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Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment by Alexey V. Yablokov; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. Nesterenko

Authors:
Subject Index
Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe
for People and the Environment
A
NNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Volume 1181
Pagenumbersfollowedbyf or t indicate material in figures or tables, respectively.
A
aberrations
chromosomal, 65–71, 75–76
de novo, 73–74, 76
fauna, 265–268, 273, 323
flora, 248–250, 248t, 249t, 323
genetic polymorphisms of proteins, 72–73
genomic, 65, 71–72
as indicators of health status, 75–76
nonstable, 65, 68, 69, 70f
satellite DNA, 73
stable, 65, 69
Abies concolor, 244
abnormalities. See aberrations; anomalies;
specific types
aborted fetuses, analysis of, 98, 125, 127, 128t
abortions
medical, 97, 195, 325
spontaneous, 73–74, 192–196, 198t
in Belarus, 43, 97
in Iceland, 195, 197f, 198t
in Russia, 49, 100, 101f, 193
in Ukraine, 99, 193
Abramis brama, 264
“absence of proof,” 39
absinthe plant, 238–239
absorbents
in agriculture, 312
in human body, 304–309, 316, 324
accelerated aging, 55–57, 321–322
accommodation, visual, 55, 112, 114
accumulation
bioaccumulation, 221, 227, 282, 285, 315,
323
coefficient of
in fauna, 255–256
in flora, 237
Achillea millefolium, 243, 249
acquired immune deficiencies, 1, 87. See also
immune system diseases
ACTH. See adrenocorticotropin hormone
acute bronchitis, 88, 91
“acute inhalation depression of the upper
respiratory system,” 92–93, 321
acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 177t,
178–179, 178t, 180
acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 179
acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia, 177t,
178t
acute radiation sickness, viii
acute respiratory virus infections (ARVs), 88,
93
adaptation, to radiation, 285–286, 323
additives, food, 303–309, 315
adenoid hypertrophy, 89
adenomas, prostatic, 99
adrenal cancer, 183, 184t
adrenal glands, 77–78, 80, 90, 299t
adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), 79t
Aegean Sea, 268
aerosols
atmospheric contamination by, 223–226
geographic distribution of, 6–27, 8f
1
2
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
and respiratory disease, 92–93
stages of cloud formation, 8f
Afghanistan, contamination of, 15
Africa, contamination of, 8t, 16, 319
Ag-110. See silver-110
agaric mushrooms, 315
age-dependent macular degeneration (AMD),
114
aging, accelerated, 55–57, 321–322
aglet, 243
agriculture
food contamination in. See food
contamination
land contamination/loss in, 9–10, 311–312
protection measures in, 312–313, 312t,
313t, 316, 324
Agrobacterium, 282
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 247
AIDS, Chernobyl, 1, 87, 218, 320, 322. See
also immune system diseases
Alaska, contamination of, 15
Albania, contamination of, 11t
albino, bird, 267, 267f
albumin layer, of erythrocytes, 59
Alces alces, 256t, 257, 259f, 259t, 292
alcohol dependence, 108
aldosterone, 79t
Aleksievich, Svetlana, 37
algae, green, 316
alginates, 304, 309
ALL. See acute lymphoblastic leukemia
allergies, 88, 91, 92
Allium cepa, 249, 249t
alopecia, 55, 121, 128
Alternaria alternata, 282
Am. See americum
AMD. See age-dependent macular
degeneration
americum (Am)
bioaccumulation of, 285
contamination
aquatic (water), 227, 228t
flora, 244
food, 294
with multiple radionuclides, 35
soil (ground), 323
genetic effects of, 77
americum-241 (Am-241)
and cancer, 184
contamination, 24
fauna, 256t, 257
movement to food chain, 221
soil (ground), 231t, 316
mortality effects of, 210
amphibians
biological changes in, 271–272
genetic changes in, 267
incorporation of radionuclides in, 258–259,
323
Amphipoda, 268
Anas platyrhynchos, 257, 260t
anemia, 60
aplastic, 59, 99
in breast-fed babies, 88
genetic polymorphisms of proteins and, 72
hypochromatic, 270
iron-deficient, 59
postnatal, 97
during pregnancy, 97, 99
anencephaly, 132
animals, 255–279
biological changes in, 268–271
clean breeding of, 313, 313t
deteriorating health of, 255, 285
genetic changes in, 265–266, 285–286
incorporation of radionuclides, 255–257,
323
indicator species, 256–257
maximum radionuclide concentrations in,
256, 256t
reproductive abnormalities in, 259–263
Annan, Kofi, 2
anomalies. See also specific types
congenital, 73–74, 125–134, 321
plant, 246–248
anoxic metabolism, 134
Antarctica, contamination of, 16
antenatal mortality, 192–196
in Belarus, 43, 97, 192–193, 193
f, 196
bone disease and, 102, 103t
in Croatia, 194, 194f
in Denmark, 195, 197f, 198t
in Finland, 195, 198t
in Germany, 193f, 194–195, 197f, 198t
SUBJECT INDEX
3
in Greece, 193f, 198t
in Hungary, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
in Iceland, 195, 197f, 198t
in Italy, 198t
in Norway, 195, 197f, 198t
in Poland, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
in Russia, 49, 100, 193, 194f, 196
sex ratio in, 195, 196f, 197f
in Sweden, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
in Switzerland, 198t
in Ukraine, 99, 193, 196, 197, 200f
in United Kingdom, 195, 196f
anthocyanin, in plants, 250, 250t
antibodies, 87–90
antimony-124 (Sb-124), 22f–23f
antimony-125 (Sb-125), contamination
Greece, 12, 22f–23f
surface air (atmospheric), 225t
uneven/spotty, 22f–23f
antimony-126 (Sb-126), 21
antimony-127 (Sb-127), 225t
antioxidants
activity of, 56, 59, 76, 77t, 90, 264
decorporation by, 303
in protection measures, 315, 316
anxiety, 108
aplastic anemia, 59, 99
APO-1/FAS antigen, 88
Apodemus flavicollis, 256–257, 256t, 265, 269
apologists, for nuclear power, vii–ix,
325–326
apple juice, 294
apple pectin, 305, 316, 324
apricots, 294
aquatic contamination, 221, 226–229, 228t,
232–233, 259, 285, 322–323
in Belarus, 226–228
in Canada, 228, 229t
in Finland, 228, 229t
in France, 228, 229t
in Greece, 228, 229t
plant, 227, 228t, 238, 240t
in Russia, 226–228
in Sweden, 229, 230f
Tyrrhenian Sea, 229, 230f
in Ukraine, 226–228, 228t
aquatic plants, 227, 228, 228t
Arabidopsis thaliana
, 249, 250, 250t
arctic hare, 256t
Arctic regions, contamination of, 16, 226
Aristichthys nobilis, 264
Armenia
contamination of, 319
urogenital/reproductive disease in, 101
Armillariella mellea, 245, 245t
arrhythmia, 62
Artemisia absinthe, 238–239
Artemisia camprestris, 249
arteriosclerosis, 56
ARVs. See acute respiratory virus infections
Asia, contamination of, 8t, 14–15, 18f, 25–26,
319
aspen leaf, 238f
aspen mushroom, 245t
asphyxia, newborn, 93, 95
Asteraceae, 243
asthma, 93, 94, 95, 283
asthmatic bronchitis, 91
astigmatism, 114
atherosclerosis, 56, 62–64, 108
atmospheric contamination, 223–226, 227t,
232–233, 285, 322–323
in Belarus, 223–225, 224t, 225f
concentrations of radionuclides in, 223,
224t
dynamics of radionuclides in, 223, 224t,
225f
in Finland, 225, 225t
in Russia, 223–225
in United States, 226, 226t
“atmospheric radiotoxins,” 226, 237
atrophic gastritis, 24, 87
attention deficit, 105, 108, 109, 111
Austria
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
chromosomal aberrations in, 70
congenital malformations in, 130, 131t
contamination of, 11t, 231, 319
protection measures in, 316
thyroid cancer in, 170
autoimmune orchitis, 101
autoimmune thyroiditis, 79, 80, 83–84, 85,
165
4
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
autonomic nervous system disorders, 63, 105,
110, 119, 205, 217, 321
autumnal hawkbit, 249
B
Ba-140. See barium-140
bacteria, 281–284, 323
baldness, 55, 121, 128
Baltic Sea, 259, 291, 292f
bank voles
biological changes in, 268
Eimeria cerna in, 282–283, 282t
genetic changes in, 265–266, 266t, 323
incorporation of radionuclides in, 256–257,
256t, 257f, 258f, 323
nematode and cestode invasion of, 272,
273t
reproductive abnormalities in, 260,
262–263, 323
BAOs. See bioantioxidants
barium-140 (Ba-140)
contamination, 15
aquatic (water), 228, 229t
soil (ground), 232
surface air (atmospheric), 224t, 225, 225t,
226
uneven/spotty, 21
“hot particles,” 21
primary emissions of, 19t
barium sulfates, 304
barley, 243, 247, 248t
barn swallows
biological changes in, 271
genetic changes in, 266–267, 267f
reproductive abnormalities in, 263–264
B cells, 87–90
Be-7. See beryllium-7
Becquerels (or Bequerels) per square meter
(Bq/m
2
), xii
beef, 291, 315
beetles, 267–268
beetroot, 243, 315
behavioral disorders, 107, 115
Belarus
contamination of, 7–10, 319
agricultural land, 9–10, 311–312
aquatic (water), 226–228
Cs-137, 7–8, 8t,11t,14f
fauna, 255–279
flora, 237–254
heavy metal, 24, 43, 43t
I-131, 7, 13f
I-132, 7, 13f
lead, 24, 43, 43t
population affected by, 25, 25t
Pu,9,16f
soil (ground), 229–230
Sr-90, 8–9, 15f
surface air (atmospheric), 223–225, 224t,
225f
Te-132, 7, 13f
economic damage in, 325
food contamination in, 289–290, 290t, 291t,
294–298
health effects in
accelerated aging, 55
blood and blood-forming organ disease,
58–59, 59t
bone and muscle diseases, 102
breast cancer, 181–182, 182f
cancer morbidity, general, 162–163, 162t,
163f, 163t, 184–185, 184t, 185t
cancers other than thyroid and blood,
181–182
cardiovascular disease, 62
chromosomal aberrations, 66, 66t
congenital malformations, 125–127, 125t,
126t, 127t, 128t
digestive system and visceral organ, 116
endocrine system disease, 78–79
general morbidity, 42–45, 134
in adults, 44–45
in children, 42–44, 43t,44t, 133t
immune system, 87–89, 89t
infections and parasitic infestations,
122–123
leukemia, 177–178, 177t, 178t
lymphoid cancer, 177, 177f, 178t, 179t
nervous system, 105–106
respiratory system, 93
sense organ, 112–113, 113f, 113t
skin disease, 120–121
thyroid cancer, 165–166, 165f, 166f, 167t,
168f, 176
SUBJECT INDEX
5
thyroid disease, 78–79
trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), 71, 72f,72t
urogenital/reproductive, 97
human body contamination in, 294–298,
296t–297t, 297f–299f, 299t
life expectancy in, 193, 193f
mortality in
antenatal, 43, 97, 192–193, 193f, 196
cancer, 184–185, 184t, 185t
infant, 42, 200, 201f
liquidator, 201–203
overall (general), 205–206, 206f, 207,
209, 218
perinatal, 197, 199f
total number of extra deaths, 209, 210t,
322
total number of victims, 209–211
national report (2006), xi
population shifts (moving) in, 36
protection measures in, 311–317
Belarus National Academy Forest Institute,
314
Belarussian berries, 239
Belarussian Institute of Radiation Medicine
and Endocrinology, 304
Belarus State Committee on Standardization,
295
Belgium
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t
BELRAD Institute, 39, 289–290, 294,
305–308, 324
benthic fish, 315
Bering Sea, 226
berries, 239–244, 242f, 242t, 290, 314–315,
324
berry juices, 294
beryllium-7 (Be-7), 15, 225
beta-carotene, 305
beta contamination, 226t, 227t, 233t
Betonica officinalis, 241
Betula pendula, 241
BfS-Workshop on Chernobyl Health
Consequences, 38
bilberries, 239–244, 241f, 241t, 242f, 242t
biliary disease, 116–120
bilirubin, 59
bioaccumulation, 221, 227, 282, 285, 315, 323
bioantioxidants (BAOs), 59
bioconcentration, 233
biodosimetry, 34–35
biological age, accelerated, 55–56
biota, microbial, 281–284, 285, 323
birch mushroom, 245t
birds
biological changes in, 271
genetic changes in, 266–267, 267f
immigration to Chernobyl zone, 273, 285
incorporation of radionuclides in, 257–258,
260t, 323
reproductive abnormalities in, 263–264
birth(s)
cesarean, blood loss in, 62
premature, 42, 43, 50, 98, 99, 195
sex ratio in, 101–102, 194
birth defects. See congenital malformations
birth rate, reduction in, 193, 195
birth weight, low, 43, 45–46, 49–50, 50f
, 74,
199t
“black hole,” 323
black microfungi, 282
black milk mushroom, 245t
black redstart, 267
Black Sea, 268
bladder, 96, 99
bladder cancer, 182, 183, 184, 184t
blood cell morphology, 60
blood disease
in children of irradiated parents, 74, 74t
malignant, 177–181, 321. See also leukemia
