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Free radicals, antioxidants, Diseases and phytomedicines: Current status and Future prospect



Free radicals are well documented for playing a dual role in our body as both deleterious and beneficial species. In low/moderate concentrations free radicals are involved in normal physiological functions but excess production of free radicals or decrease in antioxidant level leads to oxidative stress. It is a harmful process that can be mediates damage to cell structures, including lipids, proteins, RNA and DNA which leads to number of diseases. A variety of synthetic medicine employed in the treatment of different diseases also capable to generate free radicals in body which may causes another disease. The plant sources are rich of antioxidants, phyto-constituents are capable to terminate free radical reactions and prevent our body from oxidative damage. Vegetables and fruits are also important sources of antioxidant substances. Different phytoconstituents and herbal product which are safer then synthetic medicine and beneficial in the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals, it also protect the body by prevent the free radicals to cause tissue injury. Phytoconstituents are conferring less side effect and compatible to body physiology. Therefore it is demand of modern era to use such phytoconstituents or phytomedicines.
Volume 3, Issue 1, July – August 2010; Article 021 ISSN 0976 – 044X
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Page 91
Available online at
Saikat Sen
, Raja Chakraborty
, C. Sridhar
, Y. S. R. Reddy
, Biplab De
C.E.S. College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, Andra Pradesh -518 218, India.
Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Agartala, Tripura - 799 005, India.
Free radicals are well documented for playing a dual role in our body as both deleterious and beneficial species. In low/moderate
concentrations free radicals are involved in normal physiological functions but excess production of free radicals or decrease in
antioxidant level leads to oxidative stress. It is a harmful process that can be mediates damage to cell structures, including lipids,
proteins, RNA and DNA which leads to number of diseases. A variety of synthetic medicine employed in the treatment of different
diseases also capable to generate free radicals in body which may causes another disease. The plant sources are rich of antioxidants,
phyto-constituents are capable to terminate free radical reactions and prevent our body from oxidative damage. Vegetables and fruits are
also important sources of antioxidant substances. Different phytoconstituents and herbal product which are safer then synthetic medicine
and beneficial in the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals, it also protect the body by prevent the free radicals to cause tissue
injury. Phytoconstituents are conferring less side effect and compatible to body physiology. Therefore it is demand of modern era to use
such phytoconstituents or phytomedicines.
Keywords: Free radicals, Antioxidants, Oxidative stress, Diseases, Phytoconstituents.
Oxygen is an element obligatory for life, living systems
have evolved to survive in the presence of molecular
oxygen and for most biological systems. Oxidative
properties of oxygen play a vital role in diverse biological
phenomena. Oxygen has double-edged properties, being
essential for life; it can also aggravate the damage within
the cell by oxidative events
Free radicals and its adverse effects were discovered in the
last decade. These are dangerous substances produced in
the body along with toxins and wastes which are formed
during the normal metabolic process of the body. The
body obtained energy by the oxidation of carbohydrates,
fats and proteins through both aerobic and anaerobic
process leads the generation of free radicals.
Overproduction of the free radicals can responsible for
tissue injury. Cell membranes are made of unsaturated
lipids and these unsaturated lipid molecules of cell
membranes are particularly susceptible to free radicals.
Oxidative damage can direct to a breakdown or even
hardening of lipids, which composition of all cell walls.
Breakdown or hardening is due to lipid peroxidation leads
to death of cell or it becomes unfeasible for the cell to
properly get its nutrients or get signals to achieve another.
In addition, other biological molecules including RNA,
DNA and protein enzymes are also susceptible to
oxidative damage. Environmental agents also initiate free
radical generation leads different complication in body.
The toxicity of lead, pesticides, cadmium, ionizing
radiation, alcohol, cigarette smoke, UV light and pollution
may all be due to their free radical initiating capability
Anti-oxidants are substances capable to mop up free
radicals and prevent them from causing cell damage. Free
radicals are responsible for causing a wide number of
health problems which include cancer, aging, heart
diseases and gastric problems etc. Antioxidants cause
protective effect by neutralizing free radicals, which are
toxic byproducts of natural cell metabolism. The human
body naturally produces antioxidants but the process is not
100 percent effective in case of overwhelming production
of free radicals and that effectiveness also declines with
Increasing the antioxidant intake can prevent diseases and
lower the health problems. Research is increasingly
showing that antioxidant rich foods, herbs reap health
benefits. Foods may possibly enhance antioxidant levels
because foods contain a lot of antioxidant substances.
