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CSCL scripts: Effects of social and epistemic scripts on computer-supported collaborative learning

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... Although CSCL may provide 'any place or time' opportunities for learners to construct and revisit sound arguments that are linked to additional online resources, many learners have difficulties exploiting these opportunities when simply assigned to groups and left to their own devices. Learners without additional guidance to critically review others' arguments and construct sound arguments themselves rarely engage in such interactions, instead orienting themselves toward the minimal requirements of a learning task and quickly building false consensus as a result (Weinberger, 2008). Particularly problematic for online learners is the coordination of interactions, referring to and building on learning partners' contributions, and engaging in and maintaining coherent, joint reasoning (Hesse, Garsoffky, & Hron, 1997). ...
... This peer-review script aims to facilitate conflict-oriented consensus-building and has been shown effectively to increase the transactivity of learners' discussions. Simultaneously, this script made the collaborative task more demanding and reduced performance during the CSCL processes, but substantially improved individual learning outcomes (Weinberger, 2008). In sum, scripted CSCL can outperform unscripted computersupported individual and collaborative learning with respect to individual learning outcomes . ...
... Scripts may instruct and also coerce learners to various extents to engage them in a specific strategy. Script instruction may increase frequencies of observable transactive discourse activities (Weinberger, 2008). Transactivity implies, however, that learners construct internal representations of their partners' knowledge. ...
Article
Parts of the classroom of the future may be built online allowing for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). A central challenge in CSCL is a lack of transactivity, i.e., learners have problems building on the reasoning of their peers. A means of fostering CSCL are scripts that specify, sequence, and distribute roles and activities among a group of (online) learners. This article identifies five instructional design principles that explain script effects and inform script design: 1) regulation of learning activities; 2) complementary procedural knowledge; 3) process-oriented instruction; 4) substitution of coordination efforts; and 5) awareness induction.
... The scripts that were implemented in CASSIS target several different collaborative learning processes, such as homogenous participation (Weinberger, Fischer, & Mandl, 2001), epistemic activities (i.e. how knowledge is constructed; Weinberger, Reiserer, Ertl, Fischer, & Mandl, 2005), transactivity, (i.e. the degree to which learners operate on others' reasoning; Teasley, 1997;Weinberger, 2008), and argumentation . While CASSIS was developed for social science contexts rather than natural science contexts, it can support students engaging in scientific argumentation. ...
... The CASSIS environment also enables quick implementation of different computer-supported collaboration scripts into a standardized learning environment. This flexibility and adaptability of the environment facilitates systematic research on the impact of different collaboration scripts or script components (e.g., Stegmann, Wecker, Weinberger, & Fischer, 2007;Wecker & Fischer, 2009;Weinberger, 2008;Weinberger, Stegmann, Fischer, in press). The stable use of the same learning materials and assessments has also enabled researchers to collect and compare data from online discussions over the last ten years. ...
... Each of the three learners in a group switched roles at fixed intervals to criticize the case analyses of their learning partners. This script proved to substantially facilitate learning outcomes in several lab and field studies as learners elaborated arguments and counter-arguments in a highly transactive way and shared their knowledge and perspectives in the discussions (Weinberger, 2008;. This type of approach, where students are encouraged to take on different roles during a task designed to promote and support argumentation, can therefore not only help students learn more from an activity but it can also help students learn how to adapt to different roles in a discussion. ...
... Data from past are provided to the inputs of neural network and we expect data from future from the outputs of the network. For more exact prediction, additional information can be added for teaching and prediction, for example in the form of interventional variables (intervention indicators) [1] [6] [31] . However, more information does not always mean better prediction; sometimes it can make the process of teaching and predicting worse. ...
... A good approach may be to progressively build up the model according to the method of decreasing abstraction (Lindenberg, 1992). An additional consideration here is, however, that the complexity of network processes, and the limitations of our current knowledge concerning network dynamics [8] [23] [36] [31] , implies that model construction may require data-driven elements to select the most appropriate precise specification of the endogenous network effects. For example, in the investigation of friendship networks one might be interested in effects of lifestyle variables and background characteristics on friendship, while recognizing the necessity to control for tendencies toward reciprocation and transitive closure [12] [21] . ...