nonmalignant, 58–61, 64–65
in Belarus, 58–59, 59t
in Russia, 60–61
in Ukraine, 59–60
blood-forming organs, diseases of, 58–61,
64–65
blood pressure, 62–64
blood vessels
accelerated aging of, 55–56
diseases of, 62–64, 320
bloodwort (Achillea millefolium), 243, 249
blueberries, 241–244, 241t, 242f, 243, 243t,
244t, 315
6
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
blue boletus, 245t
boars
deteriorating health of, 255, 285
hematological changes in, 270
hunting of, 314–315
incorporation of radionuclides, 256t, 257,
259t, 323
reproductive abnormalities in, 260–261,
262t
body malformations, 125, 132f, 133. See also
congenital malformations
“boiler,” microevolutionary, 323
Boletus edulus, 245, 245t
Boletus luridus, 245
boletus mushrooms, 245, 315
Boletus versipellis, 245t
Bombina bombina, 258
bone density, 102–104
bone diseases, 102–104, 320–321
in Belarus, 102
in Russia, 103–104, 103t, 104t
in Ukraine, 102–103, 103t
bone pain, 102, 111
Boraginaceae, 243
Bos taurus. See cattle
Bradford Hill criteria, 50
brain
circulation in, 64, 108
diseases of, 104–112
EEG patterns in, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111
radiosensitivity of, 105
brain tumors, 128, 129f, 182, 183, 183f, 184
bread, contamination of, 292
bream, 228t, 264
breast cancer, viii, 181–184
in Belarus, 181–182, 182f
in Russia, 183
time until clinically apparent, 161
in Ukraine, 182–183
breast neoplasms, in rats, 271, 271t
breathing difficulties, 92–96
bronchial asthma, 93, 94, 95
bronchial epithelium, 96
bronchial tubes, 92
bronchitis
acute, 88, 91
asthmatic, 91
chronic, 94–95, 94f,95
bronchopulmonary morbidity, 92–96
brown frogs, 267, 272
brown hare, 256t, 259t
buckthorn (Frangula alnus), 242, 242f, 243
Bufo bufo, 259
Bulgaria
cancer morbidity in, general, 164, 185t
congenital malformations in, 130, 131t
contamination of, 10, 11t, 21, 231
effective individual dose in, 316
food contamination in, 295t, 316
maternal toxemia in, 101
mortality in, cancer, 185t
C
CA. See coefficient of accumulation
Ca. See calcium
calcitonin, 80, 83
calcitriol, 80
calcium
as radionuclide antagonist, 312, 315–316
supplement, with decorporation, 305
calcium metabolism hormones, 80, 83
Calendula officinalis, 243
Canada, contamination of, 15
aquatic (water), 228, 229t
surface air (atmospheric), 225
cancer, 161–191
bladder, 182, 183, 184, 184t
blood (leukemia), 161, 177–181, 321
breast, viii, 161, 181–184, 182f
colon, 182
early data/forecasts on, 32, 161–162
general morbidity in, 162–164, 184–185,
184t, 185t
in Belarus, 162–163, 162t, 163f, 163t
in Russia, 164, 164f
in Ukraine, 163–164
intestinal, 182
kidney, 182, 184, 184t
latencies of, 161, 219
lung, viii, 161, 181–184
mortality from, 184–185, 184t, 185t,
206–207, 208t, 209
nervous system, 182–183, 183f
pancreatic, 182
prostate, 183, 206–207
rectal, 161, 182
SUBJECT INDEX
7
screening and prevention, 325
skin, 161, 181, 183, 184t
stomach, 161, 181, 182, 183
thyroid, viii, 2, 76, 86, 161, 165–176, 321
time until clinically apparent, 161
urogenital, 182, 183
viruses and, 283
“cancer epidemic,” 218–219
“cancer rejuvenescence,” 321
Cantharellus cibarius, 245t
Capreolus capreolus, 256t, 257, 259t
Carassius auratus, 272, 272t
Carassius carassius, 272, 272t
caraway seeds, 294
cardiac rhythm abnormalities, 62
cardiovascular disease, viii, 61–65
in Belarus, 62
chromosomal aberrations and, 76
in Russia, 63–64, 63t
in Ukraine, 63
caries, dental, 116, 117, 118, 128
carp (fish), 264, 265f, 267, 272, 272t, 315
Carum, 294
Caryophyllaceae, 243
case-control approach, 37
cataracts, viii, 2, 56, 112–116
in Belarus, 112–113, 113t
congenital, 112, 113, 115, 130
involutional, 114
radiogenic origin of, 116
in Ukraine, 113–115
catastrophe, definition of, xii
catfish, 259, 315
cat’s tail, narrow-leaved, 240t
cattle. See also beef; milk
deteriorating health of, 255
hematological changes in, 269, 269t
incorporation of radionuclides, 256t, 257,
259t
protection measures for, 312–313
reproductive abnormalities in, 261, 263t
Caucasus, contamination of, 14–15, 320
CD3
+
cells, 87
CD4
+
cells, 87, 91, 92
CD8
+
cells, 91, 92
CD22 cells, 87
CDAs. See congenital developmental
anomalies
Ce-144. See cerium-144
cells. See specific types
central nervous system
disorders of, viii, 105, 321. See also nervous
system diseases
malformations of, 128–131
tumors/neoplasms of, 128, 129f, 182, 183f
cerebrovascular disease, 62–64
cerium-141 (Ce-141)
contamination, 15
aquatic (water), 228t
flora, 238t, 239t
surface air (atmospheric), 225, 225t
dose spectrum changes in, 23
primary emissions of, 19t
cerium-143 (Ce-143), 225t
cerium-144 (Ce-144) contamination, 15
aquatic (water), 228t
dose spectrum changes, 23
flora, 238t, 244, 245t
“hot particles,” 21, 92
primary emissions, 19t
surface air (atmospheric), 225
uneven/spotty, 20f
cesarean birth, blood loss in, 62
cesium, decorporation of, 304–309, 309,
324
cesium-134 (Cs-134)
and cancer mortality, 208t
contamination
aquatic (water), 228–229, 228t, 229t
Europe, 6–7
fauna, 256–257, 256t, 258f, 260t
flora, 238t, 244
food, 291, 293, 294, 294t
human body, 294–295, 298–299
North America, 15, 18t
soil (ground), 231, 232, 232t, 233t
Southern Hemisphere, 16
surface air (atmospheric), 224t, 225t,
226, 226t
primary emissions of, 19t
and thyroid cancer, 176
cesium-135 (Cs-135), 245t
cesium-136 (Cs-136)
dose spectrum changes in, 23
primary emissions of, 19t
surface air contamination, 225t
8
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
cesium-137 (Cs-137)
bioaccumulation of, 285
contamination
Africa, 8t,16
aquatic (water), 227–229, 228t, 229t, 230f
Asia, 8t, 14, 18f
Belarus, 7–8, 8t,11t,14f
dose spectrum changes, 23
Europe, 6–7, 8t, 10–14, 10f,11t
European Russia, 8t,11t
fauna, 256–259, 256t, 258f, 259f, 259t,
260t
flora, 238t, 239–246, 239t, 240t, 244t,
245t
food, 290–294, 290t, 291t, 292f, 292t,
293f, 293t, 294t, 295t, 300, 309
geographic distribution of, 8t
“hot particles,” 21
human body, 294–300, 296t–297t,
297f–299f, 299t
microbial, 282
movement to food chain, 221
with multiple radionuclides, 35
North America, 15, 18t
primary emissions, 19t
soil (ground), 229–232, 231t, 232t, 233t,
316, 323
Southern Hemisphere, 16
surface air (atmospheric), 224–226, 224t,
225f, 225t, 226t, 227t
Ukraine, 8t, 10, 11t,17f
uneven/spotty, 20, 20f, 21, 22f–23f
United States, 8t, 226t
decorporation of, 304–309, 324
direct measurements of, 308
health effects
accelerated aging, 55
blood/blood-forming organ disease,
59, 60
cancer morbidity, 162t, 164, 184
cardiovascular, 62
digestive system, 116, 119
endocrine, 79, 80, 81t,82t
eye/visual, 113, 114
genetic, 66, 67, 68, 77
immune system, 87–88, 91
in utero exposure, 43
placenta changes, 99, 102
primary morbidity, 44
thyroid cancer, 176
thyroid disease, 84
incorporated long-living, 217–218
mortality effects
cancer, 184, 208t
infant, 199, 202f
overall (general), 205–206, 207, 210
perinatal, 198
protection measures against
agricultural, 312, 312t, 313t
everyday life, 315–316
forestry, hunting, and fisheries, 313
cestodes, 272, 273t
CFS. See chronic fatigue syndrome
chanterelle, 245t
charr, 261f
cheese, 292, 293, 294, 303
Chernobyl. 20 Years After. Myth and Truth,xi
Chernobyl: 20 Years On. Health Effects of the
Chernobyl Accident,xi
“Chernobyl Accident’s Consequences: An
Estimation and the Forecast of Additional
General Mortality and Malignant
Diseases,” x
“Chernobyl AIDS,” 1, 87, 218, 320, 322. See
also AIDS; immune system diseases
“The Chernobyl Catastrophe–Consequences
on Human Health,” x
“Chernobyl collar,” 1
“Chernobyl contamination,” xii, 1. See also
contamination
“Chernobyl dementia,” 109, 218
Chernobyl Digest,xi
“Chernobyl dust,” 1, 21, 92–93, 223–226. See
also “hot particles”
“Chernobyl effect,” 170
The Chernobyl Forum, x, xi, 1, 32, 104, 209,
322
“Chernobyl generation,” 176, 184, 185
“Chernobyl heart,” 1, 218, 322
“Chernobyl legs,” 218
“Chernobyl limbs,” 322
“Chernobyl liquidators,” 1. See also liquidators
Chernobyl Prayer (Aleksievich), 37
“Chernobyl territories,” xii
SUBJECT INDEX
9
chickens, 255
childhood mortality, 196, 201
in Belarus, 201
in Russia, 201
in Ukraine, 201
children
accelerated aging in, 55–56
blood and blood-forming organ disease in
in Belarus, 58–59, 59t
in Russia, 60–61
in Ukraine, 59–60
bone and muscle diseases in
in Belarus, 102
in Russia, 103, 103t, 104t
serious effects of, 104
in Ukraine, 102
cancer morbidity in, general, 164, 164f
cardiovascular disease in
in Belarus, 62
in Russia, 63
in Ukraine, 63
chromosomal aberrations in
in Belarus, 66
in Russia, 68, 68t
in Ukraine, 67
chronically ill, 45–46, 46f
congenital malformations in. See congenital
malformations
deaths of. See childhood mortality
decorporation in, 303–310
digestive system/visceral organ diseases in
in Belarus, 116
in Russia, 118, 118t, 119t
in Ukraine, 117
endocrine system disease in
in Belarus, 78–79
in Russia, 80–83, 81f,81t
in Ukraine, 80
food contamination and body burden in,
294–300
general morbidity of
in Belarus, 42–44, 43t,44t
in Russia, 48–49, 49t
in Ukraine, 45–46, 45t,46f,47t
healthy, percentage of, 2
immune system disease in
in Belarus, 87–89, 89t
in Russia, 90–91
in Ukraine, 89–90
infections and parasitic infestations in
in Belarus, 122–123
in Russia, 124, 124t
in Ukraine, 123–124
international help for, 308–309
Internet resources on, xi
of irradiated parents, viii, 74–75, 74t
chromosomal aberrations in, 67, 68, 75
congenital anomalies/malformations in,
74, 74f, 128, 130
endocrine disease in, 81, 81f
general morbidity of, 74–75, 75t
immune status of, 89, 91
lead contamination in, 24
leukemia in
in Belarus, 177
in Russia, 179–180, 181t
in Ukraine, 178–179, 180t
nervous system diseases in
in Belarus, 105
in Russia, 109, 109t
in Ukraine, 106–107, 106f, 106t, 107t
“practically healthy,” viii, 42, 45, 46f, 74, 88
respiratory system disease in
in Belarus, 93
in Ukraine, 93–94
sense organ diseases in, 112–113, 113f
skin diseases in
in Belarus, 120–121
in Russia, 121, 121t
thyroid cancer in
in Belarus, 165–166, 165f, 166f
in Russia, 168–169, 171f
in Ukraine, 166–168, 169f
thyroid disease in, viii, 83–86
in Belarus, 83–84
in Russia, 86, 86t
in Ukraine, 85, 85t
urogenital/reproductive disease in
in Belarus, 97
in Russia, 100, 100t
in Ukraine, 98
“children of Chernobyl,” xi, 1. See also children
“Children of Chernobyl of Belarus,” 305, 306
China, contamination of, 14, 15, 319, 320
10
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
chlorine-36 (Cl-36)
and cancer, 184
contamination, 18
chocolate, 294
cholecystitis, chronic, 117, 118
chorioretinal degeneration, 114–115
chromosomal mutations, 65–71
in Belarus, 66, 66t
in children of irradiated parents, 67, 68, 75
fauna, 265–268
flora, 248–250
frequency of, changes in, 65–71
incidence of, 65–66, 66t
as indicators of health status, 75–76
nonstable, 65, 68, 69, 70f
in Russia, 68–70, 68t,69t,70f,70t,71t
stable, 65, 69
in Ukraine, 67–68, 67t
chronically ill children, 45–46, 46f
chronic bronchitis, 94–95, 94f,95
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 107, 218, 321
chronic gastritis, 116, 119
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), 94, 94f,96
chronic pyelonephritis, 98
chronic radiation dermatitis, 99
chronic thyroiditis, 85–86, 85f
chronic tonsillitis, 61, 89, 93
chub (fish), 315
circulating immune complexes (CICs), 87, 89,
90, 92
circulatory disease, 58–65, 320
cirrhosis, 116
Cl-36. See chlorine-36
Cladonia silvatica, 245t
Cladonia stellaris, 245t
Cladosporium cladosporioides, 282
“clean territory,” xii
cleanup workers. See liquidators
cleft lip and palate, 72, 128, 130–131
Clethrionomys glareolus. See bank voles
climacteric syndrome, 99
cloud, radioactive, 6–27
clover, 239
clusters of disease, 39
Cm-242. See curium-242
CMs. See congenital malformations