Fruits and vegetables are loaded with key antioxidants
such as vitamin A, C, E, betacarotene and important
minerals, including selenium and zinc. Fruits, vegetables
and medicinal herbs are the richest sources of antioxidant
. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal
‘renaissance’ is happening all over the world. The herbal
products today symbolize safety also compatible with
human normal physiology. Natural products, mainly
obtained from dietary sources provide a large number of
antioxidants. Phytoconstituents are also important source
of antioxidant and capable to terminate the free radical
chain reactions
A free radical may defined as a molecule or molecular
fragments containing one or more unpaired electrons in its
outermost atomic or molecular orbital and are capable of
independent existence
. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are describes free
radicals and other non-radical reactive derivatives. The
reactivity of radicals is generally stronger than non-radical
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Page 92
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species though radicals are less stable
. Free radicals are
formed from molecules by the homolytic cleavage of a
chemical bond and via redox reactions, once formed these
highly reactive radicals can start a chain reaction
ROS and RNS includes radicals such as superoxide (O
hydroxyl (OH
), peroxyl (RO
), hydroperoxyl (HO
alkoxyl (RO
), peroxyl (ROO
), nitric oxide (NO
nitrogen dioxide (NO
) and lipid peroxyl (LOO
); and
non radicals like hydrogen peroxide (H
), hypochlorous
acid (HOCl), ozone (O
), singlet oxygen (
peroxynitrate (ONOO
), nitrous acid (HNO
), dinitrogen
trioxide (N
), lipid peroxide (LOOH)
. Non radicals are
also termed as oxidants and capable to lead free radical
reactions in living organisms easily. Radicals are derived
from oxygen characterize as the most important class of
radical species generated in living systems
At high concentrations, ROS can be important mediators
of damage to cell structures, nucleic acids, lipids and
. O
radical is responsible for lipid
peroxidation and also have the capability to decrease the
activity of other antioxidant defense system enzyme such
as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxide (GPx), it
causes damage to the ribonucleotide which is required for
DNA synthesis. The protonated form of O
is HO
which is more reactive and able to cross the membrane
and causes damage to tissue. OH
radical is most reactive
chemical species. It is a potent cytotoxic agent and able to
attack and damage almost every molecule found in living
tissue. H
is not a radical but it produces toxicity to cell
by causing DNA damage, membrane disruption and
release calcium ions within cell, resulting in calcium
dependent proteolytic enzyme to be activated. HOCl is
produced by the enzyme myeloperoxidase in activated
neutrophils and initiates the deactivation of antiproteases
and activation of latent proteases leading to tissue
. It has ability to damage biomolecules, directly
and also decomposes to liberate toxic chlorine. Metal
induced generation of ROS attack DNA and other cellular
components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues
of phospholipids, which are extremely sensitive to
. Peroxyl radicals causes damage after
rearranged via a cyclisation reaction to endoperoxides.
Studies show that free radicals produce oxidation of the
side chains of all amino acid residues of proteins,
particularly cysteine and methionine
Free radical reactions
Free radicals generally involved in chain reactions, a series
of reactions leads to regenerates a radical that can begin a
new cycle of reactions. Free radical reactions take three
distinct identifiable steps
Initiation step: formation of radicals.
Propagation step: in this step required free radical is
regenerated repeatedly as a result of chain reaction,
which would take the reaction to completion.
Termination step: destruction of radicals
Generation and sources of free radicals
Free radicals can be formed from both endogenous and
exogenous substances. They are continuously forming in
cell and environment. Different sources of free radicals are
as follows
UV radiations, X-rays, gamma rays and microwave
Metal-catalyzed reactions.
Oxygen free radicals in the atmosphere considered
as pollutants.
Inflammation initiates neutrophils and macrophages
to produce ROS and RNS.
Neutrophils stimualated by exposure to microbes.
In mitochondria-catalyzed electron transport
reactions, oxygen free radicals produced as by
ROS formed from several sources like
mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, xanthine
oxidases, neutrophils and by lipid peroxidation.
ROS generated by the metabolism of arachidonic
acid, platelets, macrophages and smooth muscle
Interaction with chemicals, automobile exhausts
fumes, smoking of cigarettes, cigars, beedie.
Burning of organic matter during cooking, forest
fires, volcanic activities.
Industrial effluents, excess chemicals, alcoholic
intake, certain drugs, asbestos, certain pesticides
and herbicides, some metal ions, fungal toxins and
Antioxidants are any substance that delay or inhibits
oxidative damage to a target molecule. At a time one
antioxidant molecule can react with single free radicals
and are capable to neutralize free radicals by donating one
of their own electrons, ending the carbon-stealing reaction.
Antioxidants prevent cell and tissue damage as they act as
scavenger. Cell produce defense against excessive free
radicals by their preventative mechanisms, repair
mechanisms, physical defenses and antioxidant defenses
A variety of components act against free radicals to
neutralize them from both endogenous and exogenous in
. These include:
Endogenous enzymatic antioxidants.
Non enzymatic, metabolic and nutrient
Metal binding proteins like ferritin, lactoferrin,
albumin and ceruloplasmin.
Phytoconstituents and phytonutrients.
The body produces different antioxidants (endogenous
antioxidants) to neutralize free radicals and protect the
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body from different disease leads by the tissue injury.
Exogenous antioxidants are externally supply to the body
through food also plays important role to protect the body.
The body has developed several endogenous antioxidant
defense systems classified into two groups such as
enzymatic and non enzymatic. The enzymatic defense
system includes different endogenous enzymes like
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione
peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and non
enzymatic defense system included vitamin E, vitamin C
and reduced glutathione (GSH)
SOD is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme act
as the first line defense system against ROS which
scavenges superoxide radicals to H
. GPx present in the
cytoplasm of the cells removes H
by coupling its
reduction to H
O with oxidation of GSH. GR is a
flavoprotein enzyme, regenerates GSH from oxidized
glutathione in the presence of NADPH. GSH is a
tripeptide and a powerful antioxidant present within the
cytosol of cells and is the major intracellular nonprotein
thiol compound (NPSH). SH groups present in GSH to
react with H
and the OH
radical and prevent tissue
damage and GSH is also capable of scavenging ROS
directly or enzymatically via GPx. Vitamins C and E are
non-enzymatic endogenous antioxidant also exists within
normal cells and react with free radicals to form radicals
themselves which are less reactive than the radicals. They
break radical chain reactions by trapping peroxyl and other
reactive radicals
Non-enzymatic antioxidants also can be divided into
metabolic antioxidants and nutrient antioxidants.
