC). The virus has been cultivated successfully in LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells. Its complete genomic sequence suggests that TV represents a new genus and is evolutionarily more closely related to Norovirus than to any other genus of Caliciviridae. In this study, we demonstrated that RNA transcripts made in vitro from the full-length genomic cDNA of TV were infectious upon transfection into permissive LLC-MK2 cells. The recombinant virus exhibited plaque morphologies and growth kinetics similar to those of the wild-type virus in this cell line. Capping was required for TV RNA infectivity. Although a subgenomic RNA has been detected in TV-transfected cells, a separate subgenomic RNA transcript was not required for the initial transfection to establish the replication. Transfection of truncated RNA lacking open reading frame 2 (ORF2) and ORF3 or TV-norovirus chimeric RNA resulted in abortive replication without the production of infectious progeny viruses, indicating that both ORFs are essential for the replication of TV. A heterologous insertion at the 5' end of the genome also hampered viral replication, suggesting that an authentic 5' end of the genome is critical for replication. The availability of the complete genomic sequence and the reverse genetics system described herein make TV a valuable model for studying calicivirus pathogenesis and replication.
Article
Full-text available
Orange peel and orange pulp are by-products that are included in feedlot and dairy cattle diets because of their low cost and high nutritional quality. The antimicrobial activity of citrus oils has been reported previously. The present study was carried out to determine whether these citrus by-products exert antimicrobial effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations that are found in cattle gastrointestinal tracts. The growth of pure cultures (n = 3) of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced (p < 0.05) by addition of 2% (w/v) orange pulp and orange peel. Ruminal fluid was collected from cattle (n = 2) and E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium were added. The addition of orange pulp and peel to in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations (n = 3) demonstrated that both orange pulp and peel reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations at least 2 log(10) in mixed ruminal fluid fermentations. Addition of orange pulp reduced (p < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 populations from 10(5) to 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and Salmonella Typhimurium populations (p < 0.05) from 10(4) to 10(2) CFU/mL. These results indicate that orange pulp and/or peel included in ruminant diets could decrease ruminal populations of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Further research is needed to determine whether the antimicrobial activity of orange products against E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium is expressed in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the effect of natural antimicrobial systems on spoilage and pathogenic microflora during storage. The antimicrobial effect during storage will depend on the concentration of the compound, storage temperatures, pH changes, water activity (aw) levels, oxygen levels, enzyme activity, interaction with food components and additives, microbial interactions, and the sensitivity and growth phase of the target bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria and their associated antimicrobial metabolites, yeasts, antimicrobial compounds from plants, chelating agents such as transferrins, enzymes, and bacteriophages could all be used to extend the shelf life of food products. Their main use would be as part of hurdle technology when they could be used in combination with traditional preservatives and storage methods.
Chapter
This chapter begins with a discussion of household sources of pathogens that can enter the home via air, food or water. Pathogens can also be introduced into a home via humans themselves who acquire an infection outside of the home prior to entry into the home. Once inside the home, pathogens can be transferred either via person-person contact, or via person-fomite-person. In this chapter are identified household and indoor sources of pathogens, and their fate and transport within the indoor environment, with particular emphasis on the occurrence and persistence of pathogens on fomites. Finally, the potential for transfer of pathogens via fomites and hand-to-hand contact is discussed.
Chapter
Viruses and viroids infect large numbers of plant species; some of them are transmitted through seeds of certain plant species only, and not in all plant species infected by them. Many seedborne viruses have been recognized as pathogens of quarantine importance. Viruses such as Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) can be easily transmitted by mechanical inoculation. Viruses are submicroscopic pathogens that cause several serious diseases in all known organisms from bacteria to highly evolved human beings. The presence of viruses in mother plants or propagules is visually examined by personnel with sufficient experience. Symptoms induced by viroids vary depending on the host-plant-viroid combinations after varying periods of incubation. Citrus plants are natural hosts of several viroids belonging to the family Pospiviroidae. Detection of the viroids directly in citrus plants by diagnostic methods yielded erratic results.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the effect of natural antimicrobial systems on spoilage and pathogenic microflora during storage. The antimicrobial effect during storage will depend on the concentration of the compound, storage temperatures, pH changes, water activity (aw) levels, oxygen levels, enzyme activity, interaction with food components and additives, microbial interactions, and the sensitivity and growth phase of the target bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria and their associated antimicrobial metabolites, yeasts, antimicrobial compounds from plants, chelating agents such as transferrins, enzymes, and bacteriophages could all be used to extend the shelf life of food products. Their main use would be as part of hurdle technology when they could be used in combination with traditional preservatives and storage methods.
Chapter
The indoor environments including home, schools, workplaces, and hospitals act as reservoirs of human pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of the household and indoor sources of pathogens, their fate, and transport within the indoor environment. Household sources of pathogens include air, food, water, and fomites. Microbial airborne pathogens can occur as bioaerosols and include bacteria, viruses, molds, and spores. Infectious pathogens—such as viruses and bacteria—can also be found in household air such as influenza, cold, and even chickenpox and tuberculosis are transmitted within households. The food products that contain pathogens—such as Salmonella—can result in human infections within households via two mechanisms: contamination of human hands and fomites and direct consumption of raw or undercooked foodstuffs. Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba spp. are the pathogens commonly associated with waterborne illness. Enteric, respiratory, and dermal pathogens have the greatest potential to be spread by fomites. Higher bacterial transfer rates from a fomite to the hand have been observed with hard, nonporous surfaces (phone receiver, or faucet) than with porous surfaces (clothings or sponges).
Article
Oregano and clove oils were diluted and examined for their activity against enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. An innocuous oil such as olive oil was also included in this study as a control. Viruses were incubated with oil dilutions and enumerated by plaque assay. Antiviral activity of oregano and clove oils was demonstrated on two enveloped viruses of both the DNA and RNA types and the disintegration of virus envelope was visualised by negative staining using transmission electron microscopy.
Article
The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of domestic cooking in inactivating manila clams experimentally infected with murine norovirus (MNV). A cooking pan was modified to enable electronic temperature probes to be positioned to record both flesh and environment temperature. Manila clams were infected with 10(4) TCID50%ml(-1) of MNV. The infected whole-in-shell clams, divided into three replicates, were cooked on an electric stove and groups of 9 clams removed from the pan at fixed intervals. Pools of 3 digestive glands were examined by virus isolation to ascertain residual viral load. Results showed that ten minutes of cooking by a traditional domestic method at a temperature close to 100°C, for at least 2 minutes, can completely devitalize the MNV in infected clams. This is generally the time needed for the majority of valves to open up. At present it is highly recommended to label all lagoon products as "requiring cooking before consumption", but no specifications are given on how long and at what temperature they should be cooked. Our results can provide the consumer with useful indications on how to cook clams to prevent any risk of foodborne illness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.