cobalt, for radioprotection, 303–304, 316
cobalt-60 (Co-60) contamination, 15, 225
coccids, 282
coefficient of accumulation (CA)
in fauna, 255–256
in flora, 237
cognitive effects, 106–109, 106f, 112, 115
collective dose, 24, 25t, 174, 219
colon cancer, 182
Colorado beetle, 267–268
“Comchernobyl,” 289–290
common reed grass, 240t
common shrew, 256t, 271, 271t
common toad, 259
complement activity, 87
concealment of data, 33–35, 177, 319,
325–326
confidence intervals, 37
congenital cataracts, 112, 113, 115, 130
congenital convulsive syndrome, 105
congenital developmental anomalies (CDAs)
genetically caused, 73–74
plural, 73
congenital diabetes, 78–79
congenital infections, 123, 124
congenital malformations (CMs), 97,
125–134, 132f, 321
in Belarus, 125–127, 125t, 126t, 127t, 128t
ear, 112
eye, 112, 126
genetically caused, 73–74, 125
genetic consultations on, 325
large, 125
prenatal diagnosis of, 325
in Russia, 129–130, 130t
in Ukraine, 127–129, 129f, 201, 201t,
217, 218f
congenital thyroid cancer, 166
coniferous forests, 250
conjunctivitis, 112, 114
Connecticut, iodine and thyroid cancer in,
174, 175t
“contaminated territories,” xii
contamination
Africa, 8t, 16, 25–26, 319
aquatic (water), 221, 226–229, 232–233,
259, 285, 322–323
SUBJECT INDEX
11
Arctic regions, 16
Asia, 14–15, 18f, 25–26, 319
Belarus, 7–10, 8t,13f–16f, 24, 25, 25t, 319
density of, 5
dynamic, long-term nature of, 27
ecological features of, 19–21
Europe, 6–14, 8f,9f,10f,12f, 318–319
European Russia, 8t, 10, 18t, 25, 25t, 319
fauna, 255–259
flora, 237–246
food, viii, 289–302, 324–325
geographical features of, 5–16, 6f,7f,8t
global scale of, 318–319, 319f
human body, 294–300, 324–325
hydrometeorogical data on, 5–6
lead, 24, 43, 43t
levels of, expression of, xii
North America, 8t, 15, 18t, 25–26, 319, 320
Northern Hemisphere, 5, 6f,7f,26
overview of, 4–30
population affected by, 2, 24–26, 25t
primary radionuclide emissions, estimates
of, 16–18, 19t
radionuclide dose spectrum changes, 21–24,
23f
secondary, 322
soil (ground), 221, 229–233, 285, 316,
322–323
Southern Hemisphere, 16
surface air (atmospheric), 223–226, 227t,
232–233, 285, 322–323
Ukraine, 8t, 10, 17f, 24, 25, 25t, 319
uneven/spotty, 19–21, 20f,22f–23f, 35, 319
use of term, xii, 1
weak,low,high,andheavy,xii
Convallaria majalis, 240, 241, 242, 242f
convulsive syndrome, congenital, 105
cooking techniques, 303, 316
coots, 257
COPD. See chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease
copper, for radioprotection, 303–304
copper cyanides, 309
corn (maize), 239, 250, 250t
cortisol, 78, 79t, 82, 97
cortisone, 80
Corylus, 294, 314
Corylus avellana, 243
cough, dry, 93, 94
cow. See cattle
cowberry, 240–241, 241t, 243, 315
cranberries (Oxycoccus palustris), 239, 241
t,
242t, 290t, 315
cranial nerve abnorm alities, 111
Crepis tectorum, 250
Croatia
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 130, 131t
contamination of, 11t, 231
food contamination in, 291, 293f, 295t
mortality in
antenatal, 194, 194f
cancer, 185t
crustaceans, 268
Cryptosporidium infection, 123, 124, 281
Cs-134. See cesium-134
Cs-135. See cesium-135
Cs-136. See cesium-136
Cs-137. See cesium-137
Curies per square kilometer (Ci/km
2
), xii
curium-242 (Cm-242), 19t
currants, 315, 324
Cychorium, 294
Cyprinus carpio, 264, 265f, 267
cystitis, 283
cytokines, 90
cytomegalovirus infection, 123, 281
Czech Republic
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 130
contamination of, 11t, 233t
food contamination in, 295t
mortality in, cancer, 185t
sex ratio of births in, 101–102, 194
thyroid cancer in, 170–172
D
D25
+
cells, 88
Danube River, 268
data
dismissing, fallacy of, 38
falsification of, 33–34, 177, 319
inadequate/incomplete, 36
12
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
methodological problems with, 32–41, 318,
319–320
methods for collecting/analyzing, 38–39,
320
objective, difficulty in obtaining, 33–36
scientific protocols and, 36–38, 320
secrecy/concealment of, 33–35, 177, 319,
325–326
true radionuclide impact, difficulty in
determining, 35–36
DCE. See dyscirculatory encephalopathy
deaths. See mortality
decontaminants, 304, 309
decorporants, 304, 309
decorporation, 303–310, 324
concern over microelement removal in,
306
EKG normalization with, 305–306, 306t
pectin enterosorbents for, 304–309, 324
whole-body retention functions and, 307,
307f
deer, 256t, 257, 259t, 285, 314–315, 323
deletions, chromosomal, 65
dementia, 109, 218
Denmark
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 130, 131t
contamination of, 11t
soil (ground), 231
surface air (atmospheric), 225
human body contamination in, 298
mortality in
antenatal, 195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
sex ratio of births in, 102
de novo mutations, 73–74, 76
density of contamination, 5
dental anomalies, 118, 118t, 119–120, 128
dental caries, 116, 117, 118, 128
depression, 104, 108
derived intervention level (DIL), 294
Dermatiaceae, 282
dermatitis, 99, 283
dermatological pathology, 120–122
dermorphin, 92
devil’s-bit, 249
dewberries (Rubus caesius), 241t, 242t, 243, 247
diabetes mellitus, 80
congenital, 78–79
type I, 79, 79t
type II, 56, 79
diet, protective, 315–316
diffraction grating syndrome, 114–115, 218
digestive system diseases, 116–120, 321
accelerated aging and, 55
in Belarus, 116
in Russia, 118–119, 118t, 119t, 120f,
120t
in Ukraine, 117–118, 117t
DIL. See derived intervention level
direct measurements, 308
disability, primary
in Belarus, 44–45, 45f
in Russia, 49–50, 50t
in Ukraine, 46–47, 46–48, 47t,48f,48t
disadaptation syndrome, ecological, 44
disease. See also specific diseases
nonmalignant, viii, 58–160
oncological, viii, 161–191
disk tilling, 312
“distribution of diseases in territory,” xii
DNA, satellite, changes in, 73
DNA repair activity, 68, 72–73
Dnepr/Dnieper River, 226, 227, 268
Don River, 226
dose
collective, 24, 25t, 174, 219
effective individual, 316
methodological problems in assessing,
34–35, 319
“official,” 34
reconstructing, difficulties in, 35, 319
dose spectrum, changes in, 21–24, 23f
Down syndrome, 71–72, 72f,72t,73f, 130,
131
Drosophila melanogaster, 268, 268t
dry cough, 93, 94
ducks, 257, 260t, 291, 315
dust, 1, 21, 92–93, 223–226. See also “hot
particles”
dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DCE), 64
dysfunction. See specific types
dyspeptic syndromes, 117
dyspnoea, 94
SUBJECT INDEX
13
E
EAC-POK, 90
eagles, 285
early aging syndrome, 321–322
ear malformations, 112
earthworms, 264
ecological disadaptation syndrome, 44
economic damage, 325
Edward’s syndrome, 72
EEG. See electroencephalogram
effective individual dose, 316
eggs, protection measures for, 315
Egypt, contamination of, 16
Eimeria cerna, 282–283, 282t
EKG. See electrocardiogram
electrocardiogram (EKG), decorporation and,
305–306, 306t
electroencephalogram (EEG), 106, 108, 109,
110, 111
electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
dosimetry, 34, 325
elk, 285, 293, 294, 314–315, 323
embryonic hernias, 131
The Emirates, contamination of, 319, 320
emotional disorders, 107, 108, 115
emphysema, 94
encephalocele, 132
encephalopathy
dyscirculatory, 64
in liquidators, 108, 109–111
perinatal, 105, 106, 109
senile, 55–56
endive, 294
endobronchial atrophy, 95
endocolitis, 283
endocrine system disease, 77–87, 320
in Belarus, 78–79
in children of irradiated parents, 75
data on, review of, 78–83
in Russia, 80–82
in Ukraine, 80
endocrine tumors, in rats, 271, 271t
endometriosis, 97
England
contamination of, 6–7, 14
mortality in
antenatal, 196f
neonatal, 196f
perinatal, 196f, 199
thyroid cancer in, 172
Enterobacter, 282
enterosorbents, 304–309, 316, 324
environmental consequences, 221–222,
285–286, 322–324
aquatic (water), 221, 226–229, 228t,
232–233, 259, 285, 322–323
fauna, 255–279, 285–286, 323
flora, 237–254, 285–286, 323
microbial biota, 281–284, 285, 323
protection measures against, 311–316,
324–325
soil, 221, 229–233, 233t, 285, 316, 322–323
surface air (atmospheric), 223–226, 227t,
232–233, 285, 322–323
eosinophil(s), 87–88
eosinophilic cation protein, 88
eosinophilic protein X, 87–88
epilepsy, 105
epileptiform syndromes, 107
EPR-dosimetry, 34, 325
Epstein-Barr virus, 283
Equus caballus, 263
erectile dysfunction, 97, 99
Ericaceae, 243
erythremia, 178t
erythrocytes, 59, 60–61, 88
Escherichia, 282
Escherichia coli, 282
Esox lucius, 264
Estonia
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 231
suicide in, 111
estradiol, 80
estriol, 78
estrogen, 99
Europe. See also specific countries
contamination of, 6–14, 8f,8t,9f,10f,11t,
12f, 318–319
“hot particles,” 21
population affected by, 24–26, 25t,26t
European Russia. See Russia; Russia, European
14
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
everyday life, protection measures in, 315–316
evolution, radioadaptation and, 285–286, 323
exclusion zone, 314
excretion, of radionuclides, 304–308
external radiation, viii
and immune system, 90
levels of, difficulty in determining, 35
and respiratory system, 92
exudative diathesis, 121
eye(s), 112–116, 321
accelerated aging of, 55–56
accommodation of, 55, 112, 114
in Belarus, 112–113, 113t
cataracts of, viii, 2, 56, 112–116, 130
congenital malformations of, 112, 126,
129–130
in Russia, 115
in Ukraine, 113–115
F
Fabaceae, 243
fallacy, of dismissing radionuclide impact, 38
falsification of data, 33–34, 177, 319
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization
farms. See agriculture
fatigue, 106, 107, 111, 218, 321
fatty liver, 118
fauna, 255–279, 285–286, 323
biological changes in, 268–273
coefficient of accumulation for, 255–256
genetic changes in, 255, 265–268, 268t,
273, 285–286
incorporation of radionuclides, 255–259,
273, 323
indicator species, 256–257
maximum radionuclide concentrations
in mammals, 256, 256t
reproductive abnormalities in, 255,
259–265
transfer ratio/coefficient for, 255–256
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
Fe-59. See iron-59
fecal excretion, of radionuclides, 304–308
fermentation-type metabolism, 134
fertilizers, as radionuclide antagonists, 312,
324
fiber, dietary, 316
fibrinogen activity, 61
fibrinolytic activity, 61
fibromas, uterine, 98
Ficedula hypoleuca, 264
fiddleheads, 294
field wormwood, 249
figs, 294
filberts, 294
Finland
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 130, 131t
contamination of, 10, 11t, 21, 23, 319
aquatic (water), 228, 229t
surface air (atmospheric), 225, 225t
food contamination in, 291, 292f, 293t
human body contamination in, 298–299
mortality in
antenatal, 195, 198t
cancer, 185t
infant, 200, 202f
premature births in, 50
sex ratio of births in, 102
fires, forest, 314
fish
biological changes in, 272
contamination of, 227–228, 228t, 259, 261f,
261t, 323
deteriorating health of, 285
food contamination, 289, 291, 292t, 293,
293f
genetic changes in, 267
protection measures for, 315, 316, 324
reproductive abnormalities in, 264, 265f
fisheries, 313–315, 316
flies (Drosophila), 268, 268t
flora, 237–254, 285–286, 323
anomalies in, 246–248
biological changes in, 250
genetic changes in, 248–250, 285–286
“geobotanical catastrophe” in, 250
incorporation of radionuclides, 237–246,
323
morphological changes in, 246–248, 246t
mushroom and lichen contamination,
244–246, 245t
SUBJECT INDEX
15
plant contamination, 237–244
tumors in, 247–248
Florida, contamination of, 15
flounder, 292f
fluctuating symmetry, 323
fluids, for washing away radionuclides, 304,
316
folic acid, 305
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 82, 99
food additives, 303–309, 315
food allergies, 91
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
304
Food and Drug Administration, 293
food chain, radionuclide movement to, 35, 221
food contamination, viii, 289–302, 295t,
324–325
agricultural land and, 311–312
in Belarus, 289–290, 290t, 291t, 294–298