Metabolic antioxidants are the endogenous antioxidants,
which produced by metabolism in the body like lipoid
acid, glutathione, L-ariginine, coenzyme Q10, melatonin,
uric acid, bilirubin, metal-chelating proteins, transferrin
. While nutrient antioxidants belonging to
exogenous antioxidants, which cannot be produced in the
body but provided through diet or supplements viz. trace
metals (selenium, manganese, zinc), flavonoids, omega-3
and omega-6 fatty acids etc
. Vitamin E and C are the non
enzymatic antioxidants exist within normal cells as well as
they can be supplied through diet
Antioxidants may exert their activity by several
mechanisms, like by suppressing the production of active
species by reducing hydroperoxides and H
, by
sequestering metal ions, termination of chain reaction by
scavenging active free radicals and also caused repairing
and/or clearing damage of cell. Biosynthesis of other
antioxidants or defense enzymes also induced by some
. Therefore antioxidant synthesized in
body or supplied from outside like phytoconstituents plays
important role to protect the body from free radical
induced injury.
Free radicals are fundamental to any biochemical process
and represent an essential part of aerobic life and our
metabolism. They are continuously produced by the body
via enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions like
respiratory chain reaction, the phagocytosis, prostaglandin
synthesis, cytochrome P450 system and oxidative
phosphorylation (i.e. aerobic respiration) in the
ROS and RNS are the products of normal cellular
metabolism, having both deleterious and beneficial effect
in the body
. At low or moderate concentration some of
the free radicals plays beneficial physiological role in vivo
this include defense against infectious agents by
phagocytosis, energy production, cell growth, function in
different cellular signaling systems and the induction of a
mitogenic response at low concentrations
Free radicals occur continuously in all cells as part of
normal function. Oxygen free radicals are detrimental to
the integrity of biological tissue and mediate their injury.
The mechanism of damage involves lipid peroxidation,
which destroys cell structures, lipids, proteins and nucleic
acids. They causes damage to cell membranes with the
release of intracellular components, leading to further
tissue damage
. Antioxidant enzymes and non-
enzymatic defense system minimizes the harmful effect of
ROS by various antioxidant mechanism.
Oxidative stress is a harmful condition that occurs when
there is an excess of ROS and/or a decrease in antioxidant
levels, this may caused tissue damage by physical,
chemical, psychological factors that lead to tissue injury in
human and causes different diseases
. Living creatures
have evolved a highly complicated defense system and
body act against free radical-induced oxidative stress
involve by different defense mechanism like preventative
mechanisms, repair mechanisms, physical defenses and
antioxidant defenses
Oxygen derived free radical reactions have been
implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases
Neurodegenerative disorder like alzheimers
disease, parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis,
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, memory loss and
Cardiovascular disease like atherosclerosis,
ischemic heart disease, cardiac hypertrophy,
hypertension, shock and trauma.
Pulmonary disorders like inflammatory lung
diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease.
Diseases associated with premature infants,
including bronchopulmonary, dysplasia,
periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular
hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and
necrotizing enterocolitis.
Autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis.
Renal disorders like glomerulonephritis and
tubulointerstitial nephritis, chronic renal failure,
proteinuria, uremia.
Gastrointestinal diseases like peptic ulcer,
inflammatory bowel disease and colitis.
Tumors and cancer like lung cancer, leukemia,
breast, ovary, rectum cancers etc.
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Eye diseases like cataract and age related of
ratina, maculopathy.
Ageing process.
Skin lesions
Liver disease, pancreatitis.
Human body system is enriched with natural antioxidants
and can prevent the onset as well as treat diseases caused
and/or fostered due to free-radical mediated oxidative
stress. Human also takes antioxidants through diet. In
foods, antioxidants found in small quantities but capable to
prevent or greatly retard the oxidation of easily oxidizable
Recent researches have shown that the antioxidants of
plant origin with free-radical scavenging properties could
have great importance as therapeutic agents in several
diseases caused due to oxidative stress
. Plant extracts
and phytoconstituents found effective as radical
scavengers and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation
. Many
synthetic antioxidant compounds have shown toxic and/or
mutagenic effects, which have stimulated the interest of
many investigators to search natural antioxidant
Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80% of
the world population, mainly in developing countries, for
primary health care because of better cultural
acceptability, better compatibility with the human body
and lesser side effects. The chemical constituents present
in the herbal medicine or plant are a part of the
physiological functions of living flora and hence they are
believed to have better compatibility with human body.
Natural products from plants are a rich resource used for
centuries to cure various ailments. The use of bioactive
plant-derived compounds is on the rise, because the main
preoccupation with the use of synthetic drugs is the side
effects which can be even more dangerous than the
diseases they claim to cure. In contrast, plant derived
medicines are based upon the premise that they contain
natural substances that can promote health and alleviate
illness and proved to be safe, better patient tolerance,
relatively less expensive and globally competitive. So, in
respect of the healing power of plants and a return to
natural remedies is an absolute requirement of our
Even synthetic drugs used to treat various disorders can
capable of produce free radical which leads oxidative
stress and caused tissue damage. For example, non
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used
widely in the treatment of pain, fever, inflammation,
rheumatic and cardiovascular disease but chronic
administration of those drugs leads the generation of free
radicals which may results gastric erosions, gastric or
duodenal ulceration and severe complications such as
gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation
The use of phytoconstituents as drug therapy to scavenge
free radicals and to treat disorders leads due to oxidative
stress has proved to be clinically effective and relatively
less toxic than the existing drugs. Therefore it is demand
of time to uses drugs from plant sources or
phytoconstituents to prevent and/or treat oxidative stress.