... Having the same nationality has a positive main effect, reflecting that it is easier to become friends with those coming from the same country. The negative interaction effect [14] [17] [21] [28] [31] was unexpected, but can be explained by regarding reciprocation as a response to an initially unreciprocated tie, the latter being a unilateral invitation to friendship. Since contacts between those with the same nationality are easier than between individuals from different nationalities, extending a unilateral invitation to friendship is more remarkable (and perhaps more costly) between individuals of different nationalities than between those of the same nationality. ...
Article
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In this paper I am going to first explain in detail the role of Game Theory over Social Network Analysis. Then I will look into the Predictive model of Artificial Neural network & will explain in details that how this model will be used to develop a mathematical model which will fairly and efficiently allocate the required rate of bandwidth to all the users in a Multiuser Network System. Afterwards, I will propose some newly designed algorithms which will help me in the implementation of the mathematical model. The testing result of the implementation will compare our proposed architecture with the existing model. Finally, I will end this discussion by self-estimating our proposed model and judging the future scope of the same.
... This general approach can be referred to as a "conflict schema." Conflict schemas guide or structure opportunities for learners to engage in and resolve socio-cognitive conflict by forming heterogeneous groups, providing learners with divergent resources, and encouraging learners to adopt opposing roles in adiscussion or debate (Dil-4 lenbourg & Jermann, 2007;Kobbe, Weinberger, Dillenbourg, Harrer, Hamalainen, & Fischer, 2007).ArgueGraph (e.g., Jermann & Dillenbourg, 2003)and WISE Seeded Discussions represent two different examples of this class ofscripts that have proven successful in supporting argumentation (e.g., Clark, 2004;Clark & Sampson, 2005Cuthbert, Clark, & Linn, 2002;Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007;Jermann & Dillenbourg, 2003;Weinberger, 2008;Weinberger, Stegmann, Fischer, & Mandl, 2007). ...
... The scripts that were implemented in CASSIS target several different collaborative learning processes, such as homogenous participation (Weinberger, Fischer, & Mandl, 2001), epistemic activities (Le. how knowledge is constructed; Weinberger, Reiserer, Ertl, Fischer, & Mandl, 2005), transactivity, (Le. the degree to which learners operate on others' reasoning; Teasley, 1997;Weinberger, 2008), and argumentation . While CASSIS was developed for social science contexts rather than natural science contexts, it can support students engaging in scientific argumentation. ...
... The CASSIS environment also enables quick implementation of different computer-supported collaboration scripts into a standardized learning environment. This flexibility and adaptability of the environment facilitates systematic research 8 on the impact of different collaboration scripts or script components (e.g., Stegmann, Wecker, Weinberger, & Fischer, 2007;Wecker & Fischer, 2009;Weinberger, 2008;Weinberger, Stegmann, Fischer, in press). The stable use of the same learning materials and assessments has also enabled researchers to collect and compare data from online discussions over the last ten years. ...
Article
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A workshop held at the National Academies in the United States in 2007 highlighted five broad categories of skills that appear valuable across a range of jobs for people working in modern global economies. Engaging students in scientific argumentation can support the development of these 21st century skills. Unfortunately, opportunities are rare in typical classrooms for students to learn how to engage in scientific argumentation. Over the past ten years several online environments have been developed to support students engaging with one another in scientific argumentation. This paper considers how engaging students in scientific argumentation through the activity structures and scripts in these online environments could also support the development of 21st century skills. More specifically, the paper considers how WISE Seeded Discussions, CASSIS, VCRI, and DREW can support students’ development of Adaptability, Complex Communication Skills, Non-Routine Problem-Solving Skills, Self-Management/Self-Development, and Systems Thinking.
... Linking with social learning, socio-cognitive theoretical approaches have been much debated within educational psychology and are also a core element within CSCL [19]. These approaches highlight the need for equilibrium strategies to ensure students understand the basis of their knowledge or know their peers educational background and work experience [20]. Hence, it may be suggested that Piaget and Vygotsky both influenced socio-cognitive learning developments as they analysed learning origins. ...