in Croatia, 291, 293f
in Finland, 291, 292f, 293t
and human body contamination,
294–300
levels of, difficulty in determining, 35
monitoring for, 289–294, 300–301, 324
permissible levels of, 312–313
protection measures against
agricultural, 312–313, 312t, 316, 324
everyday life, 315–316
forestry, hunting, and fisheries, 313–315,
316
public information on, 309
reduction of, 303–304, 312–316, 324
seasonal variation in, 295–296
in United States, 292–294, 294t
forest(s)
contamination of, 237–244, 250, 266, 311
as “live partition wall,” 314
protection measures for, 313–315, 316, 324
forest fires, 314
forestry, 313–315, 316
forgetting, admonition against, ix, 326
fox, 315
fractures, pathological, 103–104
Fragaria, 315
Fragaria vesca, 240–244, 241t, 242f, 242t, 244t
France
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 10–11, 11t, 19–21, 170,
172f, 319
aquatic (water), 228, 229t
soil (ground), 231
food contamination in, 291
human body contamination in, 299, 300f
protection measures in, 316
secrecy in, 33
thyroid cancer in, 170, 172, 172f
Frangula alnus, 242, 242f, 243
Franz Josef Land, contamination of, 16
free radicals, 59, 303–304
French white fir, 244
frog(s)
biological changes in, 271–272, 272t
genetic changes in, 267, 267t, 323
incorporation of radionuclides, 258–259,
323
frog hybrid complex, 267, 267t, 272, 272t
FSH. See follicle-stimulating hormone
Fulica atra, 257
Fund for Children of Chernobyl, 306
fungi, contamination of, 237, 281–284
G
galactorrhea (or galactoria), 37, 97
gallbladder disease, 117, 119
gall formation, on oak, 248
gallstones, 117
game meat
contamination of, 289, 323
protection measures for, 313–315, 316
gamma contamination, of fauna, 256t, 260t
gaseous-aerosol radionuclides
atmospheric contamination by, 223–226
geographic distribution of, 6–27, 8f,8t
and respiratory disease, 92–93
stages of cloud formation, 8f
gases, radioactive, geographic distribution of,
6–27
gastritis
atrophic, 24, 87
chronic, 116, 119
gastroduodenitis, 119
16
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
gastroenteric disease, chromosomal
aberrations and, 76
gastrointestinal diseases. See digestive system
diseases
gender ratio
of births, 101–102, 194
of stillbirths, 195, 196f
general morbidity, 42–54, 218–219, 320
in Belarus, 42–45, 134
in adults, 44–45
in children, 42–44, 43t,44t, 133t
in children of irradiated parents, 74–75, 75t
oncological, 162–164, 184–185, 184t, 185t
in Belarus, 162–163, 162t, 163f, 163t,
184–185, 184t, 185t
in Russia, 164, 164f, 184–185, 184t, 185t
in Ukraine, 163–164, 183, 184–185, 184t,
185t
in Russia, 48–50, 133t, 134
in adults, 49–50, 49t,50t, 133t, 134
in children, 48–49, 49t
social, economic, and psychological factors
in, 50
in Ukraine, 45–48, 134
in adults, 46–48, 47f,47t,48f,48t, 134t
in children, 45–46, 45t,46f,47t, 133t
general (overall) mortality, 205–211
in Belarus, 205–206, 206f, 207, 209, 218
calculations of, 207–209, 208t, 209f
in Russia, 207–209, 207t, 208t, 209f, 218
in Ukraine, 206–207, 207t, 208, 209, 218
genetic changes, 65–77, 321
in fauna, 255, 265–268, 268t, 273, 285–286
in flora, 248–250, 285–286
genetic consultations, obligatory, 325
genetic polymorphisms, of proteins, 72–73
genital anomalies, 97, 98, 100, 129–130
genomic mutations, 65, 71–72
“geobotanical catastrophe,” 250
Georgia (republic)
congenital malformations in, 130
contamination of, 14, 319
German Federal Committee on Ionizing
Radiation, 38
German Federal Office of Radiation
Protection, 306
Germany
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
chromosomal aberrations in, 70
congenital malformations in, 130–131, 131t
contamination of, 11, 11t, 21, 231, 232t,
319
Down syndrome in, 71, 73f
food contamination in, 295t
human body contamination in, 299, 300f
leukemia in, 180
mortality in
antenatal, 193f, 194–195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
infant, 199, 200, 202f
perinatal, 194, 195f, 198
protection measures in, 316
sex ratio of births in, 102
gestational herpes, 123
gingivitis, chronic catarrhal, 119
glaucoma, 115
glioma, retinal, 181
global scale, of catastrophe, 318–319, 319f
glucose tolerance, impaired, 79
glutathione, 61
glycophorin mutations, 69
goiter, 78, 83–86
diffuse, 86
endemic, 84
multinode, 79, 84
single-node, 79, 84
gold birch, 249
golden-eye duck, 291
goldfish, wild, 272, 272t
gonadotropic hormones, 78, 82, 84
gooseberry, 315
gosmore, 249
grain crops
contamination of, 239–240, 243
genetic changes in, 248–249, 248t
morphological changes in, 246–247, 248t
phenolic compounds in, 250
grasses, 239t, 240t, 241–243, 242f, 311
gray partridge, 260t
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
great tit, 264
Greece
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
SUBJECT INDEX
17
contamination of, 11–12, 11t,22f–23f, 228,
229t, 319
food contamination in, 295t
leukemia in, 180–181
mortality in
antenatal, 193f, 198t
cancer, 185t
thyroid cancer in, 172, 173f
green algae, 316
green boletus, 245t
Greenpeace International, x
Grossularia, 315
ground contamination. See soil contamination
group assessment, 34
group dosimetry, 34
Gruby’s disease, 124, 124t, 281
gum disease, 80, 84, 119
gynecologic morbidity, 96–102
Gyroporus cyanescens, 245t
gyttja, 312
H
hair anomalies, 55, 121, 128
hair moss, 239t
hare
arctic, 256t
brown, 256t, 259t
hunting of, 315
“harelip,” 130
Hawaii, contamination of, 15
hayfields, 312
hazelnuts, 294, 314
headaches, 107, 109, 111
head malformations, 125, 133
health consequences, 320–322. See also specific
countries and disorders
data on
dismissing, fallacy of, 38
falsification of, 33–34, 177, 319
first official forecasts, 32
inadequate/incomplete, 36
methodological problems with, 32–41,
318, 319–320
methods for collecting/analyzing, 38–39,
320
objective, difficulty in obtaining, 33–36
scientific protocols and, 36–38, 320
secrecy/concealment of, 33–35, 177, 319,
325–326
true radionuclide impact, difficulty in
determining, 35–36
obstacles to analyzing, 319–320
psychological factors in, 322
“Health Effects of Chernobyl: 20 Years after
the Reactor Catastrophe,” xi
“The Health Effects of the Human Victims of
the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Collection of
Scientific Articles,” x
“health of population,” 48, 217
hearing disorders, 56, 112, 113, 115
heart
Chernobyl, 1, 218, 322
contamination of, 299t
EKG normalization in, decorporation and,
305–306, 306t
malformations of, 130
heart attack, viii, 62
heart disease, ischemic, 62–64
heavy contamination, xii
heavy metal contamination, in Belarus, 24, 43,
43t
hematological abnormalities
in Belarus, 58–59, 59t
in fauna, 269–270, 269t
hemoglobin, 60
hemorrhagic ulcers, 117
hepatic disease, 116–120
hepatitis, 116, 281, 321
active, 118
acute, 116
cancer association of, 283
chronic, 116, 118, 123
infectious, 123
hepatitis A, 281
hepatitis B, 116, 123, 281
hepatitis C, 116, 123, 281
hepatitis D, 281
hepatitis G, 281
herbs, 239t, 243, 244, 244t, 294
hernias, embryonic, 131
herpes virus infections, 122, 123, 281, 283
Heteroptera, 272
Hieracium murorum, 247
18
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hieracium umbellatum, 247
high contamination, xii
“Highly Irradiated Belarus Children project,
306
Hiroshima
cancer in, 161, 174, 176, 177, 185
cognitive effects in, 112
genetic impact of, 77
radiation comparison with, 1, 5
research and secrecy on, 2–3
Hirundo rustica. See barn swallows
HLA-DR lymphocytes, 87
Hodgkins disease, in Belarus, 177, 178t, 179t
hogs, wild. See boars
honey, 259
honey mushroom, 245, 245t
Hordeum vulgare (barley), 243, 247, 248t
hormone(s)
data on, review of, 78–83
imbalance/disorders of, 77–87
reproductive, disorders of, 96–97
horses, 263
“hot particles,” 6, 12, 21, 221, 237
influence of, difficulties in calculating, 35,
319
and respiratory disease, 92–93
“hot spots,” 19–21, 20f
house sparrows, 267
human body
contamination of, 294–300, 324–325
in Belarus, 294–298, 296t–297t, 297f,
298f, 299f, 299t
in Germany and France, 299, 300f
seasonal variation in, 295–296
decorporation of, 303–310
Hungary
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 131, 131t
contamination of, 11t, 21, 233t
low birth weights in, 50
mortality in
antenatal, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
sex ratio of births in, 102
hunting, 313–315, 316
hydrocephalus, 128
hydrocephaly, 131
hydrometeorogical data, 5–6
hydrotops, 243
Hyla, 258
Hyloconium splendens, 239t
Hypericaceae, 243
Hypericum perforatum, 241, 242, 242f, 243
hyperprolactinemia, 37, 97
hyperreflexia, 111
hypertension, 64
hyperthyroidism, 80, 83–86
Hypochoeris radicata, 249
hypochondriasis, 108
hypochromatic anemia, 270
hypogonadism, 83
Hypogymnia physodes, 272
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 264
hypophysis (pituitary gland), 77–78, 80, 83
hypothyroidism, 76, 78, 80, 83–86, 165
I
I-131. See iodine-131
I-132. See iodine-132
I-133. See iodine-133
I-135. See iodine-135
IAEA. See International Atomic Energy
Agency
IARC. See International Agency for Research
on Cancer
Iceland
antenatal mortality in, 195, 197f, 198t
contamination of, 319
Idaho, contamination of, 15, 18t
immune system diseases, 87–92, 320
in Belarus, 87–89, 89t
in children of irradiated children, 75
in Russia, 90–92
in Ukraine, 89–90
immune system stimulation, 304
immunoglobulin(s), 87–90
IgA, 87–90
IgE, 88, 89
IgG, 87–90
IgM, 87–90
in mother’s milk, 88–89
impotence, 97, 99
SUBJECT INDEX
19
incipient chestnut syndrome, 115, 218
incorporated long-living radionuclides,
217–218, 321
incorporation of radionuclides
in fauna, 255–257, 273, 323
in flora, 237–246, 323
in human body, 294–300
in human organs, variations in, 297, 299t
indicator species, 256–257
individual dose, effective, 316
individual radiation counter (IRC), 294–295,
296t–297t, 300
infant mortality, 196–197, 199–201, 199t
in Belarus, 42, 200, 201f
in Finland, 200, 202f
in Germany, 199, 200, 202f
in Poland, 200, 202f
in Russia, 183, 197, 200, 201f, 201t
in Sweden, 200–201, 203f
in Switzerland, 201, 203f
in Ukraine, 199, 200, 201f, 201t
infection(s), 122–125, 321. See also specific types
in Belarus, 122–123
in children of irradiated parents, 75
chromosomal aberrations and, 76
congenital, 123, 124
genetic polymorphisms of proteins and, 72
immune system disease and, 87–92
microbial contamination and, 281–284
in Russia, 124, 124t
in Ukraine, 123–124
infertility
female, 80, 81, 97
male, 97
in Russian liquidators, 100
influenza, 283
infusoria species, 283
in utero exposure, 218, 321
and chromosomal aberrations, 67, 68,
69, 75
and congenital malformations, 128, 132
and digestive system diseases, 117, 118
and endocrine disease, 87
and female infertility, 80
and general morbidity, 43, 74
and genetic polymorphisms of proteins, 72
and immune deficiency, 89, 91
and infectious disease, 124
and leukemia, 180–181
and nervous system diseases, 106, 106t,
109, 112
and premature birth, 195
and respiratory disease, 93
and sex ratio in births, 102
and thyroid disease, 84, 85
insects
biological changes in, 272, 272t
genetic changes in, 267–268, 286
insertions, chromosomal, 65
insulin, 79, 79t,80
intellectual development, 83, 106–107, 109,
112
intelligence quotient (IQ), 106–107, 106f, 112
interferon, 87, 90
internal radiation, viii
and immune system, 90
levels of, difficulty in determining, 35
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), 161
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The Chernobyl Forum, x, xi, 1, 32, 104,
209, 322
chromosomal linkage denied by, 75–76
collective dose estimation by, 24
data requirements/errors of, 36
early predictions by, 322
pectin endosorbents tests of, 304
international help, 308–309
Internet resources, xi
intestinal cancer, 182
intestinal diseases, chronic, 283
Introduction into Population Phenetics (Yablokov),