Table 1 listed different phytochemicals having antioxidant
property and Table 2 listed some plants producing
antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo.
Currently there has been an increased interest globally to
identify antioxidant compounds from plant sources which
are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side
effects for use in protective medicine and the food
industry. Modern civilization, use of different chemicals,
pesticides, pollutant, smoking and alcohol intake and even
some of synthetic medicine increases the chance of disease
due to free radicals. Plants produces large amount of
antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress, they represent
a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant
activity. More or less the free radicals plays a role in
health of modern era and the diseases caused from free
radical are becoming a part of normal life. Increasing
knowledge in antioxidant phytoconstituents and include
them in daily uses and diet can give sufficient support to
human body to fight those diseases. Phytoconstituents and
herbal medicine are also important to manage pathological
conditions of those diseases caused by free radicals.
Explore the antioxidant principles from natural resources;
identification and isolation of those phytoconstituents are
simultaneously presenting enormous scope for their better
therapeutic application for treatment of human disease.
Therefore it is time for us, to explore and identify our
traditional therapeutic knowledge and plant sources and
interpret it according to the recent advancements to fight
against oxidative stress, in order to give it a deserving
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Table 1: Phytoconstituents with antioxidant activity
Phytoconstituents Example
Alkaloids Alkaloid extract of Fumaria capreolata and Fumaria bastardii contain protopine, cryptonine,
stylopine, fumariline, phtalidiisoquinoline, fumaritine, fumarafne and
dehydrobenzophenanthridine possess antioxidant activity.
Carotenes and
Antioxidant activity of astaxanthine, α and β carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin,
canthaxanthin were investigated.
Volatile and essential oil Essential oil (e.g.: α-terpinene, δ-3-carene, myrcene, α-pinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene,
citronellol, trans-geraniol, α-copaene, agarospirol, globulol) isolated from Citrus reticulate
and Pelargonium graveolens having antioxidant activity.
Anthocyanins Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside isolated from Chrysophyllum cainito, Eugenia uniflora,
Myrciaria cauliflora and delphinidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside was identified from Eugenia
uniflora possess antioxidant activity.
Isoflavones Isoflavones one of the important types of flavonoids having antioxidant activity.
Flavan-3-ols Catechins posses antioxidant activity found in different plant like green tea.
Flavones Apigenin having antioxidant potential found in Thunbergia laurifolia
Flavonols Quercetin and isorhamnetin isolated from Haplopappus multifolius possess antioxidant
Flavanones Naringenin, a major flavanone constituent isolated from Citrus junos possess antioxidant
Coumarins Coumarins like hernianin, O-prenyl-umbelliferone, prenyletin, haplopinol isolated from
Haplopappus multifolius possess antioxidant activity
Stilbenes Cajaninstilbene acid from Cajanus cajan have similar antioxidant activity like the natural
antioxidant resveratrol.
Lignans Lignans from Myristica fragrans having antioxidant potential.
Lignins Lignins are complex phenolic polymers occurring in higher plant tissues possess antioxidant
activity. Example of lignins secoisolariciresinol diglycoside.
Phenolic Acids Phenolic acid possess antioxidant activity. Example of phenolic acid gallic acid, ellagic acid,
p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid
Triterpenoid saponins Extract of Salvia macrochlamys contain terpenoids like monogynol A, -acetylmonogynol
A, -acetyl,22β-hydroxymonogynol A, -acetyl,21β,22β-dihydroxymonogynol A and
extract possess antioxidant activity.
Phytosterols Antioxidant activity of beta-sitosterol found in Morinda citrifolia investigated.
Tannins Tannins like ellagitannins and propelargonidin isolated from Syzygium cumini fruit showed
antioxidant effect.
Hydroxycinnamic acids
Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives like caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic
acid and p-coumaric acid are widely distributed in plants important for their antioxidants.
Flavonoids Flavonoid glucosides like apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside,
luteolin-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside and chrysoeriol-7-O-β-glucopyranoside are isolated aerial
parts of Verbascum salviifolium possess antioxidant activity.
Flavonoids such as myricetin, quercetin, rutin, catechin, kaempferol, fisetin and naringenin
also important for their antioxidant property.
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Table 2: List of some plants having antioxidant properties
35,43, 67-92
Plant Name Family Part Used Method used for antioxidant study
Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Leaves Antioxidant activity by lipid peroxidation method.
Acorus calamus Acoraceae Rhizome In vitro DPPH, TBA, FTC method.
Adiantum capillus-
Adiantaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.
Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Leaves
GST, GSH, MDA determination in diabetic and drug treated animals.
Albizia amara Mimosaceae Leaves Antioxidant activity by lipid peroxidation method.
Albizzia lebbeck Mimosaceae Leaves SOD, GPx, GST, CAT, GSH, TBARS, CD estimation in diabetic and drug
treated rat.
Meliaceae Bark In vitro methods like superoxide anion scavenging activity, DPPH, ABTS,
FRAP method and assay of MDA, GSH after oxidative stress was induced
by Freund’s Complete Adjuvant.
Aquilaria malaccensis Thymelaeaceae Leaves In vitro DPPH method.
Bauhinia divaricata Caesalpiniaceae Leaf and stem In vitro DPPH method.