... These two standpoints infer two levels of student autonomy; full student engagement and motivation to structure the collaboration or merely motivation to input and review within the CL environment. Weinberger's [20] work on cognitive social collaborative learning (CSCL²) equally highlights the facilitation of two further approaches; socio constructivist and socio-cultural. Noting these comparative methods to engage CSCL and CSCL², the variance is clear in student motivation and lecturer workload. ...
... Further, Hamalainen et al [17] suggest that collaboration scripts may be created by the lecturer to manage and analyse the CL process. They highlight two studies [20,24], who cite that scripts are concerned with the way in which a learner can complete the CL task; scripts are, therefore essential in the second system noted. Epistemic scripts differ from social scripts in that they either highlight how a learner deals with a task rather than how they interact with the other group members. ...
Article
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This paper presents a preliminary review of the current literature and use of technology within assessment and delivery of courses within higher education in the United Kingdom. The research is to be carried out during the 2009/2010 academic year using Events Management students at level 4 and level 5. The study follows the aims and objectives of the MMU Shock Absorber Project: a Higher Education Academy project to support and retain the first year learner. Beginning with a literature review of web2.0 technologies, the paper will note historical developments of this e-learning tool. Collaborative learning and other pedagogical theories will then be related to these technologies. The research methodology will comment upon the planned research to be undertaken over the next 12 months. Assessment objectives, level 4 and 5 benchmarks will also be explored to identify the need for the use of technology in relevant courses.
... To do this, students must first make sense of the phenomenon they are studying based on the data available to them. Current research suggests that students struggle with this process (Abell, Anderson, & Chezem, 2000;Kuhn & Reiser, 2005;Vellom & Anderson, 1999) and often rely on their personal beliefs or past experiences to do so (Berland & Reiser, 2009;Kollar, Fischer & Slotta, 2008;Linn & Eylon, 2006;Dillenbourg, 2003) and WISE Seeded Discussions represent two different examples of this class of scripts that have proven successful in supporting argumentation (e.g., Clark, 2004;Clark & Sampson, 2005, 2008Cuthbert, Clark, & Linn, 2002;Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007;Jermann & Dillenbourg, 2003). ...
... In the initial studies, assessment focused on analyses of students' participation within the discussions in terms of the structural quality of the argumentation occurring between students (e.g., Clark & Sampson, 2003). Assessment then expanded to investigate conceptual quality and grounds quality as well as structural quality of students' argumentation as described by Clark and Sampson (2005, 2008. These assessment rubrics have high inter-rater reliability and construct validity as described in those articles, but less is known in terms of other issues of validity and robustness. ...
... The scripts that were implemented in CASSIS target several different collaborative learning processes, such as homogenous participation (Weinberger, Fischer, & Mandl, 2001), epistemic activities (i.e. how knowledge is constructed; Weinberger, Reiserer, Ertl, Fischer, & Mandl, 2005), transactivity, (i.e. the degree to which learners operate on others' reasoning; Teasley, 1997;Weinberger, 2008), and argumentation . While CASSIS was developed for social science contexts rather than natural science contexts, it can support students engaging in scientific argumentation. ...
... Consequently, scripted roles are assigned to learners by teachers or educational designers to structure the collaborative process. Computer-supported collaboration scripts have been defined as explicit suggestions to learners that specify, sequence, and distribute roles and activities over a group of learners in CSCL environments (Kobbe et al., 2007;Kollar et al., 2006;Weinberger, 2008). A script can specify those roles that are deemed relevant and efficient and also facilitate role rotation for learners to equally engage in the relevant roles and activities. ...
... The Jigsaw procedure (Aronson, Blaney, Stephan, Sikes, & Snapp, 1978) can also be regarded as a predecessor to scripting, in which learners gather knowledge in expert groups and pass on this expert knowledge in basic groups. Whereas in the original scripted collaboration approach face-to-face learners without computer support had to be trained to follow prescriptions of the scripts for more time than was actually foreseen for collaboration, computer-supported collaboration scripts that are implemented in the computer interface need little to no time for prior training (Weinberger, 2008). ...