36
invalidism
in Belarus, 44–45, 45f
in Russia, 49–50, 50t
in Ukraine, 46–48, 47t,48f,48t
inversions, chromosomal, 65
involutional cataracts, 114
iodine, supplementation of, 303–304, 325
iodine-129 (I-129), 174–176
iodine-131 (I-131)
contamination
aquatic (water), 227, 228–229, 228t, 229t
20
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Belarus, 7, 13f
Connecticut, 174, 175t
dose spectrum changes, 23
Europe, 6–7
flora, 239t
food, 291, 293, 294t, 295t
France, 170, 172f
“hot particles,” 21, 92
human body, 300
North America, 15, 18t
Scotland, 12
soil (ground), 231, 232, 232t, 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 224, 224t, 225,
225t, 226, 226t, 227t
Sweden, 12
health effects
thyroid cancer, 170, 174, 175t
thyroid disease, 83
iodine-132 (I-132) contamination
aquatic (water), 228–229, 229t
Belarus, 7, 13f
Europe, 6
Scotland, 12
soil (ground), 231, 232, 232t
surface air (atmospheric), 226
iodine-133 (I-133)
dose of, difficulty in reconstructing, 35
dose spectrum changes in, 23
primary emissions of, 19t
surface air contamination, 225t
iodine-135 (I-135)
dose of, difficulty in reconstructing, 35
primary emissions of, 19t
“iodine” period, 77
ion-exchange resins, 304
IQ. See intelligence quotient
Iran, contamination of, 15, 320
Iraq, contamination of, 15
IRC. See individual radiation counter
Ireland
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 231
iron
for decorporation, 304, 309
supplement, with decorporation, 305
iron-59 (Fe-59), 15, 225
iron-deficient anemia, 59
irradiation in utero, 218. See also in utero exposure
ischemic disease, viii, 62–64, 283
Israel
sense organ diseases in, 115
thyroid cancer in, 172–173
Italy
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 12, 231, 319
food contamination in, 292, 295t
human body contamination in, 299
mortality in
antenatal, 198t
cancer, 185t
thyroid cancer in, 173
J
Japan
contamination of, 14
soil (ground), 231
surface air (atmospheric), 225–226
food contamination in, 295t
human body contamination in, 299
“jellyfish children,” 102
joint pain, 102, 111
juniper, 294
K
K. See potassium
Kaposi’s sarcoma, 283
Kennedy, John F., 326
kidney cancer, 182, 184, 184t
kidney disorders, 96, 98, 101
kidney infections, 98, 101, 124, 283
kidney stones, 98
Klebsiella, 282
Klinefelter (or Kleinfelter) syndrome, 72
krypton-85 (Kr-85), 19t
L
La-140. See lanthanum-140
Lactarium, 291
Lactarius necator, 245, 245t
SUBJECT INDEX
21
lactation
in elderly women, 37, 97
immunoglobulins in, 88–89
lakes, 226–229
Lamiaceae, 243
lanthanum-140 (La-140)
contamination, 15
aquatic (water), 228–229, 229t
flora, 238t
soil (ground), 232
surface air (atmospheric), 225, 226
uneven/spotty, 21
“hot particles,” 21
primary emissions of, 19t
large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 179
laryngeal diseases, chronic, 74
laryngeal tumors, 184
Latvia
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 226
mortality in
antenatal, 195, 197f
cancer, 185t
laurel leaves, 294
LCRCs. See local centers for radiation control
lead contamination, 24, 43, 43t
Leccinum scabrum, 245t
legs
blood supply to, 62
Chernobyl, 218
Leguminosae, 244
lens, 112–116
cataracts of, viii, 2, 56, 112–116, 130
clouding of, 112
opacities of, 113, 113f, 113t
Lens, 294
lentils, 294
Leontodon autumnalis, 249
Lepus europeus, 256t, 259t
Lepus timidus, 256t
leu-encephalin, 92
leukemia, 177–181, 321
in Belarus, 177–178, 177t, 178t
predictions for, 181, 181t, 184t
in Russia, 179–180, 181t
time until clinically apparent, 161
in Ukraine, 178–179, 179f, 179t, 180t
leukocytes, 59, 60–61, 90. See also lymphocytes
leukosis. See leukemia
“level of radiation and effect,” 36
LH. See luteinizing hormone
lichens, contamination of, 237–238, 244–246,
245t
life expectancy, 193, 193f, 205, 206, 322
lignin, 324
limb malformations, 125, 126, 128, 130, 131,
132f, 133
limb-reduction defects, 126, 130
limbs, Chernobyl, 322
lime fertilizers, 312
lingering radiation illness, 218, 321
lipid oxidation, 59
liquid(s), for washing away radionuclides, 304,
316
liquidators
accelerated aging in, 55–56
adventurism and heroism of, 1
blood and blood-forming organ disease in
in Belarus, 58–59
in Russia, 60–61, 61t
bone and muscle diseases in, in Russia,
103–104, 104t
cancer morbidity in, general
in Belarus, 162–163, 163t
in Ukraine, 164, 183
cardiovascular disease in
in Belarus, 62
in Russia, 63–64, 63t
in Ukraine, 63
catastrophic state of health, 321
children of, viii, 74–75, 74t
chromosomal aberrations in, 67, 68, 75
congenital anomalies/malformations in,
74, 74f, 128, 130
endocrine disease in, 81, 81f
general morbidity of, 74–75, 75t
immune status of, 89, 91
chromosomal aberrations in, 76
in Belarus, 66, 66t
in Russia, 69–70, 70f,70t,71t
in Ukraine, 67–68
concealment and falsification of data on,
33–35
digestive system/visceral organ diseases in
22
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
in Belarus, 116
in Russia, 118–119, 120t
in Ukraine, 117–118, 117t
endocrine system disease in
in Belarus, 79, 79t
in Russia, 81–82, 82t,83t
in Ukraine, 80
general morbidity of, 50
in Belarus, 44–45
in Lithuania, 50
in Russia, 49–50, 49t,50t, 133t, 134
in Ukraine, 47–48, 48f
group dosimetry of, 34
immune system disease in
in Belarus, 89, 89t
in Russia, 91–92
in Ukraine, 90
infections and parasitic infestations in
in Belarus, 123
in Russia, 124
Internet resources on, xi
leukemia in
in Russia, 180
in Ukraine, 179
life expectancy of, 205
mortality of, 201–205
in Belarus, 201–203
in Russia, 201–205, 204f, 205t, 206t
in Ukraine, 201–203, 204f
nervous system diseases in
in Belarus, 106
in Russia, 109–111, 110t
in Ukraine, 107–109
number of, 1, 33
population affected by contamination,
26t
respiratory system disease in, 92–96
in Russia, 95–96, 96t
in Ukraine, 94–95, 94f
sense organ diseases in
in Belarus, 113
in Russia, 115
in Ukraine, 114–115
skin diseases in, 121–122, 123t
thyroid cancer in, 168
thyroid disease in
in Belarus, 84, 84t
in Ukraine, 85–86
urogenital/reproductive disease in
in Russia, 100–101, 101f, 101t
in Ukraine, 99
Liquidators Registry, 34
“liquid hot particles,” 21
Lithuania
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 226
liquidator health in, 50
mortality in, cancer, 185t
suicide in, 111
little shrew, 256t
liver contamination, 299t
liver disease, 116–120
local centers for radiation control (LCRCs),
289–290
low birth weight, 43, 45–46, 49–50, 50f, 74,
199t
low contamination, xii
low linear-energy-transfer of radiation
(low-LET radiation), 67
Lugini District, Ukraine, 217–218
lung(s), 92
elasticity of, 92
restrictive disease of, 92
scarring of, 95
lung cancer, viii, 181–184
in Belarus, 181, 182
in Russia, 183
time until clinically apparent, 161
lung metastases, 166
lupine varieties, 239, 243
Lupinus, 239
Lupinus luteus, 243
Lupus lupus (wolves), 263, 285, 315
luteinizing hormone (LH), 82
luteotrophin, 80
Luxembourg
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t
lymphadenopathies, 72, 89
lymphatic disease, 58–65, 87
lymph node metastases, 166
lymph nodes, 61, 87
lymphocytes
SUBJECT INDEX
23
analysis, for chromosomal aberrations,
65–71
disorders of, 59, 60–61, 87–92
lymphoid cancer
in Belarus, 177, 177f, 178t, 179t
in Russia, 179–180
in Ukraine, 179f, 180t
lymphoma
in Belarus, 177, 178t, 179t
in Russia, 179–180
in Ukraine, 179f, 180t
lymphopoiesis, 61, 61t
lymphosarcoma, 179
lymphotoxemia, 121
M
macular degeneration, 114
Maine, contamination of, 18t
maize, 239, 250, 250t
malformations, congenital. See congenital
malformations
malignant disease. See cancer
mallard ducks, 257, 260t
mammals
biological changes in, 268–271
deteriorating health of, 255, 285
genetic changes in, 265–266, 285–286
incorporation of radionuclides, 255–257,
323
indicator species, 256–257
maximum radionuclide concentrations in,
256, 256t
reproductive abnormalities in, 259–263
manganese-54 (Mn-54), 15, 225
maxillofacial malformations, 72, 128, 130–131
measurements, direct, 308
meat
contamination of, 289–293, 290t, 292f, 323
protection measures for, 312–313, 313t,
315, 316
Medetopect, 305
medical abortions, 97, 195, 325
melanoma, 183
memory impairment, 105, 108, 109, 111
menopause, 99
menstrual cycle, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 97, 98
mental health, 104–112
metabolic syndrome X (MSX), 107
metabolism, anoxic, fermentation-type, 134
methionine-encephalin, 92
Mexico, food contamination in, 292
mice
biological changes in, 269–270, 270t
contamination of, 256–257, 256t
genetic changes in, 265–266, 266t
incorporation of radionuclides in, 256–257
reproductive abnormalities in, 260–262
microbial biota, 281–284, 285, 323
microevolution, 285–286, 323
microfungi, 281–284
micronuclei, 66, 66t, 76, 267
microorganisms, contamination of, 281–284,
323
microphthalmia, 112
Microsporum, 124, 281
migraine headaches, 107
milk
allergy to, 88
contamination of, viii, 35, 174, 175t
in Belarus, 290, 290t, 291t
in Finland, 291, 292f
in Italy, 292
in Mexico, 292
in Poland, 292
protection measures against, 312–313,
316, 324
reduction of, 309
in United Kingdom, 291
in United States, 294, 294t
decorporation of, 303
mother’s, immunoglobulins in, 88–89
production, in elderly women, 37, 97
milk thistle, 247
Mills’s canon, 50
miscarriages, 73–74, 192–196, 198t
in Belarus, 43, 97
in Iceland, 195, 197f, 198t
in Russia, 49, 100, 101f, 193
in Ukraine, 99, 193
mites, 272
Mitterand’s Fund, 306
Mo-99. See molybdenum-99
24
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Moldova
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
congenital malformations in, 131
contamination of, 11t
mortality in, cancer, 185t
mollusks, contamination of, 227, 228t
molybdenum-99 (Mo-99)
primary emissions of, 19t
surface air contamination, 225t
monitoring
agricultural, 312–313
direct measurements for, 308
food, 289–294, 300–301, 324
human body, 294–300, 300–301, 325
inadequacy of, 300
independent system of, need for, 300–301
whole body counting, 305–306, 308, 325
moor frog, 259, 267, 271–272
moose, 256t, 257, 259f, 259t, 292
morbidity. See also specific types
data on
falsification and concealment of, 33–36
methodological problems with, 32–41
general, 42–54, 218–219, 320
in Belarus, 42–45, 133t, 134
in children of irradiated parents, 74–75,
75t
oncological, 162–164, 184–185, 184t,
185t
in Russia, 48–50
in Ukraine, 45–48, 133t, 134, 134t
mortality, 192–216. See also specific types
antenatal, 102, 103t, 192–196
cancer, 184–185, 184t, 185t, 206–207, 208t,
209
childhood, 196, 201
infant, 183, 196–197, 199–201, 199t
liquidator, 201–205
neonatal, 196–197
overall (general), 205–211
in Belarus, 205–206, 207, 218
calculations of, 207–209, 208t, 209f
in Russia, 207–209, 207t, 208t, 209f, 218
in Ukraine, 206–207, 207t, 208, 209, 218
perinatal, 194, 195, 196–199
standardized ratio of, 204, 204f, 207–209,
208t, 209f
total number of extra deaths, 209, 210t,
322
total number of victims, 32, 209–211, 322
moss, 239t
motley silver car p, 264
mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), 241t, 242t,
243, 315
mouse. See mice
MPO. See myeloperoxidase
MSX. See metabolic syndrome X
MTA. See myelotoxic activity of the blood
Mucorhiemalis, 282
Muctdinaceae, 282
multiple myeloma, 178t, 179, 179t
multiple sclerosis, myelotoxic activity of blood
in, 59
mung, 250t
muscle diseases, 102–104, 320–321
in Russia, 103–104, 103t, 104t
in Ukraine, 102–103
mushrooms
changes in, 250
contamination of, viii, 237–238, 244–246,
245t, 290–294, 290t
decorporation of, 303
protection measures for, 314, 315, 324
transfer ratio/coefficient for, 245, 245t
Mus musculus, 260, 261–262, 265–266, 266t,
269–270
mutations
chromosomal, 65–71, 75–76
de novo, 73–74, 76
fauna, 265–268, 273, 323
flora, 248–250, 248t, 249t, 323
frequency of, changes in, 65–72
genomic, 65, 71–72
as indicators of health status, 75–76