Nyctaginaceae Leaf and stem In vitro DPPH method.
Cassia auriculata Caesalpiniaceae Leaves Antioxidant activity by lipid peroxidation method.
Cassia fistula Caesalpinaceae Leaves In vitro DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity
method and CCl
induced lipid peroxidation.
Centella asiatica Apiaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH assay method.
Clerodendrum serratum Verbenaceae Root In vitro DPPH, FRAP, hydrogen peroxide scavenging method.
Curculigo orchioides Amaryllidaceae
Rhizome In vivo estimation of TBARS, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, GST, CD, GR in
induced hepatotoxicity.
Cydonia vulgaris Rosaceae Leaves Antioxidant activity was determined by thiocyanate and reducing power
Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Rhizome
In vitro methods like superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical
scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing
power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay.
Datura stramonium Solonaceae Leaves Antioxidant activity by lipid peroxidation method.
Equisetum maximum Equisetaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.
Ficus deltoidea Moraceae Leaves In vitro method like reduction power of iron, superoxide scavenging,
xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide scavenging and LPO method.
Hemidesmus indicus Asclepiadaceae Stem In vitro DPPH, TBA, FTC method.
Apocynaceae Bark In vitro DPPH, TBA, FTC method.
Ichnocarpus frutesecens
Apocynaceae Whole plant SOD, CAT, GSH, TBARS estimation in paracetamol induced liver
Inonotus obliquus Hymenochaetaceae Whole
Antioxidant activity by DPPH, superoxide and peroxyl radicals
scavenging method.
Lippia Alba Vebenaceae Leaves In vitro reducing power ability and DPPH method.
Mellilotus officinalis Fabaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.
Morinda lucida Rubiaceae Bark In vitro reducing power ability and antioxidant property determined by
using β-carotene.
Phyllanthus emblica Phyllanthaceae Fruit Determination of antioxidant activity by cyclic voltammetry, lipid
peroxidation and SOD determination method.
Plantago major
Plantaginaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.
Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae Root In vitro DPPH, TBA, FTC method.
Psidium guajava Myrtoideae Fruit Total phenolic content and FRAP estimation were carried out.
Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae Bark Determination of SOD, CAT, GPx and lipid peroxidation in NSAIDs
induced gastric ulcer.
Rosa canina Rosaceae Ripe fruit Bleomycin iron dependent DNA damage, lipid oxidation, prorein
oxidation and carbohydrate damage method.
Rubia Cordifolia Rubiaceae Root Estimation of LPO, GSH, SOD, CAT in ethanol induced oxidative stress.
Sideritis raeseri Lamiaceae Aerial parts Antioxidant activity by Co(II) EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence
and DPPH scavenging activity method.
Sutherlandia frutescens Fabaceae Whole plant Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of the plant
Cucurbitaceae Root
Estimation of SOD, CAT, GPx, LPO in sildenafil induced migraine.
Urtica dioica Urticaceae Whole plant In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.
Utleria salicifolia Periplocaceae Rhizome Determination of SOD, CAT in ulcer induced animals.
(DPPH 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical; GST glutathione-S-transferase; GSH glutathione; MDA
malondialdehyde; ABTS Free-radical scavenging activity; FRAP Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power; TBARS
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; CD –Diene conjugates; CAT catalase; GPx Glutathione peroxidase; GR
Glutathione reductase; LPO – Lipid peroxidation; FTC – Ferric thiocyanate method; TBA – Thiobarbituric acid method)
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... Antioxidant compounds are good to prevent or delay oxidative stress-mediated toxicity through different mechanisms including accept or donate electrons to neutralize free radicals, upregulate the endogenous antioxidant system, and act as metal chelators [12,13]. ere is a growing interest in pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industries for natural antioxidants which is attributed to the tendency of society toward natural products and to the evidence of toxicity by synthetic antioxidants [14][15][16]. ...
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Introduction: Lichens, due to the presence of own secondary metabolites such as depsidones and depsides, became a promising source of health-promoting organisms with pharmacological activities. However, lichens and their active compounds have been much less studied. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate for the first time the antioxidant capacity and enzyme inhibitory activities of 14 lichen extracts belonging to cetrarioid clade in order to identify new natural products with potential pharmacological activity. Materials and methods: In this study, an integrated strategy was applied combining multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis), phytochemical identification, activity evaluation (in vitro battery of antioxidant assays FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC), and enzyme inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and molecular profiling with in silico docking studies of the most promising secondary metabolites. Results. Among fourteen lichen samples, Dactylina arctica stands out for its higher antioxidant capacities, followed by Nephromopsis stracheyi, Tuckermannopsis americana, Vulpicida pinastri, and Asahinea scholanderi. Moreover, Asahinea scholanderi and Cetraria cucullata extracts were the best inhibitors of AChE and BuChE. The major secondary metabolites identified by HPLC were alectoronic acid and α-collatolic acid for Asahinea scholanderi and usnic acid and protolichesterinic acid for Cetraria cucullata. Molecular docking studies revealed that alectoronic acid exhibited the strongest binding affinity with both AChE and BuChE with and without water molecules. Conclusions: Our results concluded that these species could be effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, being mandatory further investigation in cell culture and in vivo models.
... Moreover, among the long list of anti-oxidant compounds perhaps GSH is one the most important ones that could bind to ROS through its gamma peptide linkage and decline its toxicity. 39,40 In accordance with these and due to the oxidative property of DIC, 18,41 we also observed that DIC could diminish the intracellular levels of GSH, CAT, SOD, and GPx in the kidney tissue of the rats. On the other hand, QR was successful in restoring the activity and the levels of GSH, CAT, SOD, and GPx in DIC-treated rats. ...