Article
Emerging and scripted roles pose an intriguing approach to analysing and facilitating CSCL. The concept of emerging roles provides a perspective on how learners structure and self-regulate their CSCL processes. Emerging roles appear to be dynamic over longer periods of time in relation to learners’ advancing knowledge, but are often unequally distributed in ad hoc CSCL settings, e.g., a learner being the ‘typist’ and another being the ‘thinker’. Empirical findings show that learners benefit from structuring or scripting CSCL. Scripts can specify roles and facilitate role rotation for learners to equally engage in relevant learning roles and activities. Scripted roles can, however, collide with emerging roles and therefore need to be carefully attuned to the advancing capabilities of the learners.
... This present study both reveals divergent insights into 91 students' individual reflections and offers a unique view into scripted collaborative writing in CSCL environments. Second, pedagogically, an important implication of our study is that its results shed new light on the ineffectiveness of scripting (Weinberger 2008) for a particular group of students. As previous studies have established, students employ different strategies to tackle a collaborative writing task (Onrubia and Engel 2009). ...
Article
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Abstract A collaboration script is a set of instructions used to improve collaborative learning among students in technology-enhanced environments. Previously, university students’ perspective has been under-represented in the study on collaboration scripts. In this article, we focus on understanding students’ experiences in a scripted collaborative writing task, especially from the perspective of following the script. The study was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 91) taking a master-level educational science course at one university each in Finland and Belgium. Divided into 25 groups, each with three to five members, the students worked on collaborative writing tasks. During their shared writing process within these groups, all students were introduced to a four-phase simultaneous sequential integrating construction script (SSCIS). Then, data from the students’ reflection notes on the collaborative writing process were analysed. The thematic analysis revealed that over half of the students highlighted how the introduced script provided them with appropriate support for the writing process; therefore, they used a script-based collaborative writing approach (52%). However, almost as many students (48%) viewed the script as inadequate or even impeding their accomplishment of the mutual writing task; therefore, they chose to deviate from it. In this group of students decided not to follow script-based writing engaged in the collective writing approach (32%), characterised as free form compared to sequential script-based writing. Other students opted for the separate writing approach (16%), leading them to divide the writing assignment into single parts among the group members and to compose the text without authentic collaboration. By focusing on students’ individual reflections, the findings of our study suggest that to enhance script-based learning processes, it is essential to provide guidance for the implementation of the script, additional content-related support or tailored choices.
... Un relatif consensus existe dans la littérature pédagogique autour de l'idée que les interactions significatives et productives qui induisent une élaboration des connaissances n'apparaissent pas spontanément au sein des groupes amenés à collaborer [6]. De nombreuses études montrent en effet qu'il ne suffit pas de grouper les apprenants pour qu'une réelle dynamique collaborative s'installe et que, l'apprentissage se réalise effectivement [7] [8]. Beaucoup d'auteurs [9] [10] s'accordent en effet sur le fait que l'engagement des apprenants à interagir et la construction des connaissances induite par ces échanges dépendent essentiellement des tâches qui leur sont proposées, mais également de la manière dont celles-ci sont structurées (scénario d'apprentissage) et régulées (scénario d'encadrement) dans l'environnement d'apprentissage à distance. ...
Conference Paper
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Cet article présente un environnement d’apprentissage collaboratif à distance organisé autour d’une distri- bution de rôles spécifiques aux apprenants en fonction de leur style d’apprentissage. Nous y analysons l’efficacité de ce dispositif en prenant en compte la démarche mise en œuvre par les apprenants, les progrès qu’ils ont réalisés et ce qu’ils nous disent concernant leur expérience d’apprentissage. Au niveau du processus d’apprentissage, nous observons que les étudiants qui endossent le rôle de coach interagissent davantage dans l’environnement collaboratif alors que le rôle de modérateur semble inhiber la participation des étudiants. En termes de performance, nos analyses montrent que les apprenants au profil fuyant (+ +) et endossant un rôle de théoricien semblent bénéficier d’un rôle cognitif qui les mobi- lise davantage. Nous mettons en effet en évidence un lien positif significatif entre la progression de ces « apprenants théoriciens » et leur engagement dans le dispositif de formation.