small (point), 65
mutton, 315
Mycelis muralis, 249
mycelium, 304
myelodysplastic syndrome, 59, 177, 178t
myeloperoxidase (MPO), 91
myelotoxic activity of the blood (MTA), 59
myomas, 69, 69t,76
myopia, 114
myxedema, 83
SUBJECT INDEX
25
N
Nagasaki
cancer in, 161, 174, 176, 177, 185
cognitive effects in, 112
genetic impact of, 77
radiation comparison with, 1, 5
research and secrecy on, 2–3
narrow-leaved cat’s tail, 240t
nasal cavity, 92
nasopharyngeal disease, viii, 92–96
National Belarussian Report (2006). Twenty
Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe:
Consequences in Belarus and Overcoming
the Obstacles, xi
National Russian Report (2006). Twenty Years
of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Results and
P erspective on Efforts to Overcome Its
Consequences in Russia, xi
National Ukrainian Report (2006). Twenty
Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Future
Outlook, xi
natural killer cells, 91
natural selection, 285–286
Nb-95. See niobium-95
Nd-147. See neodymium-147
Neman River, 226
nematodes, 272, 273t
neodymium-147 (Nd-147), 225t
neonatal mortality, 196–197
in Ukraine, 197, 200f
in United Kingdom, 196f
neptunium-239 (Np-239)
dose spectrum changes in, 23
primary emissions of, 19t
surface air contamination by, 225, 225t
nervous system diseases, 104–112, 321
in Belarus, 105–106
in Russia, 109–111, 109t, 110t
in Ukraine, 106–109, 106f, 106t, 107t
nervous system malformations, 128, 129–130
The Netherlands
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 228–229
nettle rash, 92
neural tube defects, 131t, 132
neurocirculatory dystonia, 64, 110
neurologic diseases, 104–112
neuroses, 108
neutrophils, 88–92
newborns
bone and muscle diseases in, 102–104
cardiovascular disease in, 62, 63
congenital malformations in. See congenital
malformations
deaths of. See infant mortality
premature, 42, 43, 50, 98, 99, 195
respiratory difficulties in, 93, 95, 98
New Jersey, contamination of, 15, 18t
New York, contamination of, 15, 18t
Ni-95. See nickel-95
nickel-95 (Ni-95)
aquatic contamination by, 228t
dose spectrum changes in, 23
Nile River, contamination of, 16
niobium-95 (Nb-95), 15, 238t, 245t, 260t
NK cells. See natural killer cells
nodular goiter, 83
non-Hodgkins lymphoma
in Belarus, 177, 178t, 179t
in Russia, 179–180
nonmalignant disease, viii, 58–160
blood and lymphatic system, 58–65
bone and muscle, 102–104
cardiovascular, 61–65
congenital malformations, 125–134
digestive system and visceral organ,
116–120
endocrine, 77–87
genetic changes, 65–77
immune system, 87–92
infections and parasitic infestations,
122–125
nervous system, 104–112
respiratory system, 92–96
sense organ, 112–116
skin, 120–122
thyroid, 83–86
urogenital and reproductive, 96–102
nonstable aberrations, 65, 68, 69, 70f
noodles, contamination of, 292
North America, contamination of, 15, 25–26,
319, 320
26
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Northern Africa, contamination of, 16
Northern Hemisphere, contamination of, 5,
6f,7f,26
North Sea, 228
Norway
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cataracts in, 115
chromosomal aberrations in, 71
congenital malformations in, 131
contamination of, 11t, 319
aquatic, 261f
soil (ground), 231, 232t
effective individual dose in, 316
food contamination in, 293, 316
mortality in
antenatal, 195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
protection measures in, 316
sex ratio of births in, 102
Np-239. See neptunium-239
nuclear power
apologists for, vii–ix, 325–326
wariness about, vii
O
oak, 248, 249
oats, 243
obesity, 80
Occam’s Razor, 50
oilseed rape mosaic virus, 282
oligochaeta (or oligochaete), 264–265
oligohydramnios, 98
oncological disease, viii, 161–191. See also
cancer
onions, chromosomal aberrations in, 249, 249t
oral cancer, 183, 184, 184t
orchitis, autoimmune, 101
oregano, 294
Oregon, contamination of, 15, 18t
oribatid mites, 272
Origanum vulgare, 241, 243
osteoarthritis, 87
osteochondrosis, 87, 103
osteopenia, 321
osteoporosis, 102–104, 321
otitis, 91
otter scats, 256t
ovarian cysts, 98
ovarian hypofunction, 193
ovaries, 77, 82–83, 96, 97
Ovis ammon, 256t
ovum abnormalities, 192
Oxycoccus palustris (cranberries), 239, 241t, 242t,
290t, 315
P
Pacific Ocean, 226
Paecilomyces lilacinus, 282
pancreas, 77, 299t
diseases of, 117, 119
echogram abnormalities of, 117, 117t
pancreatic cancer, 182
pancreatitis, 117, 119
panic disorder, 108
papilloma virus, 283
parasitic infestations, 122–125, 321
in Belarus, 122–123
in Russia, 124, 124t
in Ukraine, 123–124
parathyroid gland, 77, 83
parathyroid hormone (PTH), 80
particles, hot. See “hot particles”
partridge, gray, 260t
Parus major, 264
Passer domestica, 267
pasta, 294
Patau syndrome, 72
pea family, 244
pectin enterosorbents, 304–309, 316, 324
Pelobates fuscus, 258
peptic ulcer, 117
Perca fluviatilis, 259
perch (fish), 259, 315
Perdix perdix, 260t
perinatal encephalopathy, 105, 106, 109
perinatal mortality, 196–199
in Belarus, 197, 199f
in Germany, 194, 195f, 198
in Poland, 198–199
in Russia, 197
in Ukraine, 197, 200f
SUBJECT INDEX
27
in United Kingdom, 195, 196f, 199
periodontal disease, 80, 84, 104, 118, 119
permissible levels, of food contamination,
312–313
Persian Gulf, contamination of, 15
personality disorders, 107
Peyerspatches,87
pharyngeal cancer, 183, 184 t
Phaseolus aureus, 250t
phenolic compounds, in plants, 250
phobia, radiation, viii, 322
Phoenicurus ochruros, 267
phosphoric fertilizers, 312
Phragmites communis, 240t
Physicians of the World for the Prevention of
Nuclear War, 23–24
phytophagous fish, 315
Picea abies, 246, 247f, 247t
pied flycatcher, 264
pike (fish), 264, 315
pine(s)
contamination of, 237–242, 239t, 240f,
241f, 243f
as food supplement, 304
genetic changes in, 249
morphological changes in, 246, 247f, 247t
Pinus silvestris, 239, 240f, 241, 242, 243f, 246,
247f, 247t
pituitary g land, 77–78, 80, 83
placenta
changes/abnormalities in, 99, 102
radionuclide concentrations in, 102, 103t
plaice, 292f
plankton, 227, 259, 262t
plant(s)
anomalies in, 246–248
anthocyanin concentrations in, 250, 250t
biological changes in, 250
coefficient of accumulation in, 237
contamination of, 237–244, 323
aquatic, 227, 228t, 238, 240t
in Finland, 238, 239t
level of soil contamination and, 240, 241f
in Russia, 238f, 239, 240f
in Ukraine, 238, 238t
worldwide levels of, 238, 239t
deteriorating health of, 285, 323
genetic changes in, 248–250, 248t, 249t,
285–286
morphological changes in, 246–248, 246t
transfer ratio/coefficient in, 240–243, 241t,
242f, 243f, 243t
Plantago lanceolata, 247, 249
Plantago major, 238f
plantains, 238f, 247, 249
platelets (thrombocytes), 60–61, 87
Platichthys flesus, 292f
Platyhelminth, 268
Pleuronectes platessa, 292f
plowing, 312
plural CDAs, 73
plutonium (Pu)
bioaccumulation of, 285
contamination, 233
aquatic (water), 227, 228t
Belarus, 9, 16f
dose spectrum changes, 23
Europe, 6
fauna, 257
flora, 243–244
food, 294
“hot particles,” 21
human body, 298
with multiple radionuclides, 35
soil (ground), 323
Ukraine, 17f
decorporation of, 304
health effects
endocrine, 80
genetic, 65, 77
sexual development, 98
protection measures against, 315–316
plutonium-238 (Pu-238)
contamination
Belarus, 9
fauna, 256t
flora, 243–244
surface air (atmospheric), 226
primary emissions of, 19t
plutonium-239 (Pu-239)
contamination
Africa, 16
aquatic (water), 229
Belarus, 9
28
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
fauna, 256t
flora, 243–244
soil (ground), 231t
surface air (atmospheric), 224, 225f, 226,
227t
half-life of, 18
primary emissions of, 18, 19t
plutonium-240 (Pu-240)
contamination
Africa, 16
aquatic (water), 229
Belarus, 9
fauna, 256t
flora, 243–244
soil (ground), 231t
surface air (atmospheric), 224, 225f, 226,
227t
primary emissions, 19t
plutonium-241 (Pu-241)
Am-241 from disintegration of, 24
and cancer, 184
mortality effects of, 210
primary emissions of, 19t
Pneumocystis, 124, 281
pneumonia, 91, 95
point mutations, 65, 73
Poland
cancer morbidity in, general, 164, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 12, 21
aquatic (water), 229
soil (ground), 231, 232t, 233t
food contamination in, 292
mortality in
antenatal, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
infant, 200, 202f
perinatal, 198–199
sex ratio of births in, 102
thyroid cancer in, 173
thyroid disease in, 86
Polish mushroom, 245t
pollen anomalies, 246–247, 248t, 249–250,
323
pollen sensitivity, 88, 91
polydactyly, 72, 73, 126, 128
Polygonum hydropiper, 241
polymorbidity, 218, 321
polyneuropathy, 110
pond cultures, 315
Populus tremula, 238f
pork, 315
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 107
Potamogeton natans, 240t
potassium
as radionuclide antagonist, 312, 315–316,
324
supplement, with decorporation, 305
potassium iodine, 325
potatoes, viii
poultry, 255, 315
“practically healthy” children, viii, 42, 45, 46f,
74, 88
preeclampsia (or preclampsia), 99
pregnancy
complications of, viii, 96–102, 283
congenital malformations in. See congenital
malformations
hormone levels in, 78
immune function in, 91
infections in, 122–123
in utero exposure in. See in utero exposure
outcomes of. See infant mortality; perinatal
mortality; spontaneous abortions;
stillbirths
thyroid dysfunction in, 84
vitamin A levels in, 134
preleukemic conditions, 59
premature aging, 55–57, 321–322
premature baldness, 55, 121, 128
premature births, 42, 43, 50, 98, 99, 195
premature eruption of teeth, 117
prenatal diagnosis, 325
presbyopia, 56
primary disability
in Belarus, 44–45, 45f
in Russia, 49–50, 50t
in Ukraine, 46–48, 47t,48t
primary radionuclide emissions, estimates of,
16–18, 19t
Pripyat River, 226–227, 227–228, 283
probability approach, 37
progeroid syndrome, 56
progesterone, 78, 79, 79t, 80, 97
prolactin, 37, 79–82, 79t, 97, 99
SUBJECT INDEX
29
pro-oxidation conditions, 134
prostate cancer, 183, 206–207
prostatic adenoma, 99
protection measures, 324–325
agricultural, 311–313, 312t, 313t, 316, 324
decorporation of radionuclides, 303–310
everyday life, 315–316
forestry, hunting, and fisheries, 313–315,
316
proteins, genetic polymorphisms of, 72–73
protozoa, 281–284
psychological problems
and health consequences, 322
thyroid dysfunction and, 85
PTH. See parathyroid hormone
PTSD. See posttraumatic stress disorder
Pu. See plutonium
puberty, onset of, 77, 78, 80, 96, 97, 98
Puccinia graminis, 250
puerperal sepsis, 122
pyelonephritis, 98, 101, 283
Q
Quercus, 248
quercus bark, 243
Quercus robur, 249
Querquedula crecca, 257
Querquedula querauedula, 257
R
rabies, 282
Racomitrium,16
“radiation in utero,” 322. See also in utero
exposure
radiation protection
agricultural, 312–313, 312t, 313t, 316
allocation of funds for, 289
decorporation of radionuclides, 303–310
everyday life, 315–316
forestry, hunting, and fisheries, 313–315,
316
radiation sickness, acute, viii
radicals, free, 59, 303–304
radioactive contamination. See contamination
radioadaptation, 285–286, 323
radiobiology, modern concepts of, vii
radiomorphosis, 246
radionuclides. See also specific types
changes in dose spectrum, 21–24, 23f
decorporation of, 303–310, 324
direct measurements of, 308
gaseous-aerosol, 6–27, 8f
geographic distribution of, 6–27, 8f,8t
“hot particles,” 6, 12, 21, 35, 92–93, 221,
237, 319
impact of
dismissing, fallacy of, 38
methodological problems in determining,
32–41, 319–320
methods of determining, 38–39, 320
incorporated long-living, 217–218, 321
incorporation of
in fauna, 255–259, 273, 323
in flora, 237–246, 323
in human body, 294–300
in human organs, variations in, 297, 299t
movement to food chain, 35, 221
primary emissions, estimates of, 16–18, 19t
stages of cloud formation, 8f
in surface air contamination
concentrations of, 223, 224t
dynamics of, 223, 224t, 225f
“radiophobia,” viii, 322