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Diclofenac (DIC) is administrated to treat pain, inflammatory disorders, and dysmenorrhea but kidney problems are the main worries of the agent. The literature has revealed that quercetin (QR) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant attributes. This study aims to highlight the possible nephroprotective effects of QR on DIC-exposed rats. In this study, the animals after exposure to DIC (50 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to QR (100 mg/kg, p.o). Then, the levels, as well as the activity of several oxidant and anti-oxidant mediators, were evaluated. Our results showed that DIC treatment was coupled with the elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and some pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, NF-κB, and IL-1β, suggesting that probably this agent exert its toxicity in the kidney tissue through inducing both oxidative stress and inflammation. Interestingly, QR was successful in restoring the activity of antioxidant compounds such as GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT in the kidney tissue of DIC-treated rats. Moreover, in the presence of QR, DIC was unable to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that perhaps QR might have anti-inflammatory properties. In agreement with this, the results of the histopathological evaluation also showed that while DIC increased the lymphocyte infiltration into the kidney tissue, QR reduced the number of lymphocytes in DIC-treated rats. The results revealed that QR exerted a supportive effect against diclofenac-induced renal injury in male rats through modulation of oxidative stress and mitigation of inflammatory response.
... Modulating dietary treatments of livestock such as adding antioxidants is one of the effective means to relieve oxidative stress potentials among various methods [2]. Chitosan is a natural source of alkaline polysaccharides, which is a deacetylated form of chitin, mainly found in the exoskeletons of shrimps, crabs and insects [3]. ...
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This study was conducted to explore the dietary effect of chitosan on the production performance, and antioxidative enzyme activities and corresponding gene expression in the liver and duodenum of laying breeders. A total of 450 laying breeders (92.44% ± 0.030% of hen-day egg production) were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments fed 8 weeks: maize-soybean meal as the basal control diet and the basal diet containing 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of chitosan, respectively. Each treatment was randomly divided into 6 equal replicates, with 15 laying breeders in each replicate. The results showed that dietary chitosan could increase hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, especially at the level of 250~500 mg/kg; however, chitosan had no prominent effect on feed intake and average egg weight. Dietary chitosan could dose-dependently promote the antioxidant status in serum, liver and duodenum of layer breeders. It has a better promotion effect at the level of 500 mg/kg; however, the effect was weakened at the level of 2000 mg/kg. Chitosan was likely to enhance the gene expression and activities of Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxification enzyme by up-regulating the expression of Nrf2, thereby improving the antioxidant capacity of laying breeder hens.
... These two species play a dual role, i.e., toxic and beneficial, in human body, thus, maintaining balance between these two antagonistics in the body is an important aspect of life [10]. At low or moderate levels, these reactive species exert beneficial effects on cellular responses and immune function, while they produce oxidative stress, which damages the cell function and structures at high concentration [10,11]. This article deals with the synthesis mechanism of these reactive species (free radicals), diseases caused by them and antioxidants. ...
Full-text available
From the last few years, there has been a great attention towards the field of free radical chemistry for health point of view. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous and exogenous systems. There should be balance between free radicals and antioxidants for proper physiological function of human body as their imbalance causes numerous diseases. Antioxidants are essential and important for plants and animals' sustenance. They are substances that protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. This article presents sources, types, mechanism of action and damaged caused by free radicals in human body. To neutralize the effect of free radicals, the role of antioxidants, their classification, types and mode of action has been discussed.
... We used for this test the method 10 of Sen et al. (2010). A volume (1.5 mL) of different concentrations of the extract diluted in methanol was mixed with 0.5 mL of the methanol solution of DPPH (0.1 mM). ...
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Objective: The medicinal plant Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f. is used in the management of various ailments in Togolese pharmacopoeia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots and leaves of C. planchonii, and burn wound healing activity of its leaf hydroethanolic extracts in rodents. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activities were assessed using Phosphomolybdenum assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and the reducing power assay. Visceral pain model, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and vascular permeability test were performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. Burns were induced in rats by applying on the skin of the dorsal region an aluminum plaque preheated to 100°C for 10 seconds. Animals were treated topically with empty Carbopol gel, C. planchonii leaves extract 2.5 and 5 % in Carbopol gel, and Brulex® (Zinc oxide 15 % cream). Results: C. planchonii extracts exhibited good antioxidant capacities close to standard compound, ascorbic acid. Leaves and root hydroethanolic extracts (1000 mg/kg), compared to control animals, significantly reduced the number of writhings (P<0.001) and the volume of paw edema (P<0.001). Similarly, both roots and leaf extracts at 1000 mg/kg have significantly inhibited vascular permeability by approximately 50% compared to the control group. C. planchonii leaves hydroethanolic extract 2.5 and 5 % in Carbopol enhanced wound healing via significantly increased contraction rates (78.63 ± 1.57 and 79.68 ± 1.48 respectively on day 12, P<0.001), confirmed by histological observations. Conclusion: C. planchonii can promote burn healing due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the plant. Keywords: Cochlospermum planchonii, inflammatory, antioxidant, edema, burn wound
... Skinaging pathologies such as wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, aging spots, wrinkles, melasma, freckles, lentigo, ephelides, nevus, browning, and melanoma are proceeded by activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [2]. Free radicals or ROS could potentially induce a change in structural skin cell composition and damage the cell membranes by stimulating the oxidation of lipids and proteins, leading to DNA damage and cell death [3,4]. Moreover, ROS play a significant role in the skin aging process by damaging major skin proteins such as collagen and elastin by activation of collagenase and elastase enzymes. ...