... Indeed, collaborative work insists on the commitment of participants that is expressed not only in taking responsibility for their learning but also for that of others (Slavin, 2011;Webb, 1985;Wenger, Trayner & De Laat, 2011). Recently, RT as a didactic practice has seen widespread use in virtual environments (Strijbos, Martens, Jochems, & Broers, 2004;Weinberger, 2008 The course here presented should be hosted by a Learning Management System (LMS), providing both the administration and delivery features of an online course, as well as the tracking and reporting tools which are crucial functionalities to redesign the same course. In an LMS, instructors can create their learning contents providing the main theoretical information by using video recording software or interactive content creation tools, as well as, presentation files, real use cases, external links, etc. Open Educational Resources (OERs) from Open Repositories can also be used as they are increasingly important in the strategy of creating and sharing content (Otero, Pantazatos & Docampo, 2019-A), as well as free content with appropriate copyrights taken from various video portals. ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the design and redesign of an online engineering management course, based on a socio-constructivist approach. At first, the theoretical and contextual premises will be presented with a focus on the suggested teaching and learning methods to acquire domain-related knowledge and crucial skills and on the importance of learning scenario to support an effective learning design. After the background introduction, a user case will be described, focusing on the course online environment and its tools, on the proposed pedagogical strategies and above all, on how instructors can obtain and analyze useful educational data from various sources. Finally, some redesign recommendations will be provided to better use educational data for continuous course improvement.
... Un relatif consensus existe dans la littérature pédagogique autour de l'idée que les interactions significatives et productives qui induisent une élaboration des connaissances n'apparaissent pas spontanément au sein des groupes amenés à collaborer [6]. De nombreuses études montrent en effet qu'il ne suffit pas de grouper les apprenants pour qu'une réelle dynamique collaborative s'installe et que, l'apprentissage se réalise effectivement [7] [8]. Beaucoup d'auteurs [9] [10] s'accordent en effet sur le fait que l'engagement des apprenants à interagir et la construction des connaissances induite par ces échanges dépendent essentiellement des tâches qui leur sont proposées, mais également de la manière dont celles-ci sont structurées (scénario d'apprentissage) et régulées (scénario d'encadrement) dans l'environnement d'apprentissage à distance. ...
... 'Role Taking' (RT) is a specific type of collaboration script (Dillenbourg, 2002), which consists of an explicit didactic contract between a teacher and a group, and is based on the distribution of learning responsibilities during collaborative learning activities. Recently, RT as a didactic practice has seen widespread use in virtual environments (Strijbos, Martens, Jochems, & Broers, 2007;Weinberger, 2008). ...
Article
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In this paper, we describe a procedure to promote active participation in online courses by supporting students in performing the role of an e-Tutor during group activities. A case study, conducted to explore the procedural effects both on students’ interactions and on their perceptions about the role, is discussed. Eighteen university students (67% female, mean Age = 23 years) took part in online collaborative learning activities as part of a 15-week blended learning course. Twelve participants took turns in covering the role of e-Tutor. Findings were based on a mixed methods analysis of 7105 contributions posted online by the 18 students. An analysis of e-Tutor self-assessment forms was also considered. Results indicated that utilising peer-based e-Tutors promoted substantial active participation in online discussions. Moreover, students performing the role of e-Tutor adopted a supportive, collaborative and educational style, which was maintained even after their turn as e-Tutor had ended.
... Moreover, individual preparation can enhance expectations of future peer interaction fostering motivation to learn (Benware & Deci, 1984). Quick consensus building (Weinberger, 2008) and confirmation bias related to computer-mediated communication as in SNS (Mackie et al., 1990;Sassenberg & Boos, 2003;Schwind, Buder, Cress, & Hesse, 2012) may be avoided when learners prepare arguments individually and can confront their partner with their alternative perspectives. ...