radishes, 243, 315
rainfall data, 5–6
Rana, 258
Rana arvalis, 259, 267, 271–272
Rana esculenta, 267, 267t, 272, 272t
Rana temporaria, 267, 272
Rangifer tarandus, 256t
raspberries (Rubus idaeus), 241t, 242f, 242t,
243, 244t, 247, 315
rat(s)
biological changes in, 269–271, 270t
lifespan of, 262, 263t
reproductive abnormalities in, 260, 262
Rattus norvegicus, 260, 262, 263t, 269–271, 270t
Rb. See rubidium
receptor-leukotriene reaction, 61
rectal cancer, 161, 182
red-bellied toad, 258
red blood cells. See erythrocytes
30
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
red cell leukemia, 177t
“Red Forest,” 250, 266
red lentils, 294
reed grass, common, 240t
reflexes, pathological, 111
refraction errors, 112, 113, 114
reindeer, 256t
reliability of distinctions by Student, 37
renal cancer, 182, 184, 184t
renal disorders, 96, 98, 101
renal infections, 124
renin, 79, 79t
reproductive disorders, 96–102, 320
in Belarus, 97
in fauna, 255, 259–265, 323
in Russia, 100–101, 100t, 101f, 101t
in Ukraine, 98–99, 98t
respiratory system disease, 92–96, 218, 320
in Belarus, 93
in children of irradiated parents, 75
in Russia, 95–96, 95t,96t
in Ukraine, 93–95, 94f
respiratory virus infections, acute, 88, 91, 93
reticulosarcoma, 179
retinal glioma, 181
retinal pathology, 112, 114–115
retroviruses, 281
Reunion Island, contamination of, 16
rhamn, 243
Rhamnus, 243
rhinitis, 92, 93
Ribes, 315
ringworm, 124, 124t, 281
rivers, 226–229
roach (fish), 228t
roe deer, 256t, 257, 259t, 314–315, 323
Romania
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 233t, 319
leukemia in, 181
thyroid cancer in, 173, 173f
Romberg test scores, 111
R-proteins, 87
Ru-103. See ruthenium-103
Ru-106. See ruthenium-106
rubidium (Rb), 315–316
Rubus caesius, 241t, 242t, 243, 247
Rubus idaeus, 241t, 242f, 242t, 243, 244t, 247,
315
Rubus nessensis, 241t, 242t
Russia
contamination of, 8t, 10, 11t, 14, 18t,
25, 25t, 319
agricultural land, 311–312
aquatic (water), 226–228
fauna, 255–279
flora, 237–254
population affected by, 25, 25t,26t
soil (ground), 229–230
surface air (atmospheric), 223–225
economic damage in, 325
health effects in
blood and blood-forming organ disease,
60–61
cancer morbidity, general, 164, 164f,
184–185, 184t, 185t
cancers other than thyroid and blood,
183–184
cardiovascular disease, 63–64, 63t
chromosomal aberrations, 68–70, 68t,
69t,70f,70t,71t
congenital malformations, 129–130, 130t
digestive system/visceral organ, 118–119,
118t, 119t, 120f, 120t
endocrine system disease, 80–82, 81f,81t,
82t,83t
general morbidity, 48–50
in adults, 49–50, 49t,50t, 133t, 134
in children, 48–49, 49t
immune system, 90–92
infections and parasitic infestations, 124,
124t
leukemia, 179–180, 181t
nervous system, 109–111, 109t, 110t
respiratory system, 95–96, 95t,96t
sense organ diseases, 110t, 115
skin disease, 121–122, 121t, 122t, 123t
thyroid cancer, 86, 168–170, 171f, 171t
thyroid disease, 86, 86t
urogenital/reproductive, 100–101, 100t,
101f, 101t
“health of population,” 48
life expectancy in, 193, 193f
SUBJECT INDEX
31
mortality in
antenatal, 49, 100, 193, 194f, 196
cancer, 184–185, 184t, 185t
infant, 183, 197, 200, 201f, 201t
liquidator, 201–205, 204f, 205t, 206t
overall (general), 207–209, 207t, 208t,
209f, 218
perinatal, 197
total number of extra deaths, 209, 210t
total number of victims, 209–211, 322
national report (2006), xi
protection measures in, 311–317
Russia, Asian, contamination of, 14
Russia, European. See also Russia
contamination of, 8t, 10, 11t,18t, 25, 25t,
319
Russula, 245, 245t
russulas, 245, 245t
ruthenium-103 (Ru-103)
contamination, 12, 15
aquatic (water), 228–229, 228t, 229t
flora, 238t, 239t
soil (ground), 231, 232, 232t, 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 224t, 225, 225t,
226, 227t
dose spectrum changes in, 23
“hot particles,” 21
primary emissions of, 19t
and thyroid cancer, 174–176
ruthenium-106 (Ru-106)
contamination, 12
aquatic (water), 228t
dose spectrum changes, 23
flora, 238t, 244, 245t
food, 294
“hot particles,” 21, 92
primary emissions, 19t
surface air (atmospheric), 225, 225t
uneven/spotty, 21
and thyroid cancer, 174–176
Rutilus rutilus, 264
rye, 248t, 250
S
sage, 294
Salmo trutta, 261f
Salvelinus alpinus, 261f
Salvia, 294
Salvia officinalis, 243
“samosels,” chromosomal aberrations in, 67,
67t
sander, 228t
sapropel, 312
saprophytic bacteria, 281–282
“Sasakava” project, 84, 85
satellite DNA, changes in, 73
Sb-126. See antimony-126
Sb-127. See antimony-127
sborniks,” 38
SCANNER-3, 294–295
schizophrenia, 108, 115
schizophreniform syndrome, 115
scientific and practical conferences, 37–38
scientific protocols, data collected without,
36–38, 320
scoliosis, 128
Scopolas rusticola, 260t
Scotland
congenital malformations in, 131t
contamination of, 7, 12
aquatic (water), 228
soil (ground), 231–232, 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 226
Down syndrome in, 71–72
human body contamination in, 299–300
leukemia in, 180
screening, cancer, 325
scrub forests, 240
Se-141. See selenium-141
Se-144. See selenium-144
seas, 226–229
seasonal variation, 295–296
seaweed, 239t, 304, 309
secondary contamination, 322
secrecy, 33–35, 177, 319, 325–326
selenium, for radioprotection, 303–304
selenium-141 (Se-141), 224t
selenium-144 (Se-144), 224t
self-settlers, chromosomal aberrations in, 67,
67t
seminiferous tubules, 101
senile illnesses, 55–56
sense organs
32
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
diseases of, 112–116
in Belarus, 112–113, 113f, 113t
in Russia, 110t, 115
in Ukraine, 113–115
malformations of, 112, 126, 129–130
sepsis, 321
puerperal, 122
sex ratio
of births, 101–102, 194
of stillbirths, 195, 196f
sexual development, 78, 80, 82–84, 96, 97,
100
sexual dysfunction, 97, 99
Shannon diversity index, 283
“sharp inhalation effect of the upper
respiratory path,” 218
sheep, 255, 256t
shining pondweed, 240t
shrew
common, 256t, 271, 271t
little, 256t
significance, statistical, 36–38, 39, 318, 320
significance of difference, 37
Silurus glanis, 259
silver-110 (Ag-110)
contamination, 12
fauna, 256t
surface air (atmospheric), 225t
primary emissions of, 18
silver-125m (Ag-125m), 22f–23f
silver bream, 228t
skeletal muscle, contamination of, 299t
skin anomalies, 128
skin cancer
in Belarus, 181
in Russia, 183, 184t
time until clinically apparent, 161
skin diseases, 120–122
in Belarus, 120–121
purulent, 91
in Russia, 121–122, 121t, 122t, 123t
in Ukraine, 121
Slovakia
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 11t
mortality in, cancer, 185t
Slovenia
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 319
small-for-gestational-age babies, 43
small fry (fish), 264, 315
small (point) mutations, 65, 73
SMR. See standardized mortality ratio
Sniardwy, Lake, 229
soft wheat, 248
soil contamination, 221, 229–233, 233t, 285,
316, 322–323
agricultural, 311–313
in Belarus, 229–230
in Germany, 231, 232t
microbial biota, 281–284
in Norway, 231, 232t
plant cycling of, 237, 240, 241f
in Poland, 231, 232t
in Russia, 229–230
transfer ratio/coefficient in, 230, 237,
240, 241, 241t, 242, 242f, 243f, 243t
for mushrooms, 245, 245t
for plants, 240–243, 241t–244t, 242f,
243f
in Ukraine, 229–230
in United Kingdom, 231–232, 233t
in United States, 232, 233t
vertical migration in, 35, 230, 231t, 233
Solanaceous species, 282
Solidago virgaurea, 249
Sonchus arvensis, 247
sorbents, 304–309, 312, 316, 324
Sorbus aucuparia, 241t, 242t, 243, 315
Sorex araneus, 256t, 271, 271t
Sorex minutus, 256t
Southern Hemisphere, contamination of, 16
South Pole, contamination of, 16
Soviet Union. See also Russia
objective data from, difficulty in obtaining,
33–36
secrecy/concealment in, 33–35, 319
Sozha River, 226
spade-footed toad, 258
Spain
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
cancer mortality in, 185t
contamination of, 11t
SUBJECT INDEX
33
sparrows, 267
sperm abnormalities, 73, 76, 99, 100–101, 192
spina bifida, 132
Spirulinae, 316
spleen, 87, 299t
spontaneous abortions, 73–74, 192–196, 198t
in Belarus, 43, 97
in Iceland, 195, 197f, 198t
in Russia, 49, 100, 101f, 193
in Ukraine, 99, 193
spotty contamination, 19–21, 20f,22f–23f, 35,
319
spring wheat, 243
sprouts, immune stimulation by, 304
spruce, 246, 247f, 247t
Sr-89. See strontium-89
Sr-90. See strontium-90
stable aberrations, 65, 69
standard errors, 37
standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 207–209
in Belarus, 207, 209
in liquidators, 204, 204f
in Russia, 207–209, 208t, 209f
in Ukraine, 208, 209
Staphylococcus aureus, 268–269
State Registry of Belarus, 295
statistical significance, 36–38, 39, 318, 320
stem cells, 87
Stemphylium, 282
stem rust fungus, 250
sterility. See infertility
stillbirths, 192–196, 199t. See also perinatal
mortality
in Belarus, 192, 193f
bone disease and, 102, 103t
in Croatia, 194, 194f
in Finland, 195
gender analysis of, 195, 196f
in Germany, 193f, 194–195
in Greece, 193f
in Hungary, 193f
in Norway, 195
in Poland, 193f
in Russia, 193, 194f
in Sweden, 193f
in Ukraine, 193, 197, 200f
in United Kingdom, 196f
stomach cancer
in Belarus, 181–182
in Russia, 183
time until clinically apparent, 161
stomach mucosa atrophy, 117
stomach ulcers, 116, 117
strawberries (Fragaria), 240–244, 241t, 242f,
242t, 244t, 315
stress, posttraumatic, 107
stroke, 63
strontium, decorporation of, 304, 309
strontium-89 (Sr-89)
contamination
aquatic (water), 229t
flora, 239t
primary emissions of, 19t
strontium-90 (Sr-90)
bioaccumulation of, 285
contamination
aquatic (water), 227–228, 228t
Asia, 14
Belarus, 8–9, 15f
dose spectrum changes, 23
Europe, 6–7
fauna, 256t, 257–259, 257f, 260t
flora, 239, 242, 243–244, 244t
food, 291, 294
human body, 297–298
movement to food chain, 221
with multiple radionuclides, 35
primary emissions of, 19t
soil (ground), 231t, 316, 323
uneven/spotty, 20
health effects
blood disease, 60
cancer, 184
dental, 119–120
endocrine, 80
genetic, 77
immune system, 88
sexual development, 98
incorporated long-living, 217–218
mortality effects
cancer, 208t
overall (general), 210
perinatal, 197, 199f
protection measures against
34
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
agricultural, 312, 312t, 313t
everyday life, 315–316
forestry, hunting, and fisheries, 313
in teeth, 24
Stylaria lacustris, 264–265
Succisa pratensis, 249
sudubravas, 245
suicide, 111
Suillus luteus, 245t
surface air contamination, 223–226, 227t,
232–233, 285, 322–323
in Belarus, 223–225, 224t, 225f
concentrations of radionuclides in, 223, 224t
dynamics of radionuclides in, 223, 224t,
225f
in Finland, 225, 225t
in Russia, 223–225
in Ukraine, 223–225, 224t
in United States, 226, 226t
Sus scrofa. See boars
Svjetsko Lake, 228
swallows. See barn swallows
Sweden
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 164, 185t
cognitive effects in, 112
congenital malformations in, 131t
contamination of, 11t, 12–14, 23, 319
aquatic (water), 229, 230f
soil (ground), 231
Down syndrome in, 71
food contamination in, 292, 295t
low birth weights in, 50
mortality in
antenatal, 193f, 195, 197f, 198t
cancer, 185t
infant, 200–201, 203f
protection measures in, 316
sex ratio of births in, 102
swine, wild. See boars
Swiss chocolate, 294
Switzerland
birth rate in, 195
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 11t, 319
mortality in
antenatal, 198t
cancer, 185t
infant, 201, 203f
protection measures in, 316
thyroid cancer in, 174
symmetry, fluctuating, 323
“symptoms, phenomena, and inexact
designated conditions,” 48
syndromes, 321–322
“acute inhalation depression of the upper
respiratory system,” 92–93, 321
AIDS, 1
chronic fatigue, 107, 218, 321
climacteric, 99
congenital convulsive, 105
diffraction grating, 114–115, 218
Down (trisomy 21), 71–72, 72f,72t,73f
dyspeptic, 117
early aging, 321–322
ecological disadaptation, 44
Edward’s, 72
epileptiform, 107
