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Smart City Energy Management via Monitoring of Key Performance Indicators



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... 2 safe, secure, reliable, resilient, efficient, economic and sustainable electrical energy to consumers [3,4,5]. For that reason, the adoption of smart grid technologies is of utmost importance for energy efficiency in smart cities [6]. Moreover, the presence of autonomous cars makes the energy management of smart cities even more complex [7]. ...
... The huge potential of data-driven frameworks for energy management in smart cities was shown in several works so far [6,8]. In [6], the focus is on data-driven decision-making for energy management. ...
... The huge potential of data-driven frameworks for energy management in smart cities was shown in several works so far [6,8]. In [6], the focus is on data-driven decision-making for energy management. On the other side, in [8], the focus is on optimal energy distribution for adaptable consumer demand. ...
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Energy management is one of the greatest challenges in smart cities. Moreover, the presence of autonomous vehicles makes this task even more complex. In this paper, we propose a data-driven smart grid framework which aims to make smart cities energy-efficient focusing on two aspects: energy trading and autonomous vehicle charging. The framework leverages deep learning, linear optimization, semantic technology, domain-specific modelling notation, simulation and elements of relay protection. The evaluation of deep learning module together with code generation time and energy distribution cost reduction performed within the simulation environment also presented in this paper are given. According to the results, the achieved energy distribution cost reduction varies and depends from case to case. [Projects of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44006 and Gran no. III47003]
Conference Paper
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Building automation is a vital part of many use cases related to energy efficiency and smart living in the context of smart cities. State of the art building automation systems like KNX, BACnet or ZigBee are based on control networks mainly used for local control scenarios using non-IP communications. This paper presents an integration approach for building automation systems using an IPv6 enabled service-oriented architecture allowing interconnecting heterogeneous technologies into a large-scale distributed control system. Details on the concept, a proof of concept implementation and performance evaluation results of a multi-protocol gateway are presented, offering a per-device IPv6 interface using a novel CoAP/EXI protocol binding for oBIX. The integration approach aims at providing a homogeneous integration layer that can be used to build advanced control scenarios that might arise in the context of smart cities.
Conference Paper
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The emergence of the Smart Grid promises a new generation of innovative applications and services that are based on the fine-grained information acquired almost in “real-time” from the underlying infrastructure. To realize this vision, (open) platforms providing access to the smart meter data as well as potential management and value-added functionalities are needed. These will offer basic energy services that can be commonly used by application developers. We depict here our assessment from implementing and operating such a platform in a pilot that took place in Spain in 2012, and draw some lessons learned that affect their design and performance.
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The smart grid enabled city is an emerging complex system of systems where different stakeholders will have to strive towards achieving their goals while interacting with each-other. At parts of the city such as the districts, the energy signature and efforts towards its better energy efficiency will heavily depend on the utilization of availability and optimal usage of the local resources. The latter may be very dynamic and depend on several complex conditions such as weather, prosumer behavioural patterns, business interactions etc. An emergent city-wide behaviour appears when a number of simple entities i.e. the prosumers, operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviours as a collective. In order to empower the smart grid city, several energy services capturing the common needs of all stakeholders need to be made available to them. As a result of a (potentially) common platform that offers basic energy services, rapid development of applications can be realized without the need to start from scratch. Such energy services have been identified, analysed and implemented, in the context of a wider enterprise system architecture. An insight on their functionality, usage and development challenges and experiences is provided.
Conference Paper
Successful adoption of Smart Grid requires technological readiness of all the players from generation plans to the end consumers. This implies many challenges, especially affecting the brownfield urban areas. A decision support platform, allowing evaluation of retrofitting options in terms of cost and performance is required to design and implement urban infrastructure upgrade measures, facilitating timely integration with modern energy systems. This paper presents the approach taken in the URB-Grade project in order to design such a system. Both methodology and overall technological approach are presented, together with description of demonstration scenarios foreseen.
Conference Paper
In the last years the European Union has actively promoted the renewable energies and the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) also for residential and tertiary buildings. The exploitation of renewable sources and cogeneration seems hampered by the regulatory wall that prohibit for residential, tertiary and commercial buildings the constitution of users clusters. In fact, the unification up to a threshold value of some tens of kVA, at least, can facilitate the installation of renewable energy power plants as solar PV modules or CHP systems (cogeneration) or CCHP systems (tri-generation), overcoming technical and economical barriers and combining several load profiles. The actual distribution system for low voltage LV customers appears inadequate to comply with these goals. At this aim the authors propose the design of a Sustainable Energy Microsystem (SEM) for the integration of different subsystems, currently independent, as final users and high efficiency buildings, dispersed generation from renewable and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units and subsystems for the urban mobility: metro-transit, trams and recharging of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles (PHEV) for the surface mobility. The integration is analyzed in the direction of a “smart city” concept, with the optimized and integrated management of many services. These activities are about the general topic of design and construction of nearly zero energy buildings with the use of innovative technologies as home and building automation. The buildings integrated in “energy hub” with dispersed generation and urban mobility systems, constitute the “energy islands” of the future smart grid.
In the objective of reaching the “nearly zero-energy buildings” target set by the European Union, municipalities cover a crucial role in advocating and implementing energy-efficient measures on a local scale. Based on a dataset of 322 municipalities in Northern Italy, we carried out a statistical analysis to investigate which factors influence the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. In particular, the analysis focuses on four categories of factors: (i) capacity building for energy efficiency, (ii) existing structure and competences for energy efficiency, (iii) technical and economic support for energy efficiency, and (iv) spill-over effect caused by adoption of “easier” energy-efficient measures. Our results show that capacity building through training courses and technical support provided by energy audits affect positively the adoption of energy efficiency in municipal buildings. The size of the municipal authority, the setting of local energy policies for residential buildings and funding for energy audits are not correlated with energy efficiency in public buildings, where the “plucking of low hanging fruit” often prevails over more cost-effective but long-term strategies. Finally, our results call for the need to promote an efficient knowledge management and a revision of the Stability and Growth Pact.
Pla d'Energia, Canvi climàtic i Qualitat ambiental (PECQ)
  • Barcelona-Energy-Agency
Barcelona-Energy-Agency, "Pla d'Energia, Canvi climàtic i Qualitat ambiental (PECQ)," 2011. [Online]. Available: eb.htm
Buildings Energy Advanced Management System (BEAMS)
  • European Project
European Project " Buildings Energy Advanced Management System (BEAMS) ", [Online]. Available:
Enhancing energy efficiency in public buildings: The role of local energy audit programmes
  • E Annunziata
  • F Rizzi
  • M Frey
E. Annunziata, F. Rizzi, and M. Frey, "Enhancing energy efficiency in public buildings: The role of local energy audit programmes," Energy Policy, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.02.027.
Decision support tool for retrofitting a district towards district as a service
  • A Florea
  • C Postelnicu
  • J L Martinez Lastra
  • M Presser
  • T Plambech
  • M Larrañaga
  • A Colino
  • J A Contreras
  • V M Bayona Pons
A. Florea, C. Postelnicu, J. L. Martinez Lastra, M. Presser, T. Plambech, M. Larrañaga, A. Colino, J. A. Márquez Contreras, and V. M. Bayona Pons, "Decision support tool for retrofitting a district towards district as a service," Intelligent Energy Systems (IWIES), 2013 IEEE International Workshop on. pp. 70-75, 2013.