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A new xanthone glycoside, 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C-4-β-d-glucopyranoside was isolated from the methanol extract of Mangifera indica leaves (Anacardiaceae) growing in Egypt. The structure was clarified by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. The physicochemical properties of the compound such as lipophilicity, solubility, and formulation considerations were predicted via in silico ADMET technique using the SwissADME server. This technique provided Lipinski’s rule of five, such as GIT absorption, distribution, metabolism, and skin permeation. The in vitro inhibitory activities against aging-mediated enzymes such as collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, and tyrosinase were assessed. The compound exhibited remarkable anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-tyrosinase effects with IC50 values of 1.06, 419.10, 1.65, and 0.48 µg/mL, respectively, compared to the positive control. The compound showed promising predicted aqueous solubility and reasonable skin penetration suggesting the suitability of the compound for topical formulation as an anti-aging agent for cosmetic preparations.
Çalışmada, BPA verilen Yeni Zelanda tavşanlarında punikalajinin bazı oksidan-antioksidan enzimler ile bazı biyokimyasal parametreler üzerine olası etkilerin incelendi. Bu amaçla 2 hafta boyunca laboratuvar koşullarına alıştırılan tavşanlar, her grupta 6 tavşan olacak şekilde rastgele 4 gruba ayrıldı: Kontrol (C; mısır yağı ve distile su), BPA(BPA; mısır yağı içerisinde 20 mg/kg BPA ve distile su), punikalajin (PUN; mısır yağı ve distile su içerisinde 2 mg/kg punikalajin), ve BPA-punikalajin grubu (B+P; mısır yağı içerisinde 20 mg/kg BPA ve distile su içerisinde 2 mg/kg PUN).Uygulamalar 9 hafta boyunca günlük olarak yapıldı ve haftada bir kez yapılan tartımlara göre dozlar ayarlandı. Çalışma sonunda alınan kan ve doku örneklerinden hematolojik, biyokimyasal ve oksidan-antioksidan parametrelerin ölçümleriyapıldı. Analizler neticesinde plazma bilirubin, albümin ve toplam plazma protein düzeyleri ile Mg, P, Ca, Na, K, seviyelerinde herhangi bir istatistiki farka rastlanmazken, farklı gruplardaki plazma, karaciğer ve böbrek glutatyon peroksidaz değerleri de önemsiz bulundu (P>0,1). Oral BPA uygulamaları serum kolesterol, LDL, HDL, amilaz, lipaz, CRP, GGT seviyeleri ile karaciğer ve böbrek dokusundaki malonildialdehit, katalaz ve süperoksit dismütaz seviyelerini olumsuz etkiledi (P
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of tadalafil on reactive oxygen species induced by a hyperoxia model in rats, both in terms of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO), and its pathological effects on the corpus cavernosum. Overall, 24 rats were divided into three groups. The control group (eight rats) was not exposed to any intervention. The second group (eight rats), was exposed to hyperoxia in a hyperoxia cabinet for 8 h a day for 10 days. The third group (eight rats) was exposed to hyperoxia the same as in the second group, tadalafil at a dose of 10 mg/kg was given orally as a dissolved form in water in the amount of 10–12 ml/100 g/day to the rats placed in separate cages having removed from the hyperoxia cabin. SOD levels differ enough to create a difference, but there was no significant difference in terms of NO levels. The SOD level was highest in hyperoxia conditions and lowest in the group given tadalafil. While corpus cavernosum hyperemia was found to be higher statistically in the experimental groups than in the control group, we found that the severity of hyperemia was less in the group given tadalafil. The corpus cavernosum was found to be statistically more dilated in the experimental groups than in the control group. We determined that hyperoxia status increased the level of SOD and this level decreased with tadalafil administration, which would make a statistical difference.
Purposes Hepatic bioactivation of fluoxetine (FXN) could increase free radicals' generation provoking hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) and taurine (TAU) treatments against fluoxetine-induced liver damage in rats were examined. Materials and methods Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 8). Group (1) Control, group (2) FXN, group (3) FXN + EA, group (4) FXN + TAU, group (5) FXN + EA + TAU, group (6) EA, group (7) TAU, and group (8) EA + TAU. Then, the serum and tissue parameters of the oxidative stress were examined. Key findings FXN significantly raised serum MDA, protein carbonyl, lipid profile, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, serum IL-1β; and gene expressions of IL-1β, NF-κB, and TNF-α. Moreover, it significantly decreased HDL-C, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), catalase activity, vitamin C, and SOD activity in the liver compared to group 1. When compared to group 2, EA and TAU treatment dramatically increased antioxidant capacity and lowered hepatotoxic biochemical markers and cellular inflammation. Results also showed a protective effect of treatment against oxidative damage caused by hepatocytes' cytoarchitecture. Significance Our study concluded the beneficial effects of EA and TAU on FXN-induced hepatotoxicity. These effects were derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effects related to IL-1β, NF-κB, and TNF-α gene expression inhibition.