incipient chestnut, 115, 218
incorporated long-living radionuclides,
217–218
Klinefelter, 72
lingering radiation illness, 218, 321
metabolic X, 107
myelodysplastic, 59
Patau, 72
progeroid, 56
schizophreniform, 115
“sharp inhalation effect of the upper
respiratory path,” 218
Tur ners, 72
T
T3. See triiodothyronine
T4. See thyroxine
Tahiti, contamination of, 16
T cells, 87–92
T-cellular receptor (TCR) mutations, 69
TCR mutations. See T-cellular receptor
mutations
Te-122. See tellurium-122
Te-129. See tellurium-129
Te-132. See tellurium-132
SUBJECT INDEX
35
tea, 239t, 292, 294
teals, 257
teeth
acid resistance of enamel, 116
anomalies of, 118, 118t, 119–120, 128
decay of, 116, 117, 118, 119–120, 128
loss of, 104
pathological erosion of enamel, 119
premature eruption of, 117
thyroid dysfunction and, 84
timescales of radiation in enamel, 23–24
tellurium-122 (Te-122), 12
tellurium-129 (Te-129)
contamination
soil (ground), 232t
surface air (atmospheric), 225t
dose spectrum changes in, 23
tellurium-131m (Te-131m), surface air
contamination by, 225t
tellurium-132 (Te-132)
contamination
aquatic (water), 228–229, 229t
Belarus, 7, 13f
Europe, 6
flora, 239t
Scotland, 12
soil (ground), 232, 232t
surface air (atmospheric), 225t, 226
Sweden, 12–14
dose of, difficulty in reconstructing, 35
dose spectrum changes in, 23
“hot particles,” 21
primary emissions of, 17–18
and thyroid cancer, 174–176
tench fish, 315
testes, 77, 96
testicular function, 82, 99, 100–101
testosterone, 78, 80, 82–83, 97
TGH. See thyrotrophic hormone
Thea sinensis, 239t
“The Other Report on Chernobyl”
(TORCH), x
throat, disorders of, 92–93
thrombocytes, 60–61, 87
thyme, 294
thymus, 87, 299t
Thymus, 243
Thymus serpyllum, 241
thyroid autoantibodies, 88, 89
thyroid cancer, viii, 2, 32, 165–176, 321
in Belarus, 165–166, 165f, 166f, 167t, 168f,
176
“Chernobyl effect” on, 170
chromosomal aberrations and, 76
congenital, 166
in France, 170, 172, 172f
global increase in, 170–174
in Greece, 172, 173f
mortality from, 184t
number of people with, 165–174
papillary, 165
predictions for, 174–176, 175t, 176t, 184,
184t
in Romania, 173, 173f
in Russia, 86, 168–170, 171f, 171t
time until clinically apparent, 161
in Ukraine, 166–168, 169f, 169t, 170f, 176
in United States, 174, 174f
thyroid disease/dysfunction, viii, 1, 77–87,
176
in Belarus, 78–79
in children of irradiated parents, 74
chromosomal aberrations and, 76
illnesses associated with, 83
mental effects of, 110
in Poland, 86
prevention of, 325
in Russia, 86, 86t
in Ukraine, 80, 85–86, 85f,85t
thyroid gland contamination, 299t
, 300
thyroid hyperplasia, 84, 85, 85t, 86, 86t
thyroid insufficiency, 165
thyroiditis, 78, 83–86
autoimmune, 79, 80, 83–84, 85, 165
chronic, 85–86, 85f
thyroid nodules, 165, 166
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 80
thyrotoxicosis, 80
thyrotrophic hormone (TGH), 82
thyroxine, 78, 80, 83, 84, 97
tilling, 312
TNF. See tumor necrosis factor
toads
genetic changes in, 267
36
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
incorporation of radionuclides, 258–259
tobacco mosaic virus, 282
tonsil hypertrophy, 89
tonsillitis, chronic, 61, 89, 93
tooth. See teeth
TORCH. See “The Other Report on
Chernobyl”
toxemia, maternal, 101
trachea, 92
Trans-Caucasus, contamination of, 14–15,
320
transfer ratio/coefficient
for fauna, 255–256, 258–259
soil, 230, 237
for mushrooms, 245, 245t
for plants, 240–243, 241t–244t, 242f, 243f
translocations, chromosomal, 65, 70, 71t
tree(s). See also specific types
contamination of, 237–244, 250, 266, 311
as “live partition wall,” 314
protection measures for, 313–315, 316, 324
radial growth of, 250
radiation protection measures for, 313–315
tree frog, 258
trichocephalosis, 122
Trichocephalus trichiurus, 122
Trifolium, 239
trigonocephaly, 72
triiodothyronine (T3), 79, 80, 83, 84
trisomy 13, 72
trisomy 18, 72
trisomy 21, 71–72, 72f,72t,73f, 130, 131
Triticum aestivum, 246–247, 248, 248t, 249, 250
trout, 261f
TSH. See thyroid-stimulating hormone
tuberculosis, 123, 281
tumor(s). See also cancer
fauna, 270–271, 271t
flora, 247–248
tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 87
Turkey
congenital malformations in, 131t, 132
contamination of, 11t, 15, 319, 320
food contamination in, 292
Turner’s syndrome, 72
Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Accident:
Future Outlook, xi
Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe:
Ecological and Sociological Lessons.
Materials of the Inter national Scientific and
Practical Conference, xi
Typha angustifolia, 240t
Tyrrhenian Sea, 229, 230f
U
U. See uranium
Ukraine
contamination of, 10, 319
agricultural land, 311–312
aquatic (water), 226–228, 228t
Cs-137, 8t, 10, 11t,17f
fauna, 255–279
flora, 237–254
“hot particles” in, 21
lead, 24
population affected by, 25, 25t
Pu, 17f
soil (ground), 229–230
surface air (atmospheric), 223–225, 224t
economic damage in, 325
food contamination in, 292–293
health effects in, 217–219
accelerated aging, 55
blood and blood-forming organ disease,
59–60
bone and muscle diseases, 102–103, 103t
breast cancer, 182–183
cancer morbidity, general, 163–164, 183,
184–185, 184t, 185t
cancers other than thyroid and blood,
182–183
cardiovascular disease, 63
chromosomal aberrations, 67–68, 67t
congenital malformations, 127–129, 129f,
201, 201t, 217, 218f
digestive system and visceral organ,
117–118, 117t
endocrine system disease, 80
general morbidity, 45–48, 134
in adults, 46–48, 47f,47t,48f,48t,
134t
in children, 45–46, 45t,46f,47t, 133t
immune system, 89–90
SUBJECT INDEX
37
infections and parasitic infestations,
123–124
leukemia, 178–179, 179f, 179t, 180t
lymphoma, 179f, 180t
nervous system, 106–109, 106f, 106t, 107t
respiratory system, 93–95, 94f
sense organ diseases, 113–115
skin diseases, 121
thyroid cancer, 166–168, 169f, 169t, 170f,
176
thyroid disease, 80, 85–86, 85f,85t
urogenital/reproductive, 98–99, 98t
“health of population,” 217
human body contamination in, 297
life expectancy in, 193, 193f
mortality in
antenatal, 99, 193, 196, 197, 200f
cancer, 184–185, 184t, 185t
infant, 199, 200, 201f, 201t
liquidator, 201–203, 204f
neonatal, 197, 200f
overall (general), 206–207, 207t, 208,
209, 218
perinatal, 197, 200f
total number of extra deaths, 209, 210t
total number of victims, 209–211, 322
national report (2006), xi
protection measures in, 311–317
Ukrainian Center of Radiation Medicine, 304
ulcers
hemorrhagic, 117
peptic, 117
stomach, 116, 117
uneven contamination, 19–21, 20f,22f–23f,
35, 319
United Kingdom
cancer morbidity in, general, 185t
contamination of, 6, 11t, 14, 319
aquatic (water), 228
soil (ground), 231–232, 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 226
Down syndrome in, 71–72
food contamination in, 291, 295t
human body contamination in, 299–300
leukemia in, 180
low birth weights in, 50
mortality in
antenatal, 195, 196f
cancer, 185t
perinatal, 195, 196f, 199
secrecy in, 33
thyroid cancer in, 172
United Nations Scientific Committee on the
Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
and Chernobyl Forum, 1
data requirements/errors of, 36, 174,
184, 319
decorporation initiatives, 324
facts accepted by, xii
primary emission estimates of, 17–18
United States
contamination of, 8
t, 15, 18t
soil (ground), 232, 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 226, 226t
food contamination in, 292–294, 294t
thyroid cancer in, 174, 174f
UNSCEAR. See United Nations Scientific
Committee on the Effects of Atomic
Radiation
upper respiratory system disease, 92–96, 218
uranium (U), “hot particles” of, 21
urogenital cancer, 182, 183
urogenital infections, chronic, 122
urogenital tract diseases, 96–102, 320
in Belarus, 97
in Russia, 100–101, 100t, 101f, 101t
in Ukraine, 98–99, 98t
urogenital tract malformations, 129
USSR. See Russia; Soviet Union
uterine anomalies, 82–83
uterine fibromas, 98
uterine tumors, 69, 69t,76
uveitis (or uvitis), 112
V
Vaccinium myrtillus, 239–244, 241f, 241t, 242f,
242t, 315
Vaccinium uliginosum, 241, 241t, 242t, 243, 243t
Vaccinium vitis-idaea, 241, 241t, 242t, 243, 315
vaginitis, 283
Variability of Mammals (Yablokov), 36
vasomotor dyscrasia, 110
vegetables
38
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
contamination of, 289, 291t
decorporation of, 303
protection measures for, 315, 316, 324
vegetovascular dystonia, 63, 110, 119, 205,
217, 321
vertical migration, in soil, 35, 230, 231t, 233
Verticillium, 282
vetch, 239
veterinary studies, 255
Viburnum opulus, 241t, 242t, 243
Vicia, 239
victims, total number of, 32, 209–211, 322
Viola matutina, 250
violets, 250
virulence, of microbes, 281
viruses, 281–284, 323. See also specific types
visceral organ diseases, 116–120
in Belarus, 116
in Russia, 118–119, 118t, 119t, 120t
in Ukraine, 117–118, 117t
vitamin(s)
with decorporation, 305
radioprotection from, 315, 316
vitamin A, 59, 134, 264, 303, 316
vitamin B, 305
vitamin C, 303, 305, 316
vitamin E, 59, 134, 264, 305, 316
Vitapect, 305–308, 305f, 305t, 306f, 306t,
307f, 307t, 316
vitreous degeneration, 112, 113, 114
voles. See bank voles
Volga River, 226
W
Wales
contamination of, 6–7
low birth weights in, 50, 50f
perinatal mortality in, 199
wall lettuce, 249
washing away, 304, 316
Washington State, contamination of, 15, 18t
water contamination, 221, 226–229, 228t,
232–233, 259, 285, 322–323
in Belarus, 226–228
in Canada, 228, 229t
in Finland, 228, 229t
in France, 228, 229t
in Greece, 228, 229t
in Russia, 226–228
in Sweden, 229, 230f
Tyrrhenian Sea, 229, 230f
in Ukraine, 226–228, 228t
WBC. See whole body counting
weak contamination, xii
wheat
contamination of, 243, 291, 293f
as food supplement, 304
genetic changes in, 248, 249
morphological changes in, 246–247, 248t
phenolic compounds in, 250
whipworm, 122
white blood cells. See leukocytes; lymphocytes
white silver carp, 264
white-tailed deer, 256t
WHO. See World Health Organization
whole body counting (WBC), 305–306, 308,
325
whole-body retention functions, 307, 307f
wind direction, 5–6
winter rye, 250
winter wheat, 246–247, 248, 248t, 249, 250
“wolf mouth,” 130
wolves, 263, 285, 315
woodcock, 260t
World Health Organization (WHO)
The Chernobyl Forum, x, xi, 1, 32, 104,
209, 322
chromosomal linkage denied by, 75–76
collective dose estimation by, 24
early predictions by, 322
methodological requirements of, 36
pectin endosorbents tests of, 304
worldwide collective dose, 24, 25t, 174, 219
worldwide contamination, 318–319, 319f
Wyoming, contamination of, 18t
X
xenon-133 (Xe-133), 19t
Xerocomus badius, 245, 245t
Xerocomus subtmoentosus, 245t
XXX chromosomes, 72
XYY chromosomes, 72
SUBJECT INDEX
39
Y
Yablokov, Alexey, x, 36–37
Yablopect, 305
yellow boletus mushroom, 245t
yellow-necked mouse, 256–257, 256t, 265, 269
Yu g o s l av i a
chromosomal aberrations in, 70
contamination of, 11t,14
soil (ground), 233t
surface air (atmospheric), 226
food contamination in, 295t
Z
Zapadnaya/Dvina-Daugava River, 226
Zea, 239
Zea mays, 250t
zeolites, 312
zinc
for radioprotection, 303–304, 316
supplement, with decorporation, 305
zinc-65 (Zn-65), 15, 225, 238t
zirconium-95 (Zr-95)
contamination, 15
aquatic (water), 228t
fauna, 260t
flora, 238t
surafce air (atmospheric), 224t, 225, 225t
dose spectrum changes in, 23
“hot particles,” 21
primary emissions of, 17–18, 19t
Zn-65. See zinc-65
zoobenthos, 227
zooplankton, 259, 262t
Zostera, 305
Zosterin-Ultra, 305
Zr-95. See zirconium-95
... Sex influences the radiation response and the radiation-induced cancer risk [106]. Epidemiological studies from the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors provide evidence that females possess a greater risk for solid cancers [107][108][109] mainly due to cancer of reproductive tissue [110] and thyroid and brain cancer [106,111]. ...
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