Article
Social Network Sites (SNS) like Facebook bear potential for collaboration through rich social interactions, but the shared arguments are often poorly elaborated, and lack epistemic quality. In a controlled 2 × 2 study (N = 128), we investigated how individual preparation and argumentation scripts can support argumentative knowledge co-construction in Facebook. Individual preparation has been shown to motivate participants, activate prior knowledge, reduce process losses and promote unbiased arguments. Argumentation scripts can support quality of argumentative discussions and evidence-based argumentation. Their combination may, thus, enhance the argumentation quality in SNS interactions and facilitate domain knowledge acquisition. We found negative effects of individual preparation, ascribable to lack of knowledge co-construction and knowledge convergence, that point to knowledge consolidation. Scripting argumentation has some positive effects, but not in combination with individual preparation. We identify possibilities and risks of applying standard collaborative learning instructions in the context of SNS, and discuss theoretical consequences.
... A collaborative script consists of a series of instructions that prescribe how students should interact and collaborate. One of the most effective scripts used in teaching is role taking (Strijbos, Martens, Jochems, & Broers, 2007;Weinberger, 2008); this strategy includes students assuming a specific function that invokes duties and responsibilities during the individual and group activities. Indeed, collaborative work insists precisely on the commitment of participants that is expressed in taking responsibility not only for their own learning, but also for that of others (Cesareni, Cacciamani, & Fujita, 2016;Slavin, 2010;Wenger, Trayner, & De Laat, 2011). ...
Article
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In a knowledge-driven society, secondary education should let students develop appropriate and meaningful skills to live, think and work. To attain this aim, teachers require specific knowledge and competences about technology-mediated collaborative learning strategies while overcoming preconceptions and a general sense of inadequacy towards these learning approaches. This exploratory study focuses on a learning path based on the 'Trialogical' Learning Approach to consider the role of technology-mediated collaborative learning in the educational development and classroom practices of trainee teachers. A multi-methods approach was used to analyse the collected data. Results indicate a good level of active participation in the activities leading to a general perception of effective learning. Participants report having acquired knowledge and skills which will improve their professional practice. The positive value of introducing collaboration and technology in the learning path is highlighted.
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Utilizing "Blog" on Global Logistics Management curriculum, this research aimed at exploring the influence of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) on enhancing business-majored university students' customer relationship management and e-commerce applications professional competencies. In addition, how student's self-feeling about professional skills/knowledge (competence) through the use of Blogs was also investigated. The research adopted a quasi-experiment of unequal controlling group design. The researchers selected two classes of senior students in a technological university in Taiwan as subjects. One class was assigned as the control group, and the other was experimental group. Twenty two students were assigned to the experimental group with CSCL treatment that took two periods per week during nine weeks, while twenty eight students were in the control group with traditional teaching activities. The researcher adapted the Scale of Professional Competence to collect experimental data on business and management majored university students. Data collected were subsequently analyzed by the independent t-test, and paired samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group on the total score of items: customer relationship management, and E-commerce applications. The results can provide instrumental guidelines to improve the future technological education.
Chapter
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RÉSUMÉ. Dans cette contribution, nous nous intéresserons à l'effet de la composition des équipes (homogènes <> hétérogènes et groupement par dyades <> triades) sur les interactions qui se déroulent au sein de forums de discussion. Le dispositif que nous avons mis en place dans un contexte de formation universitaire concerne 106 sujets répartis en quatre groupes. L'étude se centre sur l'analyse des processus d'interaction mis en oeuvre dans les forums supportant le travail collaboratif. Les variables dépendantes prises en compte sont le nombre de messages postés, le nombre de caractères écrits, le type de modalités d'usage du forum et le degré de symétrie des interactions. Les résultats de notre recherche nous permettent de dégager des pistes de réflexion sur la pertinence des modalités de composition des équipes dans le cadre d'une activité de débat. MOTS-CLÉS : forum de discussion, composition des groupes, travail collaboratif, analyse des interactions, étude expérimentale
Conference Paper
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