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Cancer is by far the most common cause of death worldwide. There are more than 200 types of cancer known hitherto depending upon the origin and type. Early diagnosis of cancer provides better disease prognosis and the best chance for a cure. This fact prompts world-leading scientists and clinicians to develop techniques for the early detection of cancer. Thus, less morbidity and lower mortality rates are envisioned. The latest advancements in the diagnosis of cancer utilizing nanotechnology have manifested encouraging results. Cancerous cells are well known for their substantial amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). The common methods for the detection of H2O2 include colorimetry, titration, chromatography, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and chemiluminescence. These methods commonly lack selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility and have prolonged analytical time. New biosensors are reported to circumvent these obstacles. The production of detectable amounts of H2O2 by cancerous cells has promoted the use of bio- and electrochemical sensors because of their high sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and miniaturized point-of-care cancer diagnostics. Thus, this review will emphasize the principles, analytical parameters, advantages, and disadvantages of the latest electrochemical biosensors in the detection of H2O2. It will provide a summary of the latest technological advancements of biosensors based on potentiometric, impedi�metric, amperometric, and voltammetric H2O2 detection. Moreover, it will critically describe the classification of biosensors based on the material, nature, conjugation, and carbon-nanocomposite electrodes for rapid and effective detection of H2O2, which can be useful in the early detection of cancerous cells.
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Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis are medicinal plants widely distributed in Mexico and they are used because of its potential hypoglycemic action; however, no free radical scavenging activity (RSA) studies over these plants are known. Thus, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from leaf and stem samples were evaluated for their RSA using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH •). Total phenolics and flavonoids extracts were determined too. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program with the significance level set at P<0.05. Bauhinia divaricata stem aqueous extracts with total phenols content of 12.98 mg GAE/g DW had the highest amount between samples. The same behavior was shown in flavonoids determination. However, when RSA was estimated it was found that stem aqueous extracts from Bougainvillea spectabilis produced more DPPH absorbance reduction (95.66%), with an IC 50 (the concentration to inhibit the oxidation of DPPH by 50%) and AP (reciprocal of IC 50) values of 0.03 μg/mL and 33.33, respectively. These results were superior to common synthetic antioxidants used in the food industry like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, IC 50 =62 μg/mL) and can be useful for further applications of these plants or its constituents in pharmaceutical and alimentary preparations.
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The origin of diseases of multifactorial nature is being understood now due to vitiation in the basic homeostatic balance phenomenon in the body. A majority of disease conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischaemic diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism cancer and inflammatory conditions are being considered caused primarily due to the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Antioxidant principles from natural resources possess multiface-tedness in their multitude and magnitude of activities and provide enormous scope in correcting the imbalance. Therefore, much attention is being directed to harness and harvest the antioxidant principles from natural resources. In the light of present understanding about the role of free radicals in pathogenesis of multiple diseases, this article provides an account of multifaceted activities of antioxidants and discusses the multiple approach due to which these phytochemicals deserve proper position in therapeutic armamentarium.
Rosa canina L. has been used since ancient times as a natural product and believed to be safe and almost without side effects. It can be administered easily for some diseases. The actual dose of Rosa canina being consumed is often variable, unpredictable or simply unknown. Therefore, in this study, five different (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 8%) concentrations of Rosa canina infusions were used to determine the optimum antioxidant dose of Rosa canina by using different in vitro test systems. Our results suggest that Rosa canina has the potential to be used as an antioxidant substance at 3% concentration. Therefore, it can be suitable to achieve this concentration at tissue level when used as a supplement to therapeutic regimens and for healthy living.
In the present study, the polyphenol-rich extracts of two medicinal plants widely used in Errachidia country (south east of Morocco) (Thymus vulgaris and Lavendula muttifida) were assessed for their antioxidant, hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic activities.The antioxidant activity of polyphenol-rich extracts was assessed by using the FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), the RSA method (Radical Scavenging Activity) and the inhibition of the AAPH (2, 2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride)-induced oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were divided into normolipidemic control group (NCG), hyperlipidaemic control group (HCG) and hyperlipidaemic plus herb extracts (0.2 g/100 g body weight). However, 24 h after treatment by polyphenol-rich extract of Thymus vulgaris and lavendula multifida we not detect any significant effect on both plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides profiles. Our results indicate that, the aqueous extract from lavandula muttifida and Thymus vulgaris, present a higher antioxydant activities. Indeed, Lavandula muttifida presents an anti-hemolysis activity equivalent to that exhibited by Thymus vulgaris. The addition of AAPH decrease the half time of hemolysis by 45%. The polyphenol- rich extracts from thymus vulgaris and lavendula muttifida varieties increase the half time hemolysis by 533% and 479%, respectively. Although, these two varieties of thyme and lavender did cause any hypolipidemic activity. The results found are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.
Cataract is one of the leading causes of visual disability, often leading to blindness. The situation can be remedied surgically by extirpation of the cataractous lens. Various pharmacological strategies have been proposed for prevention and treatment of cataract. The present article deals with the whole area from aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI) through aspirin, ibuprofen, bendazac, glutathione boosters, antiglycating agents, vitamins and various drugs from indigenous sources. Recently various substances with diverse chemical structures and properties have been claimed to possess anti-cataract potential in experimental models. Some of them have been evaluated in clinical trial but failed in final stages due to adverse side effects. Till day no anti-cataract drug is approved for the medical therapy of cataract anywhere in the world. However, agents with un-proven efficacy are available in some developing countries. It is probable that some agents will come up soon and will be useful in delaying the onset and progression of cataract formation in humans.
The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.
Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. In the present study we examined the antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum (CSR) at various concentrations in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and the Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The results of the present study revealed that the plant extract has significant antioxidant activity and are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.